WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Effect of a Focal Articular Defect on Cartilage Deformation during Patello-Femoral Articulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to determine cartilage strains near, and in apposition to, a focal defect during patello-femoral articulation. Bovine osteochondral blocks from the trochlea (TRO) and patella (PAT) were apposed, compressed 12%, and subjected to sliding under video microscopy. Samples, lubricated with synovial fluid, were tested intact and then with a full-thickness defect in PAT cartilage. Shear (Exz), axial (Ezz), and lateral (Exx) strains were determined locally for TRO and P...

Wong, Benjamin L.; Sah, Robert L.

2010-01-01

2

Focal full thickness articular cartilage lesions treated with an articular resurfacing prosthesis in the middle-aged  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Localised full thickness articular defects of the knee are common and disabling in the middle-aged. There are numerous treatment options for articular defects, the results of which are unpredictable in this age group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a focal articular resurfac [...] ing prosthesis used in the treatment of these defects. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients treated between 2005 and 2010 with a HemiCAP® resurfacing procedure were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up scores of the KOOS, IKDC, SF-36 and patient satisfaction were obtained. Radiographic evaluation was also obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen patients were followed-up 4.7 ± 5.9 years after surgery. Three patients had revision surgery and were not followed up. The patients were 44.7 ± 5.9 years old. The follow-up KOOS scores demonstrated comparable scores on the pain and activities of daily living sub-scales when compared to normative data; however, the sports (P

H, Hobbs; N, Ketse-Matiwane; W, van der Merwe; M, Posthumus.

3

Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

Fergal J. O'Brien

2013-02-01

4

Effects of intramuscular polysulfated glycosaminoglycan on chemical and physical defects in equine articular cartilage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of intramuscular polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSG) on repair of cartilage injury was evaluated in eight horses. In each horse, one middle carpal joint had both a partial-thickness and a full-thickness articular cartilage defect created. In the contralateral middle carpal joint, chemical articular cartilage injury was created by intra-articular injection of 50 mg sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA). Horses were divided into two groups for treatment. Group 1 horses (control) received an ...

Trotter, G. W.; Yovich, J. V.; Mcilwraith, C. W.; Norrdin, R. W.

1989-01-01

5

Osteochondral articular defect repair using auricle-derived autologous chondrocytes in a rabbit model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothesizing that the implantation of non-articular (heterotopic) chondrocytes might be an alternative approach to support articular cartilage repair, we analyzed joint cartilage defect healing in the rabbit model after implantation of autologous auricle-derived (auricular) chondrocytes. Autologous lapine articular and auricular chondrocytes were cultured for 3 weeks in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds before being implanted into critical sized osteochondral defects of the rabbit knee femoropatellar groove. Cell-free PGA scaffolds and empty defects served as controls. Construct quality was determined before implantation and defect healing was monitored after 6 and 12 weeks using vitality assays, macroscopical and histological score systems. Neo-cartilage was formed in the PGA constructs seeded with both articular and auricular chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. At the histological level, cartilage repair was slightly improved when using autologous articular chondrocyte seeded constructs compared to empty defects and was significantly superior compared to defects treated with auricular chondrocytes 6 weeks after implantation. Although only the immunohistological differences were significant, auricular chondrocyte implantation induced an inferior healing response compared with the empty defects. Elastic auricular chondrocytes might maintain some tissue-specific characteristics when implanted into joint cartilage defects which limit its repair capacity. PMID:24812031

Lohan, Anke; Marzahn, Ulrike; El Sayed, Karym; Haisch, Andreas; Müller, Riccarda Dolores; Kohl, Benjamin; Stölzel, Katharina; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

2014-09-01

6

Focal porta hepatis scintiscan defects: what is their significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 537 consecutive liver /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintiscans were retrospectively reviewed and 80 of them revealed suspicious focal decreased activity in the region of the porta hepatis. Postmortem, surgical, or biopsy correlation was obtained in 40 of these cases: 14 were pathologically negative; 9, cirrhosis or fibrosis; 10, metastases; 3, dilated bile ducts; 1, viral hepatitis; 1, hepatic laceration; 1, falciform ligament cyst; and 1, ruptured gallbladder with abscessed head of the pancreas. Thus, only 42 percent represented significant disease. Sixty-eight percent of the defects were seen only on the anterior scintiscan. Appearance of the majority of defects was nonspecific. Subjective grading of defects according to size and comparative decrease in density was not beneficial. Elevations of serum alkaline phosphatase, total serum bilirubin, and serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase were nonspecific

7

Evaluation of multiphase implants for repair of focal osteochondral defects in goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of biodegradable scaffolds for articular cartilage repair has been investigated by numerous researchers. The objective of this screening study was to examine how the mechanical and physical properties of four multiphase implants can affect the cartilage healing response. Multiphase implant prototypes were prepared using poly(D,L)lactide-co-glycolide as the base material. PGA fibers (FR), 45S5 Bioglass (BG) and medical grade calcium sulfate (MGCS) were used as additives to vary stiffness and chemical properties. Osteochondral defects (3 mm dia. and 4 mm in depth) were created bilaterally in the medial femoral condyle (high-weight bearing) and the distal medial portion of the patellar groove (low-weight bearing) of 16 Spanish goats. Half of the implants were loaded with autologous costochondral chondrocytes. Defect sites (total n = 64, 4 sites/treatment) were randomly treated and allowed to heal for 16 weeks, fully weight bearing. At euthanasia, gross evaluations and biomechanical testing were conducted. Histological sections of the defect sites were stained with H and E, Safranin O/Fast Green or processed to analyze collagen architecture. Sections were semi-quantitatively scored for repair tissue structure. Qualitative evaluations showed that all groups had a high percentage of hyaline cartilage and good bony restoration, with new tissue integrating well with the native cartilage. Gross and histology scoring indicated a significantly higher score for defect healing in the condyle than in the patellar groove, but no difference in healing for implant types or addition/omission of cells was found. This investigation demonstrates that focal, osteochondral defects in caprine distal femurs treated with various implant constructs were repaired with hyaline-like cartilage and good underlying bone. The multiphase implants show potential for treatment of osteochondral defects and long-term studies need to be undertaken to confirm the longevity of the regenerated tissue. PMID:11071606

Niederauer, G G; Slivka, M A; Leatherbury, N C; Korvick, D L; Harroff, H H; Ehler, W C; Dunn, C J; Kieswetter, K

2000-12-01

8

Equine articular chondrocytes on MACT scaffolds for cartilage defect treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of cartilage defects poses challenging problems in human and veterinary medicine, especially in horses. This study examines the suitability of applying scaffold materials similar to those used for human cartilage regeneration on equine chondrocytes. Chondrocytes gained from biopsies of the talocrural joint of three horses were propagated in 2D culture and grown on two different scaffold materials, hyaluronan (HYAFF®) and collagen (BioGide®), and evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The equine chondrocytes developed well in both types of materials. They were vital and physiologically highly active. On the surface of the scaffolds, they formed cell multilayers. Inside the hyaluronan web, the chondrocytes were regularly distributed and spanned the large scaffold fibre distances by producing their own matrix sheath. Half-circle-like depressions occasionally found in the cell membrane were probably related to movement on the flexible matrix sheath. Inside the dense collagen scaffold, only single cells were found. They passed through the scaffold strands by cell shape adaptation. This study showed that the examined scaffold materials can be used for equine chondrocyte cultivation. Chondrocytes tend to form multilayers on the surface of both, very dense and very porous scaffolds, and have strategies to span between and move in large gaps. PMID:23323689

Nürnberger, S; Meyer, C; Ponomarev, I; Barnewitz, D; Resinger, C; Klepal, W; Albrecht, C; Marlovits, S

2013-10-01

9

Selective water excitation for faster MR imaging of articular cartilage defects: initial clinical results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our objective was to compare a water-excitation (WE) 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR sequence for faster imaging of articular cartilage defects of the knee to a conventional fat-saturated (FS) 3D FLASH MR sequence. This prospective study included 16 knees of 16 patients with suspected cartilage lesions. The MR imaging in transverse and sagittal planes included (a) FS 3D FLASH (TR/TE: 45 ms/11 ms, scan time 8 min, flip angle 50 ), and (b) WE 3D FLASH (TR/TE: 28 ms/11 ms, scan time 4 min 58 s, flip angle 40 ). For each sequence signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were quantified. The detected cartilage lesions were evaluated using a semi-quantitative four-scale scoring system (grades 0-III). The data were compared between the sequences using the paired Student's t-test. No statistically significant differences between the sequences were found for SNR, CNR, and cartilage defect grading (p=0.14-0.8). The WE 3D FLASH MR imaging seems to be promising for fast imaging of articular cartilage lesions of the knee. (orig.)

10

Repair of articular cartilage in rabbit osteochondral defects promoted by extracorporeal shock wave therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the stimulative effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the articular cartilage regeneration in the rabbit osteochondral defect model for the first time. An osteochondral defect, 3 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth, was drilled in the patellar groove at the distal end of each femur in 24 mature New Zealand rabbits. The right patellar defects received 500 impulses of shock waves of 1.2 { mJ}/{mm}2 (at 14 kV) at 1 week after surgery and were designated as the experimental samples; the left patellar defects served as control. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after ESWT, cartilage repair was evaluated macroscopically and histologically using a semiquantitative grading scale. The total scores of the macroscopic evaluation at 4, 8, and 12 weeks in the experimental group were superior to those in the control group (statistical significance level P ESWT, especially at the early stage. The easy and safe ESWT is potentially viable for clinical application.

Chu, C.-H.; Yen, Y.-S.; Chen, P.-L.; Wen, C.-Y.

2014-05-01

11

Xenogeneic transplantation of articular chondrocytes into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in minipigs: fate of cells and the role of macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xenogeneic or allogeneic chondrocytes hold great potential to build up new cartilage in vivo. However, immune rejection is a major concern for the utility of universal donor-derived cells. In order to verify the reported immune privilege of chondrocytes in vivo, the aim of this study was to assess engraftment of human articular chondrocytes (HAC) in minipig knee cartilage defects and their contribution to cartilage regeneration. HAC were transplanted matrix-assisted within two hydrogels into full-thickness cartilage defects of minipigs or implanted ectopically into immune deficient mice to assess redifferentiation capacity. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, cell-persistence and host cell invasion were monitored by species-specific in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. Early tissue regeneration was evaluated by histomorphometry and a modified O'Driscoll score. HAC capable of successful in vivo chondrogenic redifferentiation persisted at ectopic sites for 4 weeks in both carrier materials. Early defect regeneration involved extensive host cell invasion and a decline of HAC to less than 5 % of initial cell numbers in 6/12 defects within 2 weeks. Few clusters of persisting HAC within collagen type II-rich tissue were surrounded by porcine macrophages. Four weeks after cell transplantation, most of the defects contained well-integrated cell-rich tissue free of human cells with no apparent difference between hydrogel carriers. In summary, HAC failed to engraft in porcine articular cartilage defects despite their ability for successful in vivo redifferentiation. The co-localization of macrophages to hydrogel-implanted HAC suggests active graft rejection without evidence for an immune-privileged status of xenogeneic chondrocytes in a large animal joint. PMID:25129109

Niemietz, Thomas; Zass, Gesa; Hagmann, Sébastien; Diederichs, Solvig; Gotterbarm, Tobias; Richter, Wiltrud

2014-12-01

12

Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New [...] Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

Amir, Sotoudeh; Amirali, Jahanshahi; Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, Takhtfooladi; Ali, Bazazan; Amin, Ganjali; Maryam Pourramezani, Harati.

13

Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New [...] Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

Amir, Sotoudeh; Amirali, Jahanshahi; Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, Takhtfooladi; Ali, Bazazan; Amin, Ganjali; Maryam Pourramezani, Harati.

2013-05-01

14

Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.)

15

ICRS Recommendation Document : Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments for Use in Patients with Articular Cartilage Defects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend patient-reported outcome instruments for use in patients with articular cartilage lesions undergoing cartilage repair interventions. Methods: Nonsystematic literature search identifying measures addressing pain and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic requirements for reliability, validity, and responsiveness in cartilage repair patients. A major difference between them is that the former results in a single score and the latter results in 5 subscores. A single score is preferred for simplicity’s sake, whereas subscores allow for evaluation of separate constructs at all levels according to the International Classification of Functioning. Conclusions: Because there is no obvious superiority of either instrument at this time, both outcome measures are recommended for use in cartilage repair. Rescaling of the Lysholm Scoring Scale has been suggested, and confirmatory longitudinal studies are needed prior to recommending this scale for use in cartilage repair. Inclusion of a generic measure is feasible in cartilage repair studies and allows analysis of health-related quality of life and health economic outcomes. The Marx or Tegner Activity Rating Scales are feasible and have been evaluated in patients with knee injuries. However, activity measures require age and sex adjustment, and data are lacking in people with cartilage repair.

Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella

2011-01-01

16

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy results in healing of full thickness articular cartilage defect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to determine the efficacy of PEMF (pulsed electromagnetic field) treatment in experimental osteochondral defect healing in a rabbit model. The study was conducted on 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits formed the study group and six rabbits the control group. The right knee joints of all 12 animals were exposed and a 3.5-mm diameter osteochondral defect was created in the trochlear groove. The defect was filled with calcium phosphate scaffold. Six animals from the study...

Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Arumugam, Sabareeswaran; Livingston, Abel; Mohanty, Mira; Chittaranjan, Samuel

2011-01-01

17

Repair of experimentally produced defects in rabbit articular cartilage by autologous chondrocyte transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the knee joints of New Zealand White rabbits, a baseline study was made to determine the intrinsic capability of cartilage for healing defects that do not fracture the subchondral plate. A second experiment examined the effect of autologous chondrocytes grown in vitro on the healing rate of these defects. To determine whether any of the reconstituted cartilage resulted from the chondrocyte graft, a third experiment was conducted involving grafts with chondrocytes that had been labeled prior to grafting with a nuclear tracer. Results were evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative light microscopy. Macroscopic results from grafted specimens displayed a marked decrease in synovitis and other degenerative changes. In defects that had received transplants, a significant amount of cartilage was reconstituted (82%) compared to ungrafted controls (18%). Autoradiography on reconstituted cartilage showed that there were labeled cells incorporated into the repair matrix

18

Cultured articular chondrocytes sheets for partial thickness cartilage defects utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of articular cartilage has several functions that are unique to joints. Although a technique for transplanting cultured chondrocytes has already been introduced, it is difficult to collect intact ECM when using enzymes to harvest samples. Temperature-responsive culture dishes have already been clinically applied in the fields of myocardial and corneal transplantation. Earlier studies have shown that a sheet of cultured cells with intact ECM and adhesive factors can be harvested using such culture dishes, which allow the surface properties of the dish to be reversibly altered by changing the temperature. Human chondrocytes were subjected to enzymatic digestion and then were seeded in temperature-responsive culture dishes. A sheet of chondrocytes was harvested by only reducing the temperature after the cultured cells reached confluency. A real-time PCR analysis of the chondrocyte sheets confirmed that type II collagen, aggrecan, and fibronectin were present. These results suggested that, although chondrocytes undergo dedifferentiation in a monolayer culture, multilayer chondrocyte sheets grown in a similar environment to that of three-dimensional culture may be able to maintain a normal phenotype. A histological examination suggested that multilayer chondrocyte sheets could thus prevent the loss of proteoglycans because the area covered by the sheets was well stained by safranin-O. The present experiments suggested that temperature-responsive culture dishes are useful for obtaining cultured chondrocytes, which may then be clinically employed as a substitute for periosteal patches because such sheets can be applied without a scaffold.

N Kaneshiro

2007-05-01

19

Effect of Autologous Platelet Rich Fibrin on the Healing of Experimental Articular Cartilage Defects of the Knee in an Animal Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of autologous platelet rich fibrin (PRF), a second generation platelet product, on the healing of experimental articular cartilage lesions was evaluated in an animal model. Full thickness cartilage lesions with a diameter of 6 mm and depth of 5 mm were created in the weight bearing area of femoral condyles of both hind limbs in 12 adult mixed breed dogs. Defects in the left hind limb of each dog were repaired by PRF implantation whereas those in the right hind limb were left empty. The animals were euthanized at 4, 16, and 24 weeks following surgery and the resultant repair tissue was investigated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of macroscopic and histological evaluations indicated that there were significant differences between the PRF treated and untreated defects. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the use of platelet rich fibrin as a source of autologous growth factors leads to improvement in articular cartilage repair. PMID:25028656

Kazemi, Davoud; Fakhrjou, Ashraf; Mirzazadeh Dizaji, Vahid; Khanzadeh Alishahi, Majid

2014-01-01

20

Repair of porcine articular cartilage defect with a biphasic osteochondral composite.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been recently used to treat cartilage defects. Partly because of the success of mosaicplasty, a procedure that involves the implantation of native osteochondral plugs, it is of potential significance to consider the application of ACI in the form of biphasic osteochondral composites. To test the clinical applicability of such composite construct, we repaired osteochondral defect with ACI at low cell-seeding density on a biphasic scaffold, and combined graft harvest and implantation in a single surgery. We fabricated a biphasic cylindrical porous plug of DL-poly-lactide-co-glycolide, with its lower body impregnated with beta-tricalcium phosphate as the osseous phase. Osteochondral defects were surgically created at the weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles of Lee-Sung mini-pigs. Autologous chondrocytes isolated from the cartilage were seeded into the upper, chondral phase of the plug, which was inserted by press-fitting to fill the defect. Defects treated with cell-free plugs served as control. Outcome of repair was examined 6 months after surgery. In the osseous phase, the biomaterial retained in the center and cancellous bone formed in the periphery, integrating well with native subchondral bone with extensive remodeling, as depicted on X-ray roentgenography by higher radiolucency. In the chondral phase, collagen type II immunohistochemistry and Safranin O histological staining showed hyaline cartilage regeneration in the experimental group, whereas only fibrous tissue formed in the control group. On the International Cartilage Repair Society Scale, the experimental group had higher mean scores in surface, matrix, cell distribution, and cell viability than control, but was comparable with the control group in subchondral bone and mineralization. Tensile stress-relaxation behavior determined by uni-axial indentation test revealed similar creep property between the surface of the experimental specimen and native cartilage, but not the control specimen. Implanted autologous chondrocytes could survive and could yield hyaline-like cartilage in vivo in the biphasic biomaterial construct. Pre-seeding of osteogenic cells did not appear to be necessary to regenerate subchondral bone. PMID:17576624

Jiang, Ching-Chuan; Chiang, Hongsen; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Shieh, Chang-Shun; Huang, Yi-You; Tuan, Rocky S

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} gene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3}-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3} gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease.

Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu Kai [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Quan Daping [Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2006-12-15

22

Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor ?1 gene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

xperimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-?1 gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-?1 gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease

23

Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blendas do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis.The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose acetate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

Sonia M Malmonge

1997-06-01

24

Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica / PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato) - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blenda [...] s do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN) de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis. Abstract in english The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA) as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose ac [...] etate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

Sonia M, Malmonge; Cecília A. C, Zavaglia.

1997-06-01

25

Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results; Autologe Chondrozytentransplantation zur Behandlung von Knorpeldefekten des Kniegelenks. Techniken und Ergebnisse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.) [German] Zur Behandlung umschriebener Defekte des artikulaeren Kniegelenkgelenkknorpels wird der Einsatz autologer Knorpelzellen zunehmend als neue biologische Methode empfohlen. Die Technik der autologen Chondrozytentransplantation (ACT) und deren Modifikationen als matrixassoziierte autologe Chondrozytentransplantation (MACT) werden dargestellt. Es erfolgt ein Ueberblick ueber die experimentellen und klinischen Ergebnisse mit der Darstellung der haeufigsten Komplikationen und den derzeit gueltigen Indikationsrichtlinien. Unter Verwendung qualitativ hochwertiger Zellen zeigen besonders posttraumatische Knorpeldefekte bei juengeren Patienten eine hohe Erfolgsquote mit der Ausbildung eines hyalinartigen Regeneratgewebes. Die haeufigsten Komplikationen der ACT sind Periosthypertrophie, Delamination des Transplantats, intraartikulaere Adhaesionen und Transplantatversagen. Die derzeit wichtigsten Limitierungen stellen die Osteoarthrose und ein hoeheres Patientenalter dar. Bei richtiger Indikationsstellung und operativer Technik kann die ACT als effiziente und sichere Therapieoption fuer die Behandlung grosser und tiefer Knorpeldefekte des Kniegelenks angesehen werden. (orig.)

Marlovits, S.; Kutscha-Lissberg, F.; Aldrian, S.; Resinger, C.; Singer, P.; Zeller, P.; Vecsei, V. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

2004-08-01

26

Proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) and fibular A/hypoplasia (FA/H): a model of a developmental field defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) and fibular a/hypoplasia (FAH) are distinct malformations of the lower limbs. Both can occur as isolated defects or in association with other limb malformations. In fact, fibular defects frequently are present in PFFD, and, conversely, femoral abnormalities can be found in the presence of a typical FAH picture. We report on 5 patients with a variable combination of femoral and fibular defects. In one of them unilateral PFFD was associated with lateral foot defects, in the absence of fibular abnormalities, and with a phenotype similar to that observed in the femoral hypoplasia/unusual face syndrome (FH/UFS). Another patient had isolated PFFD on one side, with controlateral absence of femur, fibula, and tibia. Another patient had a PFFD, fibular hypoplasia, and abnormalities of fibular foot rays, and the last 2 patients, a father and son, had, respectively, bilateral foot malformations plus fibular and tibial hypoplasia in the father and a PFFD in the son. These observations represent a further demonstration of the existence of a fibular developmental field, and contribute to the definition of its spatial boundaries. The variable involvement of elements comprised in the developmental field can be explained by multifactorial etiology. PMID:7762582

Sorge, G; Ardito, S; Genuardi, M; Pavone, V; Rizzo, R; Conti, G; Neri, G; Katz, B E; Opitz, J M

1995-02-13

27

Intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid increases the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated in a large osteochondral defect by implantation of a double-network gel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implantation of PAMPS/PDMAAm double-network (DN) gel can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in the osteochondral defect. However, it is a problem that the volume of the regenerated cartilage tissue is gradually reduced at 12 weeks. This study investigated whether intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) increases the volume of the cartilage regenerated with the DN gel at 12 weeks. A total of 48 rabbits were used in this study. A cylindrical osteochondral defect created in the bilateral femoral trochlea was treated with DN gel (Group DN) or left without any implantation (Group C). In both Groups, we injected 1.0 mL of HA in the left knee, and 1.0 mL of saline solution in the right knee. Quantitative histological evaluations were performed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks, and PCR analysis was performed at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. In Group DN, the proteoglycan-rich area was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 12 weeks (P = 0.0247), and expression of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 mRNAs was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 2 weeks (P = 0.0475, P = 0.0257, P = 0.0222, respectively). The intra-articular administration of HA significantly enhanced these gene expression at 2 weeks and significantly increased the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated by implantation of a DN gel at 12 weeks. This information is important to develop an additional method to increase the volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue in a potential cartilage regeneration strategy using the DN gel. PMID:24394983

Fukui, Takaaki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Yokota, Masashi; Kondo, Eiji; Gong, Jian Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori

2014-04-01

28

Current strategies for articular cartilage repair  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Defects of articular cartilage that do not penetrate to the subchondral bone fail to heal spontaneously. Defects that penetrate to the subchondral bone elicit an intrinsic repair response that yields a fibrocartilaginous repair tissue which is a poor substitute for hyaline articular cartilage. Many arthroscopic repair strategies employed utilise this intrinsic repair response to induce the formation of a repair tissue within the defect. The goal, however, is to produce a repair tissue that ha...

Redman S. N.; Oldfield S. F.; Archer C. W.

2005-01-01

29

Focal epilepsy in Glucose transporter type 1 (Glut1) defects: case reports and a review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter type 1 (Glut1), cause a wide range of neurological disorders: (1) classical Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1-DS) with an early onset epileptic encephalopathy including a severe epilepsy, psychomotor delay, ataxia and microcephaly, (2) paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia (PED) and (3) various forms of idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsies such as different forms of absence epilepsies. Up to now, focal epilepsy was not associated with SLC2A1 mutations. Here, we describe four cases in which focal seizures present the main or at least initial category of seizures. Two patients suffered from a classical Glut1-DS, whereas two individuals presented with focal epilepsy related to PED. We identified three novel SLC2A1 mutations in these unrelated individuals. Our study underscores that focal epilepsy can be caused by SLC2A1 mutations or that focal seizures may present the main type of seizures. Patients with focal epilepsy and PED should undergo genetic testing and can benefit from a ketogenic diet. But also individuals with pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsy and cognitive impairment might be candidates for genetic testing in SLC2A1. PMID:25022942

Wolking, Stefan; Becker, Felicitas; Bast, Thomas; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Mayer, Thomas; Lerche, Holger; Weber, Yvonne G

2014-10-01

30

Congenital meniscoid articular disc of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 24-year-old man with a congenital meniscoid articular disc of the triangular fibrocartilage complex with extensor carpi ulnaris tenosynovitis. His young age, the normal articular cartilage, the lack of degenerative changes at the margins of the defect and its bilateral occurrence made this diagnosis likely. A congenital defect of the articular disc of the triangular fibrocartilage complex should not be misinterpreted as a traumatic rupture and is usually asymptomatic. PMID:19651842

Kim, S-J; Moon, H-K; Chun, Y-M; Chang, W-H; Kim, S-G; Lee, S-K

2009-08-01

31

Comparison between autologeous osteochondral transfer, crushed cancellous bone and untreated defects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Articular cartilage lacks an intrinsic ability to heal completely. Many studies have shown that the repair process can be initiated by the creation of a penetrating defect into the marrow cavity. The amount and quality of healing is dependent on the lesion size and depth. There are numerous treatment options for focal cartilage defects but most techniques only induce a fibrocartilage healing response which is biomechanically inferior to true hyaline cartilage. The objective of this study ...

Bose, Christiane

2010-01-01

32

Transplantation of normal boar testicular cells resulted in complete focal spermatogenesis in a boar affected by the immotile short-tail sperm defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transplantation of testicular cells, also known as spermatogonial stem cell transplantation, is a relatively new approach in the field of male infertility. We used this technique to determine whether donor-derived sperm production in unrelated porcine recipients is possible following ultrasound-guided transfer of testicular cells. This study was undertaken because we had a strain of Finnish Yorkshire boars with a hereditary recessive gene defect rendering all spermatozoa immotile and anatomically abnormal in homozygous boars. Thus, monitoring of the focal success of colonization of donor spermatogonia with subsequent production of progressively motile spermatozoa was extremely sensitive. Testicular cells from young normal crossbred boars were transplanted into the testes of two boars affected with the immotile short-tail sperm (ISTS) defect. Prior to the transplantations, busulfan was used to suppress recipients' endogenous spermatogenesis. The ejaculates were collected and analysed for the presence of motile spermatozoa. In one of the two recipient boars transplanted with testicular cells from normal donors, motile spermatozoa appeared in the ejaculates 12 weeks after the transplantation. Spermatozoa manually selected under a microscope from a frozen aliquot of ejaculate collected 27 weeks after transplantation were genotyped. In two of the 20 vials the donor-derived genotype was visible. The genotyping results substantiated the success - as indicated by the appearance of motile spermatozoa after the spermatogonial transfer. Thus, donor-derived sperm production in unrelated recipients is possible. In addition, the production after transplantation of progressively motile spermatozoa with normal tail lengths shows that the ISTS defect in Finnish Yorkshire boars apparently results from defective transcription of an essential gene for sperm motility in germline cells. To conclude, the transplantation of donor testicular cells can, at least in boars with the ISTS defect, result in complete focal spermatogenesis. PMID:16519717

Mikkola, M; Sironen, A; Kopp, C; Taponen, J; Sukura, A; Vilkki, J; Katila, T; Andersson, M

2006-04-01

33

Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica / Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulaçõe [...] s foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos. Abstract in english The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. [...] After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero) and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

A.L.M., Yamada; A.M., Carvalho; P.G.G., Oliveira; S.L., Felisbino; D.L., Queiroz; M.J., Watanabe; C.A., Hussni; A.L.G., Alves.

34

Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos.The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

A.L.M. Yamada

2012-04-01

35

Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica / Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulaçõe [...] s foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos. Abstract in english The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. [...] After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero) and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

A.L.M., Yamada; A.M., Carvalho; P.G.G., Oliveira; S.L., Felisbino; D.L., Queiroz; M.J., Watanabe; C.A., Hussni; A.L.G., Alves.

2012-04-01

36

Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remain [...] ed empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups with postoperative follow-up periods of 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Indentation tests were performed on the neoformed surfaces in the knee joint (with or without a hydrogel implant) and on adjacent articular cartilage in order to assess the mechanical properties of the newly formed surface. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the mechanical behavior of the neoformed surfaces was significantly different from that of normal cartilage. Histological analysis of the repaired defects showed that the hydrogel implant filled the defect with no signs of inflammation as it was well anchored to the surrounding tissues, resulting in a newly formed articular surface. In the case of empty control defects, osseous tissue grew inside the defects and fibrous tissue formed on the articular surface of the defects. The repaired surface of the hydrogel implant was more compliant than normal articular cartilage throughout the 16 weeks following the operation, whereas the fibrous tissue that formed postoperatively over the empty defect was stiffer than normal articular cartilage after 5 weeks. This stiffness started to decrease 16 weeks after the operation, probably due to tissue degeneration. Thus, from the biomechanical and histological point of view, the hydrogel implant improved the articular surface repair.

S.M., Malmonge; C.A.C., Zavaglia; W.D., Belangero.

37

Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remain [...] ed empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups with postoperative follow-up periods of 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Indentation tests were performed on the neoformed surfaces in the knee joint (with or without a hydrogel implant) and on adjacent articular cartilage in order to assess the mechanical properties of the newly formed surface. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the mechanical behavior of the neoformed surfaces was significantly different from that of normal cartilage. Histological analysis of the repaired defects showed that the hydrogel implant filled the defect with no signs of inflammation as it was well anchored to the surrounding tissues, resulting in a newly formed articular surface. In the case of empty control defects, osseous tissue grew inside the defects and fibrous tissue formed on the articular surface of the defects. The repaired surface of the hydrogel implant was more compliant than normal articular cartilage throughout the 16 weeks following the operation, whereas the fibrous tissue that formed postoperatively over the empty defect was stiffer than normal articular cartilage after 5 weeks. This stiffness started to decrease 16 weeks after the operation, probably due to tissue degeneration. Thus, from the biomechanical and histological point of view, the hydrogel implant improved the articular surface repair.

S.M., Malmonge; C.A.C., Zavaglia; W.D., Belangero.

2000-03-01

38

Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remained empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five grou...

Malmonge S.M.; Zavaglia C.A.C.; Belangero W.D.

2000-01-01

39

Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remained empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups with postoperative follow-up periods of 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Indentation tests were performed on the neoformed surfaces in the knee joint (with or without a hydrogel implant and on adjacent articular cartilage in order to assess the mechanical properties of the newly formed surface. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the mechanical behavior of the neoformed surfaces was significantly different from that of normal cartilage. Histological analysis of the repaired defects showed that the hydrogel implant filled the defect with no signs of inflammation as it was well anchored to the surrounding tissues, resulting in a newly formed articular surface. In the case of empty control defects, osseous tissue grew inside the defects and fibrous tissue formed on the articular surface of the defects. The repaired surface of the hydrogel implant was more compliant than normal articular cartilage throughout the 16 weeks following the operation, whereas the fibrous tissue that formed postoperatively over the empty defect was stiffer than normal articular cartilage after 5 weeks. This stiffness started to decrease 16 weeks after the operation, probably due to tissue degeneration. Thus, from the biomechanical and histological point of view, the hydrogel implant improved the articular surface repair.

S.M. Malmonge

2000-03-01

40

Current strategies for articular cartilage repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Defects of articular cartilage that do not penetrate to the subchondral bone fail to heal spontaneously. Defects that penetrate to the subchondral bone elicit an intrinsic repair response that yields a fibrocartilaginous repair tissue which is a poor substitute for hyaline articular cartilage. Many arthroscopic repair strategies employed utilise this intrinsic repair response to induce the formation of a repair tissue within the defect. The goal, however, is to produce a repair tissue that has the same functional and mechanical properties of hyaline articular cartilage. To this end, autologous osteochondral transfer can provide symptomatic relief. This technique involves the excision of healthy cartilage plugs from "non-load bearing" regions of the joint for implantation into the defect. Cell based transplantation methods currently involve the transplantation of expanded autologous chondrocytes to the defects to form a repair tissue. This technique again involves the excision of healthy cartilage from the joint for expansion. Current research is exploring the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells as a source for tissue engineering, as well as the combination of cells with biodegradable scaffolds. Although current repair strategies improve joint function, further research is required to prevent future degeneration of repair tissue.

Redman S. N.

2005-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Effects of Phosphorylatable Short Peptide-Conjugated Chitosan-Mediated IL-1Ra and igf-1 Gene Transfer on Articular Cartilage Defects in Rabbits  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we reported an improvement in the transfection efficiency of the plasmid DNA-chitosan (pDNA/CS) complex by the utilization of phosphorylatable short peptide-conjugated chitosan (pSP-CS). In this study, we investigated the effects of pSP-CS-mediated gene transfection of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1Ra) combined with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in rabbit chondrocytes and in a rabbit model of cartilage defects. pBudCE4.1-IL-1Ra+igf-1, pBudCE4.1-IL-1Ra and pBudCE4.1-igf-1 were constructed and combined with pSP-CS to form pDNA/pSP-CS complexes. These complexes were transfected into rabbit primary chondrocytes or injected into the joint cavity. Seven weeks after treatment, all rabbits were sacrificed and analyzed. High levels of IL-1Ra and igf-1 expression were detected both in the cell culture supernatant and in the synovial fluid. In vitro, the transgenic complexes caused significant proliferation of chondrocytes, promotion of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen II synthesis, and inhibition of chondrocyte apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. In vivo, the exogenous genes resulted in increased collagen II synthesis and reduced NO and GAG concentrations in the synovial fluid; histological studies revealed that pDNA/pSP-CS treatment resulted in varying degrees of hyaline-like cartilage repair and Mankin score decrease. The co-expression of both genes produced greater effects than each single gene alone both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that pSP-CS is a good candidate for use in gene therapy for the treatment of cartilage defects and that igf-1 and IL-1Ra co-expression produces promising biologic effects on cartilage defects. PMID:25390659

Zhao, Ronglan; Peng, Xiaoxiang; Li, Qian; Song, Wei

2014-01-01

42

Condrocalcinose articular familiar Familial articular chondrocalcinosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite intermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica.Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical features of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

Mittermayer Barreto Santiago

2004-08-01

43

Condrocalcinose articular familiar / Familial articular chondrocalcinosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite i [...] ntermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica. Abstract in english Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical featur [...] es of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

Mittermayer Barreto, Santiago; Liliana, Galrão; Isabella, Lima; Lucas, Prado; Melba, Moura.

44

Clinical outcomes after microfracture treatment of full-thikness articular cartilage lesions of the knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical results after microfracture treatment of the full-thikness articular lesions of the knee. Methods: This study presented clinical outcomes of 51 patients with focal full thikness articular cartilage lesion who were treated with microfracture technique and evaluated according Lysholm-Tegner, Oxford, Womac and KSS scores. According the age we examined of patients younger than 35 years and second group between 36-60 years old. Results: On the basis of follow-up at minimum 18 months, mean improvements in Lysholm-Ttegner scores in younger group (from 38.4-94.1 in older group (from 37.1-87.3, Oxford scores in younger (from 29.5-45.2 and older group (from 25.5-50.5, and Womac score in younger group (from 51.1-94.8 in older (from 50.8-87.8. There was a strong and significant correlation between functional results and age of the patients with full-thikness cartilage lesion less than 2 cm in dijametar. Conclusions: According to our short term results, microfracture technique is effective treatment for the full-thikness cartilage lesions with regard to the improvements of daily activities with a favorable impact on pain relief and better functional results. There was a strong correlation between functional results and age, size of defect location of defect as prognostic parameters.

Mitev Konstantin

2013-01-01

45

Focal myositis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.)

46

Focal myositis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Sweet, D.E. [Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-05-01

47

MRI evaluation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the MRI manifestation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee for evaluating the extension and degree of the injury and guiding treatment. Methods: MRI of 34 patients with acute articular cartilage injury of knee within one day to fifteen days confirmed by arthroscopy and arthrotomy was reviewed and analyzed, with emphasis on articular cartilage and subchondral lesion. And every manifestation on MRI and that of arthroscopy and operation was compared. Results: The articular cartilage injury was diagnosed on MRI in 29 of 34 cases. Cartilage signal changes were found only in 4. The changes of cartilage shape were variable. Thinning of focal cartilage was showed in 3, osteochondral impaction in 3, creases of cartilage in 3, disrupted cartilage with fissuring in 13, cracks cartilage in 2, and cracks cartilage with displaced fragment in 1. Bone bruise and occult fracture were found only on MRI. Conclusion: The assessment of MRI and arthroscopy in acute articular cartilage injury are consistent. Combined with arthroscopy, MRI can succeed in assessing the extension and degree of acute articular injury and allowing treatment planning

48

New perspectives for articular cartilage repair treatment through tissue engineering: A contemporary review  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper review we describe benefits and disadvantages of the established methods of cartilage regeneration that seem to have a better long-term effectiveness. We illustrated the anatomical aspect of the knee joint cartilage, the current state of cartilage tissue engineering, through mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials, and in conclusion we provide a short overview on the rehabilitation after articular cartilage repair procedures. Adult articular cartilage has low capacity to repair itself, and thus even minor injuries may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. Numerous efforts have been made to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, and to date several researchers aim to implement clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords, examining the current literature on the well-known tissue engineering methods for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24829869

Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Leonardi, Rosalia; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Giunta, Angelo; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio

2014-01-01

49

New perspectives for articular cartilage repair treatment through tissue engineering: A contemporary review.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper review we describe benefits and disadvantages of the established methods of cartilage regeneration that seem to have a better long-term effectiveness. We illustrated the anatomical aspect of the knee joint cartilage, the current state of cartilage tissue engineering, through mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials, and in conclusion we provide a short overview on the rehabilitation after articular cartilage repair procedures. Adult articular cartilage has low capacity to repair itself, and thus even minor injuries may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. Numerous efforts have been made to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, and to date several researchers aim to implement clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords, examining the current literature on the well-known tissue engineering methods for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24829869

Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Leonardi, Rosalia; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Giunta, Angelo; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio

2014-04-18

50

Vitrification of intact human articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage injuries do not heal and large defects result in osteoarthritis with major personal and socioeconomic costs. Osteochondral transplantation is an effective treatment for large joint defects but its use is limited by the inability to store cartilage for long periods of time. Cryopreservation/vitrification is one method to enable banking of this tissue but decades of research have been unable to successfully preserve the tissue while maintaining cartilage on its bone base - a requirement for transplantation. To address this limitation, human knee articular cartilage from total knee arthroplasty patients and deceased donors was exposed to specified concentrations of 4 different cryoprotective agents for mathematically determined periods of time at lowering temperatures. After complete exposure, the cartilage was immersed in liquid nitrogen for up to 3 months. Cell viability was 75.4 ± 12.1% determined by membrane integrity stains and confirmed with a mitochondrial assay and pellet culture documented production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and collagen II similar to controls. This report documents successful vitrification of intact human articular cartilage on its bone base making it possible to bank this tissue indefinitely. PMID:22698720

Jomha, Nadr M; Elliott, Janet A W; Law, Garson K; Maghdoori, Babak; Forbes, J Fraser; Abazari, Alireza; Adesida, Adetola B; Laouar, Leila; Zhou, Xianpei; McGann, Locksley E

2012-09-01

51

Proximal femoral focal deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) is an uncommon congenital defect that involves the femur and acetabulum in varying degrees. It may occur with or without fibular hemimelia and can be unilateral or bilateral in presentation. Children with PFFD and their families are faced with many treatment decisions, both nonsurgical and surgical. Nursing care is central in the care of these children and their families both for psychosocial support and teaching during the decision-making process and for being a patient advocate to help meet postoperative and rehabilitation goals. PMID:9369731

Stormer, S V

1997-01-01

52

Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

Brennan, S A

2013-03-01

53

Lipoma arborescens (diffuse articular lipomatosis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipoma arborescens (LA) (diffuse articular lipomatosis, synovial lipomatosis, Hoffa disease) is a rare intra-articular lesion of unknown etiology. This article presents three patients who had LA, which was diagnosed in the knee in two patients and in the wrist of the third patient. Details of the clinical and histomorphological examination and treatment, in addition to a review of the literature, are discussed. The article concludes that in patients with a slow increase in painless swelling of the joints, unresolving articular pain with or without limited motion, or intermittent effusions following a minor trauma, LA should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It should be remembered that LA occurs in joints other than the knee, such as the elbow, shoulder, and wrist. Although recommended surgery involves arthrotomy and synovectomy, arthroscopic synovectomy may be a useful treatment modality, particularly in the larger joints as the recurrence rate is low. PMID:14577726

Yildiz, Cemil; Deveci, M Salih; Ozcan, Ayhan; Saraço?lu, H Ibrahim; Erler, Kaan; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

2003-01-01

54

Role of articular disc in condylar regeneration of the mandible.  

Science.gov (United States)

The articular disc in the temporomandibular joint plays an important role in mandibular growth. Functional appliances induce regeneration of the condyle even after condylectomy. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the articular disc in regeneration of the condyle after unilateral condylectomy with use of a functional appliance in growing rats. Fifty growing rats were subjected to unilateral condylectomy and then half of them underwent discectomy. The functional appliance was applied to half of the rats in each group to induce regeneration of the condyle. Four and eight weeks later, morphometric and histologic analyses of the mandible were performed. Regeneration of the condyle was demonstrated in the two condylectomy groups. In the condylectomy+appliance group, the shape and cartilage of the condyle were equivalent to a normal condyle. However, regeneration of the condyle was not observed in the two discectomy groups even with the use of the functional appliance. The articular disc appears to be crucial in the regeneration of a damaged condyle, suggesting that defects or damage to the articular disc may influence mandibular growth and regeneration or repair of the condyle. PMID:25030880

Hayashi, Hidetaka; Fujita, Tadashi; Shirakura, Maya; Tsuka, Yuji; Fujii, Eri; Terao, Akiko; Tanimoto, Kotaro

2014-10-30

55

Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. PMID:23643659

Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

2013-07-15

56

The effect of a gelatin ?-tricalcium phosphate sponge loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone morphogenic protein-2, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on equine articular cartilage defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the curative efficacy of a gelatin ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) sponge loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) by insertion into an experimentally induced osteochondral defect. A hole of 10 mm diameter and depth was drilled in the bilateral medial femoral condyles of 7 thoroughbred horses, and into each either a loaded sponge (treatment) or a saline-infused ?-TCP sponge (control) was inserted. After 16 weeks, defects were examined by computed tomography, macroscopic analyses, and histological analyses. The median subchondral bone density and macroscopic subscores for joint healing were significantly higher in the treatment legs (P PRP-impregnated ?-TCP sponge at the lesion site. PMID:24155448

Tsuzuki, Nao; Seo, Jong-pil; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

2013-06-01

57

The effect of a gelatin ?-tricalcium phosphate sponge loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone morphogenic protein-2, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on equine articular cartilage defect  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the curative efficacy of a gelatin ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) sponge loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) by insertion into an experimentally induced osteochondral defect. A hole of 10 mm diameter and depth was drilled in the bilateral medial femoral condyles of 7 thoroughbred horses, and into each either a loaded sponge (treatment) or a saline-infused ?-TCP sponge (control) was inserted. After 16 weeks, defects were examined by computed tomography, macroscopic analyses, and histological analyses. The median subchondral bone density and macroscopic subscores for joint healing were significantly higher in the treatment legs (P PRP-impregnated ?-TCP sponge at the lesion site. PMID:24155448

Tsuzuki, Nao; Seo, Jong-pil; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

2013-01-01

58

Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica / Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelare [...] s. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT); os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC). A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorder [...] s were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

L.S., Iamaguti; C.V.S., Brandão; L.S.L.S., Mota; J.J.T., Ranzani; L.M., Ribeiro; V.J.V., Rossetto; C.R., Padovani; S.L., Felisbino.

2013-02-01

59

Current methods of articular imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assets and drawbacks in articular diagnosis are highlighted for the following techniques: X-ray radiography, conventional tomography, digital radiography, arthrography, computed tomography and CT arthrography, sonography, thermography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A prudent combination of conventional X-raying, sonography, arthrography or CT arthrography, and MRI will provide images for a virtually complete articular pathology. Sonography and, in particular, MR require physician's experience, the findings, however, can be mostly evaluated with regard to the starting X-ray radiography. The sensitivity of the arthrographic methods, particularly in conjunction with digital imaging or CT and MRI examination is high, exceeding 90% in the assessment of changes in the meniscus and lying between 70% and 80% in the pathology of ligaments and cartilage lesions. The prospects of development are highest for MRI, the remaining techniques, however, will continue to be important as well due to the high cost of the MR examination. (P.A.)

60

The microhardness of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The standard metallurgical technique of microhardness testing was useful for investigations on the physical properties of articular cartilage. The problem of visco-elasticity of the cartilage was overcome by using a brittle lacquer coating as a memory device. The surface layer was the hardest plane when the superficial layer was intact. Removal of the superficial layer however, made this plane the softest. There was no variation in hardness with depth. The plane at right angles to the vector of movement of the joint was harder than the plane parallel to the vector of movement. This indicates the presence of a secondary fiber system in the middle layer of articular cartilage. The fibers in this system run predominantly at right angles to the direction of motion of the joint. PMID:1139832

Cameron, H U; Pillar, R M; Macnab, I

1975-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Síndromes epilépticos focales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el año 2001 el Grupo de Trabajo para la Clasificación y Terminología de la Liga Internacional contra la Epilepsia propuso un esquema diagnóstico para las personas con crisis epilépticas y epilepsia. El propósito del trabajo fue mostrar las características principales de algunos de los síndromes epilépticos focales propuestos para ser incluidos dentro de este esquema diagnóstico, el cual ha sido concebido de una forma flexible que permitirá en un futuro la inclusión de otros síndromes epilépticos. Según este nuevo esquema diagnóstico los síndromes epilépticos focales se dividen en síndromes epilépticos focales idiopáticos, síndromes epilépticos focales familiares, síndromes epilépticos focales sintomáticos o probablemente sintomáticos.In 2001, the Working Group for the Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy proposed a diagnostic scheme for those persons with epileptic seizures or with epilepsy. The aim of this paper is to show the main characteristics of some of the focal epileptic syndromes proposed to be included in this diagnostic scheme, which has been designed in such a flexible way that will allow the inclusion of other epileptic syndromes in a future. According to this new diagnostic scheme, the focal epileptic syndromes are divided into family focal idiopathic syndromes, symptomatic focal epileptic syndromes and symptomatic or probably symptomatic focal epileptic syndromes.

Albia J. Pozo Alonso

2004-06-01

62

CT features and clinical significance of lumbar articular facet syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the CT features and its clinical significance of lumbar articular facet syndrome. Methods: Based on CT findings and clinical data of lumbar articular facet, 51 cases with lumbar articular facet syndrome and 11 normal young adults were analyzed and compared retrospectively. Results: The CT findings of lumbar articular facet syndrome were: (1)hyperostosis and hypertrophy of articular process; (2)the narrowing space of inter-articular facet; (3)vacuum sign in articular facet; (4)coarse and osteosclerosis of articular facet; (5)partial dislocation of articular facet; (6)calcification in peri-articular facet; (7)complications including disc bulge, discprotrusion, vacuum sign in disc, hypertrophy and calcification of ligamentum flavum. Conclusion: CT features of lumbar articular facet syndrome are multifarious, which should be analyzed in all respects. . (authors)

63

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

64

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

2010-01-15

65

Value of magnetic resonance imaging in early assessment of proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD).  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) is a developmental defect of the proximal femur and acetabulum. PFFD includes a spectrum of findings ranging from mild femoral shortening with varus deformity to complete absence of both the acetabulum and the proximal femur. Most attempts to classify the severity of the abnormality are based on the radiographic findings. The most commonly used system is that of Aitken. This classification scheme is based upon the presence and location of the femoral head and neck on conventional radiography and provides an assessment of future limb function and plan treatment. Since this scheme however relies on conventional radiography for classification, it is difficult to classify a child until skeletal maturity which is often delayed in children with PFFD. Nevertheless, the earlier patients can be treated, the earlier normal growth can start. This case report illustrates the value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in addition to the standard radiographs, for early and more accurate assessment of the articular cartilaginous anatomy and soft tissue prior to ossification of the femoral capital epiphysis. As a consequence, the patient could be treated earlier to benefit treatment outcome. PMID:17274592

Bernaerts, A; Pouillon, M; De Ridder, K; Vanhoenacker, F

2006-01-01

66

Current status of imaging of articular cartilage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various imaging methods have been applied to assessment of articular cartilage. These include standard radiography, arthrography, CT, CT arthrography, ultrasonography, and MR imaging. Radiography remains the initial musculoskeletal imaging method. However, it is insensitive to early stages of cartilage abnormalities. MR imaging has great potential in the assessment of articular cartilage, although high-quality scans are required because imaging signs of cartilage abnormalities may be subtle. The potential and limitations of various sequences and techniques are discussed, including MR arthrography. The role of the other imaging methods in assessment of articular cartilage appears to be limited. (orig.). With 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Hodler, J. [Radiology, Balgrist Clinic, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

67

Focal plane beam multiplexing  

Science.gov (United States)

The technique of focal plane arrays might find a novel application in the field of short-haul free-space optical communications. This application consists of spatially multiplexing several streams of digital information so that they can be transmitted simultaneously over a single link. Such parallel transmission could, in some situations, advantageously replace the commonly used serial mode. This paper reports the results of a preliminary experimental investigation of such a focal plane array scheme. The limitations of focal plane beam multiplexing and the trade-offs between the number of channels and range are briefly discussed.

Chaimowicz, J. C.; Cole, R. S.; O'Neilly, H.

68

MRI of articular cartilaginous lesions. MRI findings in osteoarthritis of the knee joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for imaging of the knee joint, especially for detecting articular cartilaginous lesions associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 141 patients with osteoarthritis were examined (23 males, 118 females). Their age range was 40-93 (mean age 66.2). Using radiotherapy examinations, patients were classified according to Hokkaido University Classification Criteria; 22, 49, 46, 16, and 8 patients were classified as Type I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Articular cartilage defects were examined using MRI, and the number of such defects increased as the X-ray stage progressed. The appearance of a low signal intensity area in the bone marrow was examined using MRI, and the number of patients observed to have such areas increased as the x-ray stages progressed. JOA OA scores were significantly low for patients with meniscal tears. Patients were classified and results reviewed using MRI examinations. Classification by MRI of articular cartilage lesions correlated with the JOA OA scores. Low signal intensity areas in the bone marrow were frequently observed in advanced osteoarthritis cases, and there was correlation between FTA and MRI classifications of these areas. MRI is extremely valuable in detecting articular cartilage lesions in the knee joint, showing those lesions which cannot be detected by conventional radiography examinations. Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically us Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically useful method for diagnosis of osteoarthritis. (author)

69

Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

2014-01-01

70

Articular nodular fasciitis in the glenohumeral joint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a case of multiple intra-articular masses in the glenohumeral joint of a 15-year-old patient. The patient was treated with arthroscopic excision of the masses and synovectomy. Histological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with those of a nodular fasciitis. Follow-up examination did not reveal recurrence at 6 months. In this article we report the first case of articular nodular fasciitis in the glenohumeral joint with unusual imaging findings. (orig.)

Laedermann, A.; Ceroni, D.; Hoffmeyer, P.; Kaelin, A. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland); Kindynis, P. [Department of Radiology at the Clinique Generale-Beaulieu, Geneva (Switzerland); Taylor, S. [Laboratoire Viollier-Weintraub, Geneva (Switzerland); Resnick, D. [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

2008-07-15

71

Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

A. Hari Reddi

2012-11-01

72

Articular cartilage: structure and regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage (AC) has no or very low ability of self-repair, and untreated lesions may lead to the development of osteoarthritis. One method that has been proven to result in long-term repair or isolated lesions is autologous chondrocyte transplantation. However, first generation of these cells' implantation has limitations, and introducing new effective cell sources can improve cartilage repair. AC provides a resilient and compliant articulating surface to the bones in diarthrodial joints. It protects the joint by distributing loads applied to it, so preventing potentially damaging stress concentrations on the bone. At the same time it provides a low-friction-bearing surface to enable free movement of the joint. AC may be considered as a visco- or poro-elastic fiber-composite material. Fibrils of predominantly type II collagen provide tensile reinforcing to a highly hydrated proteoglycan gel. The tissue typically comprises 70% water and it is the structuring and retention of this water by the proteoglycans and collagen that is largely responsible for the remarkable ability of the tissue to support compressive loads. PMID:20836752

Becerra, José; Andrades, José A; Guerado, Enrique; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; López-Puertas, José M; Reddi, A Hari

2010-12-01

73

BMP Receptor Signaling Is Required for Postnatal Maintenance of Articular Cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression specifically in this tissue have not been available. Here we use regulatory information from the mouse Gdf5 gene (a bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] family member to develop new mouse lines that can be used to either activate or inactivate genes specifically in developing joints. Expression of Cre recombinase from Gdf5 bacterial artificial chromosome clones leads to specific activation or inactivation of floxed target genes in developing joints, including early joint interzones, adult articular cartilage, and the joint capsule. We have used this system to test the role of BMP receptor signaling in joint development. Mice with null mutations in Bmpr1a are known to die early in embryogenesis with multiple defects. However, combining a floxed Bmpr1a allele with the Gdf5-Cre driver bypasses this embryonic lethality, and leads to birth and postnatal development of mice missing the Bmpr1a gene in articular regions. Most joints in the body form normally in the absence of Bmpr1a receptor function. However, articular cartilage within the joints gradually wears away in receptor-deficient mice after birth in a process resembling human osteoarthritis. Gdf5-Cre mice provide a general system that can be used to test the role of genes in articular regions. BMP receptor signaling is required not only for early development and creation of multiple tissues, but also for ongoing maintenance of articular cartilage after birth. Genetic variation in the strength of BMP receptor signaling may be an important risk factor in human osteoarthritis, and treatments that mimic or augment BMP receptor signaling should be investigated as a possible therapeutic strategy for maintaining the health of joint linings.

Rountree Ryan B

2004-01-01

74

Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of 35S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate

75

Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of {sup 35}S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate.

Leipold, H.R.

1989-01-01

76

Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos / Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica [...] e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%), Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13%) e Escherichia coli (12,68%) os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%). Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45%) e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%). Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69%) de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação. Abstract in english In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%), nursery (44.35%) and growing-finishing (25.22%) phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs) for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total o [...] f 57 (49.5%) samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13%) and Escherichia coli (12.68%), and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%). In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45%) and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%). Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%). Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

Ana Carolina S., Faria; João X. de, Oliveira Filho; Daphine A.J. de, Paula; Laila Natasha S., Brandão; Danny Franciele S., Dias; Luciano, Nakazato; Valéria, Dutra.

77

Progress in intra-articular therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diarthrodial joints are well suited to intra-articular injection, and the local delivery of therapeutics in this fashion brings several potential advantages to the treatment of a wide range of arthropathies. Possible benefits over systemic delivery include increased bioavailability, reduced systemic exposure, fewer adverse events, and lower total drug costs. Nevertheless, intra-articular therapy is challenging because of the rapid egress of injected materials from the joint space; this elimination is true of both small molecules, which exit via synovial capillaries, and of macromolecules, which are cleared by the lymphatic system. In general, soluble materials have an intra-articular dwell time measured only in hours. Corticosteroids and hyaluronate preparations constitute the mainstay of FDA-approved intra-articular therapeutics. Recombinant proteins, autologous blood products and analgesics have also found clinical use via intra-articular delivery. Several alternative approaches, such as local delivery of cell and gene therapy, as well as the use of microparticles, liposomes, and modified drugs, are in various stages of preclinical development. PMID:24189839

Evans, Christopher H; Kraus, Virginia B; Setton, Lori A

2014-01-01

78

Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The medical literature was reviewed from 1968-2002 using Medline and the key words "intra-articular" and "osteoarthritis" to determine the various intra-articular therapies used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most frequently used intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis. Other intra-articular substances such as orgotein, radiation synovectomy, dextrose prolotherapy, silicone, saline lavage, saline injection without lavage, analgesic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucosamine, somatostatin, sodium pentosan polysulfate, chloroquine, mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester, lactic acid solution, and thiotepa cytostatica have been investigated as potentially therapeutic in the treatment of arthritic joints. Despite the lack of strong, convincing, and reproducible evidence that any of the intra-articular therapies significantly alters the progression of osteoarthritis, corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are widely used in patients who have failed other therapeutic modalities for lack of efficacy or toxicity. As a practical approach for a knee with effusion, steroid injections should be considered while the presence of symptomatic "dry" knees may favour the hyaluronic acid approach. The virtual absence of serious side effects, coupled with the perceived benefits, make these approaches attractive. PMID:12954956

Uthman, I; Raynauld, J-P; Haraoui, B

2003-08-01

79

Cutaneous focal mucinosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 26-year-old male presented with asymptomatic, flesh coloured nodules on right elbow, forehead and right retroauricular region. A skin biopsy form the nodule stained with hematoxylin and eosin and special stain (mucicarmine showed focal deposition of mucin in the dermis.

Gandhi Vijay

1996-01-01

80

The SCORPIO focal reducer  

CERN Document Server

We describe the SCORPIO focal reducer that has been used since the fall of 2000 for observations on the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope. We give parameters of the instrument in various observing modes (direct images, long-slit and multislit spectroscopy, spectropolarimetry, Fabry-Perot panoramic spectroscopy). Observations of various astronomical objects are used as examples to demonstrate the SCORPIO capabilities.

Afanasiev, V L

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Reversible focal splenial lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

Gallucci, Massimo; Limbucci, Nicola [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, S. Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy); Paonessa, Amalia [Loreto Nuovo Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Napoli (Italy); Caranci, Ferdinando [Federico II University, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

2007-07-15

82

Reversible focal splenial lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypoal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

83

Articular cartilage lesions of the knee. MRI of tibial condylar fractures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lesions of the articular cartilage are rarely observed in convensional radiography and CT, and may be one of the most important prognostic factors in assessing traumatic or degenerative disorders at the knee joints. To discuss the usefulness of MRI for detecting cartilage lesions, knees with tibial condylar fractures were examined with MRI. 47 patients with tibial condylar fractures were reviewed 4 months to 15 years (average of 4 years) after the fractures. Good to excellent results were obtained in 91.5% of them. It is known that anatomical reduction of conventional radiography is not consistent with the clinical outcome, because radiography can show the changes of bones only. However, the results of MRI examinations are consistent with the clinical outcome, because they can directly show the state of the articular surface, such as defects of cartilage in the joint. In my study, no abnormality of well repaired joint surfaces employing MRI were observed in the patients with excellent or good results, and various degrees of cartilage lesions were detected using MRI in the other patients. MRI is a useful method for noninvasively determining the integrity of articular cartilage, detecting cartilage lesions and degenerative disorders of tibial condyle, and also may be useful in studying and following the natural aging process in osteoarthritis following intra-articular fractures. (author) 52 refs.

Nozaki, Hiroyuki [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

1995-01-01

84

Articular cartilage lesions of the knee. MRI of tibial condylar fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lesions of the articular cartilage are rarely observed in convensional radiography and CT, and may be one of the most important prognostic factors in assessing traumatic or degenerative disorders at the knee joints. To discuss the usefulness of MRI for detecting cartilage lesions, knees with tibial condylar fractures were examined with MRI. 47 patients with tibial condylar fractures were reviewed 4 months to 15 years (average of 4 years) after the fractures. Good to excellent results were obtained in 91.5% of them. It is known that anatomical reduction of conventional radiography is not consistent with the clinical outcome, because radiography can show the changes of bones only. However, the results of MRI examinations are consistent with the clinical outcome, because they can directly show the state of the articular surface, such as defects of cartilage in the joint. In my study, no abnormality of well repaired joint surfaces employing MRI were observed in the patients with excellent or good results, and various degrees of cartilage lesions were detected using MRI in the other patients. MRI is a useful method for noninvasively determining the integrity of articular cartilage, detecting cartilage lesions and degenerative disorders of tibial condyle, and also may be useful in studying and following the natural aging process in osteoarthritis following intra-articular fractures. (author) 52 refs

85

Childhood Focal Epilepsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done in order to obtain a baseline profile of childhood focal epilepsies Patient and methods: Subjects included in this study were children suffering from focal epilepsy with age above 2 y. They were attending pediatric neurology clinic in Queen Rania Hospital for children in Jordan . The study included 112 children with ages ranging from 2-14 years. The following data were obtained: age, sex, detailed of seizures type, age at first unprovoked seizure, family history of seizure disorders, history and type of febrile seizures, etiological factors, socioeconomic class, history of consanguinity, additional neuro -impairment, Electroencephalography and brain imaging finding and the use of antiepileptic drugs, the results were recorded for further study. Results: A total of 112 consecutive cases of focal epilepsy were enrolled , 59 were male. The commonest partial seizure recorded was simple partial type 52 (46.4% while simple partial with secondary generalization had 17 (16.9% and complex partial seizure formed 36.8 %. , In partial onset seizures the peak age was between 11-14 years and complex partial seizures plateau was seen between ages 6-10 years. Twenty six (23.2% patients reported a family history of epilepsy, 91% of low socioeconomic class .11.5 % of cases have history of febrile seizures, idiopathic epilepsy was 53.5 % . In most of epileptic patients have accessory neurological impairment, the most common were learning difficulties Electroencephalography was normal in 20.4 %, mono-therapy was used in 68.8 % Conclusion: the pattern of focal epilepsies in our country do not differ from that of developed countries, further population ­based epidemiological research is indicated to confirm the prevalence of seizure disorders in this locality

Wael hayel khreisat

2011-04-01

86

Proximal focal femoral deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is applied to a spectrum of conditions characterized by partial absence and shortening of the proximal femora and thought to result from an early disturbance of growing mesenchyme. The mildest cases, Classes A and B, exhibit a relatively normal acetabulum and capital femoral epiphysis, despite the dysplastic shaft. There may be a subtrochanteric varus deformity or a pseudoarthrosis accompanying the shortening of the femoral shaft. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the most severely deformed cases, Classes C and D, have involvement of the acetabulum, and the entire proximal femur. In cases of advanced dysgenesis, the findings include: a stunted severely shortened femur with a club-shaped or pointed proximal end, an iliac projection just above the anatomic site of the acetabulum, a spherical obturator foramen, and squaring of the iliac crest. Twenty-one patients (2 bilateral) with proximal focal femoral deficiency are presented (23 femurs). Differentiation of proximal focal femoral deficiency from other congenital and acquired deformities of the hip joint is essential for selecting the proper treatment. PMID:96119

Goldman, A B; Schneider, R; Wilson, P D

1978-06-01

87

Stem cells for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage injuries are one of the most common disorders in the musculo-skeletal system. Injured cartilage tissue cannot spontaneously heal and, if not treated, can lead to osteoarthritis of the affected joints. Although a variety of procedures are being employed to repair cartilage damage, methods that result in consistent durable repair tissue are not yet available. Tissue engineering is a recently developed science that merges the fields of cell biology, engineering, material science, and surgery to regenerate new functional tissue. Three critical components in tissue engineering of cartilage are as follows: first, sufficient cell numbers within the defect, such as chondrocytes or multipotent stem cells capable of differentiating into chondrocytes; second, access to growth and differentiation factors that modulate these cells to differentiate through the chondrogenic lineage; third, a cell carrier or matrix that fills the defect, delivers the appropriate cells, and supports cell proliferation and differentiation. Stem cells that exist in the embyro or in adult somatic tissues are able to renew themselves through cell division without changing their phenotype and are able to differentiate into multiple lineages including the chondrogenic lineage under certain physiological or experimental conditions. Here the application of stem cells as a cell source for cartilage tissue engineering is reviewed. PMID:17822146

Gao, J; Yao, J Q; Caplan, A I

2007-07-01

88

[Chondrocalcinosis. Clinical impact of intra-articular calcium phosphate crystals].  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are known to cause acute attacks of pseudogout in joints but crystal deposition has also been reported to be associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Aside from CPPD crystals, basic calcium phosphates (BCPs), consisting of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, have been found in synovial fluid, synovium and cartilage of patients with OA. Although CPPD crystals have been found to be associated with OA and are an important factor in joint disease, this has also recently been associated with a genetic defect. However, according to the most recent findings, the association of BCP crystals, such as apatite with OA is much stronger, as their presence significantly correlates with the severity of cartilage degeneration. Identification of BCP crystals in OA joints remains problematic due to a lack of simple and reliable methods of detection. The clinical and pathological relevance of cartilage mineralization in patients with OA is not completely understood. It is well established that mineralization of articular cartilage is often found close to hypertrophic chondrocytes. A significant correlation between the expression of type X collagen, a marker for chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage mineralization was observed. In the process of endochondral ossification, the link between hypertrophy and matrix mineralization is particularly well described. Hypertrophic chondrocytes in OA cartilage and at the growth line share certain features, not only hypertrophy but also a capability to mineralize the matrix. Recent data indicate that chondrocyte hypertrophy is a key factor in articular cartilage mineralization strongly linked to OA and does not characterize a specific subset of OA patients, which has important consequences for therapeutic strategies for OA. PMID:24924727

Fuerst, M

2014-06-01

89

Localization of viscous behavior and shear energy dissipation in articular cartilage under dynamic shear loading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though remarkably robust, articular cartilage becomes susceptible to damage at high loading rates, particularly under shear. While several studies have measured the local static and steady-state shear properties of cartilage, it is the local viscoelastic properties that determine the tissue's ability to withstand physiological loading regimens. However, measuring local viscoelastic properties requires overcoming technical challenges that include resolving strain fields in both space and time and accurately calculating their phase offsets. This study combined recently developed high-speed confocal imaging techniques with three approaches for analyzing time- and location-dependent mechanical data to measure the depth-dependent dynamic modulus and phase angles of articular cartilage. For sinusoidal shear at frequencies f = 0.01 to 1 Hz with no strain offset, the dynamic shear modulus |G*| and phase angle ? reached their minimum and maximum values (respectively) approximately 100 ?m below the articular surface, resulting in a profound focusing of energy dissipation in this narrow band of tissue that increased with frequency. This region, known as the transitional zone, was previously thought to simply connect surface and deeper tissue regions. Within 250 ?m of the articular surface, |G*| increased from 0.32 ± 0.08 to 0.42 ± 0.08 MPa across the five frequencies tested, while ? decreased from 12 deg ± 1 deg to 9.1 deg ± 0.5 deg. Deeper into the tissue, |G*| increased from 1.5 ± 0.4 MPa to 2.1 ± 0.6 MPa and ? decreased from 13 deg ± 1 deg to 5.5 deg ± 0.2 deg. Viscoelastic properties were also strain-dependent, with localized energy dissipation suppressed at higher shear strain offsets. These results suggest a critical role for the transitional zone in dissipating energy, representing a possible shift in our understanding of cartilage mechanical function. Further, they give insight into how focal degeneration and mechanical trauma could lead to sustained damage in this tissue. PMID:24231813

Buckley, Mark R; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cohen, Itai

2013-03-01

90

Malignant focal liver lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal liver lesions are a very common occurrence. The detection and differentiation of such lesions is particularly important for the management of oncology patients and is a core task for radiology. The early and conclusive detection of malignant liver processes in a cost-efficient manner and with a low radiation dose for the patient requires systematic and skillful use of the various radiological methods. This review explains the application of current radiological methods for the detection and differentiation of malignant liver lesions and the typical appearance of the most commonly found liver malignancies. (orig.)

91

Endoscopic focal modulation microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present endoscopic focal modulation microscopy (FMM) for minimally invasive imaging of deep tissue with high contrast, and then compare the results using endoscopic confocal microscopy (CM). Deep tissue imaging is achieved using a needle-like endoscopic probe based on gradient-index (GRIN) lenses. A tissue-like phantom with fluorescent micro-beads and rat kidney tubules were imaged through the endoscopic probe with FMM. FMM effectively rejected the background signals from the out-of-focus plane, thereby enhancing the image contrast and the optical sectioning ability. The combination of the GRIN endoscopic probe and FMM provides deep tissue imaging with better contrast than endoscopic CM. PMID:23488978

Ahn, J; Yoo, H; Gweon, D-G

2013-05-01

92

Focal nodular hyperplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the diagnostic value of MR imaging in a surgical series of focal nodular hyperplasia and to compare the signal intensity of the scar on MR imaging with histopathologic findings. During the past 3 years, 30 patients underwent liver resection for focal nodular hyperplasia. All patients underwent preoperative MR imaging examination with T1- and T2-weighted sequences. The MR findings of the scar (size, signal intensity) were correlated with the macroscopic and histopathologic results (fibrosis, edema, vessels, inflammation). Surgery disclosed 40 tumors in 30 patients (multiple in 7 cases). MR imaging failed to depict 6 tumors of 2 cm in diameter. Correct diagnosis was made in 12 of the 34 tumors seen with MR imaging (35%). In the other cases, there were atypical features, no scar, hypointense scar on T2-weighted sequences, and peritumoral halo. Macroscopic evaluation off the scar (presence, size) correlated well with the MR imaging findings. Furthermore, in 13 of the 16 hyperintense scars on T2-weighted sequences, microscopic examination revealed predominant edema and vessels. In 4 of the 6 hypointense scars on T2-weighted sequences, microscopic examination revealed a low content of edema and vessels

93

Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia syndromes. Here we review what is known of the collagen assembly and present new evidence that collagen type III becomes covalently added to the polymeric fabric of adult human articular cartilage, perhaps as part of a matrix repair or remodelling process.

D R Eyre

2006-11-01

94

Polydispersity of human articular cartilage proteoglycan antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were undertaken to define more fully the antigenic properties of human articular cartilage proteoglycans, in anticipation of its potential contribution to alterations arising in diseased states and following cartilage transplantation. Proteoglycans, extracted from normal, adult articular cartilage by dissociative measures, were subjected to purification by cesium density gradient ultracentrifugation, under conditions facilitating both molecular aggregation and dissociation. A polydisperse population of reactive determinants was observed in immunodiffusion and hemagglutination inhibition systems, employing proteoglycan specific antisera on gradient fractions. Highly aggregated proteoglycan species appeared to contain potentially masked antigenic determinants, which were revealed after guanidine dissociation but not hyaluronidase digestion. Polyacrilamide disc gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate, in conjunction with disc elution experiments, confirmed proteoglycan antigenic polydispersity. PMID:66314

Herman, J H; Dennis, M V

1976-12-01

95

Polarized IR microscopic imaging of articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this spectroscopic imaging study is to understand the anisotropic behavior of articular cartilage under polarized infrared radiation at 6.25 ?m pixel resolution. Paraffin embedded canine humeral cartilage-bone blocks were used to obtain 6 ?m thick tissue sections. Two wire grid polarizers were used to manipulate the polarization states of IR radiation by setting them for various polarizer/analyzer angles. The characteristics of the major chemical components (amide I, amide II, amide III and sugar) of articular cartilage were investigated using (a) a polarizer and (b) a combination of a polarizer and an analyzer. These results were compared to those obtained using only an analyzer. The infrared anisotropy (variation in infrared absorption as a function of polarization angles) of amide I, amide II and amide III bands correlates with the orientation of collagen fibrils along the tissue depth in different histological zones. An 'anisotropic flipping' region of amide profiles indicates the possibility of using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to determine the histological zones in cartilage. Cross-polarization experiment indicates the resolution of overlapping peaks of collagen triple helix and/or proteoglycan in articular cartilage

96

Polarized IR microscopic imaging of articular cartilage  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this spectroscopic imaging study is to understand the anisotropic behavior of articular cartilage under polarized infrared radiation at 6.25 µm pixel resolution. Paraffin embedded canine humeral cartilage-bone blocks were used to obtain 6 µm thick tissue sections. Two wire grid polarizers were used to manipulate the polarization states of IR radiation by setting them for various polarizer/analyzer angles. The characteristics of the major chemical components (amide I, amide II, amide III and sugar) of articular cartilage were investigated using (a) a polarizer and (b) a combination of a polarizer and an analyzer. These results were compared to those obtained using only an analyzer. The infrared anisotropy (variation in infrared absorption as a function of polarization angles) of amide I, amide II and amide III bands correlates with the orientation of collagen fibrils along the tissue depth in different histological zones. An 'anisotropic flipping' region of amide profiles indicates the possibility of using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to determine the histological zones in cartilage. Cross-polarization experiment indicates the resolution of overlapping peaks of collagen triple helix and/or proteoglycan in articular cartilage.

Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Xia, Yang; Bidthanapally, Aruna

2007-08-01

97

Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported fo...

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

2013-01-01

98

Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contrast arthrography orMagnetic Resonance Imaging is indicated when radiological features are questionable and to disclose thepresence and location of the femoral head and any cartilagenous anlage. The disorder is more commonlyunilateral and is apparent at birth. However, bilateral involvement is rarely seen. Therapy of the disorder isdirected towards satisfactory ambulation and specific treatment depending on the severity of dysplasia.

Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

2008-01-01

99

Systemic focal epileptogenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

1986-01-01

100

Focal osseous dysplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal osseous dysplasia (FOD) is one of the benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jaw bones and the most commonly occuring benign fibro-osseous lesion. This entity occurs more commonly in females and has a predilection for African Americans. Radiographically, the lesion has a variable appearance depending on the duration but may appear as a radiolucent to radiopaque lesion that can be well to poorly defined. Hisotologically, when biopsied, there are fragments of bony trabeculae intermixed with fibrous stroma with incomplete stromal vasculature. The main differential diagnosis is with ossifying fibroma, which is neoplastic while FOD is considered a reactive process. Most patients with FOD may be followed clinically without surgical intervention. PMID:21744106

Potochny, Evelyn M; Huber, Aaron R

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Pediatric and adolescent intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calcaneal fractures in childhood are very rare, whereas particularly intra-articular displaced fractures are not typical in skeletally immature children. Various techniques of osteosynthesis have been described. This study aimed to determine clinical and radiological outcome after surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Fourteen intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus were included in this retrospective study. Eleven children (2 girls and 9 boys) aged 6-16 years (average...

Dominik Seybold; Jan Geßmann; Christiane Kruppa; Marcel Dudda; Schildhauer, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

102

Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA, a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE. Over the past two decades, different designs and fabrication techniques have been investigated for developing TE scaffolds suitable for the construction of transplantable artificial cartilage tissue substitutes. Advances in fabrication technologies now enable the strategic design of scaffolds with complex, biomimetic structures and properties. In particular, scaffolds with hybrid and/or biomimetic zonal designs have recently been developed for cartilage tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews critical aspects of the design of engineered scaffolds for articular cartilage repair as well as the available advanced fabrication techniques. In addition, recent studies on the design of hybrid and zonal scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue repair are highlighted.

Xiongbiao Chen

2012-11-01

103

Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts  

CERN Document Server

Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75 to +75 degrees, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalog. In the new forecasts we've improved the spatial resolution to 0.1 degree and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each grid point. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method ...

Kagan, Yan Y

2013-01-01

104

Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. PMID:23827606

Stenhamre, Hanna; Thorvaldsson, Anna; Enochson, Lars; Walkenström, Pernilla; Lindahl, Anders; Brittberg, Mats; Gatenholm, Paul

2013-04-01

105

Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue corticosteroid injection. Methods A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were examined. We divided the reported adverse events into major (defined as those needing intervention or not disappearing and minor ones (transient, not requiring intervention. Results The search yielded 87 relevant studies:44 case reports, 37 prospective studies and 6 retrospective studies. The major adverse events included osteomyelitis and protothecosis; one fatal necrotizing fasciitis; cellulitis and ecchymosis; tendon ruptures; atrophy of the plantar fat was described after injecting a neuroma; and local skin effects appeared as atrophy, hypopigmentation or as skin defect. The minor adverse events effects ranged from skin rash to flushing and disturbed menstrual pattern. Increased pain or steroid flare after injection was reported in 19 studies. After extra-articular injection, the incidence of major adverse events ranged from 0-5.8% and that of minor adverse events from 0-81%. It was not feasible to pool the risk for adverse effects due to heterogeneity of study populations and difference in interventions and variance in reporting. Conclusion In this literature review it was difficult to accurately quantify the incidence of adverse effects after extra-articular corticosteroid injection. The reported adverse events were relatively mild, although one fatal reaction was reported.

Brinks Aaltien

2010-09-01

106

Fundamental study on articular disc with magnetic resonance imagings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to establish criteria of reading MRI of the temporomandibular joint, a morphological comparison between MRI and the section, and an observation of the articular disc associated with the opening were made. Five temporomandibular joints isolated from 3 human cadavers were subjected to MRI, and sections were prepared to examine criteria of reading MRI. In 20 male adults, 40 temporomandibular joints underwent MRI in three conditions of the intercuspal position, 10 and 20 mm opening positions, and the kinetics of the articular disc were examined. External feature of the head of mandible and that of the articular fossa, the articular tubercule and the postglenoid process were outlined in a row of blacks. The articular disc was outlined in a row of dark ashen areas of the anterior band, the intermediate region, and the posterior band. In the intercuspal position, the head of mandible was rarely covered with the articular disc, and being situated postero-inferiorly, at the most rear point of the posterior band of the articular disc. In the 10 mm-opening position, the head of mandible was practically covered with the articular disc. In the 20 mm-opening position, the intermediate region of the articular disc, and the head of mandible were situated in an approximate position. Quantitative movement of the articular disc was slower than that of the head of mandible. Comparison of various points of the articular disc revealed that movements of the anterior and posterior b movements of the anterior and posterior band varied almost proportionally to the opening distance, but with lesser movement of the intermediate region. (author)

107

Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

Yuan-cheng LI

2013-05-01

108

Repair of osteochondral defects with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants on healing of osteochondral defects. Rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer, then seeded onto biodegradable, three-dimensional polyglycolic acid meshes. Cartilage constructs were cultured hydrodynamically to yield tissue with relatively more (mature) or less (immature) hyalinelike cartilage, as compared with adult rabbit articular cartilage. Osteochondral defects in the patellar grooves of both stifle joints either were left untreated or implanted with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage. Histologic samples from in and around the defect sites were examined 3, 6, 9, and 12, and 24 months after surgery. By 9 months after surgery, defects sites treated with cartilage implants contained significantly greater amounts of hyalinelike cartilage with high levels of proteoglycan, and had a smooth, nonfibrillated articular surface as compared to untreated defects. In contrast, the repair tissue formed in untreated defects had fibrillated articular surfaces, significant amounts of fibrocartilage, and negligible proteoglycan. These differences between treated and untreated defects persisted through 24 months after surgery. The results of this study suggest that the treatment of osteochondral lesions with allogenic tissue engineered cartilage implants may lead to superior repair tissue than that found in untreated osteochondral lesions. PMID:10546661

Schreiber, R E; Ilten-Kirby, B M; Dunkelman, N S; Symons, K T; Rekettye, L M; Willoughby, J; Ratcliffe, A

1999-10-01

109

Focal cortical atrophy syndromes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The topography of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its effects on language, perception, and praxis are briefly reviewed as background to the focal cortical atrophy syndromes, including primary progressive aphasia (PPA), posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Simplistically speaking, there are two main pathological and neuroimaging phenotypes associated with these syndromes. One is frontotemporal degeneration (FTD), a nonspecific spongiform degeneration, with gliosis and neuronal loss, sometimes with Pick cells and bodies, which is usually selective for frontal and anterior temporal cortex. The other is Alzheimer's disease, in which amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles initially develop in the hippocampal region, and spread to the lateral temporal and parietal neocortex and then to the frontal cortex. In the case of PPA, left perisylvian dysfunction is usually evident at presentation clinically and on neuroimaging. Nonfluent progressive aphasia tends to progress anteriorly and is usually associated with FTD. In fluent progressive aphasia, the pathology may progress anteriorly due to FTD or posteriorly, reflecting AD. In PCA, the visual association cortex is targeted bilaterally, often more so on the right, and the pathology is usually indicative of AD. CBD is an asymmetric akinetic-rigid syndrome associated with apraxia, in which swollen achromatic neurons are present in the frontoparietal cortex and substantia nigra on light microscopy, suggesting to some that it may fall within the spectrum of FTD and Pick's disease. The application of new molecular biological techniques, however, suggest that CBD, FTD, and Pick's Disease may be pathologically distinct. The clinico-pathological features of each syndrome are reviewed and compared to those typical for AD, and single photon emission computerized tomography scans representative for each are illustrated. PMID:8811996

Black, S E

1996-07-01

110

Genetics Home Reference: Focal palmoplantar keratoderma  

Science.gov (United States)

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Focal palmoplantar keratoderma On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed August 2012 What is focal palmoplantar keratoderma? Focal palmoplantar keratoderma is a skin condition characterized ...

111

Osteo - articular diseases as comorbidity in non - orthopaedic surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteo-articular diseases have significant presence among general population. Osteo-articular disorders can be caused by disease or by trauma. There are many osteo-articular diseases which have influence on general state of the organysm and on other present diseases in a various level. The influence appears by increasing risk of main disease complications, limited movement complicates postoperative treatment of main disease and medicament therapy of osteo-articular disease sometimes modifies perioperative therapy of main disease. Trauma as comorbidity needs urgent care and, in the same time, it is a huge complication for the injured’s condition. Osteoarticular trauma healing usually lasts several weeks, so it prolongs the healing of intercurrent surgical disease. Osteo-articular changes as comorbidity during the acute surgical disease healing need proper preoperative preparing, With the aim to minimise perioperative morbidity and mortality.

Vu?eti? ?edomir

2011-01-01

112

Proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 1-year-old child with proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) is presented. The clinical spectrum and associated abnormalities is described and the diagnosis and management of this entity is discussed. PMID:10773937

Shetty, A K; Khubchandani, R P

1998-01-01

113

Focal Rigidity of Flat Tori  

CERN Document Server

Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g), there is a partition \\Sigma_i of its tangent bundle TM called the focal decomposition. The sets \\Sigma_i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g), i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that the flat n-tori are focally rigid, in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent, then the tori are isometric up to rescaling.

Kwakkel, Ferry; Peixoto, Mauricio

2011-01-01

114

Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

115

MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Juxta-articular venous malformations (VMs) are uncommon, but may cause early arthropathy of the knee in children and adolescents. We sought to describe the prevalence, extent and initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee arthropathy in children with VM adjacent to the knee joint. Thirty-five patients with VM adjacent to the knee who had MRI performed between 2000 and 2009 were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system. VM extended to the joint in 17 of the 35 patients (5.4-21.5 years, mean 11.8 years). Most of these 17 patients had joint changes (15/17, 88%), most commonly haemosiderin deposition (14/17, 82%). Other findings included the presence of subchondral bone lesions (eight, 47%), cartilage loss (six, 35%), synovial thickening (six, 35%), marrow oedema (six, 35%), joint effusion (five, 29%), subchondral cysts (five, 29%) and one loose body (6%). VM location and size did not correlate with the degree of articular involvement. Joint changes were present in focal as well as non-discrete VM. We found that the frequency of arthropathy increased with extension of VM into the joint itself. This finding stresses the importance of early MRI evaluation of all juxta-articular VM. (orig.)

116

EVALUACIÓN DEL CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR CON RESONANCIA MAGNÉTICA ASSESSMENT OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las lesiones del cartílago articular son frecuentes y su diagnóstico por imagen cada día más importante. La resonancia magnética es el método de diagnóstico por imagen de elección para la evaluación de lesiones condrales. Este artículo revisa la utilidad de este método, en relación a estudios convencionales así como también estudios avanzados, cuantitativos, que permiten evaluar alteraciones condrales iniciales antes de ser evidentes en secuencias habituales de resonancia magnética.Articular cartilage injuries is a common event and imaging technique has become increasingly important in diagnosing them. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging method of choice forthe evaluation of chondral lesions. This article reviews the usef ulness of this method compared to conventional as well as to advanced quantitative studies, thus enabling evaluation of initial cartilage alterations before being evident in normal MRI sequences.

Gonzalo Delgado P

2009-01-01

117

EVALUACIÓN DEL CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR CON RESONANCIA MAGNÉTICA / ASSESSMENT OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las lesiones del cartílago articular son frecuentes y su diagnóstico por imagen cada día más importante. La resonancia magnética es el método de diagnóstico por imagen de elección para la evaluación de lesiones condrales. Este artículo revisa la utilidad de este método, en relación a estudios conven [...] cionales así como también estudios avanzados, cuantitativos, que permiten evaluar alteraciones condrales iniciales antes de ser evidentes en secuencias habituales de resonancia magnética. Abstract in english Articular cartilage injuries is a common event and imaging technique has become increasingly important in diagnosing them. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the imaging method of choice forthe evaluation of chondral lesions. This article reviews the usef ulness of this method compared to conventio [...] nal as well as to advanced quantitative studies, thus enabling evaluation of initial cartilage alterations before being evident in normal MRI sequences.

Gonzalo, Delgado P.

118

Hot spot liver scan in focal nodular hyperplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In scintigraphy of the liver with radiocolloid, space-occupying lesions generally are visualized as regions of decreased accumulation of radioactivity. Rarely focal areas of increased activity are depicted; most are related to altered vascular dynamics in the liver secondary to obstruction of the superior or inferior vena cava or the hepatic veins. There are reports of single cases of focally increased activity due to a hepatic hemangioma, hepatic venoocclusive disease, herniation of a part of the liver, and a liver hot spot found after radiocolloid injection via a malpositioned central venous catheter in one of the hepatic vein branches. In patients with focal nodular hyperplasia, liver scans with solitary defects as well as normal patterns are found. In some cases, increased uptake of colloid in the lesion has been documented. Pasquier and Dorta reported a patient with a palpable mass in the left liver lobe with increased accumulation of radioactivity on the radiocolloid liver scan. The histologic diagnosis was hamartoma, but reviewing the description and considering the confusion in the past concerning the nomenclature, this case is suggestive of focal nodular hyperplasia. We report a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia who had increased radiocolloid uptake in the lesion. The radionuclide studies are compared with angiography, sonography, and computed tomography. An explanation for the localized increased colloid accumulation based on histologic findings is suggation based on histologic findings is suggested

119

Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares Update on infections in articular prosthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infectadas, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-p...

Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz Lima; Priscila Rosalba Domingos Oliveira

2010-01-01

120

REVISIÓN DE MODELOS CONSTITUTIVOS PARA CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR / REVIEW OF CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una revisión de varios modelos utilizados para explicar el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular. La revisión hace énfasis en modelos mecánicos ya que los modelos físico químicos desbordan el alcance del análisis de sólidos que se quiere tratar. La mayoría de los modelos revisa [...] dos retoman la idea planteada por Mow, la cual plantea que este tipo de tejidos puede ser modelado como un material bifásico, en donde cada fase tiene sus características específicas y la interacción entre ellas brinda las propiedades mecánicas del tejido como un global. El planteamiento de un modelo fenomenológico para el cartílago articular es complejo debido a la naturaleza de la respuesta bajo cargas transitorias y a los fenómenos físico químicos acoplados que tienen lugar. Los modelos futuros deberán estar orientados a considerar integralmente dichas características e interacciones. Abstract in english In this article, a review of several models used to explain the mechanical behavior of the articular cartilage is presented. This review makes an emphasis on the mechanical models because the physical-chemical models are out of scope of the solid behavior analysis explained in this study. Most of th [...] e revised models retake the idea proposed by Mow which states that this type of tissues can be modeled as a biphasic material where each phase has got its specific characteristics and the interaction among these phases offers the tissue overall mechanical properties. The approach of a phenomenological model for an articular cartilage is complex due to the nature of the transitory loads answer and bonded physical-chemical phenomena. The future models will have to be oriented to consider, in an integrated way, these characteristics and interactions among them.

PEDRO J., CABALLERO; NELSON, ARZOLA.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Lesiones focales hepáticas en niños / Focal liver lesions in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones focales del hígado comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de entidades como tumores benignos y malignos, sólidos o quistes, vasculares, masas inflamatorias y metástasis, entre otras. Objetivo: reportar lesiones focales hepáticas en niños, características clínicas, estudios por im [...] ágenes y conducta terapéutica. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en la revisión de 16 historias clínicas de niños con lesiones focales hepáticas en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2007 a enero 2012. Se excluyeron los abscesos hepáticos. Resultados: El 68,75%11 eran del sexo masculino y 31,25%5 del sexo femenino; con edad promedio de 9,5 años (rango: 10 días - 14 años). Las lesiones focales benignas fueron: hemangioma 4/16 (25%), hematoma hepático 4/16 (25%), quiste hepático 3/16 (18,75%), hiperplasia nodular focal 1/16 (6,25%) adenoma 1/16 (6,25%) y las malignas: hepatocarcinoma 2/16 (12,50%) y hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6,25%). La mayoría de los pacientes (56,25%) se encontraban asintomáticos, 3/16 (18,75%) presentaron dolor abdominal, 3/16 (18,75%) masa palpable y 2/16 (12,5%) ictericia. La lesión fue identificada por ultrasonido abdominal en todos los pacientes y sólo el 56,25% (9/16) ameritaron tomografía con contraste. Al 43,75% (7/16) se les realizó marcadores tumorales y de estos el 42,85% (3/7) reportaron neoplasias. El funcionalismo hepático reportó normal en el 75% de los casos. Conclusión: El ultrasonido abdominal es el método de elección para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las lesiones focales hepáticas, mientras el origen de las mismas, guía la conducta terapéutica. Abstract in english Introduction: focal liver lesions comprise a heterogeneous group of entities such as benign and malignant, solid or cysts, vascular, inflammatory masses and metastasis among others. Objective: To report focal liver lesions in children, clinical features, imaging and therapeutic behavior. Patients an [...] d Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study based on a review of 16 case histories of children with focal liver lesions in the period from January 2007 to January 2012. Liver abscesses were excluded. Results: 68.75%11 were male and 31.25%5 females, mean age 9.5 years (range: 10 days - 14 years). Focal lesions were benign: Hemangioma 4/16 (25%), liver hematoma 4/16 (25%), hepatic cyst 3/16 (18.75%), nodular focal hyperplasia 1/16 (6.25%) and adenomas 1/16 (6.25%) and malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma 2/16 (12.50%) and hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6.25%). Most patients (56.25%) were asymptomatic, 3/16 (18.75%) had abdominal pain, 3/16 (18.75%) and palpable mass 2/16 (12.5%) jaundice. The lesion was identified by abdominal ultrasound in all patients and only 56.25% (9/16) needed tomography with contrast. To 43.75% (7/16) underwent tumor markers and of these 42.85% (3/7) reported neoplasm. Normal hepatic function reported in 75% of cases. Conclusion: An abdominal ultrasound is the method of choice for the diagnosis and management of focal liver lesions, while the origin of them, guide therapeutic conduct.

Adalis, Rossell; Dianora, Navarro; Karolina, López; Enicar, Perla; Betzabeth, Quintana; Credy, Figueredo; Andrea, Nogales; Katiuska, Belandria.

2013-06-01

122

Lesiones focales hepáticas en niños / Focal liver lesions in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones focales del hígado comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de entidades como tumores benignos y malignos, sólidos o quistes, vasculares, masas inflamatorias y metástasis, entre otras. Objetivo: reportar lesiones focales hepáticas en niños, características clínicas, estudios por im [...] ágenes y conducta terapéutica. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en la revisión de 16 historias clínicas de niños con lesiones focales hepáticas en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2007 a enero 2012. Se excluyeron los abscesos hepáticos. Resultados: El 68,75%11 eran del sexo masculino y 31,25%5 del sexo femenino; con edad promedio de 9,5 años (rango: 10 días - 14 años). Las lesiones focales benignas fueron: hemangioma 4/16 (25%), hematoma hepático 4/16 (25%), quiste hepático 3/16 (18,75%), hiperplasia nodular focal 1/16 (6,25%) adenoma 1/16 (6,25%) y las malignas: hepatocarcinoma 2/16 (12,50%) y hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6,25%). La mayoría de los pacientes (56,25%) se encontraban asintomáticos, 3/16 (18,75%) presentaron dolor abdominal, 3/16 (18,75%) masa palpable y 2/16 (12,5%) ictericia. La lesión fue identificada por ultrasonido abdominal en todos los pacientes y sólo el 56,25% (9/16) ameritaron tomografía con contraste. Al 43,75% (7/16) se les realizó marcadores tumorales y de estos el 42,85% (3/7) reportaron neoplasias. El funcionalismo hepático reportó normal en el 75% de los casos. Conclusión: El ultrasonido abdominal es el método de elección para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las lesiones focales hepáticas, mientras el origen de las mismas, guía la conducta terapéutica. Abstract in english Introduction: focal liver lesions comprise a heterogeneous group of entities such as benign and malignant, solid or cysts, vascular, inflammatory masses and metastasis among others. Objective: To report focal liver lesions in children, clinical features, imaging and therapeutic behavior. Patients an [...] d Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study based on a review of 16 case histories of children with focal liver lesions in the period from January 2007 to January 2012. Liver abscesses were excluded. Results: 68.75%11 were male and 31.25%5 females, mean age 9.5 years (range: 10 days - 14 years). Focal lesions were benign: Hemangioma 4/16 (25%), liver hematoma 4/16 (25%), hepatic cyst 3/16 (18.75%), nodular focal hyperplasia 1/16 (6.25%) and adenomas 1/16 (6.25%) and malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma 2/16 (12.50%) and hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6.25%). Most patients (56.25%) were asymptomatic, 3/16 (18.75%) had abdominal pain, 3/16 (18.75%) and palpable mass 2/16 (12.5%) jaundice. The lesion was identified by abdominal ultrasound in all patients and only 56.25% (9/16) needed tomography with contrast. To 43.75% (7/16) underwent tumor markers and of these 42.85% (3/7) reported neoplasm. Normal hepatic function reported in 75% of cases. Conclusion: An abdominal ultrasound is the method of choice for the diagnosis and management of focal liver lesions, while the origin of them, guide therapeutic conduct.

Adalis, Rossell; Dianora, Navarro; Karolina, López; Enicar, Perla; Betzabeth, Quintana; Credy, Figueredo; Andrea, Nogales; Katiuska, Belandria.

123

Continuously variable focal length lens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

2013-12-17

124

Reparação de defeitos osteocondrais de cães com implante de cultura de condrócitos homólogos e membrana biossintética de celulose: avaliação clínica, ultrassonográfica e macroscópica / The repair of osteochondral defects in dogs with homologous articular chondrocytes and biosynthetic cellulose membrane: clinical, ultrasound and macroscopic evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o implante de condrócitos homólogos em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando a membrana biossintética à base de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães adultos e clinicamente sadios foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de quatro milímetros de diâme [...] tro por quatro milímetros de profundidade foram induzidos na tróclea femoral de ambos os membros. A MBC foi aplicada na base e superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados e formaram o grupo tratado (GT); e os defeitos do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, formaram o grupo controle (GC). Os animais foram avaliados clínica e ultrassonograficamente aos 30 e 60 dias. A evolução pós-operatória dos cães foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de macroscopia. Não houve diferença clínica e ultrassonográfica entre os grupos. Entretanto, à macroscopia, ocorreu maior prevalência de formação de tecido cicatricial esbranquiçado no GT. O tecido neoformado apresentou melhor qualidade associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, mas não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the repair of deep cartilaginous defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joi [...] nts and defects with four millimeters diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM was applied in the lesion's base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), the defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), the defects of the left limb were filled without cellular implant. The animals were evaluated by physical examination and ultrasound at 30 and 60 days. The postoperative follow up of the dogs was done by macroscopy with special interest in the healing process of the osteochondral defect. No clinical and ultrasonographic differences were observed in both groups. In the macroscopic evaluation higher prevalence of whitish scar tissue formation was noted in TG, but without statistical difference. The neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

L.S., Iamaguti; C.V.S., Brandão; L.S.L.S., Mota; M.G., Sereno; M.F., Almeida; C.R., Padovani.

1483-14-01

125

Defect modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

126

Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Consolidation Measurement of Articular Cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP. MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer.

Robert Mark Wellard

2014-05-01

127

Tantalum oxide nanoparticles for the imaging of articular cartilage using X-ray computed tomography: visualization of ex vivo/in vivo murine tibia and ex vivo human index finger cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis and characterization of tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) nanoparticles (NPs) as new X-ray contrast media for microcomputed tomography (?CT) imaging of articular cartilage are reported. NPs, approximately 5-10?nm in size, and possessing distinct surface charges, were synthesized using phosphonate (neutral), ammonium (cationic), and carboxylate (anionic) ligands as end functional groups. Assessment of a cartilage defect in a human cadaver distal metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint with the ammonium nanoparticles showed good visualization of damage and preferential uptake in areas surrounding the defect. Finally, an optimized nontoxic cationic NP contrast agent was evaluated in an in?vivo murine model and the cartilage was imaged. These nanoparticles represent a new type of contrast agent for imaging articular cartilage, and the results demonstrate the importance of surface charge in the design of nanoparticulate agents for targeting the surface or interior zones of articular cartilage. PMID:24981730

Freedman, Jonathan D; Lusic, Hrvoje; Snyder, Brian D; Grinstaff, Mark W

2014-08-01

128

Blends and Nanocomposite Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review provides a comprehensive assessment on polymer blends and nanocomposite systems for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. Classification of various types of blends including natural/natural, synthetic/synthetic systems, their combination and nanocomposite biomaterials are studied. Additionally, an inclusive study on their characteristics, cell responses ability to mimic tissue and regenerate damaged articular cartilage with respect to have functionality and composition needed for native tissue, are also provided.

Azadehsadat Hashemi Doulabi

2014-07-01

129

Differential gene expression associated with postnatal equine articular cartilage maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage undergoes an important maturation process from neonate to adult that is reflected by alterations in matrix protein organization and increased heterogeneity of chondrocyte morphology. In the horse, these changes are influenced by exercise during the first five months of postnatal life. Transcriptional profiling was used to evaluate changes in articular chondrocyte gene expression during postnatal growth and development. Methods Total RNA was isolated from the articular cartilage of neonatal (0–10 days and adult (4–5 years horses, subjected to one round of linear RNA amplification, and then applied to a 9,367-element equine-specific cDNA microarray. Comparisons were made with a dye-swap experimental design. Microarray results for selected genes (COL2A1, COMP, P4HA1, TGFB1, TGFBR3, TNC were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Results Fifty-six probe sets, which represent 45 gene products, were up-regulated (p Conclusion Differential expression of genes encoding matrix proteins and matrix-modifying enzymes between neonates and adults reflect a cellular maturation process in articular chondrocytes. Up-regulated transcripts in neonatal cartilage are consistent with growth and expansion of the articular surface. Expression patterns in mature articular cartilage indicate a transition from growth to homeostasis, and tissue function related to withstanding shear and weight-bearing stresses.

Stromberg Arnold J

2008-11-01

130

Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography provides detailed information on articular cartilage lesions in horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthroscopy enables direct inspection of the articular surface, but provides no information on deeper cartilage layers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on measurement of reflection and backscattering of light, is a diagnostic technique used in cardiovascular surgery and ophthalmology. It provides cross-sectional images at resolutions comparable to that of low-power microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine if OCT is feasible for advanced clinical assessment of lesions in equine articular cartilage during diagnostic arthroscopy. Diagnostic arthroscopy of 36 metacarpophalangeal joints was carried out ex vivo. Of these, 18 joints with varying degrees of cartilage damage were selected, wherein OCT arthroscopy was conducted using an OCT catheter (diameter 0.9 mm) inserted through standard instrument portals. Five sites of interest, occasionally supplemented with other locations where defects were encountered, were arthroscopically graded according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification system. The same sites were evaluated qualitatively (ICRS classification and morphological description of the lesions) and quantitatively (measurement of cartilage thickness) on OCT images. OCT provided high resolution images of cartilage enabling determination of cartilage thickness. Comparing ICRS grades determined by both arthroscopy and OCT revealed poor agreement. Furthermore, OCT visualised a spectrum of lesions, including cavitation, fibrillation, superficial and deep clefts, erosion, ulceration and fragmentation. In addition, with OCT the arthroscopically inaccessible area between the dorsal MC3 and P1 was reachable in some cases. Arthroscopically-guided OCT provided more detailed and quantitative information on the morphology of articular cartilage lesions than conventional arthroscopy. OCT could therefore improve the diagnostic value of arthroscopy in equine orthopaedic surgery. PMID:23810744

te Moller, N C R; Brommer, H; Liukkonen, J; Virén, T; Timonen, M; Puhakka, P H; Jurvelin, J S; van Weeren, P R; Töyräs, J

2013-09-01

131

Focal lesions of the patella  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

132

Focal lesions of the patella  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

Hedayati, B. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

2009-08-15

133

Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are cholesterolosis pseudopolyps. True neoplastic GB polyps are represented mainly by adenomas. The case of a 52-year old male patient with an adenomatous polyp of the GB with focal adenocarcinoma is presented. PMID:18717288

Ciurea, S; Matei, E; Petrisor, P; Luca, L; Boros, Mirela; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

2008-01-01

134

Cervical spinal luxation in two dogs with entrapment of the cranial articular process of C6 over the caudal articular process of C5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2 Poodles, the cranial articular process of C6 was luxated and interlocked dorsal to the caudal articular process of C5. Surgical management in each case included reduction and stabilization of the articular processes, along with limited dorsal laminectomy. One of the dogs was completely normal 4 weeks after surgery, but the other had residual neurologic deficits 11 months after injury

135

Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarosepropylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.

Tatiana Carla Tomiosso

2005-04-01

136

Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. [...] For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarosepropylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.

Tatiana Carla, Tomiosso; Laurecir, Gomes; Benedicto, de Campos Vidal; Edson Rosa, Pimentel.

137

Intra-articular plica causing ankle impingement in a young handball player: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ankle sprains are common injuries that respond well to rehabilitation. In the case of persisting symptoms, the differential diagnosis should include osteochondral defects, tendon injury, mechanical instability, and ankle impingement. In the present case report, we describe a 16-year-old male handball player who presented with persisting pain and locking in the right ankle 3 years after having sustained multiple minor inversion trauma. The clinical examination and conventional radiography showed no abnormalities. On magnetic resonance imaging, a flake fracture at the anteromedial talar dome and/or loose body was assumed. Arthroscopic examination revealed an intra-articular plica originating from an osteochondral fossa at the anteromedial tibial plafond. The plica was debrided. Retrospectively, the arthroscopic findings matched the radiographs and magnetic resonance images. The postoperative protocol consisted of early mobilization. At 6 weeks of follow-up, the patient had no pain and had returned to his sports activities. The present case report illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of ankle impingement due to a, most likely congenital, intra-articular plica arising from an osteochondral fossa at the anteromedial tibial plafond. This rare clinical condition can be diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. Arthroscopic debridement will effectively relieve the symptoms. PMID:24160722

Somorjai, Nicolaas; Jong, Bob; Draijer, W F

2013-01-01

138

Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

Muhle, Claus [Marienhospital Vechta, Department of Radiology, Vechta (Germany); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Mo Ahn, Joong [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

2008-06-15

139

Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence usistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

140

Luxación intra-articular de rótula Intra-articular dislocation of patella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se realizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones.The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

S. García-Mata

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Luxación intra-articular de rótula / Intra-articular dislocation of patella  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se re [...] alizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones. Abstract in english The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was [...] carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

S., García-Mata; A. M., Hidalgo-Ovejero.

2006-08-01

142

Doppelganger defects  

CERN Document Server

We study k-defects - topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion - and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of DBI instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub doppelgangers, that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelganger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgangers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonic...

Andrews, Melinda; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

2010-01-01

143

Calcium-stimulated insulin secretion in diffuse and focal forms of congenital hyperinsulinism  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To identify infants with hyperinsulinism caused by defects of the ?-cell adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channel complex and to distinguish focal and diffuse forms of hyperinsulinism caused by these mutations. Study design The acute insulin response to intravenous calcium stimulation (CaAIR) was determined in 9 patients <20 years with diffuse hyperinsulinism caused by defective ?-cell sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1?/?), 3 patients with focal congenital hyperinsulinism (6 weeks to 18 months), a 10-year-old with insulinoma, 5 with hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome caused by defective glutamate dehydrogenase (6 months to 28 years), 4 SUR1+/? heterozygotes with no symptoms, and 9 normal adults. Three infants with congenital focal disease, 1 with diffuse hyperinsulinism, and the child with insulinoma underwent selective pancreatic intra-arterial calcium stimulation with hepatic venous sampling. Results Children with diffuse SUR1?/? disease and infants with congenital focal hyperinsulinism responded to CaAIR, whereas the normal control group, patients with hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome, and SUR1+/? carriers did not. Selective arterial calcium stimulation of the pancreas with hepatic venous sampling revealed selective, significant step-ups in insulin secretion that correlated anatomically with the location of solitary lesions confirmed surgically in 2 of 3 infants with congenital focal disease and in the child with insulinoma. Selective arterial calcium stimulation of the pancreas with hepatic venous sampling demonstrated markedly elevated baseline insulin levels throughout the pancreas of the infant with diffuse hyperinsulinism. Conclusions The intravenous CaAIR is a safe and simple test for identifying infants with diffuse SUR1?/? hyperinsulinism or with focal congenital hyperinsulinism. Preoperative selective arterial calcium stimulation of the pancreas with hepatic venous sampling can localize focal lesions causing hyperinsulinism in children. The combination of these calcium stimulation tests may help distinguish focal lesions suitable for cure by local surgical resection. PMID:10931418

Ferry, Robert J.; Kelly, Andrea; Grimberg, Adda; Koo-McCoy, Samantha; Shapiro, Marcelle J.; Fellows, Kenneth E.; Glaser, Benjamin; Aguilar-Bryan, Lydia; Stafford, Diane E. J.; Stanley, Charles A.

2014-01-01

144

Focal plane instruments onboard SPICA  

Science.gov (United States)

The SPICA, Japanese next generation infrared space telescope with a cooled 3.5 m primary mirror, will be a quite unique observatory in the mid and far-infrared with unprecedented sensitivity and the spatial resolving power. Here we briefly describe the key scientific objectives which can be performed only with SPICA, based on its unique design concepts. We then describe the scientific requirements for the focal plane instruments, and summarize the constraints on the various resources available for the focal plane instruments, derived from the spacecraft system design. We also outline the concept of the planned focal plane instruments, and the future development plan. Within the focal-plane instrument space (2.5m diameter, 0.5m height), two major instruments are so far planned to be equipped: one is a mid-infrared instrument, consisting of a mid-infrared camera, mid-infrared spectrometers, and a midinfrared coronagraph, while the another is a far-infrared camera and spectrometer. The mid-infrared camera will consist of four channels covering 5-38 ?m with approximately 25-40 square arcminutes, while the mid-infrared spectrometer will have high-dispersion (R=30000) channels at 4-18 ?m and moderate-dispersion (R=3000) channels at 16-38 ?m. The mid-infrared coronagraph will have both imaging and spectroscopic capability at 5-27 ?m, with the contrast higher than 10-6. As for the far-infrared camera and spectrometer, a Fourier-type imaging spectrometer covering 30-210 ?m is proposed and extensively studied by the European consortium (SAFARI consortium). A far-infrared and sub-millimeter grating spectrometer instrument is also under consideration by the US SPICA team.

Matsuhara, Hideo; Kataza, Hirokazu

2008-07-01

145

Focal adhesion kinase and cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that resides at the sites of integrin clustering, known as focal adhesions. The FAK protein has a molecular mass of 125kDa and is encoded by the FAK gene located on human chromosome 8q24. Structurally, FAK consists of an amino-terminal regulatory FERM domain, a central catalytic kinase domain, two proline-rich motifs, and a carboxy-terminal focal adhesion targeting domain. FAK has been shown to be an important mediator of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell survival and cell migration, all of which are often dysfunctional in cancer cells. Our lab was the first to isolate FAK from primary human tissue and link it to the process of tumorigenesis. We analyzed FAK mRNA expression in normal, invasive and metastatic human tissues and demonstrated through Northern blot analysis that normal tissues had very low levels of FAK mRNA while primary and metastatic tumors significantly overexpressed FAK. We also demonstrated and confirmed FAK overexpression in colorectal carcinoma and liver metastases with real-time PCR. In this review we summarized immunohistochemical data of FAK expression and role in different cancer types tumors and discussed FAK inhibition therapy approaches. PMID:19224453

Golubovskaya, Vita M; Kweh, Frederick A; Cance, William G

2009-04-01

146

Focal and multifocal diabetic neuropathies / Neuropatia diabética focal e multifocal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A neuropatia diabética é a mais predominante das neuropatias nos países industrializados apresentando uma gama variável de manifestações clinicas. A maioria dos pacientes com neuropatia diabética apresenta uma forma simétrica distal que progride para um padrão fibra comprimento dependente com manife [...] stações sensitivas e autonomicas. Este tipo de neuropatia é associado com uma axonopatia distal progressiva. Os pacientes apresentam modificações tróficas nos pés, dores e distúrbios autonômicos. Menos freqüentemente os pacientes diabéticos podem desenvolver neuropatia focal e multifocal que incluem envolvimento de nervos cranianos, tronco e membros inferiores. Este padrão de neuropatia é mais freqüente em pacientes com mais de 50 anos e com longa historia de diabetes. Este tipo de neuropatia fibra-comprimento dependente não apresenta melhora, progride lentamente ou permanece estável por vários anos. As neuropatias focais que são associadas freqüentemente com vasculopatias inflamatórias nas biópsias de nervo, permanecem auto limitadas por vezes com surtos de remissão. Abstract in english Diabetic neuropathy is the most common neuropathy in industrialized countries, with a remarkable range of clinical manifestations. The vast majority of the patients with clinical diabetic neuropathy have a distal symmetrical form that progress following a fiber-length dependent pattern, with predomi [...] nant sensory and autonomic manifestations. This pattern of neuropathy is associated with a progressive distal axonopathy. Patients are exposed to trophic changes in the feet, pains and autonomic disturbances. Less often, diabetic patients may develop focal and multifocal neuropathy that includes cranial nerve involvement, limb and truncal neuropathies. This neuropathic pattern tends to occur after 50 years of age, mostly in patients with longstanding diabetes mellitus. The LDDP does not show any trend to improvement and either relentlessly progresses or remain relatively stable over years. Conversely the focal diabetic neuropathies, which are often associated with inflammatory vasculopathy on nerve biopsies, remain self limited, sometimes after a relapsing course.

Gérard, Said.

1272-12-01

147

TRIM15 is a focal adhesion protein that regulates focal adhesion disassembly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal adhesions are macromolecular complexes that connect the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Dynamic turnover of focal adhesions is crucial for cell migration. Paxillin is a multi-adaptor protein that plays an important role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics. Here, we identify TRIM15, a member of the tripartite motif protein family, as a paxillin-interacting factor and a component of focal adhesions. TRIM15 localizes to focal contacts in a myosin-II-independent manner by an interaction between its coiled-coil domain and the LD2 motif of paxillin. Unlike other focal adhesion proteins, TRIM15 is a stable focal adhesion component with restricted mobility due to its ability to form oligomers. TRIM15-depleted cells display impaired cell migration and reduced focal adhesion disassembly rates, in addition to enlarged focal adhesions. Thus, our studies demonstrate a cellular function for TRIM15 as a regulatory component of focal adhesion turnover and cell migration. PMID:25015296

Uchil, Pradeep D; Pawliczek, Tobias; Reynolds, Tracy D; Ding, Siyuan; Hinz, Angelika; Munro, James B; Huang, Fang; Floyd, Robert W; Yang, Haitao; Hamilton, William L; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Xiong, Yong; Calderwood, David A; Mothes, Walther

2014-09-15

148

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage at 3 tesla  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smooth motor function can be maintained by articular cartilage. When the cartilage is injured, edema occurs, and as degeneration progresses, the cartilage thins and the cartilage matrix decreases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows noninvasive evaluation of these changes. Fat suppression proton density- and T2-weighted imaging are useful in the morphologic evaluation of articular cartilage. High resolution, 3-tesla MR imaging provides more detailed evaluation. Biochemical information from T2 mapping, T1? mapping, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is useful for early diagnosis of cartilage injury and evaluation of cartilage repair. The role of MR imaging in evaluating articular cartilage will increase in the future aging society. (author)

149

Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares / Update on infections in articular prosthesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infecta [...] das, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-positivas são predominantes nas contaminações das próteses articulares, em especial o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus epidermidis. As infecções causadas por bacilos gram-negativos e fungos como Candida sp vêm sendo relatadas com maior frequência em todo o mundo. As infecções de próteses articulares apresentam sinais característicos que podem ser divididos em manifestações agudas (dor severa, febre alta, toxemia, calor, rubor e secreção na ferida operatória) e crônicas (dor progressiva, formação de fístulas cutâneas, com drenagem de secreção purulenta, sem febre). O diagnóstico definitivo da infecção deve ser realizado através do isolamento em cultura do micro-organismo obtido a partir da punção do líquido articular, secreção da ferida cirúrgica e materiais colhidos durante desbridamento cirúrgico. É fundamental a cobertura de S.aureus meticilino-resistente, visto a importância epidemiológica deste agente nessas infecções. O tempo total da antibioticoterapia varia de seis semanas a seis meses, sendo que o tratamento deve ser readequado quando necessário, com base nos resultados das culturas colhidas. Abstract in english The implantation of artificial joints, especially the hip and knee, is becoming increasingly common, representing a significant reduction in discomfort and an immeasurable improvement in patient mobility. Reviews of the global literature indicate that 1-5% of these grafts become infected, though it [...] is important to remember that, as the number of surgeries for implantation of these prosthesis grows, so will the number of cases of this type of infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the contamination of joint prosthesis, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections caused by gram-negative bacilli and fungi such as Candida sp have been reported with increased frequency throughout the world. Infections of joint prosthesis have characteristic signals that can be divided into acute (severe pain, high fever, toxemia, heat, redness, and wound secretion) and chronic (progressive pain, cutaneous fistula formation, with pus drainage, no fever) manifestations. The definitive diagnosis of the infection should be made through the isolation in culture of the micro-organism obtained from the puncture of the joint fluid, surgical wound secretion, and material collected during surgical debridement. It is essential to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, given the epidemiological importance of this agent in these infections. The total time of antibiotic therapy varies from six weeks to six months, and that treatment should be adjusted as needed, based on the results of culturing.

Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz, Lima; Priscila Rosalba Domingos de, Oliveira.

150

Tuberculosis extrapulmonar: Forma articular / Tuberculose extrapulmonaire: à localisation articulaire / Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Articular form  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una revisión del tema de la Tuberculosis extrapulmonar de forma articular, por haber encontrado un paciente con esta patología de presentación "pura" sin otras manifestaciones sistémicas. Se trata del primer paciente diagnosticado en el Hospital Comunitario Integral de "San Andrés", del m [...] unicipio de Caracollo, provincia Cercado, en el departamento de Oruro, Bolivia. En la revisión del tema se demuestra la infrecuencia de esta forma de presentación de la enfermedad a pesar de ser la Tuberculosis pulmonar frecuente en la región por sumarse los factores: frío, altura con poco tenor de oxígeno, desnutrición, tormentas de polvo, muchos trabajadores mineros, etc. Se realiza la presentación del paciente, se muestra su evolución satisfactoria en cuanto a la patología de base y se arriban a conclusiones dentro de las que se destacan que la Tuberculosis en su forma articular es infrecuente en apariencia y su diagnóstico se hace difícil al no existir, por la misma razón, patrones ecográficos o radiográficos definidos. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico es el único que puede definir la etiología de la Tuberculosis de una lesión proliferativa de la sinovial y que la sinovectomía es una intervención generalmente invalidante por lo que un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento médico adecuado, a tiempo, evitaría limitaciones funcionales a posteriori. Se recomienda que en todo caso portador de una sinovitis de rodilla de larga evolución, se le realice una ecografía diagnóstica, y en los pacientes en los que se observen imágenes complejas de bordes regulares, del tipo "copos de nieve", se le efectúen estudios específicos para la detección de la Tuberculosis. Abstract in english A review of the topic on extrapulmonary articular tuberculosis was made for having found a male patient with this pathology of pure presentation with no other systemic manifestations. This is the first patient diagnosed at the Community Comprehensive Hospital of San Andrés, municipality of Caracollo [...] , Cervado province, department of Oruro, Bolivia. On reviewing the topic it was proven the infrequency of this form of presentation in spite of the fact that extrapulmonary tuberculosis is common in the region due to the existence of the following factors: cold, height with little tenor of oxygen, malnutrition, dust storms, many mining workers, etc. The patient was presented and his satisfactory evolution as regards the base pathology was showed. It was concluded that tuberculosis in its articular form is rare in appearance and that its diagnosis is difficult due to the absence of echographic or radiographic patterns defined. The anatomopathological diagnosis is the only one that can determine the aetiology of the tuberculosis of a proliferative injury of the synovia. As synovectomy is a generally disabling intervention, an early diagnosis and an adequate medical treatment on time will prevent functional future limitations. It is recommended to perform a diagnostic echography in every carrier of knee synovitis of long evolution, and to conduct specific studies for the detection of tuberculosis in those patients among whom complex images of regular snowflake-like edges are observed.

Julio C., Escarpanter Buliés; Yoel, García Rodríguez; Marta A., Gutiérrez Guillén.

2008-06-01

151

Surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most intra-articular calcaneal fractures are a result of high-energy trauma. The operative management of calcaneal fractures has been based on achieving anatomic reduction and minimizing complications of the compromised soft tissue envelope. The traditional extensile lateral approach offers advantages of achieving adequate fracture reduction with the risk of wound-healing complications and infection. Limited open reduction and internal fixation techniques with or without using external fixation focuses on achieving fracture reduction with less risk of wound complications but higher risk of malunion. This article discusses key points of operative management for various intra-articular calcaneal fracture patterns and clinical presentations. PMID:25281514

Stapleton, John J; Zgonis, Thomas

2014-10-01

152

Stereometric Analysis Of The Human Body And Articular Surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we introduce the method of Moir4 contourography to measure human body and animal's articular facies and teeth. The animal facies of articulation is rather complicated. We haven't seen an expression of a complete mathmatic formula yet. Hence, we adopt Moiri contourography to express three dimensions of animal's articular facies.1 We show here also the characteristic equation of Moire contourography of irradiation grating, and the relationship of the contour Moire frings and influence coefficients. So it is very useful to measure errors. Then we introduce some of our research on animal's articulation surface and teeth.

Ren-xiang, Zhang; Ming, Lu; Zu-yun, Lan; Hong-zi, Zhang

1983-07-01

153

How to 'visualize' lattice defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods to recognize objects are discussed. In case of optics, lenses are used, and light from objects passing through the lenses focuses on focal planes. The amplitude of light on the focal planes in given as a function of the structure factor of scattering light from objects, images of objects are made on image planes. In case of X-ray or neutron diffraction, lenses which make images by X-ray or neutrons can not be made, accordingly images cannot be obtained. Images can be seen with electron microscopes. By X-ray or thermal neutron diffraction, intensity on focal planes in observed, and the defects to be studied are recognized as diffuse scattering. Since it is necessary to minimize aberration in case of image observation with electron microscopes, slits are used to utilize electron beam near optical axis exclusively. Therefore large resolving power cannot be expected. The information concerning structure obtained from focal planes is of statistical nature, and that from image planes is local information. The principle of neutron topography, by which the informations concerning local points are obtained, is explained. A photograph of LiF irradiated by 0.5 MeV proton beam was taken by the topographic method, and shown in this paper. (Kato, T.)

154

Duality Defects  

CERN Document Server

We propose a unified approach to a general class of codimension-2 defects in field theories with non-trivial duality symmetries and discuss various constructions of such "duality defects" in diverse dimensions. In particular, in d=4 we propose a new interpretation of the Seiberg-Witten u-plane by "embedding" it in the physical space-time: we argue that it describes a BPS configuration of two duality defects (at the monopole/dyon points) and propose its vast generalization based on Lefschetz fibrations of 4-manifolds.

Gadde, Abhijit; Putrov, Pavel

2014-01-01

155

Articular shear of the anterior-inferior quadrant of the glenoid: a glenolabral articular disruption lesion variant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic cartilage lesions of the shoulder, such as glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD), have previously been recognized in patients with shoulder instability. We describe a new lesion in which the entire anteroinferior quadrant of the glenoid articular cartilage is sheared off in association with an adjacent labral tear. Both patients were teenage athletes who were being treated arthroscopically for shoulder instability. Preoperative imaging showed some evidence of an articular cartilage lesion. One patient was treated with removal of an irreparable fragment and microfracture, while in the other case the cartilage flap was reattached to the glenoid with a chondral fixation device. This GLAD lesion variant is a serious cartilage injury to the shoulder in young athletes that may be subtle, but needs to be recognized for proper arthroscopic treatment. PMID:23431540

Galano, Gregory J; Weisenthal, Benjamin M; Altchek, David W

2013-01-01

156

Focal mechanism estimation by classification  

CERN Document Server

A classification technique for identifying focal mechanism type and fault plane orientation based on the polarity of P-wave "first motion" data is derived. A support vector machine is used to classify the polarity data in the space of spherical harmonic functions. The classification is non-parametric in the sense that there is no requirement to make a priori assumptions source mechanism. A metric of similarity potentially able to distinguish shear versus tensile dislocation without requiring estimation of the fault plane orientation is a natural consequence of this procedure. Going further, correlation functions between template source mechanism is derived, gives an estimate of fault plane orientation assuming a particular source mechanism.

Lasscock, Ben G; Glinsky, Michael E

2014-01-01

157

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

2003-07-07

158

Working Memory and Focal Attention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measures of retrieval speed indicated that only a small subset of representations in working memory falls within the focus of attention. An n-back task, which required tracking an item 1, 2, or 3 back in a sequentially presented list, was used to examine the representation and retrieval of recent events and how control processes can be used to maintain an item in focal attention while concurrently processing new information. A speed–accuracy trade-off procedure was used to derive measures o...

Mcelree, Brian

2001-01-01

159

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

160

Birth Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

... other medical treatments. Today, doctors can diagnose many birth defects in the womb. This enables them to treat or even correct some problems before the baby is born. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

 
 
 
 
161

Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS  

Science.gov (United States)

VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1270m above see level. The array currently consists of four 12 m telescopes, structurally resembling the Davis-Cotton design of the Whipple 10 m telescope. The VERITAS focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.148 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed pre-amplifiers improving the signal to noise ratio and allow single photoelectron measurements in situ at operating voltage. Current monitor circuits in the focus box provide real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient conditions of the focus box. A charge injection system installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system by injecting pulses of variable amplitude and length into pre-amplifier stage. A detailed description of the VERITAS focal plane instruments will be given in this presentation.

Nagai, T.; McKay, R.; Sleege, G.; et al.

162

THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION / MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron ana [...] lizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular Abstract in english To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the [...] inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavity

Ana Elisa, Toscano; Silvia Regina, Arruda de Moraes; Katiúcia Samara, da Silva Almeida.

2004-12-01

163

THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION / MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron ana [...] lizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular Abstract in english To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the [...] inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavity

Ana Elisa, Toscano; Silvia Regina, Arruda de Moraes; Katiúcia Samara, da Silva Almeida.

164

THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavityCon el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron analizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular

Ana Elisa Toscano

2004-12-01

165

Biomechanical properties and mechanobiology of the articular chondrocyte.  

Science.gov (United States)

To withstand physiological loading over a lifetime, human synovial joints are covered and protected by articular cartilage, a layer of low-friction, load-bearing tissue. The unique mechanical function of articular cartilage largely depends on the composition and structural integrity of the cartilage matrix. The matrix is produced by highly specialized resident cells called chondrocytes. Under physiological loading, chondrocytes maintain the balance between degradation and synthesis of matrix macromolecules. Under excessive loading or injury, however, degradation exceeds synthesis, causing joint degeneration and, eventually, osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the mechanoresponses of chondrocytes play an important role in the development of OA. Despite its clear importance, the mechanobiology of articular chondrocytes is not well understood. To summarize our current understanding, here we review studies of the effect of mechanical forces on mechanical and biological properties of articular chondrocytes. First, we present the viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus, chondrocyte, pericellular matrix, and chondron. Then we discuss how these properties change in OA. Finally, we discuss the responses of normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes to a variety of mechanical stimuli. Studies reviewed here may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of OA and may help in development of effective biophysical treatment. PMID:24067919

Chen, Cheng; Tambe, Dhananjay T; Deng, Linhong; Yang, Liu

2013-12-15

166

Intra-articular lipoma causing snapping in the patellofemoral joint.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Intra-articular lipoma is an exceedingly rare diagnosis. We identified a lipoma that was seated in the retropatellar area and caused snapping of the patella during flexion of the knee joint. The tumor was easily and totally excised under arthroscopic guidance after the thin pedicle was cut.

Erhan Yilmaz

2007-06-01

167

Intra-articular lipoma causing snapping in the patellofemoral joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-articular lipoma is an exceedingly rare diagnosis. We identified a lipoma that was seated in the retropatellar are and caused snapping of the patella during flexion of the knee joint. The tumor was easily and totally excised under arthroscopic guidance after the thin pedicle was cut. (author)

168

Intra-articular microparticles for drug delivery to the TMJ.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the in vivo biocompatibility of intra-articular poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticle (MP) formulations in the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ). To our knowledge, this is the first intra-articular microparticle-based drug delivery system for the TMJ. The impact of PLGA MP concentration on rat TMJ function was quantified via computerized meal pattern analysis; in this non-invasive technique, previously validated markers of TMJ pain or nociception (specifically, meal duration and food intake) were recorded by computer-monitored pellet feeders. Bilateral intra-articular injection of 15, 30, or 50 mg/mL PLGA MPs had no impact on meal duration or food intake over 6 days, compared with controls that did not receive injections. Histological analysis showed that the MPs were retained within the synovial lining. These findings indicate that the PLGA MPs described herein are biocompatible and suitable for intra-articular delivery to the rat TMJ, a finding that has significant implications for the improvement of TMJ therapeutics. PMID:20660799

Mountziaris, P M; Sing, D C; Mikos, A G; Kramer, P R

2010-10-01

169

Intra-articular injection of a nutritive mixture solution protects articular cartilage from osteoarthritic progression induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in mature rabbits: a randomized controlled trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that disrupts the collagenous matrix of articular cartilage and is difficult to cure because articular cartilage is a nonvascular tissue. Treatment of OA has targeted macromolecular substitutes for cartilage components, such as hyaluronic acid or genetically engineered materials. However, the goal of the present study was to examine whether intra-articular injection of the elementary nutrients restores the matrix of arthritic knee joints in mature...

Park, Yoo-sin; Lim, Si-woong; Lee, Il-hoon; Lee, Tae-jin; Kim, Jong-sung; Han, Jin Soo

2007-01-01

170

A Novel Biomaterial for Cartilage Repair Generated by Self-Assembly: Creation of a Self-Organized Articular Cartilage-Like Tissue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, attention has been drawn to tissue engineering and other novel techniques aimed at reconstruction of the joint. Regarding articular cartilage tissue engineering, three-dimensional materials created in vitro by cultivation of autologous chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells with a collagen gel have been implanted to replace defective parts of the articular cartilage in limited cases with the diseases such as trauma or arthritis. However, several passages of chondrocyte culture are required to obtain a sufficient number of cells for tissue engineering. Additionally, several other problems arise including dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during cell culture, which need to be solved from a viewpoint of cellular resources. The purpose of our study is to create a novel biomaterial possessing functions and structures comparable to native hyaline articular cartilage by utilizing the physicochemical properties of the cartilage matrix components themselves, in other words, employing a self-assembly technique instead of using chondrocytes to produce cartilage matrices eventually leading to articular cartilage tissue formation. We verified the conditions and accuracy of the self-organization process and analyzed the resulting micro structure using electron beam microscopy in order to study the technique involved in the self-organization which would be applicable to creation of cartilage-like tissue. We demonstrated that self-assembly of several cartilage components including type II collagen, proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid could construct self-assembled cartilage-like tissues characterized by nano composite structures comparable to human articular cartilage and by low friction coefficients as small as those of native cartilage.

Rie Karasawa

2012-04-01

171

MRI of focal cortical dysplasia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied nine cases of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) by MRI, with surface-rendered 3D reconstructions. One case was also examined using single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS). The histological features were reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. The gyri affected by FCD were enlarged and the signal of the cortex was slightly increased on T1-weighted images. The gray-white junction was indistinct. Signal from the subcortical white matter was decreased on T1- and increased on T2-weighted images in most cases. Contrast enhancement was seen in two cases. Proton MRS showed a spectrum identical to that of normal brain. (orig.) (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 49 refs.

Lee, B.C.P.; Hatfield, G.A. [St. Louis Children`s Hospital, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Schmidt, R.E. [Department of Pathology, St. Louis Children`s Hospital, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Bourgeois, B. [Department of Neurology, St. Louis Children`s Hospital, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Park, T.S. [Department of Neurosurgery, St. Louis Children`s Hospital Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

1998-10-01

172

Defect branes  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss some general properties of "defect branes", i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 3?D?10 as well as their higher-dimensional string and M-theory origin as branes and a set of "generalized" Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed-symmetry tensors. These mixed-symmetry tensors can be defined at the linearized level as duals of the supergravity potentials that describe propagating degrees of freedom. It is noted that the number of supersymmetric defect branes is always twice the number of corresponding central charges in the supersymmetry algebra.

Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Ortín, Tomás; Riccioni, Fabio

2012-03-01

173

Defect branes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss some general properties of “defect branes”, i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 3?D?10 as well as their higher-dimensional string and M-theory origin as branes and a set of “generalized” Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed-symmetry tensors. These mixed-symmetry tensors can be defined at the linearized level as duals of the supergravity potentials that describe propagating degrees of freedom. It is noted that the number of supersymmetric defect branes is always twice the number of corresponding central charges in the supersymmetry algebra.

174

Defect Branes  

CERN Document Server

We discuss some general properties of "defect branes", i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 2 < D < 11 as well as their higher-dimensionalstring and M-theory origin as branes and a set of "generalized" Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed-symmetry tensors. These mixed-symmetry tensors can be defined at the linearized level as duals of the supergravity potentials that describe propagating degrees of freedom. It is noted that the number of supersymmetric defect branes is always twice the number of corresponding central charges in the supersymmetry algebra.

Bergshoeff, E; Riccioni, F

2011-01-01

175

Defect branes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss some general properties of 'defect branes', i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 3 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To D Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 10 as well as their higher-dimensional string and M-theory origin as branes and a set of 'generalized' Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed-symmetry tensors. These mixed-symmetry tensors can be defined at the linearized level as duals of the supergravity potentials that describe propagating degrees of freedom. It is noted that the number of supersymmetric defect branes is always twice the number of corresponding central charges in the supersymmetry algebra.

Bergshoeff, Eric A., E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.nl [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Ortin, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Ortin@csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, C/Nicolas Cabrera, 13-15, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Riccioni, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.riccioni@roma1.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

2012-03-11

176

The geometric osteotomy: joint preservation in juxta-articular surface bone neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To present the oncologic and functional results of a consecutive series of patients treated by geometric osteotomy and allograft reconstruction for juxta-articular surface bone neoplasms.Patients. Twelve consecutive patients (mean age 28 years) underwent excision of benign aggressive or malignant juxta-articular surface bone neoplasms. In each case, only part of the circumference of the bone was excised, and the joint surface was preserved and kept in continuity with the remainder of the bone. The defects were filled with allograft or autograff, and internally fixed as appropriate.Methods. Patients were eligible for the study if they had a histologically proven, primary tumour of bone adjacent to a joint such that the turnout could be completely excised with a partial cortical resection and preservation of the joint. The database at the University Musculoskeletal Oncology Unit was used to identify all cases. Patient demographics and oncologic results were recorded. Functional assessment was performed using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society rating scale and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score.Results. Nine tumours were about the knee and three were in the proximal humerus. Negative margins were achieved in all cases. No patient had metastatic disease at a mean follow-up of 56.5 months. There was one local recurrence and this was managed by conversion to a Van Nes rotationplasty. Functional results were excellent in the proximal humeral cases and in cases about the knee where the stabilizing ligaments were preserved. Cases with post-operative knee instability were less successful but none the less were well controlled with bracing.Discussion. This technique offers an alternative to joint excision and prosthetic replacement in a group of young patients. PMID:18521220

Masterson, E L; Ferracini, R; Davis, A M; Wunder, J S; Bell, R S

1997-01-01

177

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep / Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS) é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 7 [...] 0 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton), que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis. Abstract in english Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the [...] state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass), and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.

Luciano A., Pimentel; Diego M., Oliveira; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Antônio F.M., Dantas; Francisco, Uzal; Franklin, Riet-Correa.

178

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-09-15

179

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

180

Usefulness of computed tomography for intra-articular distal radius fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of only plain radiographs with that of plain radiographs plus computed tomography (CT) scanning for the evaluation of intra-articular distal radius fractures. We classified the fractures into 3 types: type L1, only lunate facet; type L2, lunate facet and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) articular surfaces; and type S, lunate and scaphoid facets. Further, we classified the fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces into 2 types: type D1, DRUJ articular surface gap/step-off under 2 mm; and type D2, DRUJ articular surface gap/step-off over 2 mm. Six observers classified 43 intra-articular distal radius fractures using only plain radiographs and compared the results with those obtained by using plain radiographs plus CT scans. There were several cases of fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces (n=31, 72%). The inter-observer reliability was poor for fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces (types L2, D1, and D2). CT scans were shown to demonstrate the articular surface gap/step-off of the distal radius more accurately than plain radiographs. In conclusion, CT scanning was useful for evaluating intra-articular distal radius fractures. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

3D braid scaffolds for regeneration of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regenerating articular cartilage in vivo from cultured chondrocytes requires that the cells be cultured and implanted within a biocompatible, biodegradable scaffold. Such scaffolds must be mechanically stable; otherwise chondrocytes would not be supported and patients would experience severe pain. Here we report a new 3D braid scaffold that matches the anisotropic (gradient) mechanical properties of natural articular cartilage and is permissive to cell cultivation. To design an optimal structure, the scaffold unit cell was mathematically modeled and imported into finite element analysis. Based on this analysis, a 3D braid structure with gradient axial yarn distribution was designed and manufactured using a custom-built braiding machine. The mechanical properties of the 3D braid scaffold were evaluated and compared with simulated results, demonstrating that a multi-scale approach consisting of unit cell modeling and continuum analysis facilitates design of scaffolds that meet the requirements for mechanical compatibility with tissues. PMID:24556323

Ahn, Hyunchul; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Park, Sook Young; Huh, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

2014-06-01

182

Design, validation, and utilization of an articular cartilage impact instrument.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the development and use of an instrument mechanically to impact bovine articular cartilage and record the event using a piezoelectric accelerometer, as well as to carry out post-impact characterization of the tissue. Two levels of impact (low: 6 cm drop height, 18.4 N tup; high: 10 cm drop height, 27.8 N tup) were chosen such that the former did not show gross damage upon inspection, while the latter showed substantial gross damage. Peak stress, time to peak stress, and impact duration were taken from data recorded by the instrument. Three cartilage biomechanical properties (aggregate modulus, Poisson's ratio, and permeability) were acquired by creep indentation, and tissue morphology rated on a standardized scale was also determined. When subjected to the high level of impact, articular cartilage showed statistically significant (p damage. PMID:17236518

Scott, C C; Athanasiou, K A

2006-11-01

183

[Disseminated aspergillosis after intra-articular corticosteroid infiltrations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone and joint infections due to Aspergillus are rare and occur more commonly in immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of an 84-year-old woman who developed septic arthritis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus after corticosteroid infiltration. This patient had presented with arthritis of the left knee for several months but no microorganism had been found despite numerous arthrocenteses. This arthritis was resistant to treatment by numerous corticosteroid infiltrations. During an arthroscopy, analysis of the synovial fluid yielded A. fumigatus. Thereafter, other explorations showed disseminated aspergillosis with osteo-articular destruction, blood and urinary dissemination. A systemic treatment by voriconazole associated to intra-articular injections and surgical debridement was initiated but the patient died. Septic arthritis caused by A. fumigatus is very rare but must be considered as a differential diagnosis of septic arthritis after corticosteroid infiltration. Their complications can be very important and destructive. PMID:17336017

Durox, H; Boumediene, A; Genet, C; Lo Ré, P; Rogez, J-P; Weinbreck, P; Denes, E

2007-09-01

184

Infecção de prótese articular da anca e joelho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A infeção de prótese articular é um dos maiores desafios para os Ortopedistas. A abordagem das infeções associadas com as próteses articulares não está protocolada devido às variadas apresentações clínicas e à escassez de ensaios clínicos randomizados. O sucesso do tratamento consiste, não só, na er [...] radicação da infeção, mas também na recuperação do arco de movimento, que é importante para a satisfação do doente. Abstract in english Periprosthetic joint infection is one of the most formidable challenges for arthroplasty surgeons. The management of infection associated with prosthetic joints is poorly standartized because of the varied clinical presentation and the lack of data from randomized, controlled trials. Successful trea [...] tment of prosthetic joint infection consists, not only, of eliminating the infection but also of restoring patient mobility, which is important for patient satisfaction.

Filipa, Freitas; Manuel, Virgolino; Carlos, Ribeiro.

185

Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS  

CERN Document Server

VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

2007-01-01

186

Early vision and focal attention  

Science.gov (United States)

At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

Julesz, Bela

1991-07-01

187

Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz's syndrome).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 17-year-old female with Goltz's syndrome was examined because of visual acuity loss in her right eye. Ocular examination revealed microcornea, iris, choroid and optic disc coloboma in the right eye. There were several erthematous and hyperpigmented areas on the body. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the orbits and brain demonstrated right optic nerve hypoplasia and diffuse cortical and cerebellar atrophy. Skeletal manifestations were short stature, scoliosis, syndactyly, clinodactyly, and osteopathia striata. Dental defects included hypodontia, developmental defects, and malocclusion. There were multiple papillomatous lesions on the lids and perioral skin and the nose was asymmetric. Her mental development was apparently normal. She had left bifid ureter and renal pelvis, scant hair on the pubic and genital region, and poor breast development. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy taken from a characteristic skin lesion revealed attenuated epidermis, hypoplastic dermis, and subcutaneous fat close to epidermis. Immunofluorescence staining was negative for IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C4, fibrin, and albumin. Ultrastructural examination showed that no viral particles were present. Prometaphase chromosome analysis revealed a normal 46, XX female karyotype. Cortical and cerebellar atrophy can occur in a patient with Goltz's syndrome. PMID:9361312

Gündüz, K; Günalp, I; Erden, I

1997-09-01

188

Comparison of MR-arthrography and MDCT-arthrography for detection of labral and articular cartilage hip pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To compare the diagnostic ability of MR arthrography (MRa) and MDCT arthrography (CTa) in depicting surgically proven hip labral tears and articular cartilage degradation. Labral pathology and articular cartilage were prospectively evaluated with MRa and CTa in 14 hips of 10 patients. The findings were evaluated by two independent observers (a musculoskeletal fellow and one senior musculoskeletal radiologist). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were determined using arthroscopic and open surgery findings as the standard of reference. Interobserver agreement was recorded. All images were assessed for the presence of a labral tear (according to Czerny classification) and for cartilage erosion using a 3 point scale for both methods: 1 = complete visualization-sharp edges, 2 = blurred edges fissuring-partial defects, 3 = exposed bone. The same classification was applied surgically. Disagreement between the senior observer and the fellow observer was recorded in three cases of labral tearing with MRa and six with CTa. Disagreement was also found in four cases of cartilage erosion with both MRa and CTa. The percent sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value for correctly assessing the labral tear were as follows for MRa/CTa, respectively: 100/15, 50/13, 90/14, and 90/13 (P < 0.05). The same values for cartilage assessment were 63/66, 33/40, 50/57 and 55/66 (P > 0.05). Interobserver reproducibility with MRa is very good for labral tearing assessment. MRa is better for assessing labral tears. CTa shows better, but not statistically significant, demonstration of the articular cartilage. (orig.)

Perdikakis, Evangelos; Karantanas, Apostolos [University Hospital, University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece); Karachalios, Theofilos [University of Thessaly, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Larissa (Greece); Katonis, Pavlos [University of Crete, Department of Orthopaedics, Heraklion (Greece)

2011-11-15

189

Three-dimensional scaffold-free fusion culture: the way to enhance chondrogenesis of in vitro propagated human articular chondrocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cartilage regeneration based on isolated and culture-expanded chondrocytes has been studied in various in vitro models, but the quality varies with respect to the morphology and the physiology of the synthesized tissues. The aim of our study was to promote in vitro chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes using a novel three-dimensional (3-D cultivation system in combination with the chondrogenic differentiation factors transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-b2 and L-ascorbic acid. Articular chondrocytes isolated from six elderly patients were expanded in monolayer culture. A single-cell suspension of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes was then added to agar-coated dishes without using any scaffold material, in the presence, or absence of TGF-b2 and/or L-ascorbic acid. Three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs, called single spheroids, and microtissues consisting of several spheroids fused together, named as fusions, were formed. Generated tissues were mainly characterized using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The morphology of the in vitro tissues shared some similarities to native hyaline cartilage in regard to differentiated S100-positive chondrocytes within a cartilaginous matrix, with strong collagen type II expression and increased synthesis of proteoglycans. Finally, our innovative scaffold-free fusion culture technique supported enhanced chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. These 3-D hyaline cartilage-like microtissues will be useful for in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation and regeneration, enabling optimization of functional tissue engineering and possibly contributing to the development of new approaches to treat traumatic cartilage defects or osteoarthritis.

U. Sack

2013-10-01

190

Effects of surgically induced instability on rat knee articular cartilage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Degenerative lesions in the articular cartilage were present following transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the rat. These lesions included surface disruptions, a reduction in matrix proteoglycans, and cellular changes and therefore were similar to lesions seen in dogs following transection of the anterior cruciate ligament as well as lesions seen in other mechanical derangement models. Lesions were more frequently encountered in animals that had been exercised on a treadmill. Thi...

Williams, J. M.; Felten, D. L.; Peterson, R. G.; O Connor, B. L.

1982-01-01

191

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage has recently been recognized as a tool for the characterization of cartilage morphology, biochemistry and function. In this paper advancements in cartilage imaging, computation of cartilage volume and thickness, and measurement of relaxation times (T2 and T1?) are presented. In addition, the delayed uptake of Gadolinium DTPA as a marker of proteoglycan depletion is also reviewed. The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using these imagin...

Blumenkrantz, G.; Majumdar, S.

2007-01-01

192

What must we respect in articular fractures in childhood?  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular fractures in children are rare and occur mainly in the elbow and ankle joint. Condylar fractures of the humerus, olecranon fractures, medial malleolar, and transitional fractures of the distal tibia are the commonest, though there is an increasing incidence of avulsion fractures of the intercondylar tibial eminence. Conservative treatment is recommended in articular displacements of less than 2 mm, but dislocation of more than 2 mm is a commonly accepted indication for surgery. Although this widely accepted guideline is based on clinical results, it is not scientifically proven. In addition, it is unknown whether there is any difference in the outcome for articular fractures if there is a step or gap, if the joint is weight-bearing or not, or the joint is immobilized or mobilized post-operatively. In experiments with rats, rabbits, and sheep, some clues have suggested that exact reconstruction of the chondral surface, fixation with compression of the fragments, and early continuous passive motion are advantageous. A prospective clinical study with a pre- and postoperative MRI scan is needed, in weight-bearing and non-weight bearing joints to show the factors influencing the outcome of these injuries. PMID:15652935

Schmittenbecher, Peter P

2005-02-01

193

A vision on the future of articular cartilage repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An AO Foundation (Davos, Switzerland sponsored workshop "Cell Therapy in Cartilage Repair" from the Symposium "Where Science meets Clinics" (September 5-7, 2013, Davos gathered leaders from medicine, science, industry, and regulatory organisations to debate the vision of cell therapy in articular cartilage repair and the measures that could be taken to narrow the gap between vision and current practice. Cell-based therapy is already in clinical use to enhance the repair of cartilage lesions, with procedures such as microfracture and articular chondrocyte implantation. However, even though long term follow up is good from a clinical perspective and some of the most rigorous randomised controlled trials in the regenerative medicine/orthopaedics field show beneficial effect, none of these options have proved successful in restoring the original articular cartilage structure and functionality in patients so far. With the remarkable recent advances in experimental research in cell biology (new sources for chondrocytes, stem cells, molecular biology (growth factors, genes, biomaterials, biomechanics, and translational science, a combined effort between scientists and clinicians with broad expertise may allow development of an improved cell therapy for cartilage repair. This position paper describes the current state of the art in the field to help define a procedure adapted to the clinical situation for upcoming translation in the patient.

M Cucchiarini

2014-05-01

194

Effect of donor age on DNA repair by articular chondrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hypothesis that aging of articular chondrocytes at a cellular level results from loss of DNA repair capability was studied by two different measures: unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and O6-methylguanine acceptor protein (MGAP) activity. UDS following damage by 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation (20J/m2) was examined in intact articular cartilage from rabbits of different ages. Semiconservative DNA synthesis was suppressed with hydroxurea and repair followed by the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine ([3H]-dThd). After repair the cartilage was digested in proteinase K (0.5mg/ml) with dodecyl sodium sulfate (0.2%) and DNA determined with Hoechst 33258 dye. UDS (dpm [3H]-dThd/?g DNA) was greater in articular cartilage from 3- than 39-month-old rabbits. MGAP was studied in cell extracts of cultured human and rabbit chondrocytes by transfer of [3H] O6-methyl groups from exogenous DNA to protein. It was significantly less in rabbit than in human cells on a per protein or DNA basis. There was no decline in this activity in human chondrocytes from newborn to 60 years of age; and rabbits from 3- to 36-months-old. The data indicate that in the two different repair mechanisms, age differences are found with resting but not dividing chondrocytes

195

An Osteochondral Culture Model to Study Mechanisms Involved in Articular Cartilage Repair  

Science.gov (United States)

Although several treatments for cartilage repair have been developed and used in clinical practice the last 20 years, little is known about the mechanisms that are involved in the formation of repair tissue after these treatments. Often, these treatments result in the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue rather than normal articular cartilage. Because the repair tissue is inferior to articular cartilage in terms of mechanical properties and zonal organization of the extracellular matrix, complaints of the patient may return. The biological and functional outcome of these treatments should thus be improved. For this purpose, an in vitro model allowing investigation of the involved repair mechanisms can be of great value. We present the development of such a model. We used bovine osteochondral biopsies and created a system in which cartilage defects of different depths can be studied. First, our biopsy model was characterized extensively: we studied the viability by means of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) excretion over time and we investigated expression of cartilage-related genes in osteochondral biopsies and compared it with conventional cartilage-only explants. After 28 days of culture, LDH was detected at low levels and mRNA could be retrieved. The expression of cartilage-related genes decreased over time. This was more evident in cartilage-only explants, indicating that the biopsy model provided a more stable environment. We also characterized the subchondral bone: osteoclasts and osteoblasts were active after 28 days of culture, which was indicated by tartrate acid phosphatase staining and alkaline phosphatase measurements, respectively, and matrix deposition during culture was visualized using calcein labeling. Second, the applicability of the model was further studied by testing two distinct settings: (1) implantation of chondrocytes in defects of different depths; (2) two different seeding strategies of chondrocytes. Differences were observed in terms of volume and integration of newly formed tissue in both settings, suggesting that our model can be used to model distinct conditions or even to mimic clinical treatments. After extensive characterization and testing of our model, we present a representative and reproducible in vitro model that can be used to evaluate new cartilage repair treatments and study mechanisms in a controlled and standardized environment. PMID:21875392

de Vries-van Melle, Marloes L.; Mandl, Erik W.; Kops, Nicole; Koevoet, Wendy J.L.M.; Verhaar, Jan A.N.

2012-01-01

196

Dynamic mechanisms of neocortical focal seizure onset.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experimental and clinical studies have provided diverse insight into the mechanisms of human focal seizure initiation and propagation. Often these findings exist at different scales of observation, and are not reconciled into a common understanding. Here we develop a new, multiscale mathematical model of cortical electric activity with realistic mesoscopic connectivity. Relating the model dynamics to experimental and clinical findings leads us to propose three classes of dynamical mechanisms for the onset of focal seizures in a unified framework. These three classes are: (i) globally induced focal seizures; (ii) globally supported focal seizures; (iii) locally induced focal seizures. Using model simulations we illustrate these onset mechanisms and show how the three classes can be distinguished. Specifically, we find that although all focal seizures typically appear to arise from localised tissue, the mechanisms of onset could be due to either localised processes or processes on a larger spatial scale. We conclude that although focal seizures might have different patient-specific aetiologies and electrographic signatures, our model suggests that dynamically they can still be classified in a clinically useful way. Additionally, this novel classification according to the dynamical mechanisms is able to resolve some of the previously conflicting experimental and clinical findings. PMID:25122455

Wang, Yujiang; Goodfellow, Marc; Taylor, Peter Neal; Baier, Gerold

2014-08-01

197

Serum response factor is crucial for actin cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion assembly in embryonic stem cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The activity of serum response factor (SRF), an essential transcription factor in mouse gastrulation, is regulated by changes in actin dynamics. Using Srf(?/?) embryonic stem (ES) cells, we demonstrate that SRF deficiency causes impairments in ES cell spreading, adhesion, and migration. These defects correlate with defective formation of cytoskeletal structures, namely actin stress fibers and focal adhesion (FA) plaques. The FA proteins FA kinase (FAK), ?1-integrin, talin, zyxin, and vin...

Schratt, Gerhard; Philippar, Ulrike; Berger, Ju?rgen; Schwarz, Heinz; Heidenreich, Olaf; Nordheim, Alfred

2002-01-01

198

Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and 12 months after the procedure. High-resolution imaging was obtained with a surface phased array coil placed over the knee compartment of interest and adapted sequences were used on a 1 T MRI scanner. The analysis of the repair tissue included the definition and rating of nine pertinent variables: the degree of filling of the defect, the integration to the border zone, the description of the surface and structure, the signal intensity, the status of the subchondral lamina and subchondral bone, the appearance of adhesions and the presence of synovitis. High-resolution MRI, using a surface phased array coil and specific sequences, can be used on every standard 1 or 1.5 T MRI scanner according to the in-house standard protocols for knee imaging in patients who have had cartilage repair procedures without substantially prolonging the total imaging time. The new classification and grading system allows a subtle description and suitable assessment of the articular cartilage repair tissue.

Marlovits, Stefan E-mail: stefan.marlovits@akh-wien.ac.at; Striessnig, Gabriele; Resinger, Christoph T.; Aldrian, Silke M.; Vecsei, Vilmos; Imhof, Herwig; Trattnig, Siegfried

2004-12-01

199

MODELADO MATEMÁTICO DEL COMPORTAMIENTO MECÁNICO DE UN FRAGMENTO DE CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR / MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF AN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE PIECE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cartílago articular es un material biológico poroelástico que permite la distribución de las cargas mecánicas y el movimiento de las articulaciones. Como material bifásico, en presencia de carga, el cartílago articular deforma su matriz sólida y modifica la presión hidrostática del fluido en su i [...] nterior. El objetivo del presente trabajo es implementar numéricamente un modelo matemático que predice el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular teniendo en cuenta la dualidad entre la matriz sólida y el líquido articular, y la característica de poroelasticidad. Utilizando una metodología basada en el método de los elementos finitos, se simuló el comportamiento de un fragmento de cartílago articular en una y dos dimensiones, ante cargas mecánicas de tensión, compresión y oscilación. El análisis de los resultados permite validar cualitativamente el comportamiento poroelástico del modelo debido a la deformación de la matriz sólida y a la salida de fluido que modifica la presión del mismo de manera similar a lo reportado en trabajos experimentales. Se concluye que el modelo matemático permite realizar predicciones sobre el comportamiento biomecánico del cartílago articular, contribuyendo al proceso investigativo en áreas como la biomecánica y la ingeniería de tejidos. Abstract in english The articular cartilage is a poroelastic biological material that allows the distribution of mechanical loads and the joint movements. As a biphasic material, in presence of load, the articular cartilage deforms its solid matrix and modifies the fluid hydrostatic pressure inside. The aim of this wor [...] k is to implement numerically a mathematical model that predicts the mechanical behaviour of articular cartilage taking into account the duality between the solid matrix and articular liquid, and its poroelastic feature. Using a finite element method approach , the response of a piece of articular cartilage in one and two dimensions has been simulated, with tensile, compresive and oscillative mechanical loads. The analysis of results allows a qualitatively validation of the poroelastic behavior of the model due to the solid matrix deformation and the fluid outflow that causes variations of pressures inside the articular cartilage according with reported trials. We conclude that the mathematical model allows the prediction of the articular cartilage biomechanical behaviour. Our results contribute to the investigative processes in fields of study like biomechanics and tissue engineering

NANCY STELLA, LANDÍNEZ; JUAN CARLOS, VANEGAS; DIEGO ALEXANDER, GARZÓN.

200

MODELADO MATEMÁTICO DEL COMPORTAMIENTO MECÁNICO DE UN FRAGMENTO DE CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR / MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF AN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE PIECE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cartílago articular es un material biológico poroelástico que permite la distribución de las cargas mecánicas y el movimiento de las articulaciones. Como material bifásico, en presencia de carga, el cartílago articular deforma su matriz sólida y modifica la presión hidrostática del fluido en su i [...] nterior. El objetivo del presente trabajo es implementar numéricamente un modelo matemático que predice el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular teniendo en cuenta la dualidad entre la matriz sólida y el líquido articular, y la característica de poroelasticidad. Utilizando una metodología basada en el método de los elementos finitos, se simuló el comportamiento de un fragmento de cartílago articular en una y dos dimensiones, ante cargas mecánicas de tensión, compresión y oscilación. El análisis de los resultados permite validar cualitativamente el comportamiento poroelástico del modelo debido a la deformación de la matriz sólida y a la salida de fluido que modifica la presión del mismo de manera similar a lo reportado en trabajos experimentales. Se concluye que el modelo matemático permite realizar predicciones sobre el comportamiento biomecánico del cartílago articular, contribuyendo al proceso investigativo en áreas como la biomecánica y la ingeniería de tejidos. Abstract in english The articular cartilage is a poroelastic biological material that allows the distribution of mechanical loads and the joint movements. As a biphasic material, in presence of load, the articular cartilage deforms its solid matrix and modifies the fluid hydrostatic pressure inside. The aim of this wor [...] k is to implement numerically a mathematical model that predicts the mechanical behaviour of articular cartilage taking into account the duality between the solid matrix and articular liquid, and its poroelastic feature. Using a finite element method approach , the response of a piece of articular cartilage in one and two dimensions has been simulated, with tensile, compresive and oscillative mechanical loads. The analysis of results allows a qualitatively validation of the poroelastic behavior of the model due to the solid matrix deformation and the fluid outflow that causes variations of pressures inside the articular cartilage according with reported trials. We conclude that the mathematical model allows the prediction of the articular cartilage biomechanical behaviour. Our results contribute to the investigative processes in fields of study like biomechanics and tissue engineering

NANCY STELLA, LANDÍNEZ; JUAN CARLOS, VANEGAS; DIEGO ALEXANDER, GARZÓN.

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Paxillin Binding Is Not the Sole Determinant of Focal Adhesion Localization or Dominant-Negative Activity of Focal Adhesion Kinase/Focal Adhesion Kinase-related Nonkinase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The carboxy-terminal 150 residues of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) comprise the focal adhesion-targeting sequence, which is responsible for its subcellular localization. The mechanism of focal adhesion targeting has not been fully elucidated. We describe a mutational analysis of the focal adhesion-targeting sequence of FAK to further examine the mechanism of focal adhesion targeting and explore additional functions encoded by the carboxy-terminus of FAK. The resu...

Cooley, Marion A.; Broome, Jill M.; Ohngemach, Christoph; Romer, Lewis H.; Schaller, Michael D.

2000-01-01

202

Three-dimensional CT imaging usefulness in distal radial intra-articular fracture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed information on articular damage in distal radial intra-articular fracture in provided by three-dimensional CT imaging of intra-articular distal radius fracture. We conducted this procedure in 16 patients. Eliminated axial views of intra-articular fracture revealed details of joint surface damage. These images were then compared to those of plain radiographs. Three-dimensional CT was very useful in detecting fracture displacement and distal radioulnar joint fracture, and also useful in evaluating the distal radio-carpal joint compression and fragmentation. (author)

Kato, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Ryogo; Horii, Emiko; Imaeda, Toshihiko; Sakuma, Masayuki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1998-02-01

203

Three-dimensional CT imaging usefulness in distal radial intra-articular fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed information on articular damage in distal radial intra-articular fracture in provided by three-dimensional CT imaging of intra-articular distal radius fracture. We conducted this procedure in 16 patients. Eliminated axial views of intra-articular fracture revealed details of joint surface damage. These images were then compared to those of plain radiographs. Three-dimensional CT was very useful in detecting fracture displacement and distal radioulnar joint fracture, and also useful in evaluating the distal radio-carpal joint compression and fragmentation. (author)

204

Extra-articular triplane fracture of the distal tibia: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The triplane fracture of the distal tibia is anatomically complex. It typically consists of a coronal fracture of the metaphysis, a transverse fracture of the physis, and a sagittal, intra-articular fracture of the epiphysis. We report an unusual variation of the triplane fracture which includes an extra-articular epiphyseal component involving the medial malleolus. This is an important variant to recognize because it does not disrupt the distal tibial articular surface. This lack of articular involvement allows for non-surgical management in contrast to the usual triplane fracture which often requires open reduction and internal fixation. (orig.)

205

[A radiolucency in the articular eminence of the temporal bone: an air bubble?].  

Science.gov (United States)

A case is described in which the orthopantomogram by coincidence showed an anomaly of the left articular eminence of the temporal bone, which is based on an extremely pneumatised mastoid bone. Because of the medical history a CT-scan was made of both temporomandibular joints. The CT-scan showed an extremely pneumatized articular eminence at the left side. The orthopantomogram might show a radiolucency in the articular eminence of the temporal bone as a coincidental appearance. In cases with a positive medical history for pathological deformaties or in cases where surgery has to be performed on the articular eminence of the temporal bone further radiodiagnostic examination is indicated. PMID:12784515

Koudstaal, M J; van der Wal, K G H

2003-05-01

206

Analgesic effect of intra-articular ketorolac in knee arthroscopy: comparison of morphine and bupivacaine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective study assessed the postoperative analgesic effect of intra-articular ketorolac, morphine, and bupivacaine during arthroscopic outpatient partial meniscectomy. Group 1 patients (n=20) received postoperative injection of 60 mg intra-articular ketorolac, group 2 patients (n=20) 10 cc intra-articular bupivacaine 0.25%, group 3 patients (n=20) 1 mg intra-articular morphine diluted in 10 cc saline, and group 4 patients (n=20, controls) only 10 cc saline. We evaluated the postoperative analgesic effect (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), the level of postoperative pain (by visual analog scale 1, 2, 3, 12, and 24 h after surgery), and the need for additional pain medication (during the first 24 h after surgery). The best analgesic effect was in patients treated with intra-articular ketorolac, and this was statistically significant in: postoperative analgesic effect and the need for additional pain medication immediately after surgery, and after 24 h. No complications were found related to the intra-articular treatment. We conclude that 60 mg intra-articular ketorolac provides better analgesic effect than 10 cc intra-articular bupivacaine 0.25% or 1 mg intra-articular morphine. PMID:15197428

Calmet, J; Esteve, C; Boada, S; Giné, J

2004-11-01

207

Elasticity of smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the elastic properties of thermotropic smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains (FCDs). After the application of the controlled preshear at different temperatures, we independently measure the shear modulus G' and the FCD size L. We find out that these quantities are related by the scaling relation G'{approx}{gamma}{sub eff}/L, where {gamma}{sub eff} is the effective surface tension of the FCDs. The experimentally obtained value of {gamma}{sub eff} shows the same scaling as the effective surface tension of the layered systems {radical}KB, where K and B are the bending modulus and the layer compression modulus, respectively. The similarity of this scaling relation to that of the surfactant onion phase suggests an universal rheological behavior of the layered systems with defects.

Fujii, S [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Komura, S [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ishii, Y [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Lu, C-Y D, E-mail: sfujii@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-06-15

208

Elasticity of smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the elastic properties of thermotropic smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains (FCDs). After the application of the controlled preshear at different temperatures, we independently measure the shear modulus G' and the FCD size L. We find out that these quantities are related by the scaling relation G'??eff/L, where ?eff is the effective surface tension of the FCDs. The experimentally obtained value of ?eff shows the same scaling as the effective surface tension of the layered systems \\sqrt {KB} , where K and B are the bending modulus and the layer compression modulus, respectively. The similarity of this scaling relation to that of the surfactant onion phase suggests an universal rheological behavior of the layered systems with defects.

Fujii, S.; Komura, S.; Ishii, Y.; Lu, C.-Y. D.

2011-06-01

209

Coculture of equine mesenchymal stem cells and mature equine articular chondrocytes results in improved chondrogenic differentiation of the stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used to repair articular cartilage defects, these cells should be properly stimulated so that they could differentiate morphologically and hold cellular synthetic features closer to maturely differentiated chondrocytes. It is well known that tissue specific environment plays an important role in cell fate determination. Once improved isolation, proliferation and differentiation protocols have been developed, the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation of MSCs into divergent lineages will be reduced, thus increasing their value for cartilage repair. The purpose of this study was to improve chondrogenic differentiation of equine MSCs using coculture with mature equine articular chondrocytes (ACs), along with the determination of the effect of adding transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 in the pellet culture system. Following confirmation of multilineage (adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic) differentiation, isolated MSCs, ACs and coculture of both cell types were transferred into pellet culture system in a DMEM-based medium supplemented with or without TGFbeta1. Chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated histologically and the relative mRNA expressions of collagen type 1 alpha1 (COL1A1), collagen type 2 alpha1(COL2A1), aggrecan (ACAN) and SRY-box 9 (SOX9) were estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. Cocultured cells showed diffuse distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas in chondrocyte pellets it was more localized to central regions. Expression of COL2A1, ACAN and SOX9 genes were higher in cocultured pellets when compared to MSCs and ACs-composed pellets. Addition of TGFbeta1 in chondrogenic differentiating medium did not consistently amplify expression of the above mentioned genes. Differentiation of equine MSCs was enhanced by coculturing in association with mature ACs, improving expression of cartilage-specific genes and producing a more homogeneous production of ECM within the newly formed cocultured cartilage. The use of the coculture system could possibly enhance the capacity of MSC-derived chondrocytes to build up stable articular cartilage-like constructs, which could play an important role in articular cartilage repair and regeneration. PMID:20645581

Lettry, Vivien; Hosoya, Kenji; Takagi, Satoshi; Okumura, Masahiro

2010-05-01

210

CT signs of hepatic focal lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT) semiotics has been analysed for 288 patients with focal lesions of the liver. Most frequently occurring symptoms served the basis for establishing characteristic CT symptom complexes typical of various diseases

211

Imaging strategies in focal hepatic disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: Advanced therapies are improving significantly the survival of patients with malginant focal liver disease. For efficient implementation of these surgical and interventional techniques a clear concept of the diagnostic procedere is mandatory. Methods: Based on a review of the current literature, the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, nuclear medicine and angiography, are discussed and evaluated for their diagnostic efficacy in focal hepatic disease. Results: Considering clinical, diagnostic, and economical appropriateness, recommendations for diagnostic strategies in different clinical scenarios regarding focal hepatic disease are presented. Conclusion: If the power of specific imaging methods and relevant clinical information is known, problem-based diagnostic strategies help to avoid unnecessary, expensive and time-consuming studies in the work-up of focal liver lesions. (orig.)

212

Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient were believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy.

Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Graviss, E.R.

1981-03-01

213

Focal lesions in the central nervous system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

214

Carbamazepine, clonazepam and focal reflex proprioceptive seizures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied a 34-year-old man with focal tonic-clonic seizures sometimes elicited by some active postures of the right hand and evolving at times to secondary generalization. Treatment with carbamazepine (CBZ) in combination with parenteral diazepam induced both a dramatic increase of focal reflex proprioceptive seizures and choreoathetoid dyskinesias in the affected hand. CBZ was withdrawn and clonazepam (CZP) given 2 mg daily, with complete relief of seizures and choreoathetoid dyskinesias. ...

Sechi, Gianpietro; Corda, Davide; Deiana, Giovanni Andrea; Contu, Sabrina; Rosati, Giulio

2003-01-01

215

Characterization of auricular chondrocytes and auricular/articular chondrocyte co-cultures in terms of an application in articular cartilage repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cartilage injury remains a challenge in orthopedic surgery as articular cartilage only has a limited capacity for intrinsic healing. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is a suitable technique for cartilage repair, but requires articular cartilage biopsies for autologous chondrocyte expansion. The use of heterotopic chondrocytes derived from non-articular cartilage sources such as auricular chondrocytes may be a novel approach for ACT. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether co-cultured articular/auricular chondrocytes exhibit characteristics comparable to articular chondrocytes. Analysis of the proliferation rate, extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) gene and protein expression (type II and I collagen, elastin, lubricin), beta1-integrins and the chondrogenic transcription factor sox9 in articular/auricular chondrocytes was performed using RTD-PCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. Additionally, three-dimensional (3D) chondrocyte mono- and co-cultures were established. The proliferative activity and elastin gene expression were lower and that of type II collagen and lubricin was higher in articular compared with auricular chondrocytes. The species generally did not influence the chondrocyte characteristics, with the exception of type I collagen and sox9 expression, which was higher in porcine but not in human articular chondrocytes compared with both types of auricular chondrocytes. beta1-integrin gene expression did not differ significantly between the chondrocyte types. The type II collagen gene and protein expression was higher in articular chondrocyte monocultures and was slightly higher in co-cultures compared with monocultured auricular chondrocytes. Both chondrocyte types survived in co-culture. Despite their differing expression profiles, co-cultures revealed some adjustment in the ECM expression of both chondrocyte types. PMID:20372812

Kuhne, Maren; John, Thilo; El-Sayed, Karym; Marzahn, Ulrike; Aue, Annekatrin; Kohl, Benjamin; Stoelzel, Katharina; Ertel, Wolfgang; Blottner, Dieter; Haisch, Andreas; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

2010-05-01

216

Efeitos dos glicosaminoglicanos e sulfato de condroitina A sobre a cartilagem articular normal e com doença articular degenerativa em cães Glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin sulphate "A" effects on normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage in dogs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos precursores dos glicosaminoglicanos (GAG) e do sulfato de condroitina A (SC) sobre a histomorfometria da cartilagem articular normal ou de cartilagem de cães com doença articular degenerativa (DAD) experimental. Os grupos experimentais constituíram-se de animais com articulação direita normal, que não foi submetida a procedimento cirúrgico, e com articulação esquerda osteoartrótica e que foi submetida à intervenção cirúrgica. Os grupos foram subdividi...

Vieira, N. T.; Melo, E. G.; Rezende, C. M. F.; Gomes, M. G.; Caldeira, F. M. C.; Jesus, M. C.

2010-01-01

217

Manifestações articulares atípicas em pacientes com febre reumática / Articular manifestations in patients with atypical rheumatic fever  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: Descrever as características clínicas e a ocorrência de artrite atípica em crianças com diagnóstico de febre reumática (FR) acompanhadas em ambulatórios terciários em Salvador, Bahia. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo, de uma série de casos, do quadro clínico inicial ou recorrência de 41 [...] crianças com diagnóstico de FR. Resultados: Dos pacientes estudados (n=41), 61% eram do sexo masculino; com média de idade de 9,2 anos e idade no momento do diagnóstico entre 5 e 16 anos. Artrite esteve presente em 75,6% dos pacientes; cardite em 75,6%; coreia em 31,7%; eritema marginado em 14,6% e nódulos subcutâneos em 4,9%. Um padrão atípico foi observado em 22 dos 31 casos com artrite (70,9%): envolvimento de pequenas articulações e/ou esqueleto axial em 12 casos (38,7%); duração maior que três semanas em nove (29%); resposta inadequada ao AINH em dois (6,5%); oligoartrite (? quatro articulações) em 22/31 (71%), sendo monoartrite em 6/31 (uma em pés, uma em tornozelo e quatro em joelho). A febre esteve presente em 78% dos casos e 82,9% dos pacientes utilizavam a profilaxia secundária de forma regular. Conclusão: Artrite atípica esteve presente na maioria dos pacientes que cursaram com acometimento articular, constituindo um fator de confundimento diagnóstico e atraso terapêutico adequado. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and the occurrence of atypical arthritis in children diagnosed with rheumatic fever (RF) and followed in tertiary care clinics in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Methodology: A descriptive study of a case series, of the initial clinical presentation, [...] and of recurrence in 41 children diagnosed with RF. Results: Of the patients studied (n=41), 61% were male, mean age of 9.2 years, and mean age at diagnosis between 5 and 16 years. Arthritis was present in 75.6% of patients; carditis in 75.6%; chorea in 31.7%; erythema marginatum in 14.6%; and subcutaneous nodules in 4.9%. An atypical pattern was observed in 22 of 31 cases of arthritis (70.9%): involvement of small joints and/or axial skeleton in 12 cases (38.7%); >3 weeks of duration in 9 (29%); inadequate response to NSAIDs in 2 (6.5%); oligoarthritis (?4 joints) in 22/31 (71%), with monoarthritis in 6/31 (1 in the foot, 1 in the ankle, and 4 in the knee). Fever was present in 78% of the cases, and 82.9% of patients were regularly on secondary prophylaxis. Conclusion: Atypical arthritis was present in most patients presenting with joint involvement, being a confounding factor against a proper diagnosis and of therapeutic delay.

Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente, Robazzi; Simone Rocha de, Araújo; Silas de Araújo, Costa; Amaurí Batista de, Oliveira Júnior; Lívia Souza, Nunes; Isabel, Guimarães.

218

Manifestações articulares atípicas em pacientes com febre reumática / Articular manifestations in patients with atypical rheumatic fever  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: Descrever as características clínicas e a ocorrência de artrite atípica em crianças com diagnóstico de febre reumática (FR) acompanhadas em ambulatórios terciários em Salvador, Bahia. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo, de uma série de casos, do quadro clínico inicial ou recorrência de 41 [...] crianças com diagnóstico de FR. Resultados: Dos pacientes estudados (n=41), 61% eram do sexo masculino; com média de idade de 9,2 anos e idade no momento do diagnóstico entre 5 e 16 anos. Artrite esteve presente em 75,6% dos pacientes; cardite em 75,6%; coreia em 31,7%; eritema marginado em 14,6% e nódulos subcutâneos em 4,9%. Um padrão atípico foi observado em 22 dos 31 casos com artrite (70,9%): envolvimento de pequenas articulações e/ou esqueleto axial em 12 casos (38,7%); duração maior que três semanas em nove (29%); resposta inadequada ao AINH em dois (6,5%); oligoartrite (? quatro articulações) em 22/31 (71%), sendo monoartrite em 6/31 (uma em pés, uma em tornozelo e quatro em joelho). A febre esteve presente em 78% dos casos e 82,9% dos pacientes utilizavam a profilaxia secundária de forma regular. Conclusão: Artrite atípica esteve presente na maioria dos pacientes que cursaram com acometimento articular, constituindo um fator de confundimento diagnóstico e atraso terapêutico adequado. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and the occurrence of atypical arthritis in children diagnosed with rheumatic fever (RF) and followed in tertiary care clinics in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Methodology: A descriptive study of a case series, of the initial clinical presentation, [...] and of recurrence in 41 children diagnosed with RF. Results: Of the patients studied (n=41), 61% were male, mean age of 9.2 years, and mean age at diagnosis between 5 and 16 years. Arthritis was present in 75.6% of patients; carditis in 75.6%; chorea in 31.7%; erythema marginatum in 14.6%; and subcutaneous nodules in 4.9%. An atypical pattern was observed in 22 of 31 cases of arthritis (70.9%): involvement of small joints and/or axial skeleton in 12 cases (38.7%); >3 weeks of duration in 9 (29%); inadequate response to NSAIDs in 2 (6.5%); oligoarthritis (?4 joints) in 22/31 (71%), with monoarthritis in 6/31 (1 in the foot, 1 in the ankle, and 4 in the knee). Fever was present in 78% of the cases, and 82.9% of patients were regularly on secondary prophylaxis. Conclusion: Atypical arthritis was present in most patients presenting with joint involvement, being a confounding factor against a proper diagnosis and of therapeutic delay.

Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente, Robazzi; Simone Rocha de, Araújo; Silas de Araújo, Costa; Amaurí Batista de, Oliveira Júnior; Lívia Souza, Nunes; Isabel, Guimarães.

2014-07-01

219

ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

Matsumoto, Emi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

2012-03-30

220

ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

 
 
 
 
221

Intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the proximal ulna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoid osteoma is a common benign osteogenic bone neoplasm characterized histologically by increased osteoid tissue formation with an intracortical nidus surrounded by cortical thickening and vascular fibrous stroma and sclerosis. The clinical presentation classically includes severe nocturnal pain that is improved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Younger men (second and third decades) have the highest incidence, with the most frequent sites of involvement being the long bones or axial skeleton. Osteoid osteoma may be missed due to the lesion occurring in an atypical location or due to failure to obtain advanced imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT). Intralesional or wide excision, or CT-guided radiofrequency ablation if available, leads to predictable and rapid pain relief. The authors report the case of a 24-year-old man who had a painful flexion contracture of his dominant right elbow for 1.5 years, secondary to an intra-articular osteoid osteoma. Attempted motion, passive or active, produced a marked exacerbation of pain. Previous surgeries, including an elbow synovectomy and an ulnar nerve transposition, had been unsuccessful in relieving his pain. Plain radiographs demonstrated a small area of periosteal thickening adjacent to the sublime tubercle. Fine-cut CT scan demonstrated an osteoid osteoma within the articular surface of the trochlear notch of the olecranon, adjacent to the sublime tubercle. Because of a perceived risk to the surrounding articular cartilage, CT-guided radiofrequency ablation was not performed. Wide en bloc surgical excision of the nidus was performed, with complete resolution of pain and rapid return to normal function. PMID:24679212

Kraus, Gabriel; Fortes, Sofia; Vazquez, Joyce; Renfree, Kevin J

2014-02-01

222

Pediatric and adolescent intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calcaneal fractures in childhood are very rare, whereas particularly intra-articular displaced fractures are not typical in skeletally immature children. Various techniques of osteosynthesis have been described. This study aimed to determine clinical and radiological outcome after surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Fourteen intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus were included in this retrospective study. Eleven children (2 girls and 9 boys aged 6-16 years (average age 11.5 years underwent surgical treatment. One child sustained a Type II open fracture of both calcanei. All injuries occurred after a high-energy trauma; 3 patients had multiple additional fractures. The clinical and radiological postoperative follow up was an average 44 months. In 4 cases, a reduction through a minimally invasive approach and fixation with K-wires or screws could be achieved. Eleven fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis, K-wires or screws. In one case with open fractures of both heel bones, an additional external fixator was applied. The surgical treatment approach adopted enabled the pre-operative Boehler’s angle (average 16° to be improved to an average 30°. In all cases, except for the patient with open fractures, a good functional result and outcome could be achieved. In calcaneal fractures in childhood, anatomical reduction is the determining factor, as in fractures in adults, whereas the surgical technique seems to have no influence on clinical outcome in children. The wound healing problems that have often been described were not observed in this age group.

Dominik Seybold

2013-06-01

223

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage has recently been recognized as a tool for the characterization of cartilage morphology, biochemistry and function. In this paper advancements in cartilage imaging, computation of cartilage volume and thickness, and measurement of relaxation times (T2 and T1? are presented. In addition, the delayed uptake of Gadolinium DTPA as a marker of proteoglycan depletion is also reviewed. The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using these imaging techniques show promise for cartilage assessment and for the study of osteoarthritis.

G Blumenkrantz

2007-05-01

224

Focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal mechanism data provide information on the relative magnitudes of the principal stresses, so that a tectonic regime can be assigned. Especially such information is useful for the study of intraplate seismic active regions. A study of earthquake focal mechanisms in the territory of Mongolia as landlocked and intraplate region was conducted. We present map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes with M4.5 which occurred in Mongolia and neighboring regions. Focal mechanisms solutions were constrained by the first motion solutions, as well as by waveform modeling, particularly CMT solutions. Four earthquakes have been recorded in Mongolia in XX century with magnitude more than 8, the 1905 M7.9 Tsetserleg and M8.4 Bolnai earthquakes, the 1931 M8.0 Fu Yun earthquake, the 1957 M8.1 Gobi-Altai earthquake. However the map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia allows seeing all seismic active structures: Gobi Altay, Mongolian Altay, active fringe of Hangay dome, Hentii range etc. Earthquakes in the most of Mongolian territory and neighboring China regions are characterized by strike-slip and reverse movements. Strike-slip movements also are typical for earthquakes in Altay Range in Russia. The north of Mongolia and south part of the Baikal area is a region where have been occurred earthquakes with different focal mechanisms. This region is a zone of the transition between compressive regime associated to India-Eurasian collision and extensive structures localized in north of the country as Huvsgul area and Baykal rift. Earthquakes in the Baikal basin itself are characterized by normal movements. Earthquakes in Trans-Baikal zone and NW of Mongolia are characterized dominantly by strike-slip movements. Analysis of stress-axis orientations, the tectonic stress tensor is presented. The map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia could be useful tool for researchers in their study on Geodynamics of Central Asia, particularly of Mongolian and Baikal regions.

Sodnomsambuu, D.; Natalia, R.; Gangaadorj, B.; Munkhuu, U.; Davaasuren, G.; Danzansan, E.; Yan, R.; Valentina, M.; Battsetseg, B.

2011-12-01

225

Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The ?2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

226

Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea / Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR) pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA), relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP) son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico [...] en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987) mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p Abstract in english A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM), which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint dam [...] age and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987) with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p

María Jezabel, Haye Salinas; Soledad, Retamozo; Lorena, Vetorazzi; Natalia, Peano; Patricia Ericka, Díaz Cuiza; María Sol, Castaños Menescardi; Evangelina María, Miretti; Laura Mariela, Encinas; Ana Cecilia, Álvarez; Verónica, Saurit; Alejandro, Alvarellos; Francisco, Caeiro.

2013-02-01

227

Listeria monocytogenes septic arthritis following intra-articular yttrium-90 therapy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of septic arthritis, which usually occurs in a host compromised by systemic illness. Intra-articular irradiation with yttrium-90 is generally free of complication. We report a case of intra-articular sepsis of the knee joint by Listeria monocytogenes acquired under unusual circumstances.

Wilson, A. P.; Prouse, P. J.; Gumpel, J. M.

1984-01-01

228

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2003-12-15

229

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

230

Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.

Thibault Lemaire

2010-03-01

231

Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido [...] a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson) e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados. Abstract in english In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the [...] tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.

Thibault, Lemaire; Salah, Naili; Vittorio, Sansalone.

232

Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido [...] a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson) e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados. Abstract in english In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the [...] tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.

Thibault, Lemaire; Salah, Naili; Vittorio, Sansalone.

2010-03-01

233

Measurements of mandibular length: a comparison of articulare vs condylion.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the validity of articulare for mandibular length measurements by exposing 3 lateral cephalograms on each of 60 consecutive patients. The radiographs were exposed with the patient in a closed-mouth position in habitual occlusion, a closed-mouth position with the patient in centric relation, and in an open-mouth position. The linear distances (mm) of articulare (Ar) to pogonion (Pog), Ar to gonion (Go), and Go to Pog were measured on the 2 closed-mouth cephalograms and compared with each other as well as the linear distances of condyle (Co) to Pog, Co to Go, and Go to Pog measured from the open-mouth cephalogram on each individual. Product-moment correlation coefficients were used to measure the linear associations among the mandibular measurements from the 3 techniques. Repeated measures analyses of variance were also fit to estimate the correlations between the 3 measurements adjusted for age and sex. The results of this study show that measurements taken from both closed-mouthed techniques agreed extremely well (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.99). In addition, measurements from both closed-mouth techniques highly agreed with the corresponding measurements taken with the open-mouth technique (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94). This data suggests that measurements taken from Ar correlate very well with measurements taken from Co and that this correlation is not dependent on whether the patient is positioned in habitual occlusion or centric relation. PMID:11407774

Haas, D W; Martinez, D F; Eckert, G J; Diers, N R

2001-06-01

234

Effects of freezing on the mechanical properties of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventing cartilage injury is important in minimizing the long term debilitating effects of osteoarthritis. Accurate subfracture injury prediction must take into account the possible effects that freeze thaw cycles may have on the mechanical properties of cartilage tissue. This paper addresses this concern with matched pair testing of various low temperature storage techniques against fresh control groups. Ten matched pairs of bovine knees were used for testing, five pairs for a -20 degrees C slow freeze cycle and five pairs for a -80 degres C flash freeze cycle. Controlled mechanical indention tests were performed on the bovine articular cartilage-on-bone specimens to compare stiffness, peak stress, and loading energy of the cartilage. Findings showed that a slow freeze cycle or flash freeze cycle caused cartilage stiffness to decrease by 37% and 31% respectively, which was statistically significant in both cases (pfreezing process (p=0.03). A similar trend was observed with compressive stress in the flash freeze specimens, although the 37% decrease was not found to be statistically significant (p=0.08). These results may be indicative of a weakened extracellular matrix structure caused by the freeze-thaw process. It is still unclear whether these changes in mechanical properties will result in a change in injury susceptibility for articular cartilage. PMID:17487105

Kennedy, Eric A; Tordonado, David S; Duma, Stefan M

2007-01-01

235

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis with intra-articular distraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has shown high rates of union comparable to those with open arthrodesis but with substantially less postoperative morbidity, shorter operative times, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays. To easily perform arthroscopic resection of the articular cartilage, sufficient distraction of the joint is necessary to insert the arthroscope and instruments. However, sometimes, standard noninvasive ankle distraction will not be sufficient in post-traumatic ankle arthritis, with the development of arthrofibrosis and joint contracture after severe ankle trauma. In the present report, we describe a technique to distract the ankle joint by inserting a 4.6-mm stainless steel cannula with a blunt trocar inside the joint. The cannula allowed sufficient intra-articular distraction, and, at the same time, a 4.0-mm arthroscope can be inserted through the cannula to view the joint. Screws can be inserted to fix the joint under fluoroscopic guidance without changing the patient's position or removing the noninvasive distraction device and leg holder, which are often necessary during standard arthroscopic arthrodesis with noninvasive distraction. PMID:24717518

Kim, Hyong Nyun; Jeon, June Young; Noh, Kyu Cheol; Kim, Hong Kyun; Dong, Quanyu; Park, Yong Wook

2014-01-01

236

A concurrent computer aided detection (CAD) tool for articular cartilage disease of the knee on MR imaging using active shape models  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and a major cause of morbidity affecting millions of adults in the US and world wide. In the knee, OA begins with the degeneration of joint articular cartilage, eventually resulting in the femur and tibia coming in contact, and leading to severe pain and stiffness. There has been extensive research examining 3D MR imaging sequences and automatic/semi-automatic techniques for 2D/3D articular cartilage extraction. However, in routine clinical practice the most popular technique still remain radiographic examination and qualitative assessment of the joint space. This may be in large part because of a lack of tools that can provide clinically relevant diagnosis in adjunct (in near real time fashion) with the radiologist and which can serve the needs of the radiologists and reduce inter-observer variation. Our work aims to fill this void by developing a CAD application that can generate clinically relevant diagnosis of the articular cartilage damage in near real time fashion. The algorithm features a 2D Active Shape Model (ASM) for modeling the bone-cartilage interface on all the slices of a Double Echo Steady State (DESS) MR sequence, followed by measurement of the cartilage thickness from the surface of the bone, and finally by the identification of regions of abnormal thinness and focal/degenerative lesions. A preliminary evaluation of CAD tool was carried out on 10 cases taken from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) database. When compared with 2 board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists, the automatic CAD application was able to get segmentation/thickness maps in little over 60 seconds for all of the cases. This observation poses interesting possibilities for increasing radiologist productivity and confidence, improving patient outcomes, and applying more sophisticated CAD algorithms to routine orthopedic imaging tasks.

Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Safdar, Nabile; Siddiqui, Khan; Chang, Chein-I.; Siegel, Eliot

2008-03-01

237

Facts about Birth Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

... On this Page Birth Defects are Common Identifying Birth Defects Prevention Causes References Birth defects are serious conditions that ... rays or hearing tests. Learn more about diagnosing birth defects »  Top of Page Prevention Not all birth defects can be prevented. But, ...

238

Solid-state curved focal plane arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

2010-01-01

239

Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

2014-01-01

240

Hybrid Extrinsic Silicon Focal Plane Architecture  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-area focal planes require mechanical assembly techniques which must be compatible with optical alignment, minimum deadspace, and cryogenic requirements in order to achieve optimum performance. Hybrid extrinsic silicon has been found particularly suitable for such an application. It will be shown that by choosing a large-area extrinsic silicon detector array which is hybrid-mated to a multiplicity of multiplexers a very cost-effective and high-density focal plane module can be assembled. Other advantages of this approach are inherent optical alignment and excellent performance.

Pommerrenig, D. H.; Meinhardt, T.; Lowe, J.

1981-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Tibia Vara due to Focal Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case of unilateral tibia vara associated with an area of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia in the medial aspect of the right proximal tibia. Such a case has not been described previously. The affected child was 8 months old. Deformity resolved without aggressive treatment. The pathogenesis of the focal lesion remains controversial. The most likely explanation is that the mesenchymal anlage of the tibial metaphysis has for unknown reasons, developed abnormality at the insertion of the pes anserinus. Keywords: Tibia Vara, Pes Anserinus

A Tavakoli

2004-06-01

242

Zone plates with black focal spots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer-designed linear and circular zone plates are considered that utilize a pi ;-phase jump in order to create destructive interference in the focus. Intensity distributions in the focal plane as well as along the optical axis are calculated for a few examples. A significant decrease of the black spot diameter in comparison with the dimensions of the ordinary focal spot is obtained. Further reduction is achieved when the central region of the zone plate is obstructed. Some applications to alignment and the schlieren technique are suggested. Experimental results that confirm the calculated distributions are presented. PMID:20717392

Viñas, S B; Jaroszewicz, Z; Ko?odziejczyk, A; Sypek, M

1992-01-10

243

Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observaron facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función.This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wear facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

José Miguel Montero Parrilla

2011-09-01

244

Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata / Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observar [...] on facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función. Abstract in english This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wea [...] r facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

José Miguel, Montero Parrilla; Zuilén, Jiménez Quintana.

245

Lavado articular por punción en pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla / Articular washout by puncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la osteoartritis de la rodilla constituye una de las causas más frecuente de dolor de esta articulación, en la actualidad para su alivio uno de los métodos empleados es el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de [...] esta modalidad de tratamiento para el alivio del dolor y la disminución en el consumo de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 75 pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla y tratados mediante lavado articular por punción más el uso de esteroides intra-articulares en el Centro Médico de Diagnóstico Integral, Caracas, República Bolivariana de Venezuela desde diciembre de 2008 hasta mayo 2009.El universo de estudio coincidió con la muestra Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino en más del 60% de los pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 56,9 años. El 48% de los enfermos mantuvo alivio del dolor a los tres meses de realizado el proceder. El uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo disminuyó considerablemente después de realizado el proceder. Un 17,3% de los pacientes requirió de un segundo lavado articular especialmente a partir del primer mes de haber hecho el primer lavado. El 76% de los enfermos a los tres meses se mantuvieron con resultados de excelente o bueno. Los factores de mal pronóstico que más influyeron en el resultado fueron el dolor al reposo, largo periodo de evolución de los síntomas y cambios radiográficos marcados. Conclusiones: el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares es un método útil en el alivio del dolor en la mayoría de los enfermos con Osteoartritis de la Rodilla hasta los tres meses de realizado, además de disminuir de forma significativa el uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Abstract in english Background:osteoarthritis of the knee constitutes one of the most frequent causes of pain of this joint, nowadays for its relief, one of the used methods is the articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of this treatmen [...] t modality for pain relief and the decrease of non-steroid anti-inflammatory consumption. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 75 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and treated them by means of articular washout by puncture, besides the use of intra-articular steroids in the Integral Diagnostic Medical Center from Caracas, Venezuela from December 2008 to May 2009; the universe coincided with the sample. Results: the female sex in more than 60% of patients prevailed. The mean age was about 56,9 years. The 48% of sick persons kept relief of pain to the three months of carrying out proceeding. The use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories diminished considerably after proceeding. The 17,3% of patients required a second articular washout especially starting from the first month of the first washout. The 76% of sick persons to the three months stayed with excellent or good results. Factors of bad prognostic that most influenced in the result was the pain to the rest, long period of evolution of the symptoms and marked radiographic changes. Conclusions: articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids is a useful method of pain relief in the majority of sick persons with osteoarthritis of the knee until the three months of carrying out the procedure, besides diminishing in a significant way the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories.

Alejandro, Álvarez López; Yenima, García Lorenzo; Maruldis, García Lorenzo.

246

O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas / Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados [...] vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125); em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313). CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp). METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp a [...] nd the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125), and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313). CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

Márcio de Oliveira, Carneiro; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; José, Barbieri Neto.

247

O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas / Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados [...] vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125); em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313). CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp). METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp a [...] nd the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125), and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313). CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

Márcio de Oliveira, Carneiro; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; José, Barbieri Neto.

2013-04-01

248

Improved repair of chondral and osteochondral defects in the ovine trochlea compared with the medial condyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between topographic location and articular cartilage repair in preclinical animal models are unknown. Based on clinical investigations, we hypothesized that lesions in the ovine femoral condyle repair better than in the trochlea. Full-thickness chondral and osteochondral defects were simultaneously established in the weightbearing area of the medial femoral condyle and the lateral trochlear facet in sheep, with chondral defects subjected to subchondral drilling. After 6 months in vivo, cartilage repair and osteoarthritis development was evaluated by macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses. Macroscopic and histological articular cartilage repair and type-II collagen immunoreactivity were better in the femoral trochlea, regardless of the defect type. Location-independently, osteochondral defects induced more osteoarthritic degeneration of the adjacent cartilage than drilled chondral lesions. DNA and proteoglycan contents of chondral defects were higher in the condyle, reflecting physiological topographical differences. The results indicate that topographic location dictates the structural patterns and biochemical composition of the repair tissue in sheep. These findings suggest that repair of cartilage defects at different anatomical sites of the ovine stifle joint needs to be assessed independently and that the sheep trochlea exhibits cartilage repair patterns reflective of the human medial femoral condyle. PMID:23813860

Orth, Patrick; Meyer, Heinz-Lothar; Goebel, Lars; Eldracher, Mona; Ong, Mei Fang; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

2013-11-01

249

Dual band QWIP focal plane array  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

250

Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

2006-01-01

251

[Subtle focal diffusion abnormality in the hippocampus].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 53-year-old female patient presented with sudden onset confusion and disorientation. Further neurological examination was unremarkable and the patient showed a complete recovery after several hours. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination performed 2 days later revealed a tiny focal lesion in the lateral hippocampus in the diffusion weighted images consistent with transient global amnesia. PMID:22710991

Macht, S; Hellen, F; Wenzel, D; Turowski, B

2012-07-01

252

MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

1999-06-17

253

Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

254

MRI features of cervical articular process degenerative joint disease in Great Dane dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical spondylomyelopathy or Wobbler syndrome commonly affects the cervical vertebral column of Great Dane dogs. Degenerative changes affecting the articular process joints are a frequent finding in these patients; however, the correlation between these changes and other features of cervical spondylomyelopathy are uncertain. We described and graded the degenerative changes evident in the cervical articular process joints from 13 Great Danes dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy using MR imaging, and evaluated the relationship between individual features of cervical articular process joint degeneration and the presence of spinal cord compression, vertebral foraminal stenosis, intramedullary spinal cord changes, and intervertebral disc degenerative changes. Degenerative changes affecting the articular process joints were common, with only 13 of 94 (14%) having no degenerative changes. The most severe changes were evident between C4-C5 and C7-T1 intervertebral spaces. Reduction or loss of the hyperintense synovial fluid signal on T2-weighted MR images was the most frequent feature associated with articular process joint degenerative changes. Degenerative changes of the articular process joints affecting the synovial fluid or articular surface, or causing lateral hypertrophic tissue, were positively correlated with lateral spinal cord compression and vertebral foraminal stenosis. Dorsal hypertrophic tissue was positively correlated with dorsal spinal cord compression. Disc-associated spinal cord compression was recognized less frequently. PMID:22236021

Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Penderis, Jacques

2012-01-01

255

MRI rotating frame relaxation measurements for articular cartilage assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work we introduced two MRI rotating frame relaxation methods, namely adiabatic T1? and Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF), along with an inversion-prepared Magnetization Transfer (MT) protocol for assessment of articular cartilage. Given the inherent sensitivity of rotating frame relaxation methods to slow molecular motions that are relevant in cartilage, we hypothesized that adiabatic T1? and RAFF would have higher sensitivity to articular cartilage degradation as compared to laboratory frame T2 and MT. To test this hypothesis, a proteoglycan depletion model was used. Relaxation time measurements were performed at 0 and 48h in 10 bovine patellar specimens, 5 of which were treated with trypsin and 5 untreated controls were stored under identical conditions in isotonic saline for 48h. Relaxation times measured at 48h were longer than those measured at 0h in both groups. The changes in T2 and MT relaxation times after 48h were approximately 3 times larger in the trypsin treated specimens as compared to the untreated group, whereas increases of adiabatic T1? and RAFF were 4 to 5 fold larger. Overall, these findings demonstrate a higher sensitivity of adiabatic T1? and RAFF to the trypsin-induced changes in bovine patellar cartilage as compared to the commonly used T2 and MT. Since adiabatic T1? and RAFF are advantageous for human applications as compared to standard continuous-wave T1? methods, adiabatic T1? and RAFF are promising tools for assessing cartilage degradation in clinical settings. PMID:23993794

Ellermann, Jutta; Ling, Wen; Nissi, Mikko J; Arendt, Elizabeth; Carlson, Cathy S; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom; Mangia, Silvia

2013-11-01

256

Segmentation, surface extraction, and thickness computation of articular cartilage  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate computation of the thickness of articular cartilage in 3D is crucial in diagnosis of joint diseases. The purpose of this research project is to develop an unsupervised method to produce three-dimensional (3D) thickness map of articular cartilage with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method consists of two main parts, cartilage extraction and thickness map computation. The initial segmentation for cartilage extraction is achieved using a recently proposed algorithm which depends on region-growing. The regions produced during this process are labeled as cartilage or non-cartilage using a voting procedure which essentially depends on local 2-class clustering and makes use of prior knowledge about cartilage regions. Following cartilage extraction, femoral and tibial cartilages are separated by detecting the interface between them using a deformable model. After the separation, the cartilage surfaces are reconstructed as a triangular mesh and divided into two plates according to the relation between surface normal at each vertex and principal axes of the structure. For surface reconstruction, we propose an algorithm which incorporates a simple MR imaging model which allows surface representations with sub-voxel accuracy. Our thickness computation algorithm treats each plate separately as a deformable model while considering the other plate as the target surface towards which it is deformed. At the end of deformation, the thickness values at each vertex is defined as the distance between the locations at pre and post-deformation instances. The performance of the cartilage segmentation is compared to manual tracing. Also, the performance evaluation of the thickness computation algorithm on phantoms resulted in RMS errors on the order of 1%.

Pakin, S. Kubilay; Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Totterman, Saara; Parker, Kevin J.

2002-05-01

257

Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA, relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987 mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM, which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint damage and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987 with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p < 0.01 and rheumatoid factor (108 vs. 34.5, p < 0.01. Independent association with current smoking habit (p = 0.02, OR = 3.78, 95%: 1.17-12.2, RF positive (p = 0.04, OR 3.23, CI 95%: 1.04 to 11.8 and ACCP antibody positive (p = 0.04, OR 3.23, 95% CI: 1.04-10 was found. The patients with xerostomia (109 vs. 34, p = 0.04, xerophthalmia (150 vs. 34, p < 0.01, subcutaneous nodules (141 vs. 34, p < 0.01 and pulmonary fibrosis (158 vs. 34, p = 0.04 had a higher degree of the ACCP antibody, than controls. In conclusion, ACCP antibody positive, RF positive and smoking were independent risk factors for the development of MEXA.

María Jezabel Haye Salinas

2013-02-01

258

Intra-articular corrective osteotomy for malunited Hoffa fracture: A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hoffa fracture, an isolated coronal plane fracture of the posterior aspect of the femoral condyle, is known as an unstable, intra-articular fracture, and therefore, operative treatment is recommended. However, insufficient open reduction or failure of fixation may lead to malunion. We performed intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited Hoffa fracture in a 31-year-old man and obtained good functional and radiographic results. This report suggests that intra-articular corrective osteotomy for malunited Hoffa fracture offers a good outcome and should be considered as salvage treatment. PMID:22870935

Iwai, Takao; Hamada, Masayuki; Miyama, Takahide; Shino, Konsei

2012-01-01

259

Intra-articular corrective osteotomy for malunited Hoffa fracture: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hoffa fracture, an isolated coronal plane fracture of the posterior aspect of the femoral condyle, is known as an unstable, intra-articular fracture, and therefore, operative treatment is recommended. However, insufficient open reduction or failure of fixation may lead to malunion. We performed intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited Hoffa fracture in a 31-year-old man and obtained good functional and radiographic results. This report suggests that intra-articular corrective osteotomy for malunited Hoffa fracture offers a good outcome and should be considered as salvage treatment.

Iwai Takao

2012-08-01

260

MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms

 
 
 
 
261

Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

Gaskin, Cree M.; Anderson, Mark W.; Choudhri, Asim [UVA Health System, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Diduch, David R. [UVA Health System, Department of Orthopedics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

2009-10-15

262

Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

263

Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions  

CERN Document Server

In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random. For double-couple source orientation the random probability distribution function is not uniform, which complicates the calculation of the likelihood value. To better understand the resulting complexities we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two rota...

Kagan, Y Y

2014-01-01

264

Aerogel detector with a Fresnel lens focalization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of threshold Cherenkov detectors for the identification of high momentum particles in high energy physics experiments is connected with the efficiency of detection of light in the aerogel. As one goes lower in the refractive index, less photons are emitted, and more attention should be paid to the improvements of the detection efficiency. The light integration box method relies on photomultipliers of large size and requires even two of them. We have studied the possibility to use a thin focalizing element (Fresnel lens) between the aerogel and the photomultiplier to focalize the light onto a smaller diameter photomultiplier. The results show that for good aerogel and low indices of refraction (<1.01) the scheme with the aerogel and the Fresnel lens may be superior and less costly than the conventional set-up.

265

Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-15

266

Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

267

Prevalência de hipermobilidade articular em crianças pré-escolares / Prevalence of joint hypermobility in preschool children / Prevalencia de hipermovilidad articular en niños pre-escolares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A hipermobilidade articular é a capacidade de realizar movimentos em amplitudes maiores que a normal. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a prevalência de hipermobilidade articular em crianças pré-escolares da Rede Municipal de Educação de Londrina/PR. O estudo foi do tipo transversal c [...] om amostra constituída de 366 crianças, de 5 e 6 anos de idade. Verificou-se que, das crianças pré-escolares avaliadas, 198 (54,1%) apresentaram hipermobilidade articular, sendo 96 (59,6%) do sexo feminino e 102 (49,8%) do masculino. A hipermobilidade articular foi encontrada com maior frequência nas articulações de cotovelo e joelho, onde ocorreu a hiperextensão. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos masculino e feminino em relação à hipermobilidade articular (?²=3,539, p=0,072). Pode-se concluir que a hipermobilidade articular nas crianças pré-escolares foi achado comum, compatível com a faixa etária da população avaliada no estudo. Abstract in spanish La hipermovilidad articular es la capacidad de realizar movimientos en amplitudes mayores que lo normal. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la prevalencia de hipermovilidad articular en niños pre-escolares de la Red Municipal de Educación de Londrina/PR. El estudio fue de tipo transve [...] rsal con una muestra constituida de 366 niños, de 5 a 6 años de edad. Se verificó que los niños pre-escolares evaluados, 198 (54,1%) presentaron hipermovilidad articular, siendo 96 (59,6%) de sexo femenino y 102 (49,8%) de sexo masculino. La hipermovilidad articular fue encontrada con mayor frecuencia en las articulaciones del tobillo y rodilla, donde ocurre la hiperextensión. No hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos masculino y femenino en relación a la hipermovilidad articular (?²=3,539, p=0,072). Se puede concluir que la hipermovilidad articular en los niños pre-escolares fue encontrada normal, compatible con la línea etaria de la población evaluada en el estudio. Abstract in english Joint hypermobility is the ability to perform movements with a range of motion that is wider than normal. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of joint hypermobility in junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten children from the Municipal Education System of Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Th [...] e study was cross-­sectional, with a sample of 366 children aged between 5 and 6 years. The detection of joint hypermobility was based on the criteria proposed in literature. It was found that 198 (54.1%) of the children evaluated had joint hypermobility, 96 (59.6%) were girls and 102 (49.8%) were boys. Joint hypermobility was found more frequently in the elbow and knee joints, where hyperextension occurred. There was no statistically significant difference between the male and female groups in relation to joint hypermobility (?²=3.539, p=0.072). We can conclude that joint hypermobility found in the junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten children evaluated was common and compatible with the age of the population evaluated in this study.

Jessica Caroliny de Jesus, Neves; Fabíola Unbehaun, Cibinello; Leonardo George Vitorio, Vitor; Débora, Beckner; Claudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins, Siqueira; Dirce Shizuko, Fujisawa.

2013-06-01

268

The Geometric Osteotomy: Joint Preservation in Juxta-Articular Surface Bone Neoplasms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. To present the oncologic and functional results of a consecutive series of patients treated by geometric osteotomy and allograft reconstruction for juxta-articular surface bone neoplasms.

Robert S. Bell

1997-01-01

269

The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics. (orig.)

Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rajiah, Prabhakar [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-09-15

270

Corneal damage following focal laser intervention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corneal endothelial damage caused by two levels of laser energy was studied in albino rats. Observations indicate that focal, non-invasive destruction of the endothelium can be consistently generated by laser treatment following anterior chamber localization of fluorescein. The dose related effects of this described protocol will make it possible to study different aspects of posterior corneal function without generating invasive, inflammatory side effects. (author)

271

Crowding in the GAIA spectrograph focal plane  

CERN Document Server

Superpositions of stellar tracings are present in every slitless spectrograph. The probability for such overlaps in the GAIA RVS spectrograph focal plane is estimated using photometric observations of 66 stellar fields, mostly close to the Galactic plane. It is shown that overlaps of bright stars (V<17) are common near the Galactic plane, and no spectrum is free from superpositions of faint star tracings. Most overlappers are of spectral type K.

Zwitter, T; Zwitter, Tomaz; Henden, Arne

2003-01-01

272

Dynamic focal retinal arteriolar vasospasm in migraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented following an episode of sudden onset simultaneous inferior altitudinal visual loss in his left eye and visual obscuration with shimmering in the inferonasal quadrant of the right eye. Clinical examination demonstrated left superior hemiretinal artery occlusion and an area of focal dynamic spasm along the right superior temporal branch retinal artery, the arteriolar spastic cycle was about 2 sec in duration. Hematological (including complete blood count, thrombophilia screen, vasculitic screen and serum magnesium, carotid, and cardiac investigations were normal. He was given acetazolamide 500 mg orally, timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops once daily and sublingual amyl-nitrate 0.8 mg, and maintained on felodipine 10 mg/day and aspirin 100 mg/day. The area of focal arteriolar spasm in the right eye resolved over two months. To our knowledge there are no prior reports of photographically documented dynamic focal retinal vascular spasm on a MEDLINE and PUBMED search.

Abdul-Rahman Anmar

2011-01-01

273

Large Focal Plane Arrays for Future Missions  

CERN Document Server

We outline the challenges associated with the development and construction of large focal plane arrays for use both on the ground and in space. Using lessons learned from existing JPL-led and ASU/JPL partnership efforts to develop technology for, and design such arrays and imagers for large focal planes, we enumerate here the remaining problems that need to be solved to make such a venture viable. Technologies we consider vital for further development include: (1) architectures, processes, circuits, and readout solutions for production and integration of four-side buttable, low-cost, high-fidelity, high-performance, and high-reliability CCD and CMOS imagers; (2) modular, four-side buttable packaging of CCD/CMOS imagers; (3) techniques and hardware to test and characterize the large number of chips required to produce the hundreds of flight-grade detectors needed for large focal-plane missions being conceived at this time; (4) ground based testbed needs, such as a large format camera mounted on a ground-based ...

Scowen, Paul A; Hoenk, Michael; Gontijo, Ivair; Shapiro, Andrew; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd; Seshadri, Suresh; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Lisman, Doug; Dickie, Matthew; Blacksberg, Jordana

2009-01-01

274

Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window  

Science.gov (United States)

A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

2000-01-01

275

Lavado articular por punción versus artroscopia en el tratamiento de la osteoartritis de rodilla / Articular lavage by puncture versus arthroscopy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se sabe que el lavado articular y el debridamiento son opciones en el tratamiento de la osteoartritis de rodilla. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, abierto y aleatorizado que incluyó 100 pacientes con OA de rodilla (criterio ACR) en estadios II y III de Kellgren y Lawrence para evaluar la utilidad [...] y la eficacia del lavado articular por punción en comparación con el lavado y debridamiento artroscópico. Se distribuyeron en: grupo A (lavado por punción) y grupo B (lavado y debridamiento artroscópico). Se consideraron variables relacionadas con el dolor y la función articular que fueron analizadas al inicio del tratamiento y 90 d después; se realizó un análisis estadístico con el empleo del test de Chi cuadrado y el de t-Student, significación estadística p Abstract in english It is known that the articular lavage and débridement are options for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A prospective, open and randomized study that included 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis (criterion of the American College of Rheumatology) at stages II and III of Kellgren and Lawrence w [...] as conducted to evaluate the usefulness and efficiency of the articular lavage by puncture compared with lavage and arthroscopic débridement. They were distributed into: group A (lavage by puncture) and group B (lavage and arthroscopic débridement). Variables related to pain and articular function that were analyzed at the beginning of the treatment and 90 days later, were considered. A statistical analysis was made by using Chi square test and Student's t test with a statistical significance of p

Araceli, Chico Capote; Miguel, Hernán Estévez del Toro; Idalmis, Barbán Alba; Ángela, Gutiérrez Rojas; Juan Bautista, Kourí.

2004-08-01

276

Human articular cartilage and fibrocartilage: a study with high-angle x-ray diffraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-angle x-ray diffraction was applied to the study of four meniscal fibrocartilages and 11 articular cartilages from patients suffering from various articular disorders. In eight samples microcrystals were seen, apatite most frequently, CaHPO4 in two instances, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) in one. These results confirm the association of various crystals in a single joint, and favour their heterogenous partition on collagen fibres. Images PMID:6524981

Albiser, G; Netter, P; Faure, G; Horn, P; Delagoutte, J P; Gaucher, A

1984-01-01

277

The subchondral bone in articular cartilage repair: current problems in the surgical management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the understanding of interactions between articular cartilage and subchondral bone continues to evolve, increased attention is being directed at treatment options for the entire osteochondral unit, rather than focusing on the articular surface only. It is becoming apparent that without support from an intact subchondral bed, any treatment of the surface chondral lesion is likely to fail. This article reviews issues affecting the entire osteochondral unit, such as subchondral changes after ...

2010-01-01

278

The subchondral bone in articular cartilage repair : current problems in the surgical management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the understanding of interactions between articular cartilage and subchondral bone continues to evolve, increased attention is being directed at treatment options for the entire osteochondral unit, rather than focusing on the articular surface only. It is becoming apparent that without support from an intact subchondral bed, any treatment of the surface chondral lesion is likely to fail. This article reviews issues affecting the entire osteochondral unit, such as subchondral changes after ...

Knutsen, Gunnar; Gomoll, Ah; Madry, H.; Dijk, N.; Seil, R.; Brittberg, M.; Kon, E.

2010-01-01

279

2-Deoxy-D-glucose regulates dedifferentiation through ?-catenin pathway in rabbit articular chondrocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) is known as a synthetic inhibitor of glucose. 2DG regulates various cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation by regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. However, the effects of 2DG in normal cells, including chondrocytes, are not clear yet. We examined the effects of 2DG on dedifferentiation with a focus on the ?-catenin pathway in rabbit articular chondrocytes. The rabbit articular chondrocytes were treated with 5 mM 2DG for ...

Yu, Seon-mi; Kim, Hyun Ah; Kim, Song-ja

2010-01-01

280

Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee: clinical and MR imaging features  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to present clinical and MR imaging features of intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee. Retrospective review of 1685 consecutive medical records and MR examinations of the knee performed at three imaging centers allowed identification of 20 patients (13 men and 7 women; mean age 35 years), in whom evidence of intra-articular ganglion cyst was seen. Of the 20 ganglion cysts, 5 were found in the infrapatellar fat pad, 10 arose from the posterior cruciate ligament, and 5 from the anterior cruciate ligament. Three of five patients with ganglion cyst in the infrapatellar fat pad had a palpable mass. In 7 of 15 patients with ganglion cyst in the intercondylar notch, exacerbation of pain occurred in a squatting position. On four MR arthrographies, ganglion cysts were an intra-articular round, lobulated, low signal intensity lesion. Five cases of fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted SE images demonstrated peripheral thin rim enhancement. The clinical presentation of intra-articular ganglion cyst is varied according to its intra-articular location. The MR appearance of intra-articular ganglion cyst is characteristic and usually associated with the cruciate ligament or the infrapatellar fat pad. Magnetic resonance arthrography has no definite advantage over conventional MR in the evaluation of the lesion. For intra-articular ganglion cyst in the infrapatellar fat pad, fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced MR imaging could be useful, because a thin, rim-enhancing feature of intra-articular ganglion cyst allows it to be distinguished from synovial hemangioma and synovial sarcoma. (orig.)

Kim, M.G.; Cho, W.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, B.H.; Choi, J.A.; Lee, N.J.; Chung, K.B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Y.S.; Cho, S.B. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea); Lim, H.C. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

2001-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Histochemical and autoradiographic studies on the articular cartilage of rat femur after administration of predmisolone acetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Histological, histochemical and autoradiographic changes of the distal femoral articular cartilage after intramuscular administration of prednisolone acetate to rats were studied. To observe and compare DNA synthesis rate, 2 ?Ci of tritiated thymidine was injected into the joint cavity of each knee joint of the experimental animals, and after definite time intervals, a dipping autoradiographic technique was applied. The results showed a recognizable histological and histochemical changes of articular cartilage were producible by contineous intramuscular injection of prednisolone acet

282

Juxta-articular myxoma: an unusual benign mesenchymal lesion, readily mistaken for malignancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myxomas are benign tumours of mesenchymal origin. We describe the first reported case of paraspinal juxta-articular myxoma. Juxta-articular myxomas show increased cellularity and distinction from cellular myxoma is required. The differential also includes malignant myxofibrosarcoma. For patient prognosis and management it is essential to separate these entities. Complete surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment as local recurrences may occur. PMID:25226717

Beggan, C; Davies, K; Leader, M

2014-01-01

283

Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee: clinical and MR imaging features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to present clinical and MR imaging features of intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee. Retrospective review of 1685 consecutive medical records and MR examinations of the knee performed at three imaging centers allowed identification of 20 patients (13 men and 7 women; mean age 35 years), in whom evidence of intra-articular ganglion cyst was seen. Of the 20 ganglion cysts, 5 were found in the infrapatellar fat pad, 10 arose from the posterior cruciate ligament, and 5 from the anterior cruciate ligament. Three of five patients with ganglion cyst in the infrapatellar fat pad had a palpable mass. In 7 of 15 patients with ganglion cyst in the intercondylar notch, exacerbation of pain occurred in a squatting position. On four MR arthrographies, ganglion cysts were an intra-articular round, lobulated, low signal intensity lesion. Five cases of fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted SE images demonstrated peripheral thin rim enhancement. The clinical presentation of intra-articular ganglion cyst is varied according to its intra-articular location. The MR appearance of intra-articular ganglion cyst is characteristic and usually associated with the cruciate ligament or the infrapatellar fat pad. Magnetic resonance arthrography has no definite advantage over conventional MR in the evaluation of the lesion. For intra-articular ganglion cyst in the infrapatellar fat pad, fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced MR imaging could be useful, because anced MR imaging could be useful, because a thin, rim-enhancing feature of intra-articular ganglion cyst allows it to be distinguished from synovial hemangioma and synovial sarcoma. (orig.)

284

Reemplazo articular temporomandibular debido a queratoquiste odontogénico Temporomandibular joint replacement because of odontogenic keratocyst  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existen disímiles condiciones que hacen necesario el reemplazo articular temporomandibular; dentro de las más frecuentes se encuentran la anquilosis, la osteoatrosis, estadíos avanzados del Síndrome de disfunción temporomandibular, daño articular postrauma y procesos neoplásicos o tumorales. Los queratoquistes odontógenos que se agrupan para su estudio dentro de los quistes odontogénicos del desarrollo, representan cerca del 7 al 10 por ciento de todos los quistes maxilo-mandibulares...

Pedro Angel Peñón Vivas; Humberto Sarracent Pérez; Patricia Moreira Rodríguez

2013-01-01

285

Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

Mulhall, K J

2002-10-01

286

The classic: Chapter XVIII. Operative treatment in chronic articular ostitis. 1884.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by Virgil P. Gibney, Chapter XVIII. Operative Treatment in Chronic Articular Ostitis. An accompanying biographical sketch of Virgil P. Gibney, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1166-2 . The Classic Article is (c)1884 and is abridged from Gibney VP. Operative treatment in chronic articular ostitis. In: The Hip and Its Diseases. New York, NY, London, UK: Bermingham & Co; 1884:388-402. PMID:19936860

Gibney, Virgil P

2010-02-01

287

Acercamiento a la mecanobiología del cartílago articular a través de un modelo computacional / Approach to mechanobiology of articular cartilage through a computation model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cartílago articular es un complejo tejido biológico que recubre los extremos de las articulaciones diartrodiales y proporciona resistencia a la compresión y excelentes propiedades de fricción durante el movimiento articular. La presencia de cargas mecánicas influye en el comportamiento y condició [...] n fisiológica del cartílago. Es así como, mediante el mecanismo de mecanotrasducción, los condrocitos perciben la magnitud de la carga y a partir de éste estímulo mecánico expresan genes como el Sox9 o el Runx2, los cuales generan cambios bioquímicos en las células y por tanto en el cartílago mismo. Diferentes trabajos experimentales se reportan acerca del efecto de las cargas impuestas al cartílago relacionadas con la expresión morfogénica del condrocito, sin embargo, no se cuenta con un modelo matemático y/o computacional que pueda explicar el comportamiento antagónico del Sox9 y el Runx2. El objetivo de este trabajo es introducir un modelo matemático que permita predecir el comportamiento mecano-biológico del cartílago articular a partir de las cargas mecánicas cíclicas, la presión hidrostática y la expresión génica y/o de proteínas que facilitan el proceso de síntesis o destrucción del tejido. El modelo se implementó numéricamente con el uso del método de los elementos finitos y los resultados obtenidos permitieron predecir diversos comportamientos mecano-biológicos del cartílago articular. Abstract in english Articular cartilage is a biological tissue complex coating the extremes of diarthric joints and provides resistance to compression and excellent friction properties during the articular movement. Presence of mechanical stress influenced on the behavior and physiologic condition of cartilage. That is [...] how by means of the mechanotransduction, the chondrocytes may to perceive the stress magnitude and from this mechanical stimulus, they express gens like the Sox9 or the Runx2, which generate biochemical changes in cells and thus in the cartilage. Different experimental papers reporting on the effect of the stress imposed on the cartilage related to chondrocytes morphogenetic expression, however, there are not a mathematical model and/or computation to explain the antagonist behavior of Sox9 and the Runx2. The aim of present paper is to introduce a mathematical model allows predicting the mechano-biological behavior of articular cartilage from the cyclic mechanic stress, the hydrostatic pressure and the genic expression and or proteins providing the tissue synthesis or destruction. Model was numerically implemented using the finite elements method and the results obtained allowed to predict different mechano-biological behaviors of articular cartilage.

Nancy Stella, Landínez Parra; Diego Alexander, Garzón Alvarado; Juan Carlos, Vanegas Acosta.

288

Biphasic indentation of articular cartilage--I. Theoretical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mathematical solution has been obtained for the indentation creep and stress-relaxation behavior of articular cartilage where the tissue is modeled as a layer of linear KLM biphasic material of thickness h bonded to an impervious, rigid bony substrate. The circular (radius = a), plane-ended indenter is assumed to be rigid, porous, free-draining, and frictionless. Double Laplace and Hankel transform techniques were used to solve the partial differential equations. The transformed equations and boundary conditions yielded an integral equation of the Fredholm type which was analyzed asymptotically and solved numerically. Our asymptotic analyses showed that the linear KLM biphasic material behaves like an incompressible (v = 0.5) single-phase elastic solid at t = 0+; the instantaneous response of the material is governed by the shear modulus (mu s) of the solid matrix. The linear KLM biphasic material behaves like a compressible elastic solid with material properties defined by those of the solid matrix, i.e. (lambda s, mu s) or (mu s, v s) as t----infinity. The transient viscoelastic creep and stress-relaxation behavior, 0 less than t less than infinity, of this material is controlled by the frictional drag (which is inversely proportional to the permeability k) associated with the flow of the interstitial fluid through the porous-permeable solid matrix. For given values of the Poisson's ratio of the solid matrix v s and the aspect ratio a/h, where a is the radius of the indenter and h is the thickness of the layer, the creep behavior with respect to the dimensionless time H Akt/a2 is completely controlled by the load parameter P/2 mu sa2 and the stress relaxation behavior is completely controlled by the rate of compression parameter R0 = kH A/V0h where H A = lambda s + 2 mu s and the equilibrium strain u0/h. This mathematical solution may now be used to describe an indentation experiment on articular cartilage to determine the intrinsic material properties of the tissue, i.e. permeability k, and the elastic coefficients of the solid phase (lambda s, mu s) or (mu s, v s). PMID:3654668

Mak, A F; Lai, W M; Mow, V C

1987-01-01

289

On the main stages of the history of intra-articular therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this review the main stages in the history of intra-articular therapy of the rheumatic diseases are summarized. The first approach to such a local treatment has been likely performed in 1792 by the French physician Jean Gay, who injected in a swelling knee the “eau du Goulard” (Goulard’s water, namely a mixture based on lead compounds. In the XIX century iodine derivatives have been mainly applied as an intra-articular treatment. In the XX century, before the wide use of intra-articular corticosteroids, chiefly due to the Joseph Lee Hollander’s experiences, a variety of drugs has been employed, including cytostatics and sclerosing substances. A further important stage has been synoviorthesis, by using specific radionuclides, that would actually represent an anti-synovial treatment. In the last years a spread use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid, particularly in osteoarthritis, has been recorded, with the aim to warrant articular viscosupplementation. Future of intra-articular treatment should be represented by the biological drugs, i.e., anti-TNF, but it is still untimely to define the exact role of such a local treatment of arthritis.

L. Punzi

2011-09-01

290

T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

2012-03-15

291

Blockade of leukotriene B4 prevents articular incapacitation in rat zymosan-induced arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether leukotrienes mediate cell influx and articular incapacitation in zymosan-induced arthritis. Rats received 1 mg zymosan intra-articularly (i.a.). The hyperalgesia was measured using the rat articular incapacitation test. Cell influx, leukotriene B(4) and prostaglandin E(2) levels were assessed in the joint exudate, at 6 h. Groups received either the leukotriene B(4) synthesis inhibitor MK 886 (3-[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-t-butyl-thio-5-isopropylindol-2-yl)]-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid 30 min before or 2 h after the zymosan; 0.3-3 mg kg(-1) i.p.), the leukotrienes synthesis inhibitor BWA(4)C (N-(3-phenoxycinnamyl)-acetohydroxamic acid--2 h after the zymosan; 10 microg i.a.) or the peptido-leukotrienes antagonist sodium montelukast (30 min before and 2 h after the zymosan; 10 mg kg(-1) per os). MK 886 inhibited the articular incapacitation and cell influx, while reducing leukotriene B(4), but not prostaglandin E(2) levels. BWA(4)C inhibited the articular incapacitation. Sodium montelukast did not affect either of the parameters. The data suggest that leukotriene B(4) is involved in cell influx and articular incapacitation in zymosan arthritis. PMID:15321738

da Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Rocha, José Carlos da Silva; Girão, Virgínia Cláudia Carneiro; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; Cunha, Fernando de Queiroz

2004-08-16

292

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral knee joint surgery using the Hulth technique. Six weeks post-surgery, the animals were randomly divided into three groups, and each group was respectively given weekly intra-articular injections with Celebrex®, hyaluronic acid and saline. On the sixth week, the results were assessed in rabbit models by gross observation, histological evaluation, and expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3. Results: In the group given Celebrex® and hyaluronic acid, the pathological changes in the rabbit articular cartilage improved significantly, much more than in the saline group. The statistically significant suppression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3 was shown in the Celebrex group. No significant differences were detected between two treatment groups. Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of celecoxib is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis. It might repair and protect early osteoarthritis cartilage by delaying cartilage degeneration and impairing the function of inflammatory mediators, therefore, intra-articular injection of celecoxib can be used as an alternative to the current treatment of osteoarthritis.

Huilin Yang

2010-10-01

293

MR imaging guidance and monitoring of focal thermotherapies. A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Minimally invasive thermotherapies for focal tissue destruction on the basis of laser-, microwave-, focused ultrasound-, or cryogeninduced changes of tissue temperature represent an alternative to surgical tissue ablation, particularly in the treatment of tumors. The thermotherapy modalities listed necessitate indirect guidance and monitoring, since they often do not lend themselves to immediate visual control. In the brain, in head and neck tumors, in the liver, and in the prostate, MRI reliably and accurately delineates both the positions of interstitial thermotherapy applicators and - in contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted images - the perfusion defects in tissue necrosis induced by thermotherapy. The transfer of results of in-vitro and in-vivo model studies to assess interstitial temperature and lesion development during thermotherapy to the actual treatment of patients, however, is still in an initial phase. Further development of both rapid MRI sequences and MRI scanners suited for interventions will show how far treatment systems and guidance systems can be adapted to one another. (orig.)

294

Mechanosensing through focal adhesion-anchored intermediate filaments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrin-based mechanotransduction involves a complex focal adhesion (FA)-associated machinery that is able to detect and respond to forces exerted either through components of the extracellular matrix or the intracellular contractile actomyosin network. Here, we show a hitherto unrecognized regulatory role of vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) in this process. By studying fibroblasts in which vimentin IFs were decoupled from FAs, either because of vimentin deficiency (V0) or loss of vimentin network anchorage due to deficiency in the cytolinker protein plectin (P0), we demonstrate attenuated activation of the major mechanosensor molecule FAK and its downstream targets Src, ERK1/2, and p38, as well as an up-regulation of the compensatory feedback loop acting on RhoA and myosin light chain. In line with these findings, we show strongly reduced FA turnover rates in P0 fibroblasts combined with impaired directional migration, formation of protrusions, and up-regulation of "stretched" high-affinity integrin complexes. By exploiting tension-independent conditions, we were able to mechanistically link these defects to diminished cytoskeletal tension in both P0 and V0 cells. Our data provide important new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying cytoskeleton-regulated mechanosensing, a feature that is fundamental for controlled cell movement and tumor progression. PMID:24347609

Gregor, Martin; Osmanagic-Myers, Selma; Burgstaller, Gerald; Wolfram, Michael; Fischer, Irmgard; Walko, Gernot; Resch, Guenter P; Jörgl, Almut; Herrmann, Harald; Wiche, Gerhard

2014-02-01

295

Focal Adhesion Remodeling Is Crucial for Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Involves Activation of Focal Adhesion Kinase and Paxillin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Actin cytoskeleton remodeling is known to be involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). We have observed glucose-stimulated changes at the ?-cell basal membrane similar to focal adhesion remodeling in cell migration. This led us to study the role of two key focal adhesion proteins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin, in GSIS.

Rondas, Dieter; Tomas, Alejandra; Halban, Philippe A.

2011-01-01

296

Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate two different textures of smectic A liquid crystals. These textures are particularly symmetric when they are observed at crossed polars optical microscopy. For both textures, a model has been made in order to examine the link between the defective macroscopic texture and the microscopic disposition of the layers. We present in particular in the case of some hexagonal tiling of circles (similar to the Apollonius tiling some numeric simulation in order to visualize the smectic layers. We discuss of the nature of the smectic layers, which permit to assure their continuity from one focal conic domain to another adjacent one.

Malika Belloul

2009-04-01

297

A case with proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) and fibular A/hypoplasia (FA/H) associated with urogenital anomalies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malformations of the lower limbs are rare and heterogeneous anomalies. Some congenital anomalies involving face, gastrointestinal system, skeletal system, urogenital system, heart, lung and diaphragma associated with lower limb malformations have been described in the literature. Here, we report a case of left proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) together with fibular aplasia associated with left undescended testis and hypospadias. The putative embryologic mechanisms of lower limb defects and their possible association with lower urogenital tract malformations are also discussed. PMID:17290579

Ergin, Hacer; Semerci, C Nur; Bican, Mevlüt; Düzcan, Füsun; Yagci, A Baki; Erdogan, Kadri Murat; Tufan, A Cevik

2006-01-01

298

Early failure of articular surface replacement XL total hip arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ASR (articular surface replacement) XL (DePuy, Warsaw, Ind) metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty offers the advantage of stability and increased motion. However, an alarming number of early failures prompted the evaluation of patients treated with this system. A prospective study of patients who underwent arthroplasty with the ASR XL system was performed. Patients with 2-year follow-up or any revision were included. Failure rates, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, and radiographs were evaluated. Ninety-five patients (105 hips) were included. There were 16 revisions. Thirteen (12%) were aseptic acetabular failures. Eight were revised for aseptic loosening; 4, for metallosis; 1, for malposition; 2, for infection; and 1, for periprosthetic fracture. Mean time to revision was 1.6 years (0.18-3.4 years). The ASR XL with a revision rate of 12% is the second reported 1 piece metal-on-metal system with a significant failure rate at early follow-up. This particular class of implants has inherent design flaws that lead to early failure. PMID:21550764

Steele, Garen D; Fehring, Thomas K; Odum, Susan M; Dennos, Anne C; Nadaud, Matthew C

2011-09-01

299

Measurement of diffusion in articular cartilage using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS provides information about translational diffusion of fluorescent molecules in tiny detection volumes at the single-molecule level. In normal states, cartilage tissue lacks vascularity, so chondrocyte metabolism depends on diffusion for molecular exchanges. The abundant extracellular matrix (ECM of cartilage is maintained by a limited number of chondrocytes. ECM plays an important role in the regulation of chondrocyte functions. In this study, FCS was used to measure diffusion behaviors of albumin, the major protein of the intra-articular space, using normal and degenerated cartilage. Preliminary investigation of fluorescence dyes including Alexa 488, Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine 123 was conducted to evaluate their properties in cartilage. Results The results indicate that the diffusion behaviors of fluorescently lableded albumin can be observed using FCS in both normal and chemically degenerated cartilage. Conclusions This work demonstrates the capability of FCS for direct measurement of diffusion in cartilaginous ECM. When the diffusion characteristics of fluorescent probes in ECM are clarified using FCS evaluation, FCS will be applicable as a method for early diagnosis of osteoarthritis, which is accompanied by increased abnormalities of ECM and also as tool for evaluating bio-engineered artificial cartilage for autologous chondrocyte implantation.

Ushida Kiminori

2011-03-01

300

MRI demonstration of hypertrophic articular cartilage repair in osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog produces changes in the unstable joint typical of osteoarthritis, although full-thickness catilage ulceration is rare. Information concerning the late fate of the cartilage after transection is meager. In the present study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate cartilage abnormalities 3 years after transection. Plain radiographs of the osteoarthritic and contralateral knees were obtained serially. MRI was performed 3 years after anterior cruciate ligament transection, at which time all three animals exhibited knee instability. Radiographs of the osteoarthritic knees showed osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis with progression between 2 and 3 years. On MRI, articular cartilage margins in the knee were indistinct, and the cartilage was thicker than that in the contralateral knee (maximum difference = 2.7 mm). This increase in thickness is consistent with biochemical data from dogs killed up to 64 weeks after creation of knee instability, which showed marked increases in cartilage bulk and in proteoglycan synthesis and concentration. The findings emphasize that increased matrix synthesis after anterior cruciate ligament transection leads to functional cartilage repair sustained even in the presence of persistent alteration of joint mechanics. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
301

ACTIVITY OF CANONICAL WNT SIGNAL SYSTEM IN HYALINE CARTILAGE ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES IN PROCESS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Canonical and non-canonical Wnt systems are essential regulators of chondrogenesis and bone development. However, the roles of these systems in synovial joint development are not well studied. To determine if canonical Wnt system is active in developing articular chondrocytes we used immunohistochemistry for ?-galactosidase and doublecortin (cell-type specific marker for articular chondrocytes to double label sections through joint regions of E14.5, E18.5, P10 and adult mice. Here the following results are presented. Canonical Wnt signal system does not work in developing articular chondrocytes at early embryonic stages (E14.5; it is active in the articular chondrocytes at late embryonic stages (E16.5-E18.5 and during postnatal development (P7-P10, but is turned off again in the adult articular chondrocytes. These results suggest that canonical Wnt signaling is being regulated during articular chondrocytes differentiation and joint formation.

A.O. Molotkov

2009-03-01

302

Single Ventricle Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Single Ventricle Defects Updated:Mar 26,2014 What are ... for... Parents of children with one of these single ventricle defects Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome What is ...

303

Birth Defects (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... avoiding alcohol intake during pregnancy. Neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in the first month of pregnancy when ... doesn't close completely, the baby has an NTD; many babies with these defects are stillborn or ...

304

Ultrasonographic features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). US features of 15 patients with pathologically proven focal XGP were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists who reached a consensus, in terms of the location, margin, size, and echo texture of the mass-like lesion, and presence or absence of associated calculi, lymphadenopathy, or local extension. These US findings were compared with CT findings. The patients were checked for the clinical symptom and sign through the review of hospital records. Thirteen of 15 patients were adults and 2 were children, and 10 were males. Their age ranged from 6 to 57 (mean, 39) years at presentation. Eight of 15 cases (53%) were in right kidney, and on US scan 12 cases (80%) were well circumscribed. The size of the mass ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 (mean, 3.8) cm. Of 15 masses, 13 (87%) were solid and two were cystic. Thirteen solid masses were composed of 10 masses (77%) with inner hypo- or anechoic foci and the other three masses without inner hypo- or anechoic foci, and the preoperative diagnosis was either renal cell carcinoma (n=11) or Wilms' tumor (n=2). The preoperative diagnosis in two cystic lesions (13%) was renal abscess. Renal calculi were found in one case, but lymphadenopathy or local extension was not depicted. Clinical symptoms and signs of flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, or anemia were found in 11 of 15 patients. Focal XGP revealed US features of solid or cystic masses confined within the renal outline mimicking renal tumor or abscess. US features, however, in association with clinical findings and other imaging findings (such as CT or MR imaging) may help the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2003-09-15

305

Ultrasonographic features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). US features of 15 patients with pathologically proven focal XGP were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists who reached a consensus, in terms of the location, margin, size, and echo texture of the mass-like lesion, and presence or absence of associated calculi, lymphadenopathy, or local extension. These US findings were compared with CT findings. The patients were checked for the clinical symptom and sign through the review of hospital records. Thirteen of 15 patients were adults and 2 were children, and 10 were males. Their age ranged from 6 to 57 (mean, 39) years at presentation. Eight of 15 cases (53%) were in right kidney, and on US scan 12 cases (80%) were well circumscribed. The size of the mass ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 (mean, 3.8) cm. Of 15 masses, 13 (87%) were solid and two were cystic. Thirteen solid masses were composed of 10 masses (77%) with inner hypo- or anechoic foci and the other three masses without inner hypo- or anechoic foci, and the preoperative diagnosis was either renal cell carcinoma (n=11) or Wilms' tumor (n=2). The preoperative diagnosis in two cystic lesions (13%) was renal abscess. Renal calculi were found in one case, but lymphadenopathy or local extension was not depicted. Clinical symptoms and signs of flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, or anemia were found in 11 of 15 patients. Focal XGP revealed US features of solid or cystic masses confinedeatures of solid or cystic masses confined within the renal outline mimicking renal tumor or abscess. US features, however, in association with clinical findings and other imaging findings (such as CT or MR imaging) may help the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

306

Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (?50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment. PMID:25082395

Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

2014-10-01

307

The effect of intra-articular hydrocortisone injections on healthy rat joints. Pt. 1. Incorporation of 35S sulphates into glucosaminoglycans of articular connective tissue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using 35S sodium sulphate the changes in connective tissue glucosaminoglycans were studied in knee joints of rats after topical injections of hydrocortisone. It was demonstrated that the incorporation of sodium sulphate into articular connective tissue glucosaminoglycans was raised in relation to control animals. The possible mechanisms responsible for the increase in the content of glucosaminoglycans after intraaricular injections of hydrocortisone are discussed. (author)

308

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin) with [...] biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P

M., Gerbase-DeLima; A., Pereira-Santos; R., Sesso; J., Temin; E.S., Aragão; H., Ajzen.

309

Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: reports of 2 cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic inflammatory condition which in most cases involves either an entire non-duplicated kidney or a moiety of a duplicated kidney. These cases present with quite characteristic radiologic findings including an enlarged nonfunctioning kidney and renal stones. However, when the condition involves only a part of a non-duplicated kidney and especially where there is an absence of the specific findings described above, differentiation from cystic neoplasm may be difficult. We report the radiologic findings of two such cases of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

310

Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: reports of 2 cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic inflammatory condition which in most cases involves either an entire non-duplicated kidney or a moiety of a duplicated kidney. These cases present with quite characteristic radiologic findings including an enlarged nonfunctioning kidney and renal stones. However, when the condition involves only a part of a non-duplicated kidney and especially where there is an absence of the specific findings described above, differentiation from cystic neoplasm may be difficult. We report the radiologic findings of two such cases of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

Han, Dae Hee; Jeong, Young Ki; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-07-01

311

Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

1999-10-01

312

Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics

313

FOCAL EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA: HECK’S DISEASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heck's disease (focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH is clinically characterized by multiple circumscribed, soft elevated nodules of the oral mucosa. Papules and plaques are usually the color of normal mucosa, but may be pale or, rarely, white. Disease may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Lessions may be located in the area of mucous membranes of the lips, cheeks and tongue. It is believed that the two virus types are responsible for the FEH, are: HPV 13 and HPV 32. Different therapeutic procedures have been reported: surgical excision, laser ablation, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, interferon, retinoic acid, 5% immiquimod.

Brzezi?ski Piotr

2010-10-01

314

Permeability factors in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represents a group of glomerular disorders, identified on kidney biopsy, that progress in the histopathologic pattern of sclerosis in parts of some glomeruli. Damage to podocytes usually marks the beginning of the disease, most evident in primary FSGS. In addition to genetic predisposition, there are many acquired causes that disturb normal podocyte homeostasis and allow for the development of FSGS. The aim of this review was to summarize recent findings of the most relevant circulating permeability factors that may serve as biomarkers of active primary idiopathic FSGS and aid in the diagnosis and prediction of recurrent FSGS after kidney transplantation. PMID:25168830

Reiser, Jochen; Nast, Cynthia C; Alachkar, Nada

2014-09-01

315

The pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histologic pattern of injury on kidney biopsy that can arise from a diverse range of causes and mechanisms. Although primary and secondary forms are described based on the underlying cause, there are many common factors that underlie the development of this segmental injury. In this review, we will describe the currently accepted model for the pathogenesis of classic FSGS and review the data supporting this model. Although the podocyte is considered the major target of injury in FSGS, we will also highlight the contributions of other resident glomerular cells in the development of FSGS. PMID:25168829

Jefferson, J Ashley; Shankland, Stuart J

2014-09-01

316

Focal hepatic infarction with bile lake formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Venous thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives is a well recognized phenomenon. Arterial thrombosis, while less common, is also a known risk, as evidenced by the increased incidence of cerebral vascular accidents and myocardial ischemia or infarction. The liver is relatively protected from the usual consequences of arterial thrombosis because of its dual blood supply. The authors present an unusual case of a young woman with a history of oral contraceptive and cigarette use who developed hepatic artery thrombosis and had focal liver lesions on computed tomography (CT) due to hepatic infarction and bile lake formation despite an intact portal venous system

317

Focal-plane sensor-processor chips  

CERN Document Server

Focal-plane sensor-processor imager devices are sensor arrays and processor arrays embedded in each other on the same silicon chip. This close coupling enables ultra-fast processing even on tiny, low power devices, because the slow and energetically expensive transfer of the large amount of sensory data is eliminated. This technology also makes it possible to produce locally adaptive sensor arrays, which can (similarly to the human retina) adapt to the large dynamics of the illumination in a single scene This book focuses on the implementation and application of state-of-the-art vision chips.

Zarandy, Kos

2011-01-01

318

Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

2008-06-01

319

Usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection of the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the accuracy of the intra-articular location of hyaluronic acid injection using a blind approach and to establish the usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection. A fluoroscopy unit was used for 368 intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid to 93 knees in 65 patients. Initially, blind needle positioning was conducted on the fluoroscopy table. The failure rate of the blind approach among the 368 injections was evaluated, and a relationship between the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade) and the incidence of repeated failures using the blind approach was determined for injections to 52 knees in 37 patients who received a complete cycle of injections (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections). Using a blind approach, 298 of 368 trials (81.2%) resulted in a needle tip being placed in an intra-articular location, while 70 of 368 trials resulted in an extra-articular placement of the needle tip. Among 52 knees to which a complete cycle of injection (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections) was administered, repeated failure of intra-articular placement using the blind approach was seen for 18 knees (34.6%); a more severe K-L grade assigned was associated with a higher rate of repeated failure. However, the trend was not statistically significant based on the Chi-squared test (? value = 0.14). Fluoroscopy-guided needle placement may be helpful to ensure therapeutic intra-articular injection of the knee

320

Lavado articular por punción en pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamento: la osteoartritis de la rodilla constituye una de las causas más frecuente de dolor de esta articulación, en la actualidad para su alivio uno de los métodos empleados es el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de esta modalidad de tratamiento para el alivio del dolor y la disminución en el consumo de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 75 pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla y tratados mediante lavado articular por punción más el uso de esteroides intra-articulares en el Centro Médico de Diagnóstico Integral, Caracas, República Bolivariana de Venezuela desde diciembre de 2008 hasta mayo 2009.El universo de estudio coincidió con la muestra Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino en más del 60% de los pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 56,9 años. El 48% de los enfermos mantuvo alivio del dolor a los tres meses de realizado el proceder. El uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo disminuyó considerablemente después de realizado el proceder. Un 17,3% de los pacientes requirió de un segundo lavado articular especialmente a partir del primer mes de haber hecho el primer lavado. El 76% de los enfermos a los tres meses se mantuvieron con resultados de excelente o bueno. Los factores de mal pronóstico que más influyeron en el resultado fueron el dolor al reposo, largo periodo de evolución de los síntomas y cambios radiográficos marcados. Conclusiones: el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares es un método útil en el alivio del dolor en la mayoría de los enfermos con Osteoartritis de la Rodilla hasta los tres meses de realizado, además de disminuir de forma significativa el uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo.

Alejandro \\u00C1lvarez L\\u00F3pez

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Similarities between the Spatial Architectures of Postnatal Articular and Growth Plate Cartilage  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular and growth plate cartilage are discrete tissues but arise from a common cartilaginous condensation and have comparable spatial architectures consisting of distinct layers of chondrocytes. To investigate similarities and differences between articular and growth plate cartilage and to explore transcriptional changes that occur during the onset of their divergence, we performed manual microdissection of 10-day-old rat proximal tibias, microarray analysis, bioinformatics, and real-time PCR to compare gene expression profiles in individual cartilage layers. We found that many genes that were spatially upregulated in the intermediate/deep zone of articular cartilage were also spatially upregulated in the resting zone of growth plate cartilage (overlap greater than expected by chance, P<0.001). Interestingly, the superficial zone of articular cartilage showed an expression profile with similarities to both the proliferative and hypertrophic zones of growth plate cartilage (P<0.001 each). Additionally, significant numbers of known proliferative zone markers (3 out of 6) and hypertrophic zone markers (27 out of 126) were spatially upregulated in the superficial zone (more than expected by chance, P<0.001 each). In conclusion, we provide evidence that the intermediate/deep zone of articular cartilage has a gene expression profile more similar to that of the resting zone of growth plate cartilage, whereas the superficial zone has a gene expression profile more similar to those of the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. These findings suggest that the superficial zone chondrocytes of articular cartilage differentiate according to a program that is not completely different from but instead has distinct similarities to the hypertrophic differentiation program of growth plate chondrocytes. We also present functional signaling pathways implicated by differential gene expression between articular and growth plate cartilage during their initial separation by the secondary ossification center. PMID:25068449

Chau, Michael; Lui, Julian C.; Landman, Ellie B. M.; Spath, Stephan-Stanislaw; Vortkamp, Andrea; Baron, Jeffrey; Nilsson, Ola

2014-01-01

322

Morphological Characteristics of the Temporomandibular Joint Articular Surfaces in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders / Características Morfológicas de las Superficies Articulares de la Articulación Temporomandibular de Pacientes con Trastornos Temporomandibulares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El conocimiento de las características anatómicas de las superficies articulares de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) es fundamental para que clínicos y odontólogos reconozcan las alteraciones morfológicas que ocurren en la articulación de pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares (TTM). Di [...] versos investigadores asocian los TTMs con alteraciones en las superficies articulares de la ATM. La identificación de los cambios óseos relacionados con la ATM es crítica, ya que estos se asocian a signos y síntomas de TTM, y el conocimiento de estos es fundamental para el correcto diagnóstico y adecuada planificación de tratamiento. El objetivo fue analizar las características morfológicas de las superficies articulares de la ATM en pacientes con diagnóstico de TTM, diagnosticado de acuerdo a los Criterios Diagnósticos para Investigación de los Trastornos Temporomandibulares (CDI/TTM), junto con analizar la relación existente entre incremento de edad-osteoartrosis. Fueron seleccionados 19 pacientes, 17 mujeres y 2 hombres, de la Unidad de Trastornos Cráneo Cérvico Mandibulares (UCRACEM) - Universidad de Talca, Chile. La evaluación imagenológica se realizó mediante el examen de Tomografía Computarizada Cone-Beam (TCCB). En el análisis de las superficies articulares, 11 (28,94%) presentaron morfología normal. Los cambios óseos encontrados fueron: esclerosis, aplanamiento de la cabeza de la mandíbula, erosión, osteoartrosis, osteofitos y quiste subcondral. Hubo relación estadística significativa entre incremento de edad-osteoartrosis (p=0,00). Nuestros hallazgos nos permiten concluir que los cambios óseos en las caras articulares de la ATM en pacientes con TTM son frecuentes, y la esclerosis el hallazgo más común. También se encontró asociación entre incremento de edad y osteoartrosis. Abstract in english The knowledge of the anatomical characteristics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular surfaces is essentital to enable physicians and dentists to recognize the morphological changes that occur in this articulation in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Several researchers assoc [...] iate the TMD with changes of TMJ articular surfaces. The careful identification of bone changes related to TMJ is critical, since these abnormalities are associated with signs and symptoms of TMD and the knowledge of TMD signs and symptoms is fundamental for correctly diagnosing and for adequate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the TMJ articular surfaces in patients with TMD diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). In addition, therelationship between increasing age-osteoarthrosis was evaluated. For the sample we selected 19 patients, 17 female and 2 male, referred to the "Unidad de Trastornos Cráneo Cérvico Mandibulares (UCRACEM) - Universidad de Talca, Chile". The imaging assessment was carried out by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). In the imaging analysis of the articular surfaces 11 joints (28.94%) showed normal morphology. The bone changes found were: sclerosis, flattening, erosion, osteoarthrosis, osteophytes, subcondral cysts. We found statistically significant difference between increasing age-osteoarthrosis (p=0.00). Considering our results we concluded that bone changes of the TMJ articular surfaces in patients with TMD are very common, with sclerosis as the most frequent finding. It was also possible to conclude that there was a significant association between increasing age-osteoarthrosis.

N, Alves; A, Schilling Quezada; A, Gonzalez Villalobos; J, Schilling Lara; N. F, Deana; C, Pastenes Riveros.

1317-13-01

323

Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes

324

Posttraumatic focal dystonia of the shoulder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal posttraumatic shoulder dystonia is a rare and not easily identifiable entity. Its true pathophysiologic nature, predisposing factors, and disease course remain debatable.This article describes a rare case of a 40-year-old man with late symptoms of focal shoulder dystonia after peripheral trauma of his left shoulder girdle. The shoulder was indirectly injured from the impact of a fall off his motorbike 3 years earlier. He was referred to the authors' institution because remarkable reduction of arm abduction, muscle spasms, and circumscribed hypertrophy of the trapezius muscle were noted while his head and neck were in neutral position and had a full range of motion. The left shoulder had a fixed elevated posture compared with the contralateral shoulder. A continuous burning pain was localized over the area of the hypertrophied trapezius muscle, radiating to the ipsilateral side of the head and neck. Dystonic movements of the trapezius, rhomboid, and supraspinatus muscles were observed. The abduction of the shoulder was significantly decreased, and any repetitive effort for arm abduction induced an exaggeration of his movement disorder, leading to a more pronounced shoulder elevation.Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging of the left shoulder revealed a suprascapular tendinitis with no other abnormalities. Repeated needle electromyography of the left trapezius muscle and neurography of the accessory nerve on both sides were normal. Injections of botulinum toxin A were effective in the resolution of muscle hypertrophy and abnormal posture. PMID:22691679

Vasileiadis, Georgios I; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Zoubos, Aristeides B

2012-06-01

325

[Focal therapy in urology: kidney cancer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal therapy has gained attention in the treatment of small renal masses (SRM). However, its use is limited due to scarce data on long-term outcomes. The availability of such data is significantly lower as compared to the relevant data on surgery outcomes. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery has seen the development of laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery and, recently, robot-assisted surgery. Our purpose is to review the possibilities of treatment for SMR with particular attention on focal therapy. Clinical series and comprehensive reviews support safety and mid/long-term efficacy of renal cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation. Comparative studies and meta-analysis outlined oncological inferiority against partial nephrectomy in local tumor control. For smaller and more peripheral lesions, radiofrequency ablation showed best indications than cryoablation. There are significant demographic and tumor differences between patients treated by one or another approach. The correct indication for each treatment seems to be of key importance to achieve the best oncological and functional outcome. Open partial nephrectomy remains the gold standard treatment for PMR, but laparoscopic approaches have been showing similar results. PMID:24419921

Crestani, Alessandro; Spreafico, Carlo; Maffezzini, Massimo; Salvioni, Roberto

2013-01-01

326

Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing  

CERN Document Server

We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

Korkiakoski, Visa; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

2014-01-01

327

Focal cortical dysplasia and epilepsy surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most commonly encountered developmental malformation that causes refractory epilepsy. With advances in neuroimaging techniques, in particular MRI, recent studies have revealed a higher prevalence of FCD than previously estimated and have improved the preoperative identification and classification of these abnormalities. However, MRI frequently does not show any abnormalities in patients with pathologically proven FCD. In this situation, functional neuroimaing such as FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can be helpful. FCD is thought to be intrinsically epileptogenic, because the dysplastic tissues contain aberrant neural networks that are highly susceptible to abnormal excitation. The response to the medical treatment of epilepsy has been documented as consistently poor. Therefore, surgical resection has been an important alternative treatment for patients with intractable epilepsy related to FCD. Incomplete resection of FCD has been consistently known to be a poor prognostic factor. However, the complete removal of FCD is often difficult because the demarcation of the lesion is frequently poor, and dysplastic tissues tend to be more extensive than is apparent on MRI. Evidence indicates that even patients with MRI abnormalities who have resective epilepsy surgery for FCD have worse surgical outcomes than those of patients who have surgery for other focal lesional epilepsy syndromes. Careful planning of evelauation using intracranial electrodes is necessary for successful epilepsy surgery. PMID:24649472

Lee, Sang Kun; Kim, Dong-Wook

2013-12-01

328

Fast nonparaxial scalar focal field calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient algorithm for calculating nonparaxial scalar field distributions in the focal region of a lens is discussed. The algorithm is based on fast Fourier transform implementations of the first Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and assumes that the input field at the pupil plane has a larger extent than the field in the focal region. A sampling grid is defined over a finite region in the output plane and referred to as a tile. The input field is divided into multiple separate spatial regions of the size of the output tile. Finally, the input tiles are added coherently to form a summed tile, which is propagated to the output plane. Since only a single tile is propagated, there are significant reductions of computational load and memory requirements. This method is combined either with a subpixel sampling technique or with a chirp z-transform to realize smaller sampling intervals in the output plane than in the input plane. For a given example the resulting methods enable a speedup of approximately 800× in comparison to the normal angular spectrum method, while the memory requirements are reduced by more than 99%. PMID:24977358

Hillenbrand, Matthias; Hoffmann, Armin; Kelly, Damien P; Sinzinger, Stefan

2014-06-01

329

Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

330

MRI characteristics of focal cortical dysplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To summarize the MRI characteristics of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Methods: Patients with FCD proved histopathologically underwent MR imaging and surgical resection for intractable epilepsy. MRI characteristics of FCD were summarized according to the Palmini classification. Results: There were 14 patients with type I FCD and 14 with type II FCD. In type I FCD patients, 8 patients had abnormal MRI appearances such as cortical-white matter junction blurring and focal cortical thickening, and the temporal lobe was the most frequently affected area (9/14). Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS) was seen in 6 type I FCD patients. The MRI abnormalities can be seen in 11 type II FCD patients, of which 7 cases with frontal lobe seizure. Only 2 cases of HS were foud in type II FCD. Cortical thickening, high signal of white matter on T2WI and FLAIR, high signal band in the white matter from the surface to the ventricle were the most common MRI characteristics of type II FCD. Conclusion: Two types of FCD have different MRI features which is helpful to improve the accuracy of presurgical planning and determine the prognosis of epilepsy surgery. (authors)

331

Dorsal defect of the patella: Concept of its origin and relationship with bipartite and multipartite patella  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a series of 2286 single radiographic examinations of the knee in 1985, 6 dorsal defects of the patella (DDP) were detected. The diagnosis was made if a round lucent lesion of the dorsal superolateral surface of the patella was found abutting against articular cartilage. In four of our patients, an association with a multipartite patella (MP) was found. Biopsy of one lesion showed dense connective tissue and areas of bone necrosis. In one patient, the pattern of reossification of the lesion could be demonstrated. Our observations provide further evidence that the DDP is a stress-induced anomaly of ossification rather than a post-traumatic subarticular cyst of the patella, a diagnosis sometimes suggested by the clinical context. The initial lesion is probably a traction lesion at the insertion of the vastus lateralis muscle rather than ulceration of articular cartilage. We suggest a possible relationship between dysfunction of the quadriceps mechanism, patellar subluxation, and the genesis of the DDP. (orig.)

332

Large oral focal mucinosis: a case report / Mucinose oral focal: descrição de um caso clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso de uma paciente de 23 anos de idade que procurou o serviço odontológico para exame de um grande nódulo de crescimento lento, assintomático, na gengiva mandibular, o que causou deslocamento do primeiro molar direito. Foram realizadas biópsia excisional, anális [...] e histopatológica, coloração Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) e análise imuno-histoquímica para S-100. O diagnóstico de mucinose oral focal foi estabelecido. A paciente ainda está sob acompanhamento, sem recorrência, após três anos. Embora os casos de mucinose oral focal com esse tamanho sejam raros, esta entidade deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões orais localizadas em gengiva. Abstract in english The aim of this article is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient that sought dental service for examination of an asymptomatic slow-growing large lump in the mandibular gingiva causing displacement of the right first molar. Excisional biopsy, histopathological analysis, Alcian blue/peri [...] odic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis for S-100 were performed. The diagnosis established was oral focal mucinosis. After three years, the patient is still under follow-up, without any recurrences. Although cases of oral focal mucinosis of this particular size are rare, this entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions located in the gingiva.

Karla Rovaris da, Silva; Bárbara Vanessa de Brito, Monteiro; Thayse Silva Aragão, Norões; Gustavo Pina, Godoy; Márcia Cristina da Costa, Miguel.

333

Large oral focal mucinosis: a case report / Mucinose oral focal: descrição de um caso clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso de uma paciente de 23 anos de idade que procurou o serviço odontológico para exame de um grande nódulo de crescimento lento, assintomático, na gengiva mandibular, o que causou deslocamento do primeiro molar direito. Foram realizadas biópsia excisional, anális [...] e histopatológica, coloração Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) e análise imuno-histoquímica para S-100. O diagnóstico de mucinose oral focal foi estabelecido. A paciente ainda está sob acompanhamento, sem recorrência, após três anos. Embora os casos de mucinose oral focal com esse tamanho sejam raros, esta entidade deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões orais localizadas em gengiva. Abstract in english The aim of this article is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient that sought dental service for examination of an asymptomatic slow-growing large lump in the mandibular gingiva causing displacement of the right first molar. Excisional biopsy, histopathological analysis, Alcian blue/peri [...] odic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis for S-100 were performed. The diagnosis established was oral focal mucinosis. After three years, the patient is still under follow-up, without any recurrences. Although cases of oral focal mucinosis of this particular size are rare, this entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions located in the gingiva.

Karla Rovaris da, Silva; Bárbara Vanessa de Brito, Monteiro; Thayse Silva Aragão, Norões; Gustavo Pina, Godoy; Márcia Cristina da Costa, Miguel.

2014-02-01

334

Pediatric and adolescent intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcaneal fractures in childhood are very rare, whereas particularly intra-articular displaced fractures are not typical in skeletally immature children. Various techniques of osteosynthesis have been described. This study aimed to determine clinical and radiological outcome after surgical treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures. Fourteen intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus were included in this retrospective study. Eleven children (2 girls and 9 boys) aged 6-16 years (average age 11.5 years) underwent surgical treatment. One child sustained a Type II open fracture of both calcanei. All injuries occurred after a high-energy trauma; 3 patients had multiple additional fractures. The clinical and radiological postoperative follow up was an average 44 months. In 4 cases, a reduction through a minimally invasive approach and fixation with K-wires or screws could be achieved. Eleven fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis, K-wires or screws. In one case with open fractures of both heel bones, an additional external fixator was applied. The surgical treatment approach adopted enabled the pre-operative Böhler's angle (average 16°) to be improved to an average 30°. In all cases, except for the patient with open fractures, a good functional result and outcome could be achieved. In calcaneal fractures in childhood, anatomical reduction is the determining factor, as in fractures in adults, whereas the surgical technique seems to have no influence on clinical outcome in children. The wound healing problems that have often been described were not observed in this age group. PMID:23888207

Dudda, Marcel; Kruppa, Christiane; Geßmann, Jan; Seybold, Dominik; Schildhauer, Thomas A

2013-06-01

335

Stick-slip friction and wear of articular joints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stick-slip friction was observed in articular cartilage under certain loading and sliding conditions and systematically studied. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus, we show that stick-slip friction can induce permanent morphological changes (a change in the roughness indicative of wear/damage) in cartilage surfaces, even under mild loading and sliding conditions. The different load and speed regimes can be represented by friction maps--separating regimes of smooth and stick-slip sliding; damage generally occurs within the stick-slip regimes. Prolonged exposure of cartilage surfaces to stick-slip sliding resulted in a significant increase of surface roughness, indicative of severe morphological changes of the cartilage superficial zone. To further investigate the factors that are conducive to stick-slip and wear, we selectively digested essential components of cartilage: type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Compared with the normal cartilage, HA and GAG digestions modified the stick-slip behavior and increased surface roughness (wear) during sliding, whereas collagen digestion decreased the surface roughness. Importantly, friction forces increased up to 2, 10, and 5 times after HA, GAGs, and collagen digestion, respectively. Also, each digestion altered the friction map in different ways. Our results show that (i) wear is not directly related to the friction coefficient but (ii) more directly related to stick-slip sliding, even when present at small amplitudes, and that (iii) the different molecular components of joints work synergistically to prevent wear. Our results also suggest potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for sensing stick-slip in joints. PMID:23359687

Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N

2013-02-12

336

Combined effect of subchondral drilling and hyaluronic acid with/without diacerein in full-thickness articular cartilage lesion in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 and group 3). Starting at the first IA injection, rabbits were also gavaged daily for 9 weeks with NSS (group 1 and group 2) or with diacerein (group 3). The animals were then sacrificed for evaluation. The newly formed tissue in SCD lesions showed significantly better histological grading scale and had higher content of type II collagen in HA-treated group compared to NSS control. In addition, adding oral diacerein to HA injection enhanced healing potential of HA. PMID:22666105

Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai

2012-01-01

337

On holographic defect entropy  

Science.gov (United States)

We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1 + 1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

2014-05-01

338

{sup 99m}Tc-RBC Hepatic Scintiscan in focal Hepatic Lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

39 patients with focal hepatic lesions were evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC liver scan. The diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions were made by percutaneous needle biopsy, angiography, surgery, or clinical courses. These diagnoses included 24 cases of hemangioma, 7 hepatomas, 6 metastatic disease, 1 abscess, and 1 cyst. 19 hemangiomas showed focal hot activity on delayed static planar images. 3 small deep seated hemangiomas were diagnosed by SPECT that would have been missed by planar images alone. 2 large hemangiomas had no radioisotope uptake within the lesions on delayed images and at surgery cavernous hemangioma with thrombosis, calcification, and fibrosis were found. For hepatic hemangiomas in our series, the sensitivity was 91.7% and the specificity was 100%. The remaining 15 patients including hepatomas, metastatic lesions, cyst and abscess showed cold defect on delayed blood pool images. It is concluded that{sup 99m}Tc-RBC liver scan should be the choice of primary diagnostic procedure for clinically suspected hepatic hemangioma since its inexpensive, non-invasive, and readily available.

Lee, Do Yun; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Hee [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Phila (United States)

1987-09-15

339

99mTc-RBC Hepatic Scintiscan in focal Hepatic Lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

39 patients with focal hepatic lesions were evaluated by 99mTc-RBC liver scan. The diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions were made by percutaneous needle biopsy, angiography, surgery, or clinical courses. These diagnoses included 24 cases of hemangioma, 7 hepatomas, 6 metastatic disease, 1 abscess, and 1 cyst. 19 hemangiomas showed focal hot activity on delayed static planar images. 3 small deep seated hemangiomas were diagnosed by SPECT that would have been missed by planar images alone. 2 large hemangiomas had no radioisotope uptake within the lesions on delayed images and at surgery cavernous hemangioma with thrombosis, calcification, and fibrosis were found. For hepatic hemangiomas in our series, the sensitivity was 91.7% and the specificity was 100%. The remaining 15 patients including hepatomas, metastatic lesions, cyst and abscess showed cold defect on delayed blood pool images. It is concluded that99mTc-RBC liver scan should be the choice of primary diagnostic procedure for clinically suspected hepatic hemangioma since its inexpensive, non-invasive, and readily available.

340

Birth Defects Research and Tracking  

Science.gov (United States)

... work taking place in each state » National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) CDC supports and collaborates with the ... with birth defects. Learn more about the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) » Centers for Birth Defects Research ...

 
 
 
 
341

The influence of some factors on carcass defects during fattening period in broilers / Incidencia de algunos factores sobre defectos de la canal de pollos durante el engorde  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la edad de sacrificio, densidad de población, sexo, tipo de yacija, tipo de alimentador y tipo de gallinero sobre posibles defectos de la canal tales como huesos rotos, defectos articulares, erosiones en la pechuga, sangre y hematomas de la pe [...] chuga, muslo o alas, hematomas de la pechuga. La incidencia de estos problemas decreció al aumentar la edad del ave. La incidencia de huesos rotos, defectos articulares y hematomas en la pechuga aumentó con la densidad de población. Los defectos articulares y sangre o hematomas del muslo en las hembras fueron más frecuentes que en los machos. No se encontraron diferencias entre tipos de yacija, tipos de alimentador o tipo de gallinero. Huesos rotos, hematomas u otros defectos indican ausencia de bienestar y pérdidas económicas. Se determinó la contribución al total de la naturaleza e incidencia de defectos. Abstract in english The aim of present study was to determine the effect of slaughtering age, stocking density, gender, litter type, feeder type and poultry house type on the possible carcass defects such as broken bones, joint defects, breast blister, blood and bruise on breast, thigh and wing, breast bruise. The inci [...] dence of these carcass defects decreased with increasing age of broiler. The incidence of broken bones, joint defects and breast bruise increased with increasing stocking density. The incidence of joint defects and blood and bruise on thigh for female were significantly higher than those for male broiler. There are no significant differences among litter type in terms of the carcass defects of broilers. There are no significant differences among type of feeder and of house in terms of incidence of carcass defects measured in this experiment. Broken bones, bruising and other defects with carcass indicate adverse animal welfare and loss in product yield. This experiment determined the nature and incidence of defects contributing to the total.

Z., Kun; A.N., Uluocak; M., Karaman.

2009-03-01

342

Evaluation on Cartilage Morphology after Intra-Articular Injection of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nano scale wear particles would generate from orthopedic implants with nano scale surface topography because of residual stress. In this study, the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on articular cartilage was investigated by intra-articular injection in rats. Using contrast-enhanced high-resolution micro computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, the decreased thickness of articular cartilage in distal femur was determined at 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after nanoparticle exposure. A strong linear correlation (r=0.928, P2 nanoparticles, cartilage thickness showed time-dependent decrease, and cartilage volume was decreased too. Further, the histopathological examination showed the edema chondrocyte and shrinked nucleus in the radial and calcified zone of cartilage. The ultrastructure of articular cartilage implied that the chondrocytes was degenerated, expressing as the condensed chromatin, the dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and the rich mitochondria. Even, the fragments of ruptured endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes at postexposure day 30. Results indicate that potential damage of articular cartilage was induced by particles existed in knee joint and imply that the bio monitoring should be strengthened in patients with prostheses replacement.

343

X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis

344

Ozonoterapia sistémica e intra-articular en la artritis de la articulación temporomandibular por artritis reumatoide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia intra-articular combinada con la vía sistémica (vía rectal y se comparó con la sola aplicación por vía intra-articular en pacientes con artritis de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM por artritis reumatoide (AR mediante la evaluación clínica del dolor a la masticación, chasquido y trismo. Fueron estudiados veinte pacientes, divididos en dos grupos de diez cada uno, el primero recibió ozonoterapia intra-articular (concentración de ozono 10 mg/L y volumen de 3 mL, a razón de dos aplicaciones por semana, durante cinco semanas, y el segundo, terapia combinada (igual al primer grupo más ozono administrado por insuflación rectal, a una concentración de 30 hasta 40 mg/L y un volumen de 100 hasta 200 mL, veinte aplicaciones. Se evaluó el grosor del cartílago articular (por ultrasonido, al inicio y al final del tratamiento al igual que los síntomas clínicos: dolor a la masticación, chasquido y trismo. Como resultado, se obtuvo una disminución significativa de todos los síntomas estudiados, así como del grosor del cartílago articular diagnosticado en el estudio ultrasonográfico, teniendo una respuesta más rápida en el grupo de la terapia combinada. Se concluyó que ambas formas de tratamiento demuestran efectos beneficiosos en la artritis de la articulación temporomandibular de pacientes con artritis reumatoide, aunque la terapia combinada resulta la más eficiente, resultado que no ha sido reportado con anterioridad.

Ivonne M\\u00E9ndez-P\\u00E9rez

2010-01-01

345

Reconstruction of the articular surface of the humeral head after locked posterior shoulder dislocation: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior dislocations of the glenohumeral joint are extremely rare (2-4% of all shoulder dislocations) and often associated with bone or ligamentary injuries. Though the reverse Hill-Sachs lesion is a common injury associated with posterior shoulder dislocation, there have been only few articles describing specific treatments for this type of humeral head defect. This article describes the successful operative treatment of an acute locked posterior shoulder dislocation by reconstructing the articular surface of the humeral head with the use of autologous bone graft taken from the iliac crest. The patient was doing quite well with no complaints, good range of shoulder motion and no recurrence of posterior shoulder dislocation despite several epileptic seizures, 1.5 years after surgical reconstruction of the anatomy of the humeral head. His right shoulder function revealed to be "excellent" or "good", assessed with an absolute Constant Score of 76 points and a relative Score of 88% when compared with an age- and sex-matched normal population. PMID:18815798

Khayal, T; Wild, M; Windolf, J

2009-04-01

346

Multi-focal Vision and Gaze Control Improve Navigation Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multi?focal vision systems comprise cameras with various fields of view and measurement accuracies. This article presents a multi?focal approach to localization and mapping of mobile robots with active vision. An implementation of the novel concept is done considering a humanoid robot navigation scenario where the robot is visually guided through a structured environment with several landmarks. Various embodiments of multi?focal vision systems are investigated and the impact on navigation performance is evaluated in comparison to a conventional mono?focal stereo set?up. The comparative studies clearly show the benefits of multi?focal vision for mobile robot navigation: flexibility to assign the different available sensors optimally in each situation, enhancement of the visible field, higher localization accuracy, and, thus, better task performance, i.e. path following behavior of the mobile robot. It is shown that multi?focal vision may strongly improve navigation performance.

Kolja Ku?hnlenz

2012-05-01

347

Multi-focal Vision and Gaze Control Improve Navigation Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multi-focal vision systems comprise cameras with various fields of view and measurement accuracies. This article presents a multi-focal approach to localization and mapping of mobile robots with active vision. An implementation of the novel concept is done considering a humanoid robot navigation scenario where the robot is visually guided through a structured environment with several landmarks. Various embodiments of multi-focal vision systems are investigated and the impact on navigation performance is evaluated in comparison to a conventional mono-focal stereo set-up. The comparative studies clearly show the benefits of multi-focal vision for mobile robot navigation: flexibility to assign the different available sensors optimally in each situation, enhancement of the visible field, higher localization accuracy, and, thus, better task performance, i.e. path following behavior of the mobile robot. It is shown that multi-focal vision may strongly improve navigation performance.

Kolja Kuehnlenz

2008-11-01

348

Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities an...

Barbara Illowsky Karp

2012-01-01

349

Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-y...

Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan

2012-01-01

350

Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA / Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estu [...] do comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine [...] with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II, 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%; and in group III, bupivacaine 0.25% associated with 1 mg of morphine. The groups were assessed for degree of pain by the Visual Analog Scale at 6, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Group III had less pain at all times, but the pain was not as intense in all groups to the point of needing extra medications beyond the established protocol. CONCLUSION: The intra-articular application of these medications after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft when performed under spinal anesthesia is not useful enough to use regularly. Level of Evidence II, Lesser quality RCT.

Marcus Vinicius, Danieli; Antonio, Cavazzani Neto; Paulo Adilson, Herrera.

351

Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estudo comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade.OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II, 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%; and in group III, bupivacaine 0.25% associated with 1 mg of morphine. The groups were assessed for degree of pain by the Visual Analog Scale at 6, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Group III had less pain at all times, but the pain was not as intense in all groups to the point of needing extra medications beyond the established protocol. CONCLUSION: The intra-articular application of these medications after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft when performed under spinal anesthesia is not useful enough to use regularly. Level of Evidence II, Lesser quality RCT.

Marcus Vinicius Danieli

2012-01-01

352

Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

Barbara Illowsky Karp

2012-11-01

353

Electrical resection: new concept in management of focal epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal epilepsy secondary esp to scar or injured cortical tissue forms a source of constant depolarisation site with or without emitting negative charges (current of injury) into the surrounding area. This focal site is localised by EEG, MRI and if required, by PET and/or SPECT studies. The author postulates to implant electrical source of opposite charge overlying the focal site to nullify the constant depolarisation site (electrical resection) or short-circuit the current of injury to an inert site to alleviate focal epileptic attack. Preliminary trials in the form of scalp application of positivity have markedly improved EEG picture in terms of occurrence of epileptiform activity. PMID:12376070

Jaseja, Harinder

2002-11-01

354

Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

1986-11-01

355

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

Gerbase-DeLima M.

1998-01-01

356

[Benign focal epilepsy of childhood (BFEC)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty cases of benign focal epilepsy of childhood were reported. The seizures were partial or generalized motor ones in all cases. One patient had episodes of visual hallucination with motor seizures. No objective examination has demonstrated cerebral lesions in all cases. The most characteristic in the present study was that the attacks were in relation to the sleep in 90% of cases, 56.7% of all patients had nocturnal seizure only. The characteristic EEG patterns were the spike or sharp discharges in Rolandic area in 29 cases, and occipital sharps or sharp wave complexes in one patient on normal background activities. The discharge rate of Rolandic spikes or sharps were significantly higher during sleep than during the awake stage, and 12 cases had Rolandic discharges only during sleep. Sleep EEG recordings is suggested when children were suspected of having such kind of seizure type but having a normal EEG pattern when awake. Brief induced sleep is usually adequate. PMID:1395939

Liu, X

1992-06-01

357

Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

2014-03-25

358

The Variations in Calcaneal Articular Facets In North Indian Population and its Clinical Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims and Objectives- To know the most common type of calcanei in North Indian population and itsclinical importance. There are three articular facets on superior surface of calcaneus- anterior, middle andposterior. Three types of calcanei are noted according to number and arrangement of the articular facets-type A, B and C. Methodology - The present studywas done on 300 dry adult human calcanei of unknownsex taken from Department of Anatomy Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchVallah (Amritsar. Results- In our study Type B was found as the most common type. Type A is the nextmost common. Interpretation- The talocalcaneal joint is important in arthritis and coalition, flat foot, valgus deformity, congenital anomalies and intra articular fractures.

Deepinder Kaur Gandhi

2012-01-01

359

Intra articular synovial lipoma of the right tarsometatarsal joint- a rare case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intra articular synovial lipomas are very rare and only few cases have been reported till now. We are reporting a rare case of intra articular synovial lipoma of the tarsometatarsal joint in the right foot in a 38-year-old male who presented with dull aching pain in the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. The lesion was resected and subjected to histopathological examination, which showed well defined lobules of mature adipocytes separated by thin fibrous septa and covered by synovial lining. Immunohistochemistry with S100 antigen showed membrane positivity. A diagnosis of intra articular synovial lipoma of the tarsometatarsal joint of the right foot was made. Our English literature search failed to yield any information regarding the occurrence of synovial lipoma in small joints and our case may be the first of its kind. PMID:25177569

P, Pavithra; S, Arundhathi; Kodandaswamy, C R

2014-07-01

360

Quantitative characterization of articular cartilage using Mueller matrix imaging and multiphoton microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The collagen meshwork in articular cartilage of chicken knee is characterized using Mueller matrix imaging and multiphoton microscopy. Direction and degree of dispersion of the collagen fibers in the superficial layer are found using a Fourier transform image-analysis technique of the second-harmonic generated image. Mueller matrix images are used to acquire structural data from the intermediate layer of articular cartilage where the collagen fibers are too small to be resolved by optical microscopy, providing a powerful multimodal measurement technique. Furthermore, we show that Mueller matrix imaging provides more information about the tissue compared to standard polarization microscopy. The combination of these techniques can find use in improved diagnosis of diseases in articular cartilage, improved histopathology, and additional information for accurate biomechanical modeling of cartilage.

Ellingsen, Pa?L. Gunnar; Lilledahl, Magnus Borstad; Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Davies, Catharina De Lange; Kildemo, Morten

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Diagnostic possibilities of spot-film orthopantomography of the lower jaw articular projection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method proposed is based on the Simens' 'Orthopantomograph 10'. The exposition data are identical with those obtained by routine orthopantomography. The spot-film orthopantomography of the left articular projection shows twice reduced radiation load due to the fact that only half of the X-ray tube trajectory is used. The received isolated X-ray image of the articular projection allows also visualization of the fine bone structure and the compact bone layer in its whole configuration. In most cases also maxilar sinusis and styloideus projection from the studied side are involved. The method may be applied alone, especially in cases of traumatic injuries, degenerative diseases and suspicions for fracture in the articular head area. Certain restriction of the method is the requirement that the patient should have his mouth open which is impossible in the cases such as trauma, trismus etc. 5 refs

362

Intra-Articular Giant Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Arthroplasty for Charcot Arthropathy  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Charcot arthropathy may be associated with serious complications, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the preferred choice of treatment by patients. This case report presents an 80-year-old man with intra-articular giant heterotopic ossification following loosening of femoral and tibial implants and femoral condylar fracture. He had undergone TKA because of Charcot neuropathy seven years ago and had been doing well since. Immediately after a left knee sprain, he became unable to walk. Because he had developed a skin ulcer on his left calf where methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected, we postponed revision surgery until the ulcer was completely healed. While waiting, intra-articular bony fragments grew larger and formed giant heterotopic ossified masses. Eventually, the patient underwent revision surgery, and two major ossified masses were carefully and successfully extirpated. It should be noted that intra-articular heterotopic giant ossification is a significant complication after TKA for neuropathic arthropathy. PMID:24151574

Tsuge, Shintaro; Aoki, Yasuchika; Sonobe, Masato; Shibata, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Yu; Nakagawa, Koichi

2013-01-01

363

Caudal vertebral body articular surface morphology correlates with functional tail use in anthropoid primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prehensile tails, capable of suspending the entire body weight of an animal, have evolved in parallel in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini): once in the Atelinae (Alouatta, Ateles, Brachyteles, Lagothrix), and once in the Cebinae (Cebus, Sapajus). Structurally, the prehensile tails of atelines and cebines share morphological features that distinguish them from nonprehensile tails, including longer proximal tail regions, well-developed hemal processes, robust caudal vertebrae resistant to higher torsional and bending stresses, and caudal musculature capable of producing higher contractile forces. The functional significance of shape variation in the articular surfaces of caudal vertebral bodies, however, is relatively less well understood. Given that tail use differs considerably among prehensile and nonprehensile anthropoids, it is reasonable to predict that caudal vertebral body articular surface area and shape will respond to use-specific patterns of mechanical loading. We examine the potential for intervertebral articular surface contour curvature and relative surface area to discriminate between prehensile-tailed and nonprehensile-tailed platyrrhines and cercopithecoids. The proximal and distal intervertebral articular surfaces of the first (Ca1), transitional and longest caudal vertebrae were examined for individuals representing 10 anthropoid taxa with differential patterns of tail-use. Study results reveal significant morphological differences consistent with the functional demands of unique patterns of tail use for all vertebral elements sampled. Prehensile-tailed platyrrhines that more frequently use their tails in suspension (atelines) had significantly larger and more convex intervertebral articular surfaces than all nonprehensile-tailed anthropoids examined here, although the intervertebral articular surface contour curvatures of large, terrestrial cercopithecoids (i.e., Papio sp.) converge on the ateline condition. Prehensile-tailed platyrrhines that more often use their tails in tripodal bracing postures (cebines) are morphologically intermediate between atelines and nonprehensile tailed anthropoids. J. Morphol. 275:1300-1311, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24916635

Deane, Andrew S; Russo, Gabrielle A; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Organ, Jason M

2014-11-01

364

Biological effects of the plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol in human articular cartilage and chondrosarcoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural phytoestrogen resveratrol (RSV) may have therapeutic potential for arthritic conditions. RSV is chondroprotective for articular cartilage in rabbit models for arthritis, but its biological effects on human articular cartilage and chondrosarcoma cells are unknown. Effects of RSV on human articular cartilage homeostasis were studied by assessing production of matrix-degrading enzymes (MMP-13, ADAMTS4, and ADAMTS5), as well as proteoglycan production and synthesis. The counteractions of RSV against catabolic factors (e.g., FGF-2 or IL-1?) were examined by in vitro and ex vivo using monolayer, three-dimensional alginate beads and cartilage explants cultures, respectively. RSV improves cell viability of articular chondrocytes and effectively antagonizes cartilage-degrading protease production that was initiated by catabolic and/or anti-anabolic cytokines in human articular chondrocytes. RSV significantly also enhances BMP7-promoted proteoglycan synthesis as assessed by (35) S-sulfate incorporation. Protein-DNA interaction arrays suggest that RSV inhibits the activation of transcription factors involved in inflammation and cartilage catabolic signaling pathways, including direct downstream regulators of MAPK (e.g., AP-1, PEA3) and NF?B. RSV selectively compromises survival of human chondrosarcoma cells, but not primary articular chondrocytes, revealing cell-specific activity of RSV on non-tumorigenic versus tumor-derived cells. We propose that RSV exerts its chondroprotective functions, in part, by deactivating p53-induced apoptosis in human primary chondrocytes, but not human chondrosarcoma. Our findings suggest that RSV has potential as a unique biologic treatment for both prevention and treatment of cartilage degenerative diseases. PMID:22252971

Im, Hee-Jeong; Li, Xin; Chen, Di; Yan, Dongyao; Kim, Jaesung; Ellman, Michael B; Stein, Gary S; Cole, Brian; Kc, Ranjan; Cs-Szabo, Gabriella; van Wijnen, Andre J

2012-10-01

365

Mapping the Articular Contact Area of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon on the Humeral Head  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this investigation was to calculate the contact surface area of the long head of the biceps (LHB) in neutral position and abduction. We sought to determine whether the LHB articulates with the humeral head in a consistent pattern comparing articular contact area in neutral position and abduction. Eleven fresh frozen matched cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. The path of the biceps tendon on the articular surface of the humeral head and the total articular surface were digitized using a MicronTracker 2 H3-60 three-dimensional optical tracker. Contact surface area was significantly less in abduction than in neutral position (P = 0.002) with a median ratio of 41% (36%, 47.5%). Ratios of contact area in neutral position to full articular surface area were consistent between left and right shoulders (rho = 1, P = 0.017) as were ratios of abduction area to full articular surface area (rho = 0.97, P = 0.005). The articular contact surface area is significantly greater in neutral position than abduction. The ratios of articular contact surface areas to total humeral articular surface areas have a narrow range and are consistent between left and right shoulders of the same cadaver. PMID:25210631

Morris, Brent J.; Byram, Ian R.; Lathrop, Ray A.; Dunn, Warren R.; Kuhn, John E.

2014-01-01

366

Internal defects in rolls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The report describes an investigation concerning two types of internal defects, axis-centered defects and near-surface defects, in rolls. Thesis for bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering (22.5p), at the institution for engineering, physics and mathematics, Karlstad University. Ordered by Scana Steel Björneborg AB. Scana Steel Björneborg AB is one of Europe’s leading producers of heavy free-form forgings and has its own steel plant, forge, heating treatment facility and machine par...

Skoglund, Thomas

2008-01-01

367

Intra-articular knee haemangioma originating from the anterior cruciate ligament: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Synovial haemangioma is a rare intra-articular benign tumour, which may arise from any synovium-lined surface, but particularly in the knee joint. Synovial haemangioma originating from the anterior cruciate ligament has not been reported previously. Case presentation A 34-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent knee pain, locking and swelling. Conclusion Knee intra-articular haemangioma, a very rare benign tumour, is often misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging is effective in detecting this lesion and should be performed in cases of persistent knee swelling and pain.

Tzurbakis Mathaios

2008-07-01

368

MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To determine reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features differentiating three paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions that contain blood products, from post-traumatic or haemorrhagic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of MRI findings of 22 paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions, including venous malformation (VM) (n = 12), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; n = 8), and synovial sarcoma (SS; n = 2). These MRI features were compared with 22 paediatric post-traumatic or inflammatory intra-articular processes containing blood products and producing mass effect. The following imaging features were assessed: presence of a discrete mass, extension, extra-articular oedema, susceptibility, joint effusion, and size. Fisher's exact test was used and results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: The three intra-articular synovial lesions, compared with controls, were more likely to directly invade osseous structures when a discrete mass was present (13/16, 81.3% versus 1/9, 11.1%; p < 0.002) and extend into extra-articular soft tissues (13/21, 61.9% versus 2/17, 11.8%; p < 0.003), but were less likely to show extra-articular oedema (3/22, 13.6% versus 13/22, 59.1%; p < 0.004), a joint effusion (10/22,45.5% versus 19/22, 86.4%, p < 0.01), susceptibility within a joint effusion (0/22, 0% versus 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema (3/16, 18.8% versus 7/9, 77.8%; p < 0.009), and synovial enhancement (8/21, 38.1% versus 14/16, 87.5%; p < 0.003). VMs had characteristic tubular vessels with internal fluid-fluid levels (11/12) that extended into bone (10/12) and extracapsular soft tissues (11/12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, despite the overlapping presence of haemorrhagic products, intra-articular VM, PVNS, and SS show MRI features that permit distinction from acquired post-traumatic and haemorrhagic inflammatory lesions

369

Computed tomography demonstration of distal femoral (trochlear) articular groove: A normal variant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In computed tomography of the skeleton, as in other radiologic modalities, recognition of normal skeletal variants is essential for defining the extent and type of injury or neoplasm. Computed tomography findings, because of the unique use of cross-sectional anatomy, must be carefully studied to avoid labeling a normal variant as an abnormal entity. We describe here an observation of a normal variant - distal femoral, anterior articular (trochlear) groove - found in a patient with an osteochondral fracture and loose intra-articular bony fragment. (orig.)

370

Arthroscopic treatment of calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder: deposit removal and intra-articular lavage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal treatment of calcifying tendonitis is still controversial and several techniques exist. In this article we describe the arthroscopic operative technique for removal of calcific deposits as well intra-articular lavage. We hypothesised that the removal of these calcium particles from the i [...] ntra-articular space, usually seen arthroscopically as a 'snowstorm' appearance, would result in a reduction in the incidence of post-procedure frozen shoulder. A retrospective analysis of 93 patients confirmed this.

A, Rawoot; J, de Beer.