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Sample records for focal articular defects

  1. Focal full thickness articular cartilage lesions treated with an articular resurfacing prosthesis in the middle-aged

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Hobbs; N, Ketse-Matiwane; W, van der Merwe; M, Posthumus.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Localised full thickness articular defects of the knee are common and disabling in the middle-aged. There are numerous treatment options for articular defects, the results of which are unpredictable in this age group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a focal articular resurfac [...] ing prosthesis used in the treatment of these defects. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients treated between 2005 and 2010 with a HemiCAP® resurfacing procedure were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up scores of the KOOS, IKDC, SF-36 and patient satisfaction were obtained. Radiographic evaluation was also obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen patients were followed-up 4.7 ± 5.9 years after surgery. Three patients had revision surgery and were not followed up. The patients were 44.7 ± 5.9 years old. The follow-up KOOS scores demonstrated comparable scores on the pain and activities of daily living sub-scales when compared to normative data; however, the sports (P

  2. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  3. Liver-heart imaging in evaluating hepatic focal defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An edge defect in the superior area of the left lobe is difficult to evaluate on the liver scintiscan image. Eighty normal liver-heart images showed no focal separation between the liver and heart images. Four cases with suspicious edge defects in the superior area of the left lobe were also studied with liver-heart imaging. One case was well demonstrated to be due to right ventricular compression of the liver without focal separation of the liver-heart images. Three cases showed focal separation of the liver-heart images. One defect was diagnosed as amebic abscess and showed enlargement on the followup images. The other two cases were proven to have liver metastasis. Liver-heart imaging is a reliable technique in evaluating a suspicious defect in the superior area of the left lobe of the liver. (auth)

  4. Transplantation of free tibial periosteal grafts for the repair of articular cartilage defect: An experimental study

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    Singh Ravijot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular chondrocytes have got a long lifespan but rarely divides after maturity. Thus, an articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. Periosteal grafts have chondrogenic potential and have been used to repair defects in the articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differentiation of free periosteal grafts in the patellofemoral joint where the cambium layer faces the subchondral bone and to investigate the applicability of periosteal grafts in the reconstruction of articular surfaces. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of 1 year on 25 adult, male Indian rabbits after obtaining permission from the institutional animal ethical committee. A full-thickness osteochondral defect was created by shaving off the whole articular cartilage of the patella of the left knee. The defect thus created was grafted with free periosteal graft. The patella of the right knee was taken as a control where no grafting was done after shaving off the articular cartilage. The first animal was used to study the normal histology of the patellar articular cartilage and periosteum obtained from the medial surface of tibial condyle. Rest 24 animals were subjected to patellectomy, 4 each at serial intervals of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 weeks and the patellar articular surfaces were examined macroscopically and histologically. Results: The grafts got adherent to the underlying patellar articular surface at the end of 4 weeks. Microscopically, graft incorporation could be appreciated at 4 weeks. Mesenchymal cells of the cambium layer were seen differentiating into chondrocytes by the end of 4 weeks in four grafts (100% and they were arranged in a haphazard manner. Till the end of 8 weeks, the cellular arrangement was mostly wooly. At 16 weeks, one graft (25% had wooly arrangement of chondrocytes and three grafts (75% had columnar formation of cells. Same percentage was maintained at 32 weeks. Four grafts (100% at 48 weeks showed columnar orientation. The control side showed no changes over the shaved off articular surface in all the rabbits. One rabbit at 4 weeks had a dislocation of the patella on the control side. None of the rabbits developed any infection or wound dehiscence. Conclusion: Autologous periosteal graft transplantation can be a promising substitute for articular cartilaginous defects.

  5. Evaluation of multiphase implants for repair of focal osteochondral defects in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederauer, G G; Slivka, M A; Leatherbury, N C; Korvick, D L; Harroff, H H; Ehler, W C; Dunn, C J; Kieswetter, K

    2000-12-01

    The use of biodegradable scaffolds for articular cartilage repair has been investigated by numerous researchers. The objective of this screening study was to examine how the mechanical and physical properties of four multiphase implants can affect the cartilage healing response. Multiphase implant prototypes were prepared using poly(D,L)lactide-co-glycolide as the base material. PGA fibers (FR), 45S5 Bioglass (BG) and medical grade calcium sulfate (MGCS) were used as additives to vary stiffness and chemical properties. Osteochondral defects (3 mm dia. and 4 mm in depth) were created bilaterally in the medial femoral condyle (high-weight bearing) and the distal medial portion of the patellar groove (low-weight bearing) of 16 Spanish goats. Half of the implants were loaded with autologous costochondral chondrocytes. Defect sites (total n = 64, 4 sites/treatment) were randomly treated and allowed to heal for 16 weeks, fully weight bearing. At euthanasia, gross evaluations and biomechanical testing were conducted. Histological sections of the defect sites were stained with H and E, Safranin O/Fast Green or processed to analyze collagen architecture. Sections were semi-quantitatively scored for repair tissue structure. Qualitative evaluations showed that all groups had a high percentage of hyaline cartilage and good bony restoration, with new tissue integrating well with the native cartilage. Gross and histology scoring indicated a significantly higher score for defect healing in the condyle than in the patellar groove, but no difference in healing for implant types or addition/omission of cells was found. This investigation demonstrates that focal, osteochondral defects in caprine distal femurs treated with various implant constructs were repaired with hyaline-like cartilage and good underlying bone. The multiphase implants show potential for treatment of osteochondral defects and long-term studies need to be undertaken to confirm the longevity of the regenerated tissue. PMID:11071606

  6. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

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    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  7. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  8. Experimental evaluation of the usefulness of osteochondral allograft for articular cartilage defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shogo; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Sakano, Shinji; Warashina, Hideki; Kitamura, Shinji; Yamauchi, Kenichi; Iwata, Hisashi

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of osteochondral allografts for articular cartilage defects. Cartilaginous defects measuring 4.5 mm in diameter were experimentally prepared in both the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing regions of the femur in six male miniature pigs (9 months old). Osteochondral grafting was performed using fresh autografts (group AU), fresh allografts (group AL), or frozen allografts (group FA). Untreated cartilaginous defects were used as the control (group D). All the pigs were killed 4 weeks later, and the respective osteochondral grafts were macro- and microscopically evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, safranin O staining, and immunostaining [matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2)] were used for the histological evaluations of transplanted cartilage. Macroscopic and microscopic findings were assessed according to the criteria proposed by Wakitani et al. Although groups AU and AL showed similar median scores (ranges) for the evaluation of cartilaginous defect restoration, groups FA and D showed unfavorable scores: 3.9 (0-9) in group AU; 4.5 (0-12) in group AL; 10.2 (4-12) in group FA; and 7.0 (5-11) in group D. Immunostaining revealed almost identical results in groups AU and AL. As there were no histologically significant differences in the status of the osteochondral grafts between fresh autografts and fresh allografts, fresh allografts might be useful donor osteochondral grafts. PMID:12898311

  9. Ongoing studies of cell-based therapies for articular cartilage defects in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Ogura,1 Akihiro Tsuchiya,2 Shuichi Mizuno1 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Funabashi Orthopaedic Hospital Sports Medicine Center, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Recently, cell-based therapies have generated great interest in the repair of articular cartilage defects and degeneration. Surgical treatments for these indications have multiple options, including marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft transplant, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. The autologous chondrocyte implantation technique has been improved using a cell scaffold and other devices. Meanwhile, advanced cell-based therapies, including cultured stem cell treatment, have been studied in clinical trials. Most studies have been designed and authorized by institutional review boards and/or the regulatory agencies of the investigators’ countries. For cellular products in regenerative medicine, regulations of many countries are amenable to expedited approval. This paper aims to provide an update on ongoing and prospective cell-based therapies, focusing on articular cartilage injury at designated institutions authorized by the Japanese Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Agency. Keywords: autologous chondrocyte implantation, mesenchymal stem cell, knee joint

  10. Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amir, Sotoudeh; Amirali, Jahanshahi; Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, Takhtfooladi; Ali, Bazazan; Amin, Ganjali; Maryam Pourramezani, Harati.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New [...] Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  11. Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sotoudeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II. Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  12. Effect of tenascin-C on the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects of articular cartilage in rabbits.

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    Ikemura, Shigeto; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Iino, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Sudo, Akihiro

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of tenascin-C (TNC) on the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects of articular cartilage in vivo. We used a gellan-gellan-sulfate sponge (Gellan-GS) to maintain a TNC-rich environment in the cartilage defects. We implanted Gellan-GS soaked in PBS only (Group 1), Gellan-GS soaked in 10?µg/ml of TNC (Group 2), and Gellan-GS soaked in 100?µg/ml of TNC (Group 3) into a full-thickness osteochondral defect of the patellar groove of rabbits. The defect area was examined grossly and histologically 4-12 weeks after surgery. Sections of synovium were also immunohistochemically investigated. Histologically as well as macroscopically, the defects in Group 2 showed better repair than the other groups at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Inflammation of the synovium tended to diminish over time in all groups, and the degree of synovitis was the same for all three groups at each time point. In conclusion, Gellan-GS soaked in TNC can be used as a novel scaffold for the repair of articular cartilage defects. This study also indicates that TNC promotes the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects in vivo. PMID:25428773

  13. Repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits through tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with chitosan hydrogel and chondrocytes*

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    ZHAO, Ming; CHEN, Zhu; LIU, Kang; WAN, Yu-qing; LI, Xu-dong; Luo, Xu-wei; Bai, Yi-guang; Yang, Ze-long; Feng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In our previous work, we prepared a type of chitosan hydrogel with excellent biocompatibility. In this study, tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with this chitosan hydrogel and costal chondrocytes was used to repair the articular cartilage defects. Methods: Chitosan hydrogels were prepared with a crosslinker formed by combining 1,6-diisocyanatohexane and polyethylene glycol. Chitosan hydrogel scaffold was seeded with rabbit chondrocytes that had been cultured for one week in vitro to form the preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage. This preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage was then transplanted into the defective rabbit articular cartilage. There were three treatment groups: the experimental group received preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage; the blank group received pure chitosan hydrogels; and, the control group had received no implantation. The knee joints were harvested at predetermined time. The repaired cartilage was analyzed through gross morphology, histologically and immunohistochemically. The repairs were scored according to the international cartilage repair society (ICRS) standard. Results: The gross morphology results suggested that the defects were repaired completely in the experimental group after twelve weeks. The regenerated tissue connected closely with subchondral bone and the boundary with normal tissue was fuzzy. The cartilage lacuna in the regenerated tissue was similar to normal cartilage lacuna. The results of ICRS gross and histological grading showed that there were significant differences among the three groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: Chondrocytes implanted in the scaffold can adhere, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix. The novel tissue-engineered cartilage constructed in our research can completely repair the structure of damaged articular cartilage. PMID:26537209

  14. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy results in healing of full thickness articular cartilage defect

    OpenAIRE

    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Arumugam, Sabareeswaran; Livingston, Abel; Mohanty, Mira; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of PEMF (pulsed electromagnetic field) treatment in experimental osteochondral defect healing in a rabbit model. The study was conducted on 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits formed the study group and six rabbits the control group. The right knee joints of all 12 animals were exposed and a 3.5-mm diameter osteochondral defect was created in the trochlear groove. The defect was filled with calcium phosphate scaffold. Six animals from the study...

  15. ICRS Recommendation Document : Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments for Use in Patients with Articular Cartilage Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend patient-reported outcome instruments for use in patients with articular cartilage lesions undergoing cartilage repair interventions. Methods: Nonsystematic literature search identifying measures addressing pain and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic requirements for reliability, validity, and responsiveness in cartilage repair patients. A major difference between them is that the former results in a single score and the latter results in 5 subscores. A single score is preferred for simplicity’s sake, whereas subscores allow for evaluation of separate constructs at all levels according to the International Classification of Functioning. Conclusions: Because there is no obvious superiority of either instrument at this time, both outcome measures are recommended for use in cartilage repair. Rescaling of the Lysholm Scoring Scale has been suggested, and confirmatory longitudinal studies are needed prior to recommending this scale for use in cartilage repair. Inclusion of a generic measure is feasible in cartilage repair studies and allows analysis of health-related quality of life and health economic outcomes. The Marx or Tegner Activity Rating Scales are feasible and have been evaluated in patients with knee injuries. However, activity measures require age and sex adjustment, and data are lacking in people with cartilage repair.

  16. Tissue Engineering Based Therapy for Articular Cartilage Defects - A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue in diarthrodial joints, when damaged due to trauma could lead to osteoarthritis. At present Autologous Cartilage Implantation is an established method in which patients own chondrocytes are isolated and then implanted after in vitro expansion over the affected area with bovine or porcine collagen matrix. This procedure results in more of Collagen Type I during in vitro expansion, which eventually becomes fibrocartilage. Also it requires growth factors. We have in this study tried growing human Chondrocytes without growth factors using synthetic scaffolds to grow more Collagen Type II Materials and Methods: Human cartilage specimens were harvested through arthroscopy from the non-weight bearing area of the knee joint from 13 patients who underwent surgical procedures of the knee joint after getting their informed consent. The tissues were transported in saline taking 1 hour to laboratory and subjected to digestion with Collagenase type II for 16~18 Hrs. The chondrocyte cells obtained after dissociation were divided into two groups for culture. Gr. I were embedded in a Thermogelation polymer (TGP and Gr. II in basal culture media (DMEM + Ascorbic Acid without using any growth factors. The Group II cells were viable only for 4 weeks and then started degenerating. The TGP-Chondrocytes scaffolds were grown for 16 weeks and the specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 and 16-week intervals and their morphology and molecular characteristics were studied by H&E staining, S-100 protein analysis and RT-PCR.Results: Human chondrocytes could be cultured in both TGP (group I and Basal culture media (group II. The Gr. I cells were viable upto the 16th week while the Group II chondrocytes started degenerating after the 4 week. Both the groups were proven positive for S-100 protein, a Chondrocyte specific marker protein; Gr. II specimens after 4 weeks, and Gr. I specimens after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. RT-PCR study of the cells of group I were positive for TGF beta 3 (Proliferation, differentiation, and other functions, GR beta, GR alpha (Development, metabolism and immune Response (glucocorticoid receptor alpha, AGGF (Apoptosis, VDR (Vitamin D3 Receptor, Col II (Type II Collagen. Conclusion: We have established a methodology by which Human chondrocytes could be cultured in vitro without any growth factors for a period of 16 weeks in a polymer-hydrogel scaffold. Upon further confirmation of their characteristics, the TGP grown chondrocytes can be used for autologous implantation to repair damaged cartilage area as the Collagen Type II which grows better without growth factors in the scaffold, eventually will become Hyaline cartilage is expected to give a longer disease free duration than the present method of ACI.

  17. The repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Immune responses to reparative tissue formed by allogeneic growth plate chondrocyte implants

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    Kawabe, N.; Yoshinao, M. (Department of Orthopaedics, Shimane Medical School, Izumo (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    Growth plate cartilage cultivated in vitro was attached with a fibrin clot to a full-thickness articular cartilage defect on knee joints in allogeneic New Zealand rabbits. The healing of the defects was assessed by gross examination, light microscopy, and immunologic analysis for 24 weeks. Immunologic assessment of cell-mediated immunity, cytotoxicity of a humoral antibody by a 51 chromium release assay, and immunofluorescence studies were carried out. During the first two weeks following grafting, healing was excellent in 11 of the 17 defects. From three to 24 weeks, 11 of 42 defects examined had good results. Host lymphocytes had accumulated around the allograft at two to 12 weeks. Most of the implanted cartilage grown in vitro died and was replaced by fibrous tissue. The immunologic studies suggested that the implanted cartilage began to degenerate two to three weeks after implantation partially because of a humoral immune response but more importantly because of cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  18. Osteogenesis and chondrogenesis of biomimetic integrated porous PVA/gel/V-n-HA/pa6 scaffolds and BMSCs construct in repair of articular osteochondral defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Yubao; Zuo, Yi; Qu, Dan; Liu, Yiming; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Nan; Li, Hui; Li, Jihua

    2015-10-01

    A novel bi-layered osteochondral scaffold, including of PVA/Gel/V layer for the cartilage and n-HA/PA6 layer for the subchondral bone, has been proposed to evaluate the potential of the engineered of osteochondral grafts in repairing articular osteochondral defects in rabbits. The two different layers of the scaffolds were seeded with allogenic bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), which were chondrogenically and osteogenically induced respectively. The critical-size osteochondral defects were created in the knees of adult rabbits. The defects were treated with cell-bi-layered constructs (Group A), bi-layered constructs (Group B) and untreated group C as control group. The adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs were demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in vitro. Cell survival was tracked via fluorescent labeling in vivo. Overall, the porous PVA/Gel/V-n-HA/PA6 scaffold was compatible and had no negative effects on the BMSCs in vitro culture. The cell-bi-layered scaffolds showed superior repair results as compared to the control group using gross examination and histological assessment. With BMSCs implantation, the two different layers of the composite biomimetic scaffolds provided a suitable environment for cells to form respective tissue. Simultaneously, the RT-PCR results confirmed the expression of specific extracellular matrix (ECM) markers for cartilaginous or osteoid tissue. This investigation showed that the porous PVA/Gel/V-n-HA/PA6 scaffold is a potential matrix for treatment of osteochondral defects, and the method of using chondrogenically and osteogenically differentiated BMSCs as seed cells on each layer might be a promising strategy in repair of articular osteochondral defect due to enhanced chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3226-3236, 2015. PMID:25772000

  19. Quality of Newly Formed Cartilaginous Tissue in Defects of Articular Surface after Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Composite Scaffold Based on Collagen I with Chitosan Micro- and Nanofibres.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ne?as, A.; Plánka, L.; Srnec, R.; Crha, M.; Hlu?ilová, Jana; Klíma, Ji?í; Starý, L.; K?en, L.; Amler, Evžen; Vojtová, L.; Jan?á?, J.; Gál, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 59, ?. 4 (2010), s. 605-614. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Cartilaginous Tissue * Defects of Articular Surface * Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  20. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus; Fischer, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing pr...

  1. Preclinical Evaluation of a Novel Implant for Treatment of a Full-Thickness Distal Femoral Focal Cartilage Defect

    OpenAIRE

    Waldorff, Erik I; Roessler, Blake J.; Zachos, Terri A.; Bruce S Miller; McHugh, Jonathan; Goldstein, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    A novel, nonresorbable, monolithic composite structure ceramic, developed using a partially stabilized zirconia ceramic common to implantable devices, was used in a cementless weight-bearing articular implant to test the feasibility of replacing a region of degenerated or damaged articular cartilage in the knee as part of a preclinical study using male mongrel dogs lasting up to 24 weeks. Gross/histological cartilage observations showed no differences among control, 12-week and 24-week groups...

  2. Covalently conjugated transforming growth factor-?1 in modular chitosan hydrogels for the effective treatment of articular cartilage defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bogyu; Kim, Soyon; Fan, Jiabing; Kowalski, Tomasz; Petrigliano, Frank; Evseenko, Denis; Lee, Min

    2015-05-01

    Approaches to control precisely growth factor presentation to a tissue defect in a sustained fashion are of increasing interest for a number of complex tissue engineering applications. Although transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-?1) plays a key role in promoting chondrogenesis, the therapeutic use of TGF-?1 is limited by its inherent protein instability, requiring high amounts of the protein that can cause adverse side effects with inefficient cartilage formation. In this work, we have developed strategies to stabilize TGF-?1 signaling in the injectable, visible blue light inducible chitosan (MeGC) hydrogel system for specific use in cartilage regeneration. We successfully modulated delivery of TGF-?1 with reduced burst release in a complex biological environment of serum and cells by covalently conjugating the protein to MeGC hydrogels with preserving type II collagen, one of the major cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The hydrogel system supported cellular condensation and deposition of cartilaginous ECM by encapsulating adipose derived stem cells in vitro. We confirmed further the ability of these TGF-?1 functionalized hydrogel systems to promote cartilage regeneration in challenging healing environments such as in a rat partial-thickness chondral defect model which present a limited source of subchondral bone marrow elements. These results suggest a new injectable delivery modality of therapeutic agents to improve clinical cartilage repair. PMID:26222593

  3. Autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects: postoperative MR appearance with clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the MR appearance following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects of the knee. Design and patients: Twenty-nine 1.5-T MR knee studies including dynamic gadolinium enhancement were performed on 21 patients following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed images to evaluate graft and donor site appearance and MR findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: MR images demonstrated graft protuberance (n=12/21; range 1-2 mm), depression (n=2/21; range 1 mm), and surface incongruity: mild (n=17/21), moderate (n=2/21), marked (n=1/21). The T2 signal of graft cartilage was similar to that of adjacent cartilage in 25 of 29 examinations, and increased in four. Graft cartilage thickness relative to adjacent cartilage was <50% in six patients, 50-100% in 15. Graft enhancement in bone was absent at 2 weeks, but present at between 4 and 6 weeks following surgery. All patients had clinical follow-up examinations and knee outcome survey scores were obtained in 15 patients with follow-up greater than 3 months after surgery. All patients demonstrated the expected short-term progressive clinical improvement. Conclusion: MR images reveal a wide range of appearances following osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Minor variations in graft orientation and surface congruity do not result in adverse clinical outcome in the short term. (orig.)

  4. Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica / Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L.M., Yamada; A.M., Carvalho; P.G.G., Oliveira; S.L., Felisbino; D.L., Queiroz; M.J., Watanabe; C.A., Hussni; A.L.G., Alves.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulaçõe [...] s foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos. Abstract in english The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. [...] After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero) and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

  5. Detection of focal renal perfusion defects in rabbits after sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection at low transmission power ultrasound insonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaia, Emilio; Palumbo, Alessandro; Rossi, Stefania; Bruni, Stefano; Cova, Maria [Cattinara Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Siracusano, Salvatore; Ciciliato, Stefano [Cattinara Hospital, Department of Urology, Trieste (Italy); Bussani, Rossana [Cattinara Hospital, Department of Pathology, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) at low transmission power insonation for diagnosis of focal renal perfusion defects (RPDs) in rabbits. In seven adult New Zealand White rabbits focal RPDs were induced by polyvinyl alcohol embolizing particles (150-250 {mu}m in diameter) injected into the abdominal aorta. Three other rabbits that were not subjected to embolization were considered as controls. Both kidneys were insonated at baseline and after injection of sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles at low transmission power (mechanical index 0.09-0.12). One sonologist assessed on-site RPD dimensions and conspicuity (visual score 0-4). Digital cine-clips were also reviewed off-site by two other independent readers, blinded, who assigned a confidence level (grades 1-5) for the RPD diagnosis. At on-site analysis RPDs appeared as focal areas of absent or diminished enhancement with a median visual conspicuity score=4. At off-site analysis RPDs >6 mm in diameter were identified at contrast-enhanced US, and the confidence in RPD diagnosis improved significantly (P<0.05) after microbubble injection (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.615 vs 0.972 by reader 1; 0.720 vs 0.953 by reader 2). Contrast-enhanced US at low transmission power insonation effectively identified RPDs with diameters >6 mm in rabbits. (orig.)

  6. Detection of focal renal perfusion defects in rabbits after sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection at low transmission power ultrasound insonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) at low transmission power insonation for diagnosis of focal renal perfusion defects (RPDs) in rabbits. In seven adult New Zealand White rabbits focal RPDs were induced by polyvinyl alcohol embolizing particles (150-250 ?m in diameter) injected into the abdominal aorta. Three other rabbits that were not subjected to embolization were considered as controls. Both kidneys were insonated at baseline and after injection of sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles at low transmission power (mechanical index 0.09-0.12). One sonologist assessed on-site RPD dimensions and conspicuity (visual score 0-4). Digital cine-clips were also reviewed off-site by two other independent readers, blinded, who assigned a confidence level (grades 1-5) for the RPD diagnosis. At on-site analysis RPDs appeared as focal areas of absent or diminished enhancement with a median visual conspicuity score=4. At off-site analysis RPDs >6 mm in diameter were identified at contrast-enhanced US, and the confidence in RPD diagnosis improved significantly (P6 mm in rabbits. (orig.)

  7. Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Malmonge; C.A.C., Zavaglia; W.D., Belangero.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remain [...] ed empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups with postoperative follow-up periods of 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Indentation tests were performed on the neoformed surfaces in the knee joint (with or without a hydrogel implant) and on adjacent articular cartilage in order to assess the mechanical properties of the newly formed surface. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the mechanical behavior of the neoformed surfaces was significantly different from that of normal cartilage. Histological analysis of the repaired defects showed that the hydrogel implant filled the defect with no signs of inflammation as it was well anchored to the surrounding tissues, resulting in a newly formed articular surface. In the case of empty control defects, osseous tissue grew inside the defects and fibrous tissue formed on the articular surface of the defects. The repaired surface of the hydrogel implant was more compliant than normal articular cartilage throughout the 16 weeks following the operation, whereas the fibrous tissue that formed postoperatively over the empty defect was stiffer than normal articular cartilage after 5 weeks. This stiffness started to decrease 16 weeks after the operation, probably due to tissue degeneration. Thus, from the biomechanical and histological point of view, the hydrogel implant improved the articular surface repair.

  8. [Focal steatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudácek, Z

    1990-01-01

    Focal fatty liver in 2 females is described. In the first patient with an increasing stenosis of the d. hepaticus com., a transitory focal fatty liver was found. In the second patient a durable focal liver steatosis in a form of a lipom (-30 HU) was covered. PMID:2271812

  9. Condrocalcinose articular familiar / Familial articular chondrocalcinosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mittermayer Barreto, Santiago; Liliana, Galrão; Isabella, Lima; Lucas, Prado; Melba, Moura.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite i [...] ntermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica. Abstract in english Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical featur [...] es of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

  10. Focal myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.)

  11. Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair – the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Johnstone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach – combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

  12. Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    A. L.M. Yamada; A.M. de Carvalho; P.G.G. Oliveira; S.L. Felisbino; D.L. Queiroz; M.J. Watanabe; C.A. Hussni; A.L.G. Alves

    2012-01-01

    Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações ...

  13. MRI evaluation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the MRI manifestation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee for evaluating the extension and degree of the injury and guiding treatment. Methods: MRI of 34 patients with acute articular cartilage injury of knee within one day to fifteen days confirmed by arthroscopy and arthrotomy was reviewed and analyzed, with emphasis on articular cartilage and subchondral lesion. And every manifestation on MRI and that of arthroscopy and operation was compared. Results: The articular cartilage injury was diagnosed on MRI in 29 of 34 cases. Cartilage signal changes were found only in 4. The changes of cartilage shape were variable. Thinning of focal cartilage was showed in 3, osteochondral impaction in 3, creases of cartilage in 3, disrupted cartilage with fissuring in 13, cracks cartilage in 2, and cracks cartilage with displaced fragment in 1. Bone bruise and occult fracture were found only on MRI. Conclusion: The assessment of MRI and arthroscopy in acute articular cartilage injury are consistent. Combined with arthroscopy, MRI can succeed in assessing the extension and degree of acute articular injury and allowing treatment planning

  14. Focal myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Sweet, D.E. [Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

  15. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  16. REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE UNDER THE IMPLANTATION OF BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri M. Iryanov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Olga V. Dyuriagina , Tatiana Yu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The damage or loss of articular cartilage is costly medical problem. The purpose of this work – morphological analysis of reparative chondrogenesis when implanted in the area of the knee joint cartilage of granulated mineralized bone matrix. Material and Methods: The characteristic features of the knee cartilage regeneration studied experimentally in pubertal Wistar rats after modeling a marginal perforated defect and implantation of granulated mineralized bone matrix obtained according to original technology without heat and demineralizing processing into the injury zone. Results: This biomaterial established to have pronounced chondro- and osteoinductive properties, and to provide prolonged activation of reparative process, accelerated organotypical remodeling and restoration of the articular cartilage injured. Conclusion: The data obtained demonstrate the efficacy of ??? in clinical practice for the treatment of diseases and injuries of the articular cartilage.

  17. Articular cartilage mineralization in osteoarthritis of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohmann Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of articular cartilage calcification in patients with end-stage hip OA. Further, its impact on the clinical situation and the OA severity are analyzed. Methods Eighty patients with OA of the hip who consecutively underwent total hip replacement were prospectively evaluated, and 10 controls were included. The patients' X-rays were analyzed for the presence of articular cartilage mineralization. A Harris Hip Score (HHS was preoperatively calculated for every patient. Slab specimens from the femoral head of bone and cartilage and an additional square centimeter of articular cartilage from the main chondral defect were obtained from each patient for analysis of mineralization by digital contact radiography (DCR. Histological grading was also performed. In a subset of 20 patients, minerals were characterized with an electron microscope (FE-SEM. Results Calcifications were seen in all OA cartilage and slab specimens using DCR, while preoperative X-rays revealed calcification in only 17.5%. None of the control cartilage specimens showed mineralization. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between articular cartilage calcification and preoperative HHS. Histological OA grade correlated positively with the amount of matrix calcification. FE-SEM analysis revealed basic calcium phosphate (BCP as the predominant mineral; CPPD crystals were found in only two patients. Conclusions Articular cartilage calcification is a common event in osteoarthritis of the hip. The amount of calcification correlates with clinical symptoms and histological OA grade.

  18. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hari Reddi; Takashi Iwakura; Atsuyuki Inui

    2012-01-01

     The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue ha...

  19. A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kamarul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

  20. Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Iamaguti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT; os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC. A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina.The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG, defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG, defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

  1. Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica / Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.S., Iamaguti; C.V.S., Brandão; L.S.L.S., Mota; J.J.T., Ranzani; L.M., Ribeiro; V.J.V., Rossetto; C.R., Padovani; S.L., Felisbino.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelare [...] s. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT); os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC). A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorder [...] s were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

  2. Autophagy modulates articular cartilage vesicle formation in primary articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Gohr, Claudia M; Mitton-Fitzgerald, Elizabeth; Grewal, Rupinder; Ninomiya, James; Coyne, Carolyn B; Jackson, William T

    2015-05-22

    Chondrocyte-derived extracellular organelles known as articular cartilage vesicles (ACVs) participate in non-classical protein secretion, intercellular communication, and pathologic calcification. Factors affecting ACV formation and release remain poorly characterized; although in some cell types, the generation of extracellular vesicles is associated with up-regulation of autophagy. We sought to determine the role of autophagy in ACV production by primary articular chondrocytes. Using an innovative dynamic model with a light scatter nanoparticle counting apparatus, we determined the effects of autophagy modulators on ACV number and content in conditioned medium from normal adult porcine and human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Healthy articular chondrocytes release ACVs into conditioned medium and show significant levels of ongoing autophagy. Rapamycin, which promotes autophagy, increased ACV numbers in a dose- and time-dependent manner associated with increased levels of autophagy markers and autophagosome formation. These effects were suppressed by pharmacologic autophagy inhibitors and short interfering RNA for ATG5. Caspase-3 inhibition and a Rho/ROCK inhibitor prevented rapamycin-induced increases in ACV number. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which are deficient in autophagy, did not increase ACV number in response to rapamycin. SMER28, which induces autophagy via an mTOR-independent mechanism, also increased ACV number. ACVs induced under all conditions had similar ecto-enzyme specific activities and types of RNA, and all ACVs contained LC3, an autophagosome-resident protein. These findings identify autophagy as a critical participant in ACV formation, and augment our understanding of ACVs in cartilage disease and repair. PMID:25869133

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

    2010-01-15

    Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

  5. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  6. Current status of imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various imaging methods have been applied to assessment of articular cartilage. These include standard radiography, arthrography, CT, CT arthrography, ultrasonography, and MR imaging. Radiography remains the initial musculoskeletal imaging method. However, it is insensitive to early stages of cartilage abnormalities. MR imaging has great potential in the assessment of articular cartilage, although high-quality scans are required because imaging signs of cartilage abnormalities may be subtle. The potential and limitations of various sequences and techniques are discussed, including MR arthrography. The role of the other imaging methods in assessment of articular cartilage appears to be limited. (orig.). With 8 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Development of arti?cial articular cartilage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Bera

    2009-10-01

    The present study describes the development of arti?cial articular cartilage on the basis of mimicking structural gel properties and mechanical gel properties of natural articular cartilage. It is synthesized from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 20% Tetra ethoxy silane (TEOS) by sol–gel method. Mechanical strength of Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA is improved up to 35 MPa. Manufacturing method is adopted considering colloidal stability of nano silica particle in PVA sol at speci?c pH = 1. An adhesive is also prepared from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 40% TEOS for ?rm attachment of arti?cial articular cartilage on underlying bone with high bond strength.

  8. MRI of articular cartilaginous lesions. MRI findings in osteoarthritis of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for imaging of the knee joint, especially for detecting articular cartilaginous lesions associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 141 patients with osteoarthritis were examined (23 males, 118 females). Their age range was 40-93 (mean age 66.2). Using radiotherapy examinations, patients were classified according to Hokkaido University Classification Criteria; 22, 49, 46, 16, and 8 patients were classified as Type I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Articular cartilage defects were examined using MRI, and the number of such defects increased as the X-ray stage progressed. The appearance of a low signal intensity area in the bone marrow was examined using MRI, and the number of patients observed to have such areas increased as the x-ray stages progressed. JOA OA scores were significantly low for patients with meniscal tears. Patients were classified and results reviewed using MRI examinations. Classification by MRI of articular cartilage lesions correlated with the JOA OA scores. Low signal intensity areas in the bone marrow were frequently observed in advanced osteoarthritis cases, and there was correlation between FTA and MRI classifications of these areas. MRI is extremely valuable in detecting articular cartilage lesions in the knee joint, showing those lesions which cannot be detected by conventional radiography examinations. Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically useful method for diagnosis of osteoarthritis. (author)

  9. Focal vibration in neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, N; Valls-Sole, J; Vidal, J; Opisso, E; Medina, J; Kumru, H

    2014-04-01

    During the last decade, many studies have been carried out to understand the effects of focal vibratory stimuli at various levels of the central nervous system and to study pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological disorders as well as the therapeutic effects of focal vibration in neurorehabilitation. This review aimed to describe the effects of focal vibratory stimuli in neurorehabilitation including the neurological diseases or disorders like stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's' disease and dystonia. In conclusion, focal vibration stimulation is well tolerated, effective and easy to use, and it could be used to reduce spasticity, to promote motor activity and motor learning within a functional activity, even in gait training, independent from etiology of neurological pathology. Further studies are needed in the future well-designed trials with bigger sample size to determine the most effective frequency, amplitude and duration of vibration application in the neurorehabilitation. PMID:24842220

  10. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrou...

  11. Imaging of intra-articular osteoid osteoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.D.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com

    2003-11-01

    Intra-articular osteoid osteoma accounts for approximately 13% of all osteoid osteomas and presents as a monoarthropathy. Radiographs commonly do not identify the nidus, and in this event, MRI is likely to be the next imaging investigation. MRI may show a variety of appearances depending upon the age of the lesion. This article illustrates the imaging features of intra-articular osteoid osteoma, with emphasis on MRI. CT remains the investigation of choice for identifying the nidus.

  12. Articular nodular fasciitis in the glenohumeral joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laedermann, A.; Ceroni, D.; Hoffmeyer, P.; Kaelin, A. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland); Kindynis, P. [Department of Radiology at the Clinique Generale-Beaulieu, Geneva (Switzerland); Taylor, S. [Laboratoire Viollier-Weintraub, Geneva (Switzerland); Resnick, D. [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We describe a case of multiple intra-articular masses in the glenohumeral joint of a 15-year-old patient. The patient was treated with arthroscopic excision of the masses and synovectomy. Histological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with those of a nodular fasciitis. Follow-up examination did not reveal recurrence at 6 months. In this article we report the first case of articular nodular fasciitis in the glenohumeral joint with unusual imaging findings. (orig.)

  13. Articular nodular fasciitis in the glenohumeral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a case of multiple intra-articular masses in the glenohumeral joint of a 15-year-old patient. The patient was treated with arthroscopic excision of the masses and synovectomy. Histological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with those of a nodular fasciitis. Follow-up examination did not reveal recurrence at 6 months. In this article we report the first case of articular nodular fasciitis in the glenohumeral joint with unusual imaging findings. (orig.)

  14. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hari Reddi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  15. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of articular chondrocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabban, Abdou S; Kamel, Shereen R; Omar, Hanaa A S Abo; El-Sherif, Ashraf M H; Abdel-Magied, Rasha A

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the role of high-frequency ultrasonography in the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) calcifications, in the most commonly affected joints in CPPD disease. Sixty patients with knee effusion were included in the study. All patients underwent musculoskeletal ultrasonography (on the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and knee joints), radiological examination of the sites examined by US, and synovial fluid analysis (using polarized light microscopy). Out of 60 patients with knee effusion, ultrasonographic calcifications (knees, shoulders, and wrists) were present in 38 patients (63.3%) and out of those patients; 32 had calcification characteristic of CPPD crystals deposition (hyperechoic deposits) in the knee and wrist joints. Pattern II (punctate pattern) was the most common pattern of calcification. It was present in all patients who had wrist calcification (18 patients) and in the knee in either alone (21 patients) or in association with pattern I (hyperechoic band) and/or pattern III (hyperechoic nodular or oval deposits) (9 patients). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for the detection of calcification was 84.2% while that of plain radiography was 13.2%, the specificity of both ultrasonography and plain radiography for the detection of calcification was 100%, and ultrasonography is valuable for diagnosing articular chondrocalcinosis via the detection of calcifications within the joint cartilage and fibrocartilage. Both sensitivity and specificity are high for detecting CPPD deposits. PMID:22193232

  16. Case Reports: Volar Marginal Articular Fractures with Loss of Articular Apposition

    OpenAIRE

    Souer, J. Sebastiaan; Davis, James S; Marent, Marta; Ring, David

    2009-01-01

    Five patients with a volar marginal articular fracture with dislocation (complete loss of apposition of the articular surfaces) were treated with open reduction and internal plate fixation. This is an unusual type of volar shearing fracture and represents the volar type of radiocarpal fracture–dislocation. The results of treatment were comparable to other volar shearing type fractures.

  17. Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos / Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina S., Faria; João X. de, Oliveira Filho; Daphine A.J. de, Paula; Laila Natasha S., Brandão; Danny Franciele S., Dias; Luciano, Nakazato; Valéria, Dutra.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica [...] e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%), Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13%) e Escherichia coli (12,68%) os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%). Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45%) e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%). Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69%) de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação. Abstract in english In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%), nursery (44.35%) and growing-finishing (25.22%) phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs) for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total o [...] f 57 (49.5%) samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13%) and Escherichia coli (12.68%), and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%). In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45%) and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%). Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%). Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

  18. Strong hyaluronan expression in the full-thickness rat articular cartilage repair tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, P E; Lammi, M J; Tammi, R H; Helminen, H J; Espanha, M M

    2001-04-01

    Articular cartilage lesions have a poor capacity to regenerate. In full-depth articular cartilage defects, the repair process involves an ingrowth of mesenchymal cells from the bone marrow to the injured area, and these cells attempt to restore the lesion with cartilage-like repair tissue. In this study, we investigated histologically the distribution of hyaluronan in the rat repair tissue in relation to other glycosaminoglycans. Full-depth lesions were drilled to the weight-bearing region of rat medical femoral condyle. The rats were divided into two groups: intermittent active motion (IAM) and running training (RT) groups. In the RT group, programmed exercise was started 1 week after surgery, while the rats in the IAM group could move freely in their cages. The lesions were investigated 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery. Semiquantitative histological grading showed no significant differences in the repair between the groups. In normal articular cartilage, hyaluronan was stained mainly around chondrocytes. During repair, strong hyaluronan staining was observed in loose mesenchymal tissue, while in the repair area undergoing endochondral ossification, hyaluronan was intensively stained mainly around the hypertrophic chondrocytes. Remarkably strong staining for hyaluronan was noticed in areas of apparent mesenchymal progenitor cell invasion, the areas being simultaneously devoid of staining for keratan sulphate. In conclusion, hyaluronan is strongly expressed in the early cartilage repair tissue, and its staining intensity and distribution shows very sensitively abnormal articular cartilage structure. PMID:11405058

  19. Intra-articular Osteochondroma: A case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lt. Col.Sunil Sanga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondromas usually arise from the metaphyseal region of the growing skeleton. They usually develop in relation to the periosteum, and occur around the growth plate of long bones, especially the knee. The tumor usually stops to grow with closure of the growth plate. Extraskeletal cartilaginous tumors are uncommon. These tumors can arise at unusual anatomic site. Intra-articular osteochondromas are rare in older individuals. In joints with a large capsular space, such as the patellofemoral joint, osteochondromas can remain intra-articular [3]. Clinical-pathologic and radiological correlation helps to clarify the nature of the lesion. Complete local surgical excision is the management of choice. We report a patient with an intra-articular osteochondroma in the anterior portion of the knee joint. The tumor caused pain and swelling in the joint and affected knee motion.

  20. Linear focal elastosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsad D

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of linear focal elastosis is reported. A 19-year old male presented with asymptomatic, palpable yellow lines over back along with striae distensae over axilla. Light microscopic examination demonstrated dermal thickening but no change in the epidermis. The elastic tissue stain revealed fragmented elastic fibres throughout the dermis.

  1. Linear focal elastosis

    OpenAIRE

    Parsad D

    1998-01-01

    A case of linear focal elastosis is reported. A 19-year old male presented with asymptomatic, palpable yellow lines over back along with striae distensae over axilla. Light microscopic examination demonstrated dermal thickening but no change in the epidermis. The elastic tissue stain revealed fragmented elastic fibres throughout the dermis.

  2. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also result in birth defects. For most birth defects, the cause is unknown. Some birth defects can be prevented. ... about any medicines you take. Some medicines can cause serious birth defects. Babies with birth defects may need surgery or ...

  3. Cartílago articular: Evaluación por resonancia magnética

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo, Delgado P.

    Full Text Available El presente artículo revisa la evaluación imagenologica de las lesiones del cartílago articular con énfasis en su estudio por resonancia magnética, discutiendo la utilidad de las secuencias convencionales y los estudios avanzados de RM que permiten detectar lesiones condrales incipientes intrasustan [...] cia, previo a la ulceración de su superficie. Abstract in english This article reviews the radiographic evaluation of articular cartilage lesions with emphasis on its magnetic resonance imaging study, we will discuss the usefulness of conventional sequences and advanced MRI studies which allow detection of incipient intrasubstance chondral lesions, prior to the ul [...] ceration of its surface.

  4. Endogenous versus Exogenous Growth Factor Regulation of Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, SHUILIANG; Chan, Albert G.; Mercer, Scott; ECKERT, GEORGE J.; TRIPPEL, STEPHEN B.

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) ...

  5. Characterisation of intra-articular soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification system for intra-articular soft tissue tumours based on the morphology of the lesion, with the aim to aid the differential diagnosis. We performed a retrospective review of 52 consecutive patients presenting to a specialist musculoskeletal oncology unit with a suspected intra-articular tumour. Lesions were categorised into one of four groups according to a simple classification system based on their morphological features on MRI. Distinct groupings of pathologies emerged corresponding to each of the morphological categories. Particularly when combined with radiographic features of calcification and bone erosion, certain patterns were found to be characteristic of specific diagnoses. For example multifocal, calcified lesions were found exclusively in synovial osteochondromatosis and diffuse synovitis with hypointense T2-weighted signal intensity was typical of pigmented villonodular synovitis. Certain combinations of imaging features such as diffuse solid lesions and focal lesions with bone erosion were commonly associated with malignant lesions. We suggest that by classifying intra-articular masses according to their morphological features on MRI, particularly when combined with simple radiographic features, an additional parameter may be generated to aid the radiologist in making a diagnosis. In addition, particular combinations of features provide 'red flags' to increase the index of suspicion for malignancy. (orig.)

  6. [Chondrocalcinosis. Clinical impact of intra-articular calcium phosphate crystals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, M

    2014-06-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are known to cause acute attacks of pseudogout in joints but crystal deposition has also been reported to be associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Aside from CPPD crystals, basic calcium phosphates (BCPs), consisting of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, have been found in synovial fluid, synovium and cartilage of patients with OA. Although CPPD crystals have been found to be associated with OA and are an important factor in joint disease, this has also recently been associated with a genetic defect. However, according to the most recent findings, the association of BCP crystals, such as apatite with OA is much stronger, as their presence significantly correlates with the severity of cartilage degeneration. Identification of BCP crystals in OA joints remains problematic due to a lack of simple and reliable methods of detection. The clinical and pathological relevance of cartilage mineralization in patients with OA is not completely understood. It is well established that mineralization of articular cartilage is often found close to hypertrophic chondrocytes. A significant correlation between the expression of type X collagen, a marker for chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage mineralization was observed. In the process of endochondral ossification, the link between hypertrophy and matrix mineralization is particularly well described. Hypertrophic chondrocytes in OA cartilage and at the growth line share certain features, not only hypertrophy but also a capability to mineralize the matrix. Recent data indicate that chondrocyte hypertrophy is a key factor in articular cartilage mineralization strongly linked to OA and does not characterize a specific subset of OA patients, which has important consequences for therapeutic strategies for OA. PMID:24924727

  7. INCIDENCE AND TREATMENT OF INTRA-ARTICULAR LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to retrospectively review the patients admitted and treated in the “Alexandru R?dulescu” Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Cluj-Napoca for an anterior cruciate ligament tear over a 2-year period and document the intra-articular lesions found at arthroscopy as well as the treatment used for these associated lesions.Patients and methods. The case records of 88 patients operated for anterior cruciate ligament tear over a period of 2 years were reviewed. There were 67 males and 21 females with a mean age of 28.9 years, ranging from 14 to 49 years. After recording the patient demographics, we documented all the intra-articular lesions found during knee arthroscopy, as well as all procedures undertaken concomitant with the ACL reconstruction.Results. 50 of the 88 patients (56.8% had associated intra-articular lesions at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The most common injury found was a meniscus tear, 48 patients (54.5% had a meniscal pathology at the time of ligament reconstruction, medial meniscus being the most frequent injured one, found in 37 patients. Meniscectomy and meniscus suture were the procedures performed for these lesions, meniscectomy being more frequent. Chondral defects were the next associated injuries found with an incidence of 15.9% of the cases. The medial side of the knee was the most common site of chondral pathology.Conclusions. ACL tears are frequently associated with other intra-articular lesions, especially medial meniscus tears and chondral defects affecting the medial compartment. Such pathology most often needs surgical attention during the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  8. [The focal renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful. PMID:23735765

  9. Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Eyre

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia syndromes. Here we review what is known of the collagen assembly and present new evidence that collagen type III becomes covalently added to the polymeric fabric of adult human articular cartilage, perhaps as part of a matrix repair or remodelling process.

  10. OSTEOPONTIN PROMOTES PATHOLOGIC MINERALIZATION IN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Gohr, Claudia M.; Uzuki, Miwa; Masuda, Ikuko

    2006-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritic joint tissues, where they predict severe disease. Unlike other types of calcium phosphate crystals, CPPD crystals form almost exclusively in the pericellular matrix of damaged articular cartilage, suggesting a key role for the extracellular matrix milieu in their development. Osteopontin is a matricellular protein found in increased quantities in the pericellular matrix of osteoarthritic cartilage. Osteoponti...

  11. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Fermor, B; S E Christensen; I Youn; J M Cernanec; Davies, C.M; Weinberg, J B

    2007-01-01

    Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO), a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O...

  12. Articular fractures of the distal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégué, T

    2014-02-01

    Distal humeral fractures represent 2% of all adult elbow fractures. Injury mechanisms include high-energy trauma with skin involvement, and low energy trauma in osteoporotic bone. Treatment goals are anatomical restoration in young, high-demand patients and quick recovery of activities of daily living in the elderly. Complete fractures are relatively easy to diagnose, but partial intra-articular fractures are not. The clinical diagnosis must take into account potential complications such as open injuries and ulnar nerve trauma. Standard X-rays with additional distraction series in the operating room are sufficient in complete articular fracture cases. Partial intra-articular fractures will need CT scan and 3D reconstruction to fully evaluate the involved fragments. SOFCOT, AO/OTA and Dubberley classifications are the most useful for describing fractures and selecting treatment. Surgery is the optimal treatment and planning is based on fracture type. Complete fractures are treated using a posterior approach. Triceps management is a function of fracture lines and type of fixation planned. Constructs using two plates at 90° or 180° are the most stable, with additional frontal screw for intercondylar fractures. Elbow arthroplasty may be indicated in selected patients, having severely communited distal humerus fractures and osteoporotic bone. Open fractures make fixation and wound management more challenging and unfortunately have poorer outcomes. Other complications are elbow stiffness, non-union, malunion and heterotopic ossification. PMID:24461911

  13. Systemic focal epileptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

  14. Intra-Articular Osteoid Osteoma Mimicking Juvenile Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Traore, Sidi Yaya; Dumitriu, Dana Ioana; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In case of intra-articular osteoid osteoma, misdiagnosis as juvenile arthritis may occur, delaying adequate treatment. We report cases of intra-articular osteoid osteomas in children that were misdiagnosed and initially inappropriately treated with intra-articular corticoid injection. Diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was finally given by CT-scan and appropriate treatment by radiofrequency ablation or surgical ablation was performed. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of the potentially c...

  15. Intra-Articular Osteoid Osteoma Mimicking Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Sidi Yaya; Dumitriu, Dana Ioana; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In case of intra-articular osteoid osteoma, misdiagnosis as juvenile arthritis may occur, delaying adequate treatment. We report cases of intra-articular osteoid osteomas in children that were misdiagnosed and initially inappropriately treated with intra-articular corticoid injection. Diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was finally given by CT-scan and appropriate treatment by radiofrequency ablation or surgical ablation was performed. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of the potentially confusing clinical and imaging findings associated with intra-articular osteoid osteoma. PMID:25136469

  16. Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinks Aaltien

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue corticosteroid injection. Methods A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were examined. We divided the reported adverse events into major (defined as those needing intervention or not disappearing and minor ones (transient, not requiring intervention. Results The search yielded 87 relevant studies:44 case reports, 37 prospective studies and 6 retrospective studies. The major adverse events included osteomyelitis and protothecosis; one fatal necrotizing fasciitis; cellulitis and ecchymosis; tendon ruptures; atrophy of the plantar fat was described after injecting a neuroma; and local skin effects appeared as atrophy, hypopigmentation or as skin defect. The minor adverse events effects ranged from skin rash to flushing and disturbed menstrual pattern. Increased pain or steroid flare after injection was reported in 19 studies. After extra-articular injection, the incidence of major adverse events ranged from 0-5.8% and that of minor adverse events from 0-81%. It was not feasible to pool the risk for adverse effects due to heterogeneity of study populations and difference in interventions and variance in reporting. Conclusion In this literature review it was difficult to accurately quantify the incidence of adverse effects after extra-articular corticosteroid injection. The reported adverse events were relatively mild, although one fatal reaction was reported.

  17. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ? Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ? High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred ?m) of nanofibrous scaffolds ? Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ? Differentiation not significantly affected ? Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  18. Phosphorylation of proteoglycans from human articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that sulfated proteoglycans from human articular and epiphyseal cartilage were phosphorylated. These macromolecules contribute to the stiffness and resiliency of this tissue. We demonstrate here that the phosphate moieties are an integral part of proteoglycan subunits. Specifically, evidence is presented which indicates that proteoglycan monomers contain 3 to 4 phosphate moieties per core protein and that these appear to exist as phosphoserine residues. Furthermore, the data illustrate that human articular cartilage also contains more than 20 different phosphoproteins, some of which are closely associated with proteoglycan aggregates. Proteoglycan subunits were purified from extracts of articular cartilage or from media fractions which had been used to label tissue specimens with 32P-orthophosphate. Chemical and radiographic analyses revealed that the phosphate concentration with respect to sulfate and uronic acid content remained constant when purified proteoglycan monomers were subjected to equilibrium ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography. That the phosphate moieties were bound to proteoglycan monomers via monoester linkages was indicated by the release of 32P-orthophosphate from proteoglycan subunits incubated under mild alkaline conditions or reacted with acid or alkaline phosphatases. Identification of serine residues in the core protein as the sites of phosphorylation was made by autoradiography of thin layer plates on which hydrolyzed samples of purified 32P-proteoglycan subunits had been subjected to 2-dimensional electrophoresis/chromatography. Quantification of 3 to 4 phosphate moieties per core protein of 200,000 daltons was made by chemical analysis of inorganic phosphate released from proteoglycans by acid hydrolysis

  19. Viral articular deformations in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A goat belonging to an animal aid association was presented for bilateral deformation of the tarsus and carpus and signs of high-grade pain. ELISA serology was positive for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus. Radiography revealed marked osseous remodelling of the tarsus. The blood fibrinogen concentration was very elevated. On infected commercial farms, it is recommended that both seropositive animals and their offspring are culled when the level of infected is low, or to separate the kids from the mothers at an early age. In this case, palliative treatment was prescribed based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and articular puncture-lavages

  20. Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-cheng LI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

  1. Knee osteoarthritis: Clinical connections to articular cartilage structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Lori Thein

    2015-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a unique biphasic material that supports a lifetime of compressive and shear forces across joints. When articular cartilage deteriorates, whether due to injury, wear and tear or normal aging, osteoarthritis and resultant pain can ensue. Understanding the basic science of the structure and biomechanics of articular cartilage can help clinicians guide their patients to appropriate activity and loading choices. The purpose of this article is to examine how articular cartilage structure and mechanics, may interact with risk factors to contribute to OA and how this interaction provides guidelines for intervention choices This paper will review the microstructure of articular cartilage, its mechanical properties and link this information to clinical decision making. PMID:25783021

  2. Intra-Articular Transplantation of Allogeneic BMMSCs Rehabilitates Cartilage Injury of Antigen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Ding, Jianxun; Wang, Chenyu; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Yinan; Yang, Modi; Jia, Yunlong; Zhang, Yanbo; Chang, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-11-01

    Apart from the immunosuppressive property, which has been widely investigated in the treatment of various autoimmune diseases, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) also exhibit the chondrogenic capacity. Recently, BMMSCs have attracted more and more attention in the remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the reconstruction of cartilage injury. In addition to the significant regulatory hurdles of systemic treatment by BMMSCs, the poor inhibitory efficiency on articular inflammatory reaction and the inferior result of preventing the persistent destruction of cartilage were observed. Herein, toward the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced arthritis in rabbits, the in situ transplantation of fibrin gel-encapsulated BMMSCs to osteochondral defect was confirmed to result in the decreased levels of cytokines, such as interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, and anti-OVA antibody, in the serum. What is more, the implantation of BMMSCs also inhibited the proliferation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. Meanwhile, the fibrin gel-encapsulated BMMSCs performed outstanding capacity of cartilage repair, resulted in the remission of local joint inflammatory condition, and prevented further articular cartilage damage. The results demonstrated that the transplantation of BMMSCs in fibrin gel to osteochondral defect under arthritic condition could effectively stimulate BMMSCs to exhibit the immunosuppression and cartilage protection capability, as well as cartilage repair. This study provided a new therapeutic strategy for RA-induced cartilage injury through the local transplantation of BMMSCs. PMID:26414238

  3. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  4. MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juxta-articular venous malformations (VMs) are uncommon, but may cause early arthropathy of the knee in children and adolescents. We sought to describe the prevalence, extent and initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee arthropathy in children with VM adjacent to the knee joint. Thirty-five patients with VM adjacent to the knee who had MRI performed between 2000 and 2009 were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system. VM extended to the joint in 17 of the 35 patients (5.4-21.5 years, mean 11.8 years). Most of these 17 patients had joint changes (15/17, 88%), most commonly haemosiderin deposition (14/17, 82%). Other findings included the presence of subchondral bone lesions (eight, 47%), cartilage loss (six, 35%), synovial thickening (six, 35%), marrow oedema (six, 35%), joint effusion (five, 29%), subchondral cysts (five, 29%) and one loose body (6%). VM location and size did not correlate with the degree of articular involvement. Joint changes were present in focal as well as non-discrete VM. We found that the frequency of arthropathy increased with extension of VM into the joint itself. This finding stresses the importance of early MRI evaluation of all juxta-articular VM. (orig.)

  5. EVALUACIÓN DEL CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR CON RESONANCIA MAGNÉTICA / ASSESSMENT OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo, Delgado P.

    Full Text Available Las lesiones del cartílago articular son frecuentes y su diagnóstico por imagen cada día más importante. La resonancia magnética es el método de diagnóstico por imagen de elección para la evaluación de lesiones condrales. Este artículo revisa la utilidad de este método, en relación a estudios conven [...] cionales así como también estudios avanzados, cuantitativos, que permiten evaluar alteraciones condrales iniciales antes de ser evidentes en secuencias habituales de resonancia magnética. Abstract in english Articular cartilage injuries is a common event and imaging technique has become increasingly important in diagnosing them. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the imaging method of choice forthe evaluation of chondral lesions. This article reviews the usef ulness of this method compared to conventio [...] nal as well as to advanced quantitative studies, thus enabling evaluation of initial cartilage alterations before being evident in normal MRI sequences.

  6. EVALUACIÓN DEL CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR CON RESONANCIA MAGNÉTICA ASSESSMENT OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Delgado P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones del cartílago articular son frecuentes y su diagnóstico por imagen cada día más importante. La resonancia magnética es el método de diagnóstico por imagen de elección para la evaluación de lesiones condrales. Este artículo revisa la utilidad de este método, en relación a estudios convencionales así como también estudios avanzados, cuantitativos, que permiten evaluar alteraciones condrales iniciales antes de ser evidentes en secuencias habituales de resonancia magnética.Articular cartilage injuries is a common event and imaging technique has become increasingly important in diagnosing them. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging method of choice forthe evaluation of chondral lesions. This article reviews the usef ulness of this method compared to conventional as well as to advanced quantitative studies, thus enabling evaluation of initial cartilage alterations before being evident in normal MRI sequences.

  7. Modelos computacionales del comportamiento del cartílago articular / Computational models of articular cartilage behavior

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar Rodrigo, López-Vaca; Carlos Alberto, Narváez-Tovar; Diego Alexander, Garzón-Alvarado.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El cartílago articular suministra a las articulaciones diartrodiales baja fricción, resistencia al desgaste en las superficies de contacto y distribuye los esfuerzos en las zonas donde se presenta contacto con el hueso; adicionalmente, es un tejido alinfático y avascular, razón por la cual su regene [...] ración toma demasiado tiempo y en pacientes con avanzada edad no es posible realizarla. Con el propósito de estudiar y entender completamente el comportamiento del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones de carga y en presencia de enfermedades como la osteoartritis, se han creado diferentes modelos computacionales que incluyen características propias de la estructura del tejido cartilaginoso que permiten predecir su comportamiento en condiciones normales y anormales, disminuyendo tiempos y costos de experimentación. Este artículo de actualización expone las principales características estructurales y biológicas del cartílago articular y presenta diferentes modelos computacionales que permiten modelar el tejido cartilaginoso de acuerdo con sus principales características y de esta forma simular el deterioro del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones y enfermedades. Abstract in english The articular cartilage provides diarthrodial articulations with low friction, resistance to wear on contact surfaces, and an effective distribution of efforts in areas of contact with the bone. On the other hand, because their tissue is alymphatic and avascular, regeneration takes a long time and i [...] s not possible in elderly patients. Various computational models have been developed to study and fully understand cartilage behavior under varying load conditions and in the presence of diseases such as osteoarthritis. The models include specific features of cartilaginous tissue allowing to predict its behavior in normal and abnormal conditions, reducing experimentation time and costs. This update paper presents the main structural and biological characteristics of the articular cartilage, as well as various computational models representing cartilaginous tissue according to its main features, with a view to simulating cartilage deterioration under varying conditions and diseases.

  8. Modelos computacionales del comportamiento del cartílago articular Computational models of articular cartilage behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El cartílago articular suministra a las articulaciones diartrodiales baja fricción, resistencia al desgaste en las superficies de contacto y distribuye los esfuerzos en las zonas donde se presenta contacto con el hueso; adicionalmente, es un tejido alinfático y avascular, razón por la cual su regeneración toma demasiado tiempo y en pacientes con avanzada edad no es posible realizarla. Con el propósito de estudiar y entender completamente el comportamiento del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones de carga y en presencia de enfermedades como la osteoartritis, se han creado diferentes modelos computacionales que incluyen características propias de la estructura del tejido cartilaginoso que permiten predecir su comportamiento en condiciones normales y anormales, disminuyendo tiempos y costos de experimentación. Este artículo de actualización expone las principales características estructurales y biológicas del cartílago articular y presenta diferentes modelos computacionales que permiten modelar el tejido cartilaginoso de acuerdo con sus principales características y de esta forma simular el deterioro del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones y enfermedades.The articular cartilage provides diarthrodial articulations with low friction, resistance to wear on contact surfaces, and an effective distribution of efforts in areas of contact with the bone. On the other hand, because their tissue is alymphatic and avascular, regeneration takes a long time and is not possible in elderly patients. Various computational models have been developed to study and fully understand cartilage behavior under varying load conditions and in the presence of diseases such as osteoarthritis. The models include specific features of cartilaginous tissue allowing to predict its behavior in normal and abnormal conditions, reducing experimentation time and costs. This update paper presents the main structural and biological characteristics of the articular cartilage, as well as various computational models representing cartilaginous tissue according to its main features, with a view to simulating cartilage deterioration under varying conditions and diseases.

  9. Lesiones focales hepáticas en niños / Focal liver lesions in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalis, Rossell; Dianora, Navarro; Karolina, López; Enicar, Perla; Betzabeth, Quintana; Credy, Figueredo; Andrea, Nogales; Katiuska, Belandria.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones focales del hígado comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de entidades como tumores benignos y malignos, sólidos o quistes, vasculares, masas inflamatorias y metástasis, entre otras. Objetivo: reportar lesiones focales hepáticas en niños, características clínicas, estudios por im [...] ágenes y conducta terapéutica. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en la revisión de 16 historias clínicas de niños con lesiones focales hepáticas en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2007 a enero 2012. Se excluyeron los abscesos hepáticos. Resultados: El 68,75%11 eran del sexo masculino y 31,25%5 del sexo femenino; con edad promedio de 9,5 años (rango: 10 días - 14 años). Las lesiones focales benignas fueron: hemangioma 4/16 (25%), hematoma hepático 4/16 (25%), quiste hepático 3/16 (18,75%), hiperplasia nodular focal 1/16 (6,25%) adenoma 1/16 (6,25%) y las malignas: hepatocarcinoma 2/16 (12,50%) y hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6,25%). La mayoría de los pacientes (56,25%) se encontraban asintomáticos, 3/16 (18,75%) presentaron dolor abdominal, 3/16 (18,75%) masa palpable y 2/16 (12,5%) ictericia. La lesión fue identificada por ultrasonido abdominal en todos los pacientes y sólo el 56,25% (9/16) ameritaron tomografía con contraste. Al 43,75% (7/16) se les realizó marcadores tumorales y de estos el 42,85% (3/7) reportaron neoplasias. El funcionalismo hepático reportó normal en el 75% de los casos. Conclusión: El ultrasonido abdominal es el método de elección para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las lesiones focales hepáticas, mientras el origen de las mismas, guía la conducta terapéutica. Abstract in english Introduction: focal liver lesions comprise a heterogeneous group of entities such as benign and malignant, solid or cysts, vascular, inflammatory masses and metastasis among others. Objective: To report focal liver lesions in children, clinical features, imaging and therapeutic behavior. Patients an [...] d Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study based on a review of 16 case histories of children with focal liver lesions in the period from January 2007 to January 2012. Liver abscesses were excluded. Results: 68.75%11 were male and 31.25%5 females, mean age 9.5 years (range: 10 days - 14 years). Focal lesions were benign: Hemangioma 4/16 (25%), liver hematoma 4/16 (25%), hepatic cyst 3/16 (18.75%), nodular focal hyperplasia 1/16 (6.25%) and adenomas 1/16 (6.25%) and malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma 2/16 (12.50%) and hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6.25%). Most patients (56.25%) were asymptomatic, 3/16 (18.75%) had abdominal pain, 3/16 (18.75%) and palpable mass 2/16 (12.5%) jaundice. The lesion was identified by abdominal ultrasound in all patients and only 56.25% (9/16) needed tomography with contrast. To 43.75% (7/16) underwent tumor markers and of these 42.85% (3/7) reported neoplasm. Normal hepatic function reported in 75% of cases. Conclusion: An abdominal ultrasound is the method of choice for the diagnosis and management of focal liver lesions, while the origin of them, guide therapeutic conduct.

  10. Focal cortical dysplasia in meningioangiomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Matthew M; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Meningioangiomatosis is a rare, benign, developmental, or hamartomatous lesion which may involve the leptomeninges and underlying brain parenchyma. Histologically, meningioangiomatosis is marked by a proliferation of blood vessels in the parenchyma, rimmed by collars of spindled meningothelial cells. There are anecdotal reports of an association of meningioangiomatosis with focal cortical dysplasia. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, histopathologic, and treatment outcomes of 16 patients with a diagnosis of meningioangiomatosis, specifically investigating these cases for evidence of adjacent focal cortical dysplasia. Patients ranged in age from 1 to 34 years (median 18), 12 of whom had medically-intractable epilepsy as their presenting symptom. No patients in this study had a confirmed diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type II. Four patients (25%) were found to have fibrous meningiomas associated with the meningioangiomatosis. Ten of the 12 patients (83%) who had adequate tissue excised adjacent to the meningioangiomatosis demonstrated evidence of focal cortical dysplasia, with 6 of those (60%) classified as Palmini type IA, and 4 patients (40%) classified as Palmini type IIA. Seven of the patients (44%) had no post-operative seizures, and were off anti-epileptic drugs, while 2 patients relapsed, and required pharmacologic treatment for seizure control. This study therefore presents evidence to support inclusion of meningioangiomatosis as a focal cortical dysplasia-associated entity, as suggested by the ILAE classification (type IIIc). As focal cortical dysplasia is a developmental malformation, its association with meningioangiomatosis supports a developmental etiology of sporadic meningioangiomatosis. PMID:25601060

  11. Doppelganger defects

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Melinda; Lewandowski, Matt; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We study k-defects - topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion - and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of D...

  12. Reparação de defeitos osteocondrais de cães com implante de cultura de condrócitos homólogos e membrana biossintética de celulose: avaliação clínica, ultrassonográfica e macroscópica / The repair of osteochondral defects in dogs with homologous articular chondrocytes and biosynthetic cellulose membrane: clinical, ultrasound and macroscopic evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.S., Iamaguti; C.V.S., Brandão; L.S.L.S., Mota; M.G., Sereno; M.F., Almeida; C.R., Padovani.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o implante de condrócitos homólogos em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando a membrana biossintética à base de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães adultos e clinicamente sadios foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de quatro milímetros de diâme [...] tro por quatro milímetros de profundidade foram induzidos na tróclea femoral de ambos os membros. A MBC foi aplicada na base e superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados e formaram o grupo tratado (GT); e os defeitos do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, formaram o grupo controle (GC). Os animais foram avaliados clínica e ultrassonograficamente aos 30 e 60 dias. A evolução pós-operatória dos cães foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de macroscopia. Não houve diferença clínica e ultrassonográfica entre os grupos. Entretanto, à macroscopia, ocorreu maior prevalência de formação de tecido cicatricial esbranquiçado no GT. O tecido neoformado apresentou melhor qualidade associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, mas não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the repair of deep cartilaginous defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joi [...] nts and defects with four millimeters diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM was applied in the lesion's base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), the defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), the defects of the left limb were filled without cellular implant. The animals were evaluated by physical examination and ultrasound at 30 and 60 days. The postoperative follow up of the dogs was done by macroscopy with special interest in the healing process of the osteochondral defect. No clinical and ultrasonographic differences were observed in both groups. In the macroscopic evaluation higher prevalence of whitish scar tissue formation was noted in TG, but without statistical difference. The neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

  13. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  14. Sources of Variability in Musculo-Articular Stiffness Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Watsford, Mark; Murphy, Aron; de Vito, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) with the free-oscillation technique is a popular method with a variety of applications. This study examined the sources of variability (load applied and frequency of oscillation) when MAS is assessed.

  15. Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments are associated with non-specific clinical signs and symptoms. Familiarity with the MR appearances in particular is important to make an accurate diagnosis, exclude associated abnormalities, and avoid misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Articular Cartilage: Structural and Developmental Intricacies and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Rebekah S; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Articular cartilage has obvious and fundamental roles in joint function and body movement. Much is known about its organization, extracellular matrix, and phenotypic properties of its cells, but less is known about its developmental biology. Incipient articular cartilage in late embryos and neonates is a thin tissue with scanty matrix and small cells, while adult tissue is thick and zonal and contains large cells and abundant matrix. What remains unclear is not only how incipient articular cartilage forms, but how it then grows and matures into a functional, complex, and multifaceted structure. This review focuses on recent and exciting discoveries on the developmental biology and growth of articular cartilage, frames them within the context of classic studies, and points to lingering questions and research goals. Advances in this research area will have significant relevance to basic science, and also considerable translational value to design superior cartilage repair and regeneration strategies. PMID:26408155

  17. Articular cartilage mineralization in osteoarthritis of the hip

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann Christoph; Schäfer Fritz; Lammers Lydia; Niggemeyer Oliver; Fuerst Martin; Rüther Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of articular cartilage calcification in patients with end-stage hip OA. Further, its impact on the clinical situation and the OA severity are analyzed. Methods Eighty patients with OA of the hip who consecutively underwent total hip replacement were prospectively evaluated, and 10 controls were included. The patients' X-rays were analyzed for the presence of articular cartilage mineralization. A Harris Hip Score (HHS) was ...

  18. Biomechanical Properties of Peripheral Layer in Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrtyl, M.; Danesova, J.; Lisal, J.; Sejkotova, J.

    2010-05-01

    Articular cartilage as a complex viscohyperelastic biomaterial possessing supporting and protective functions. It transfers dynamic effects into subchondral and spongious bone and protects chondrocytes (and the matrix material) from their destruction. Under cyclic loads, it also ensures regulated long-term protection of articular cartilage plateaus. The viscoelastic properties of the peripheral zone of articular cartilage and its molecular structure ensure the regulation of the transport and accumulation of synovial fluid between articular plateaus. The viscoelastic properties of articular cartilage in the peripheral zone ensure that during cyclic loading some amount of synovial fluid is always retained accumulated between articular plateaus, which were presupplemented with it in the previous loading cycle. During long-term harmonic cyclic loading and unloading, the strains stabilize at limit values. Shortly after loading, the strain rate is always greater than before unloading. In this way, the hydrodynamic lubrication biomechanism quickly presupplements the surface localities with lubrication material. Shortly after unloading, the strain rate is high. During strain relaxation, it slows down.

  19. Differential gene expression associated with postnatal equine articular cartilage maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromberg Arnold J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage undergoes an important maturation process from neonate to adult that is reflected by alterations in matrix protein organization and increased heterogeneity of chondrocyte morphology. In the horse, these changes are influenced by exercise during the first five months of postnatal life. Transcriptional profiling was used to evaluate changes in articular chondrocyte gene expression during postnatal growth and development. Methods Total RNA was isolated from the articular cartilage of neonatal (0–10 days and adult (4–5 years horses, subjected to one round of linear RNA amplification, and then applied to a 9,367-element equine-specific cDNA microarray. Comparisons were made with a dye-swap experimental design. Microarray results for selected genes (COL2A1, COMP, P4HA1, TGFB1, TGFBR3, TNC were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Results Fifty-six probe sets, which represent 45 gene products, were up-regulated (p Conclusion Differential expression of genes encoding matrix proteins and matrix-modifying enzymes between neonates and adults reflect a cellular maturation process in articular chondrocytes. Up-regulated transcripts in neonatal cartilage are consistent with growth and expansion of the articular surface. Expression patterns in mature articular cartilage indicate a transition from growth to homeostasis, and tissue function related to withstanding shear and weight-bearing stresses.

  20. Cervical spinal luxation in two dogs with entrapment of the cranial articular process of C6 over the caudal articular process of C5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2 Poodles, the cranial articular process of C6 was luxated and interlocked dorsal to the caudal articular process of C5. Surgical management in each case included reduction and stabilization of the articular processes, along with limited dorsal laminectomy. One of the dogs was completely normal 4 weeks after surgery, but the other had residual neurologic deficits 11 months after injury

  1. Focal lesions of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, B. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

  2. Combined Effect of Subchondral Drilling and Hyaluronic Acid with/without Diacerein in Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Lesion in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai

    2012-01-01

    The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 an...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, Claus [Marienhospital Vechta, Department of Radiology, Vechta (Germany); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Mo Ahn, Joong [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

  5. Caracterización clínica de pacientes parcialmente desdentados con disfunciones articulares / Clinical characterization of partially edentulous patients with articular dysfunctions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia Hortensia, Corona Carpio; Zulema, Chávez González; María Luisa, Duque de Estrada Bertot; Ana, Duharte Escalante.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 374 desdentados parciales con disfunción mandibular, quienes acudieron al servicio de prótesis Estomatológica de la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente "Mártires del Moncada" de Santiago de Cuba desde octubre de 2013 hasta igual mes de 2014, p [...] ara determinar la presencia de ruidos articulares en su articulación temporomandibular. Entre los principales resultados prevalecieron el sexo femenino, el grupo etario de 20-29 años y como manifestaciones clínicas de disfunción articular: el sonido articular en forma de chasquido al inicio y final de la apertura bucal (51,6 y 38,7 %, respectivamente), así como la desviación mandibular (42,4 %) Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 374 partially edentulous patients with mandibular dysfunction who assisted the Stomatological Prosthesis Service from "Mártires del Moncada" Teaching Provincial Stomatological Clinic in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from October, 2013 to the same month o [...] f 2014, to determine the presence of articular sounds in their temporomandibular joints. Among the main results there were the female sex, the age group 20-29 and as clinical manifestations of articular dysfunction: the articular sound in crack form at the beginning and end of the oral opening (51.6 and 38.7%, respectively), as well as the mandibular deviation (42.4%)

  6. Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Carla, Tomiosso; Laurecir, Gomes; Benedicto, de Campos Vidal; Edson Rosa, Pimentel.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. [...] For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarosepropylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.

  7. A 3D system for culturing human articular chondrocytes in synovial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Joshua A; McAlindon, Timothy E; Zeng, Li

    2012-01-01

    Cartilage destruction is a central pathological feature of osteoarthritis, a leading cause of disability in the US. Cartilage in the adult does not regenerate very efficiently in vivo; and as a result, osteoarthritis leads to irreversible cartilage loss and is accompanied by chronic pain and immobility (1,2). Cartilage tissue engineering offers promising potential to regenerate and restore tissue function. This technology typically involves seeding chondrocytes into natural or synthetic scaffolds and culturing the resulting 3D construct in a balanced medium over a period of time with a goal of engineering a biochemically and biomechanically mature tissue that can be transplanted into a defect site in vivo (3-6). Achieving an optimal condition for chondrocyte growth and matrix deposition is essential for the success of cartilage tissue engineering. In the native joint cavity, cartilage at the articular surface of the bone is bathed in synovial fluid. This clear and viscous fluid provides nutrients to the avascular articular cartilage and contains growth factors, cytokines and enzymes that are important for chondrocyte metabolism (7,8). Furthermore, synovial fluid facilitates low-friction movement between cartilaginous surfaces mainly through secreting two key components, hyaluronan and lubricin (9 10). In contrast, tissue engineered cartilage is most often cultured in artificial media. While these media are likely able to provide more defined conditions for studying chondrocyte metabolism, synovial fluid most accurately reflects the natural environment of which articular chondrocytes reside in. Indeed, synovial fluid has the advantage of being easy to obtain and store, and can often be regularly replenished by the body. Several groups have supplemented the culture medium with synovial fluid in growing human, bovine, rabbit and dog chondrocytes, but mostly used only low levels of synovial fluid (below 20%) (11-25). While chicken, horse and human chondrocytes have been cultured in the medium with higher percentage of synovial fluid, these culture systems were two-dimensional (26-28). Here we present our method of culturing human articular chondrocytes in a 3D system with a high percentage of synovial fluid (up to 100%) over a period of 21 days. In doing so, we overcame a major hurdle presented by the high viscosity of the synovial fluid. This system provides the possibility of studying human chondrocytes in synovial fluid in a 3D setting, which can be further combined with two other important factors (oxygen tension and mechanical loading) (29,30) that constitute the natural environment for cartilage to mimic the natural milieu for cartilage growth. Furthermore, This system may also be used for assaying synovial fluid activity on chondrocytes and provide a platform for developing cartilage regeneration technologies and therapeutic options for arthritis. PMID:22314877

  8. Doppelganger defects

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Melinda; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We study k-defects - topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion - and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of DBI instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub doppelgangers, that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelganger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgangers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonic...

  9. Luxación intra-articular de rótula / Intra-articular dislocation of patella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., García-Mata; A. M., Hidalgo-Ovejero.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se re [...] alizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones. Abstract in english The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was [...] carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

  10. Luxación intra-articular de rótula Intra-articular dislocation of patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. García-Mata

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se realizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones.The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

  11. Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-?1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-?1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-?1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-?1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. PMID:24105960

  12. Surface modified PLGA/carbon nanofiber composite enhances articular chondrocyte functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Grace Eunseung

    Since articular cartilage has a limited self regeneration capability, alternative methods are needed for repairing cartilage defects. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to explore the effects of material surface properties and external stimulation on chondrocyte (cartilage-synthesizing cell) functions. Based on this information, a goal of this research was to propose a scaffold composite material for enhancing articular chondrocyte function. To improve functions of chondrocytes, material (namely, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); PLGA) surfaces were modified via chemical (NaOH) etching techniques. Chondrocytes were cultured on surface-modified 2-D PLGA films and 3-D PLGA tissue engineering scaffolds, which were created by a salt-leaching method. Carbon nanofibers were imprinted on PLGA matrices in an aligned pattern for controlled electrically-active surface features. Electrical stimulation was applied to expedite and enhance chondrocyte functions. Results demonstrated that both NaOH-treated 2-D and 3-D substrates enhanced chondrocyte functions (cell numbers as well as extracellular matrix production) compared to non-treated PLGA substrates. Furthermore, chondrocytes preferred to attach along the carbon nanofiber patterns imprinted on PLGA. Electrical stimulation also enhanced chondrocyte functions on carbon nanofiber/PLGA composites. Underlying material properties that may have enhanced chondrocyte functions include a more hydrophilic surface, surface energy differences due to the presence of carbon nanofibers, increased surface area, altered porosity, and a greater degree of nanometer roughness. Moreover, these altered surface properties positively influenced select protein adsorption that controlled subsequent chondrocyte adhesion. Collectively, this study provided a scaffold model for osteochondral defects that can be synthesized using the above techniques and a layer by layer approach to accommodate the property differences in each layer of natural cartilage. Specifically, these results suggest that the superficial zone, middle zone, and deep zone of cartilage should be composed of carbon nanofibers aligned parallel to the surface in PLGA, randomly oriented carbon nanofibers in PLGA, and carbon nanofibers aligned perpendicular to the surface in PLGA, respectively. Clearly, such scaffolds may ultimately enhance the efficacy of scaffolds used for articular cartilage repair.

  13. How to 'visualize' lattice defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods to recognize objects are discussed. In case of optics, lenses are used, and light from objects passing through the lenses focuses on focal planes. The amplitude of light on the focal planes in given as a function of the structure factor of scattering light from objects, images of objects are made on image planes. In case of X-ray or neutron diffraction, lenses which make images by X-ray or neutrons can not be made, accordingly images cannot be obtained. Images can be seen with electron microscopes. By X-ray or thermal neutron diffraction, intensity on focal planes in observed, and the defects to be studied are recognized as diffuse scattering. Since it is necessary to minimize aberration in case of image observation with electron microscopes, slits are used to utilize electron beam near optical axis exclusively. Therefore large resolving power cannot be expected. The information concerning structure obtained from focal planes is of statistical nature, and that from image planes is local information. The principle of neutron topography, by which the informations concerning local points are obtained, is explained. A photograph of LiF irradiated by 0.5 MeV proton beam was taken by the topographic method, and shown in this paper. (Kato, T.)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage at 3 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooth motor function can be maintained by articular cartilage. When the cartilage is injured, edema occurs, and as degeneration progresses, the cartilage thins and the cartilage matrix decreases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows noninvasive evaluation of these changes. Fat suppression proton density- and T2-weighted imaging are useful in the morphologic evaluation of articular cartilage. High resolution, 3-tesla MR imaging provides more detailed evaluation. Biochemical information from T2 mapping, T1? mapping, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is useful for early diagnosis of cartilage injury and evaluation of cartilage repair. The role of MR imaging in evaluating articular cartilage will increase in the future aging society. (author)

  15. Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares / Update on infections in articular prosthesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz, Lima; Priscila Rosalba Domingos de, Oliveira.

    Full Text Available O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infecta [...] das, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-positivas são predominantes nas contaminações das próteses articulares, em especial o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus epidermidis. As infecções causadas por bacilos gram-negativos e fungos como Candida sp vêm sendo relatadas com maior frequência em todo o mundo. As infecções de próteses articulares apresentam sinais característicos que podem ser divididos em manifestações agudas (dor severa, febre alta, toxemia, calor, rubor e secreção na ferida operatória) e crônicas (dor progressiva, formação de fístulas cutâneas, com drenagem de secreção purulenta, sem febre). O diagnóstico definitivo da infecção deve ser realizado através do isolamento em cultura do micro-organismo obtido a partir da punção do líquido articular, secreção da ferida cirúrgica e materiais colhidos durante desbridamento cirúrgico. É fundamental a cobertura de S.aureus meticilino-resistente, visto a importância epidemiológica deste agente nessas infecções. O tempo total da antibioticoterapia varia de seis semanas a seis meses, sendo que o tratamento deve ser readequado quando necessário, com base nos resultados das culturas colhidas. Abstract in english The implantation of artificial joints, especially the hip and knee, is becoming increasingly common, representing a significant reduction in discomfort and an immeasurable improvement in patient mobility. Reviews of the global literature indicate that 1-5% of these grafts become infected, though it [...] is important to remember that, as the number of surgeries for implantation of these prosthesis grows, so will the number of cases of this type of infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the contamination of joint prosthesis, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections caused by gram-negative bacilli and fungi such as Candida sp have been reported with increased frequency throughout the world. Infections of joint prosthesis have characteristic signals that can be divided into acute (severe pain, high fever, toxemia, heat, redness, and wound secretion) and chronic (progressive pain, cutaneous fistula formation, with pus drainage, no fever) manifestations. The definitive diagnosis of the infection should be made through the isolation in culture of the micro-organism obtained from the puncture of the joint fluid, surgical wound secretion, and material collected during surgical debridement. It is essential to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, given the epidemiological importance of this agent in these infections. The total time of antibiotic therapy varies from six weeks to six months, and that treatment should be adjusted as needed, based on the results of culturing.

  16. Tuberculosis extrapulmonar: Forma articular / Tuberculose extrapulmonaire: à localisation articulaire / Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Articular form

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio C., Escarpanter Buliés; Yoel, García Rodríguez; Marta A., Gutiérrez Guillén.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión del tema de la Tuberculosis extrapulmonar de forma articular, por haber encontrado un paciente con esta patología de presentación "pura" sin otras manifestaciones sistémicas. Se trata del primer paciente diagnosticado en el Hospital Comunitario Integral de "San Andrés", del m [...] unicipio de Caracollo, provincia Cercado, en el departamento de Oruro, Bolivia. En la revisión del tema se demuestra la infrecuencia de esta forma de presentación de la enfermedad a pesar de ser la Tuberculosis pulmonar frecuente en la región por sumarse los factores: frío, altura con poco tenor de oxígeno, desnutrición, tormentas de polvo, muchos trabajadores mineros, etc. Se realiza la presentación del paciente, se muestra su evolución satisfactoria en cuanto a la patología de base y se arriban a conclusiones dentro de las que se destacan que la Tuberculosis en su forma articular es infrecuente en apariencia y su diagnóstico se hace difícil al no existir, por la misma razón, patrones ecográficos o radiográficos definidos. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico es el único que puede definir la etiología de la Tuberculosis de una lesión proliferativa de la sinovial y que la sinovectomía es una intervención generalmente invalidante por lo que un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento médico adecuado, a tiempo, evitaría limitaciones funcionales a posteriori. Se recomienda que en todo caso portador de una sinovitis de rodilla de larga evolución, se le realice una ecografía diagnóstica, y en los pacientes en los que se observen imágenes complejas de bordes regulares, del tipo "copos de nieve", se le efectúen estudios específicos para la detección de la Tuberculosis. Abstract in english A review of the topic on extrapulmonary articular tuberculosis was made for having found a male patient with this pathology of pure presentation with no other systemic manifestations. This is the first patient diagnosed at the Community Comprehensive Hospital of San Andrés, municipality of Caracollo [...] , Cervado province, department of Oruro, Bolivia. On reviewing the topic it was proven the infrequency of this form of presentation in spite of the fact that extrapulmonary tuberculosis is common in the region due to the existence of the following factors: cold, height with little tenor of oxygen, malnutrition, dust storms, many mining workers, etc. The patient was presented and his satisfactory evolution as regards the base pathology was showed. It was concluded that tuberculosis in its articular form is rare in appearance and that its diagnosis is difficult due to the absence of echographic or radiographic patterns defined. The anatomopathological diagnosis is the only one that can determine the aetiology of the tuberculosis of a proliferative injury of the synovia. As synovectomy is a generally disabling intervention, an early diagnosis and an adequate medical treatment on time will prevent functional future limitations. It is recommended to perform a diagnostic echography in every carrier of knee synovitis of long evolution, and to conduct specific studies for the detection of tuberculosis in those patients among whom complex images of regular snowflake-like edges are observed.

  17. Utility of Intra-articular Hip Injections for Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wahab; Khan, Moin; Alradwan, Hussain; Williams, Ryan; Simunovic, Nicole; Ayeni, Olufemi R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition that is becoming increasingly recognized as a common etiology of hip pain in athletes, adolescents, and adults. However, history and clinical examination are often inconclusive in reaching a diagnosis, while imaging often detects asymptomatic abnormalities. Treatment has traditionally been limited to surgery, with the role of conservative management remaining unclear. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of the intra-articular hip injection in the diagnosis and management of FAI. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed databases were screened in duplicate for studies published between January 1946 and January 2014. Search terms included femoroacetabular impingement, hip impingement, and intra-articular injection. Quality assessment using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale was completed for all included studies. Data evaluated included study design, study objectives, number of hips, injected product, duration of pain relief, and outcomes measured. Results: Our search yielded 8 studies involving 281 hips. Studies were categorized into diagnostic (4 studies), therapeutic (3 studies), and prognostic (1 study) applications. Patients with FAI and its degenerative sequelae obtained greater relief from diagnostic intra-articular hip injection than those without (P < .05). The diagnostic intra-articular injection performed under ultrasound guidance was better tolerated than injections performed under fluoroscopic guidance (pain rating, 5.6 vs 3.0; P < .1). Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid was the most effective at providing pain relief (in 23 patients), with significant improvements of functional outcome measures (Harris Hip Score, visual analog scale) present at 12 months. Pooled results with corticosteroid injection resulted in improvement in only 15% (9/60) of patients at 6 weeks. A negative response to intra-articular hip injection was a strong predictor for poor surgical outcomes. Conclusion: The results of this review suggest that (1) pain relief obtained from an intra-articular hip injection supports a diagnosis of FAI, (2) therapeutic relief at 12 months may be achieved, particularly with hyaluronic acid, and (3) a negative response to preoperative injections may predict poor short-term surgical outcomes. Additional large studies are required to build on the small number of studies included in this review, and further delineate the role of intra-articular hip injection in the management of FAI. PMID:26535395

  18. Effect of Transfection Strategy on Growth Factor Overexpression by Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, SHUILIANG; Mercer, Scott; TRIPPEL, STEPHEN B.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage damage remains an unsolved problem in orthopaedics. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) are anabolic and mitogenic for articular chondrocytes, and are candidates for the application of gene therapy to articular cartilage repair. We tested the hypothesis that the production of IGF-I and FGF-2 can be augmented by modulating vector designs and delivery methods used for gene transfer to articular chondrocytes. We developed a novel adeno-...

  19. Análise da sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular

    OpenAIRE

    DONEGÁ Sílvio Henrique de Paula; Cardoso, Renato; PROCÓPIO Antonio Sílvio Fontão; LUZ João Gualberto de Cerqueira

    1997-01-01

    Foi realizado estudo analisando a sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular. A queixa mais citada foi de dor na região pré-auricular (40,7%). Sintomatologia dolorosa articular (63,2%) e ruídos articulares (83,3%) foram os achados mais comuns ao exame clínico. Os ruídos articulares mais freqüentes foram os estalos (66,6%). Dor muscular ocorreu, em especial, nos músculos pterigóideo medial e lateral e na inserção do temporal. Houve decréscimo ...

  20. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:24693305

  1. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia

  2. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  3. Birth defects

    OpenAIRE

    ??????????, ???? ??????????; ??????????, ???? ??????????; Horobchenko, Nelia Heorhiivna; Byeda, O.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays the cases of birth defects have increased. It is connected with the environment contamination and genetic factors. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/17636

  4. Embedded Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Barriola, Manuel; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Bucher, Martin

    1993-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the $Z$ string and a one parameter family of strings called the $W(\\alpha )$ string. It is argued that, although the members of this family ar...

  5. [Focal therapy and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Massimo; Losa, Andrea; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Fossati, Nicola; Abrate, Alberto; Larcher, Alessandro; Lista, Giuliana; Mistretta, Alessandro; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The International Task Force on Prostate Cancer defines focal therapy (FT) for prostate cancer (PCa) as the therapy that "selectively ablates known disease and preserves existing functions, with the overall objective of minimizing lifetime morbidity without compromising life expectancy". FT for the treatment of PCa has been called the "male lumpectomy", an analogue to women's breast lumpectomy for the treatment of breast cancer. Radical prostatectomy continues to be the most frequently performed treatment for localized PCa, as anatomic knowledge and several technical advances, i.e. the introduction of robotic assisted surgery, have led to successful oncological outcome and lower rates of post-treatment morbidity. However, a proportion of patients still experiences a no negligible sexual, urinary, and bowel morbidity. Although the rationale of active surveillance for low-risk PCa (PSA urological schools. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature in order to provide the status of art on FT for PCa. The manuscript will focus on the characteristics of the target population, on the pre-operative evaluation to localise disease, as well as on perioperative, functional, and disease-control following focal therapy. PMID:24419922

  6. THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavityCon el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron analizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular

  7. Editorial Commentary: Knee Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-10-01

    Knee lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) can be combined with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with a goal of reducing anterolateral rotatory instability. Like double-bundle ACL reconstruction, LET combined with ACL reconstruction reduces pivot-shift, a subjective test, but results in no significant difference in clinical outcome. PMID:26433239

  8. Intra-articular injection of a nutritive mixture solution protects articular cartilage from osteoarthritic progression induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in mature rabbits: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yoo-Sin; Lim, Si-Woong; Lee, Il-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Han, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that disrupts the collagenous matrix of articular cartilage and is difficult to cure because articular cartilage is a nonvascular tissue. Treatment of OA has targeted macromolecular substitutes for cartilage components, such as hyaluronic acid or genetically engineered materials. However, the goal of the present study was to examine whether intra-articular injection of the elementary nutrients restores the matrix of arthritic knee joints in mature...

  9. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova ?.?.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  10. Lens design based on instantaneous focal function

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2009-01-01

    The formula for the lens is derived based on the information of instantaneous focal function. Focal function is an important tool in designing lenses with extended depth of focus (EDoF) because this allows EDoF lens designers to try out various mathematical curves using computers to optimize their design. Once an optimal focal function information is obtained, the corresponding physical EDoF lens can be fabricated using the lens equation formulated in this presentation.

  11. The Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Steroid Injection for Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison between the Extra-Articular and Intra-Articular Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effectiveness of pain control using ultrasound-guided steroid injection by the extra-articular and intra-articular approaches to femoroacetabular impingement patients. From September through December 2010, 18 patients with clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided steroid and local anesthetics injection: a total of 20 cases, including 16 cases of ipsilateral and 2 cases of bilateral injection. Extra-articular or intra-articular approach was selected for each patient, randomly and alternately. Nine cases were performed by extra-articular approach and 11 cases were performed by intra-articular approach. Every patient was observed in the outpatient clinic and visual analogue scale (VAS) was taken and compared before and after the procedure in all patients. Pre-injection average VAS value of extra-articular approached cases was 5.22 ± 1.99 and post-injection average VAS value was 4.11 ± 1.96, which is statistically insignificant (p < 0.156). The average VAS value of intra-articular approached cases was decreased from 5.72 ± 2.15 to 2.91 ± 2.30 after injection, which is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Ultrasound guided intra-articular approached steroid and local anesthetics injection could be effective in controlling pain for patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

  12. The Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Steroid Injection for Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison between the Extra-Articular and Intra-Articular Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Lee, Joon Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    To assess the effectiveness of pain control using ultrasound-guided steroid injection by the extra-articular and intra-articular approaches to femoroacetabular impingement patients. From September through December 2010, 18 patients with clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided steroid and local anesthetics injection: a total of 20 cases, including 16 cases of ipsilateral and 2 cases of bilateral injection. Extra-articular or intra-articular approach was selected for each patient, randomly and alternately. Nine cases were performed by extra-articular approach and 11 cases were performed by intra-articular approach. Every patient was observed in the outpatient clinic and visual analogue scale (VAS) was taken and compared before and after the procedure in all patients. Pre-injection average VAS value of extra-articular approached cases was 5.22 {+-} 1.99 and post-injection average VAS value was 4.11 {+-} 1.96, which is statistically insignificant (p < 0.156). The average VAS value of intra-articular approached cases was decreased from 5.72 {+-} 2.15 to 2.91 {+-} 2.30 after injection, which is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Ultrasound guided intra-articular approached steroid and local anesthetics injection could be effective in controlling pain for patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

  13. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  14. On focal stability in dimension two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio M. Peixoto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Kupka et al. 2006 appears the Focal Stability Conjecture: the focal decomposition of the generic Riemann structure on a manifold M is stable under perturbations of the Riemann structure. In this paper, we prove the conjecture when M has dimension two, and there are no conjugate points.Em Kupka et al. 2006, consideramos a Conjectura da Estabilidade Focal: a decomposição focal da estrutura Riemaniana genérica em uma variedade M é estável por perturbações dessa estrutura. No presente trabalho demonstramos essa conjectura quando M tem dimensão dois e não existem pontos conjugados.

  15. On focal stability in dimension two

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio M., Peixoto; Charles C., Pugh.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Em Kupka et al. 2006, consideramos a Conjectura da Estabilidade Focal: a decomposição focal da estrutura Riemaniana genérica em uma variedade M é estável por perturbações dessa estrutura. No presente trabalho demonstramos essa conjectura quando M tem dimensão dois e não existem pontos conjugados. [...] Abstract in english In Kupka et al. 2006 appears the Focal Stability Conjecture: the focal decomposition of the generic Riemann structure on a manifold M is stable under perturbations of the Riemann structure. In this paper, we prove the conjecture when M has dimension two, and there are no conjugate points. [...

  16. Extra-articular arthrodesis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proubasta, Ignacio

    2006-03-01

    There are numerous surgical treatment options for instability and painful trapeziometacarpal arthrosis. The available surgical treatments are arthrodesis and trapeziectomy alone or with synthetic/biologic interpositions, osteotomy, and total joint replacement. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the appropriate surgical procedure, and a unique situation exists in which the surgeon can develop a successful hybrid technique based on his own philosophy and experience. Traditionally, ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition have been used for elderly patients with lower demands whereas arthrodesis has been reserved for the treatment of posttraumatic arthritis in high-demand, younger patients. Regarding the second case, when thumb carpometacarpal arthrodesis is indicated, the procedure provides a reliable and lasting treatment with satisfactory results. However, it is important to know the indications and contraindications, as well as benefits and risks of this procedure. Therefore, the surgical technique is straightforward, and fusion may be performed with either a plate-and-screw construct, power staples, tension band wiring with or without Kirschner wires, or alone with multiple Kirschner wires. However, in all the techniques, it is necessary to remove the articular surfaces of the metacarpal and trapezium apart from the need of autogenous bone graft to fill the defect between those bones from either the distal radius or iliac crest. In addition, later in almost all the cases, it is necessary to remove the metal work because of protrusion or skin intolerance. The technique described in this article is a modification of a sliding inlay metacarpal bone graft technique originally described by Müller in 1949 and, 52 years after, perfected by Doyle. However, and as opposed to these, with the extra-articular arthrodesis technique, it is not necessary to remove the articular surfaces, and the graft fixation is performed by 2 Herbert screws which, when buried into the bone, avoid the need to remove the metal work because of the protrusion under the skin. Therefore, this intervention easily permits to convert the arthrodesis to another method of treatment (implant arthroplasty or tendon interposition arthroplasty) by means of the resection of the bone bridge between the metacarpal and trapezium and proceed to the chosen surgical intervention. PMID:16628116

  17. Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) Versus Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) For Articular Cartilage Repair of the Knee: A Comparative Evaluation in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Davoud; Fakhrjou, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. Objectives: The efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Eighteen adult Iranian mixed breed male dogs were used to conduct this experimental study. Full thickness articular cartilage defects (diameter 6 mm, depth 5 mm) were created in the weight bearing area of femoral condyles of both hind limbs in all dogs (n = 72). Twelve dogs were randomly selected to receive treatment and their right and left hind limb defects were treated by L-PRP and L-PRF implantation respectively, while no treatment was undertaken in six other dogs as controls. The animals were euthanized at 4, 16 and 24 weeks following surgery and the resultant repair tissue was investigated macroscopically and microscopically. At each sampling time, 4 treated dogs and 2 control dogs were euthanized, therefore 8 defects per group were evaluated. Results: Mean macroscopic scores of the treated defects were higher than the controls at all sampling times with significant differences (P scores was observed with a significant difference (P scores or mean total microscopic scores. Conclusions: Both L-PRP and L-PRF could be used to effectively promote the healing of articular cartilage defects of the knee. PMID:26568857

  18. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  19. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Gheith; Rashad Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The recurrence rate of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation is ranging between 20% and 40%. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with poor graft survival. In this review, the etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathological features, risk factors of recurrence, and updated lines of management are discussed.

  20. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Gheith

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recurrence rate of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation is ranging between 20% and 40%. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with poor graft survival. In this review, the etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathological features, risk factors of recurrence, and updated lines of management are discussed.

  1. On focal stability in dimension two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Mauricio M; Pugh, Charles C

    2007-03-01

    In Kupka et al. 2006 appears the Focal Stability Conjecture: the focal decomposition of the generic Riemann structure on a manifold M is stable under perturbations of the Riemann structure. In this paper, we prove the conjecture when M has dimension two, and there are no conjugate points. PMID:17401468

  2. Semilocal defects

    CERN Document Server

    Preskill, J

    1992-01-01

    I analyze the interplay of gauge and global symmetries in the theory of topological defects. In a two-dimensional model in which both gauge symmetries and {\\it exact} global symmetries are spontaneously broken, stable vortices may fail to exist even though magnetic flux is topologically conserved. Following Vachaspati and Ach\\'ucarro, I formulate the condition that must be satisfied by the pattern of symmetry breakdown for finite-energy configurations to exist in which the conserved magnetic flux is spread out instead of confined to a localized vortex. If this condition is met, vortices are always unstable at sufficiently weak gauge coupling. I also describe the properties of defects in models with an ``accidental'' symmetry that is partially broken by gauge boson exchange. In some cases, the spontaneously broken accidental symmetry is not restored inside the core of the defect. Then the structure of the defect can be analyzed using an effective field theory; the details of the physics responsible for the spo...

  3. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    Acclaimed by Nature as ""an ideal text,"" this extensive survey provides coverage of defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids and discusses extended defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries. 191 figures. 43 tables. 1985 edition.

  4. Análise da sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular Analysis of symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Henrique de Paula DONEGÁ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo analisando a sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular. A queixa mais citada foi de dor na região pré-auricular (40,7%. Sintomatologia dolorosa articular (63,2% e ruídos articulares (83,3% foram os achados mais comuns ao exame clínico. Os ruídos articulares mais freqüentes foram os estalos (66,6%. Dor muscular ocorreu, em especial, nos músculos pterigóideo medial e lateral e na inserção do temporal. Houve decréscimo na amplitude para a protrusão dentre os movimentos mandibulares máximosThe study analyzed the symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The most frequent complaint was pain in the preauricular region (40.7%. Articular pain (63.2% and articular sounds (83.3% were the most common findings during clinical examination. Muscular pain occurred particularly in the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles and at the insertion of the temporalis muscle. The most frequent articular sound was clicking (66.6%. There was a decrease in extent of protrusion among the mandibular border positions.

  5. Intra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shraim Mubarak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-articular lipoma arborescens (LA is a rare entity that can present with monoarticular or polyarticular involvement of joints such as knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, and elbows. We describe a case in a 26-year-old man who presented with intermittent pain and swelling of the left knee joint for the previous 2 years. Physical examination showed only tenderness over the medial line of the left knee joint. MRI found only joint effusion; therefore, the patient was referred to the orthopedic clinic where he underwent arthroscopy, which revealed a diffuse yellow soft tissue synovial papillary growth involving both medial and lateral gutters of the suprapatellar pouch. A biopsy reported intra-articular LA. This is the first case of LA reported in Saudi Arabia. LA should be included in the clinical and radiologic differential diagnosis of cases with persistent knee joint effusion.

  6. Ángulo óptimo articular y ejercicio: bases y aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Antonio Rubio-Sobrino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El ángulo óptimo se refiere a la posición articular en la que se produce el pico máximo de momento de fuerza, dentro de la curva ángulo-momento articular. Este parámetro puede utilizarse para estimar las modificaciones en la curva fuerza-longitud de un grupo muscular. El ángulo óptimo puede ser obtenido a partir de medidas en tests isométricos o dinámicos, y esto debe ser tenido en cuenta a la hora de establecer comparaciones. El ángulo óptimo puede ser modificado tanto de forma aguda como crónica. Los principales factores que lo modifican son la intensidad y el volumen del ejercicio, la longitud muscular, el modo de contracción y la velocidad de contracción. La capacidad para evaluar y modificar el ángulo óptimo puede utilizarse en programas de prevención de lesiones musculares, especialmente en deportes de equipo como el fútbol. Esta revisión analiza y discute los estudios que se encuentran en la bibliografía relacionados con este tema.

  7. Apoptosis in normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Heraud, F; Heraud, A; Harmand, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether apoptosis occurs in osteoarthritis (OA), and if this phenomenon is modulated by human recombinant interleukin 1? (hrIL1?).?METHODS—Human articular cartilage samples were obtained at the time of hip arthroplasty because of femoral neck fracture (normal cartilage) (n=4) or advanced coxarthrosis (OA cartilage) (n=14). Apoptotic chondrocytes, isolated by collagenase digestion and cultivated for 24 hours, or present in situ in frozen cartilage sections, were quant...

  8. Autophagy in human articular chondrocytes is cytoprotective following glucocorticoid stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ning(College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, 453007, Xinxiang, China); WANG, WENBO; Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Tao; SONG, YUWEN

    2014-01-01

    For the past 60 years, glucocorticosteroid (GC) drugs, including prednisone and dexamethasone (Dex), have been used for the treatment of early stage osteoarthritis (OA). However, multiple administration of GCs may destroy the articular cartilage. It has been previously reported that GC treatment may also lead to the initiation of autophagy, which is an essential mechanism for cell homeostasis and survival. Rapamycin (Rapa), an inhibitor of the mammalian target of Rapamycin, may cause a degene...

  9. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, A; H. Murphy; DAVIDSON, J

    2003-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention with intra-articular steroid injections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has evolved from experience with adults with inflammatory joint disease, with the earliest report being published in 1951.1 The technique has subsequently been introduced into paediatric rheumatology practice, although much of the evidence supporting its use remains anecdotal or based on open, non-controlled studies. This review examines the body of evidence relating to many aspects of trea...

  10. Subtalar versus triple arthrodesis after intra-articular calcaneal fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, Tim; Kieboom, Brenda C. T.; Bessems, Gert H. J. M.; Vogels, Lucas M.M.; van Lieshout, Esther M.M; Patka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon initial treatment, between 2 and 30% of patients with a displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture require a secondary arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subtalar versus triple arthrodesis on functional outcome. A total of 33 patients with 37 secondary arthrodeses (17 subtalar and 20 triple) with a median follow-up of 116 months were asked to complete questionnaires regarding disease-specific functional outcome (Maryland Foot Score, MFS), qual...

  11. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media

    OpenAIRE

    Thibault Lemaire; Salah Naili; Vittorio Sansalone

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gau...

  12. A depth dependent transversely isotropic micromechanic model of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamian, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Alizadeh, Mansour; Shokrieh, Mahmood Mehrdad; Karimi, Alireza

    2015-02-01

    Articular cartilage owing to the variation of collagen fibers orientation through its zones has been indicated to have depth dependent mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to present an innovative micromechanics model to predict the depth dependent mechanical properties of articular cartilage as a function of collagen fibers and proteoglycan matrix mechanical properties, collagen fibers volume fraction as well as angle toward cartilage surface. The variation of collagen fibers angle toward the cartilage surface as a function of cartilage depth was computed using the micromechanics model. This function showed that the collagen fibers parallel to the cartilage surface in the superficial zone have a nonlinear angle variation in the transition zone and become perpendicular to cartilage surface in the deep zone. Depth dependent elastic modulus in perpendicular to cartilage surface plane direction was calculated using presented micromechanics model and variation function of the collagen fibers' angle. The results revealed a suitable agreement with that of the experimental measurements in different samples at different ages and races (R2=0.944). The results also showed that the elastic and aggregate modules perpendicular to the cartilage surface plane in the deep zone were 25.8 and 26.3 times higher than that of the superficial zone, respectively. These findings have implications not only for computing the depth dependent mechanical properties of any type of articular cartilage at different ages and races, but also of potential ability for developing a depth dependent transversely isotropic biphasic model to predict the accurate mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. PMID:25665849

  13. Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    ap Gwynn I.; Wade S.; Ito K.; Richards R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly ...

  14. Arthroscopic Treatment of Chondral and Osteochondral Defects in the Ankle Using the Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Tomasz; B?kowski, Pawe?; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Naczk, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges nowadays facing orthopaedic surgeons around the world is the problem of articular cartilage defects and their treatment. The autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis technique is based on 2 elements—drilling into bones and matrix application. The purpose of this article is to present the surgical technique of arthroscopic treatment of chondral or osteochondral defects in the ankle using the autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis technique. PMID:26697305

  15. Visualization, coarsening and flow dynamics of focal conic domains in simulated Smectic-A liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Bierbaum, Matthew; Zhang, Muxin; Leahy, Brian D.; Cohen, Itai; Sethna, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Smectic liquid crystals vividly illustrate the subtle interplay of broken translational and orientational symmetries, by exhibiting defect structures forming geometrically perfect confocal ellipses and hyperbolas. Here, we develop and numerically implement an effective theory to study the dynamics of focal conic domains in smectic-A liquid crystals. We use the information about the smectic's structure and energy density provided by our simulations to develop several novel vi...

  16. Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center

  17. Elasticity of smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, S [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Komura, S [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ishii, Y [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Lu, C-Y D, E-mail: sfujii@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15

    We study the elastic properties of thermotropic smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains (FCDs). After the application of the controlled preshear at different temperatures, we independently measure the shear modulus G' and the FCD size L. We find out that these quantities are related by the scaling relation G'{approx}{gamma}{sub eff}/L, where {gamma}{sub eff} is the effective surface tension of the FCDs. The experimentally obtained value of {gamma}{sub eff} shows the same scaling as the effective surface tension of the layered systems {radical}KB, where K and B are the bending modulus and the layer compression modulus, respectively. The similarity of this scaling relation to that of the surfactant onion phase suggests an universal rheological behavior of the layered systems with defects.

  18. Elasticity of smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the elastic properties of thermotropic smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains (FCDs). After the application of the controlled preshear at different temperatures, we independently measure the shear modulus G' and the FCD size L. We find out that these quantities are related by the scaling relation G'??eff/L, where ?eff is the effective surface tension of the FCDs. The experimentally obtained value of ?eff shows the same scaling as the effective surface tension of the layered systems ?KB, where K and B are the bending modulus and the layer compression modulus, respectively. The similarity of this scaling relation to that of the surfactant onion phase suggests an universal rheological behavior of the layered systems with defects.

  19. Indentation stiffness does not discriminate between normal and degraded articular cartilage.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, CP; Crawford, RW; A. Oloyede

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative indentation characteristics are commonly used for distinguishing between normal healthy and degraded cartilage. The application of this parameter in surgical decision making and an appreciation of articular cartilage biomechanics has prompted us to hypothesise that it is difficult to define a reference stiffness to characterise normal articular cartilage. METHODS: This hypothesis is tested for validity by carrying out biomechanical indentation of articular cartilage sampl...

  20. Intra-articular corrective osteotomy for malunited Hoffa fracture: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai Takao; Hamada Masayuki; Miyama Takahide; Shino Konsei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hoffa fracture, an isolated coronal plane fracture of the posterior aspect of the femoral condyle, is known as an unstable, intra-articular fracture, and therefore, operative treatment is recommended. However, insufficient open reduction or failure of fixation may lead to malunion. We performed intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited Hoffa fracture in a 31-year-old man and obtained good functional and radiographic results. This report suggests that intra-articular correc...

  1. Mineralization of Articular Cartilage in the Sprague-Dawley Rat: Characterization and Mechanical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roemhildt, M. L.; Beynnon, B. D.; Gardner-Morse, M

    2012-01-01

    The formation of mineralized deposits in human articular cartilage is a common occurrence [1–4]; however, the relationship between mineral deposition and material properties of the articular cartilage is not well understood nor the relationship between mineral deposition and the development of degenerative joint disease. Several different crystalline structures have been identified in articular cartilage and synovial fluid including monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), an...

  2. Combined intra-articular glucocorticoid, bupivacaine and morphine reduces pain and convalescence after diagnostic knee arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sten; Lorentzen, Jan S; Larsen, Allan S; Thomsen, Søren T; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effect of intra-articullar saline vs. bupivacaine + morphine or bupivacaine morphine + methylprednisolone after diagnostic knee arthroscopy. In a double-blind randomized study, 60 patients undergoing diagnostic knee arthroscopy without a therapeutic procedure were allocated to groups receiving intra-articular saline, intra-articular bupivacaine 150 mg + morphine 4 mg or the same dose of bupivacaine + morphine + intra-articular methylprednisolone 40 mg at the end of arthroscopy dur...

  3. Intra-articular bupivacaine as treatment for postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the wrist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Inge Agergaard

    2008-01-01

    Intra-articular injection of local anaesthetic is a confirmed method of treatment of postoperative pain, particularly after arthroscopy of the knee. The wrist however, has a limited capacity for intra-articular instillation of local anaesthetic, and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intra-articular bupivacaine on postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the wrist. We did a prospective, non-randomised study with two comparable, consecutive series of patients undergoing diagnos...

  4. Degenerative joint disease in cattle and buffaloes in the Amazon region: a retrospective study / Doença articular degenerativa em bovinos e búfalos na Amazônia: estudo retrospectivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Diomedes, Barbosa; Danillo Henrique S., Lima; Alessandra S., Belo-Reis; Cleyton P., Pinheiro; Melina G.S., Sousa; Jenevaldo B., Silva; Felipe M., Salvarani; Carlos Magno C., Oliveira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo sobre os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos em bovinos e búfalos com doença articular degenerativa (DAD) no estado do Pará, Brasil. Durante os anos de 1999 a 2014 foram avaliados 11 bovinos e 24 bubalinos. Todos os animais atendidos com suspeita clín [...] ica de DAD foram submetidos a exame clínico do sistema locomotor. Foram necropsiados sete bovinos e oito bubalinos com sinais clínicos da enfermidade. Os sinais clínicos comuns observados em ambas as espécies foram claudicação crônica, andar rígido, alterações posturais, crepitações audíveis no membro acometido, decúbito prolongado, dificuldade para levantar, e emagrecimento progressivo. As lesões articulares evidenciadas na necropsia consistiram em irregularidade da superfície articular, presença de erosão na cartilagem articular e no tecido ósseo subjacente, proliferação de tecido ósseo periarticular com formação de osteófitos. Tanto nos bovinos como nos bubalinos as articulações mais acometidas foram as dos membros posteriores. Nos bubalinos, possivelmente o principal fator predisponente ao surgimento de DAD foi à deficiência de fósforo, ao contrário dos bovinos, nos quais os defeitos de conformação anatômica dos membros posteriores, traumas crônicos em virtude da atividade exercida, como a coleta de sêmen e a idade avançada, foram o que, possivelmente, contribuíram para surgimento da enfermidade. Abstract in english A retrospective study of the epidemiological and clinic-pathological aspects of cattle and buffaloes with degenerative joint disease (DJD) was conducted in the state of Pará, Brazil. From 1999 to 2014, eleven cattle and 24 buffaloes were evaluated. All the treated animals with suspected DJD underwen [...] t a clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system. In seven cattle and eight buffaloes with clinical signs of the disease postmortem examination was performed. The common clinical signs observed in both species were chronic lameness, stiff gait, postural changes, audible crackles in the affected limb, prolonged recumbency, difficulty in getting up and progressive weight loss. The lesions observed at necropsy were: irregular articular surfaces, erosion of the articular cartilage and the underlying bone tissue, and proliferation of the periarticular bone tissue with formation of osteophytes. The most affected joints in cattle and buffaloes wereof the hind limb. In buffaloes, the main predisposing factor to the onset of DJD was phosphorus deficiency. In cattle, defects of the anatomical conformation of the hind limbs, chronic trauma due to the activities performed, such as semen collection, and advanced age possibly contributed to the emergence of the disease.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have milder signs and symptoms than females. Although intelligence is typically unaffected, some individuals have intellectual disability. ... condition, although its exact prevalence is unknown. What genes are related to focal dermal hypoplasia? Mutations in ...

  6. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  7. In-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of microcalorimeters and bolometers based on superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) with a manageable number of readout channels. Previous to this work, TES arrays were multiplexed by extracting leads from each pixel to multiplexer filter and switching elements outside of the focal plane. As the number of pixels is increased in a close-packed array, it becomes difficult to route the leads to the multiplexer. We report on the development of an in-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer to solve this problem. In this circuit, the filter and switching elements associated with each pixel fit within the pixel area so that signals are multiplexed before being extracted from the focal plane. This in-focal-plane architecture will first be used in the SCUBA-2 instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2006

  8. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  9. Large Focal Plane Arrays for Future Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Scowen, Paul A.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Gontijo, Ivair; Shapiro, Andrew; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd; Seshadri, Suresh; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Lisman, Doug; Dickie, Matthew; Blacksberg, Jordana

    2009-01-01

    We outline the challenges associated with the development and construction of large focal plane arrays for use both on the ground and in space. Using lessons learned from existing JPL-led and ASU/JPL partnership efforts to develop technology for, and design such arrays and imagers for large focal planes, we enumerate here the remaining problems that need to be solved to make such a venture viable. Technologies we consider vital for further development include: (1) architectu...

  10. Tibia Vara due to Focal Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of unilateral tibia vara associated with an area of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia in the medial aspect of the right proximal tibia. Such a case has not been described previously. The affected child was 8 months old. Deformity resolved without aggressive treatment. The pathogenesis of the focal lesion remains controversial. The most likely explanation is that the mesenchymal anlage of the tibial metaphysis has for unknown reasons, developed abnormality at the insertion o...

  11. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhamre, Hanna [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Thorvaldsson, Anna, E-mail: anna.thorvaldsson@swerea.se [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Enochson, Lars [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Walkenström, Pernilla [Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Lindahl, Anders [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brittberg, Mats [Cartilage Research Unit, University of Gothenburg, Department Orthopaedics, Kungsbacka Hospital, Kungsbacka (Sweden); Gatenholm, Paul [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ? Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ? High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred ?m) of nanofibrous scaffolds ? Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ? Differentiation not significantly affected ? Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum.

  12. Manifestações articulares atípicas em pacientes com febre reumática / Articular manifestations in patients with atypical rheumatic fever

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente, Robazzi; Simone Rocha de, Araújo; Silas de Araújo, Costa; Amaurí Batista de, Oliveira Júnior; Lívia Souza, Nunes; Isabel, Guimarães.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Descrever as características clínicas e a ocorrência de artrite atípica em crianças com diagnóstico de febre reumática (FR) acompanhadas em ambulatórios terciários em Salvador, Bahia. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo, de uma série de casos, do quadro clínico inicial ou recorrência de 41 [...] crianças com diagnóstico de FR. Resultados: Dos pacientes estudados (n=41), 61% eram do sexo masculino; com média de idade de 9,2 anos e idade no momento do diagnóstico entre 5 e 16 anos. Artrite esteve presente em 75,6% dos pacientes; cardite em 75,6%; coreia em 31,7%; eritema marginado em 14,6% e nódulos subcutâneos em 4,9%. Um padrão atípico foi observado em 22 dos 31 casos com artrite (70,9%): envolvimento de pequenas articulações e/ou esqueleto axial em 12 casos (38,7%); duração maior que três semanas em nove (29%); resposta inadequada ao AINH em dois (6,5%); oligoartrite (? quatro articulações) em 22/31 (71%), sendo monoartrite em 6/31 (uma em pés, uma em tornozelo e quatro em joelho). A febre esteve presente em 78% dos casos e 82,9% dos pacientes utilizavam a profilaxia secundária de forma regular. Conclusão: Artrite atípica esteve presente na maioria dos pacientes que cursaram com acometimento articular, constituindo um fator de confundimento diagnóstico e atraso terapêutico adequado. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and the occurrence of atypical arthritis in children diagnosed with rheumatic fever (RF) and followed in tertiary care clinics in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Methodology: A descriptive study of a case series, of the initial clinical presentation, [...] and of recurrence in 41 children diagnosed with RF. Results: Of the patients studied (n=41), 61% were male, mean age of 9.2 years, and mean age at diagnosis between 5 and 16 years. Arthritis was present in 75.6% of patients; carditis in 75.6%; chorea in 31.7%; erythema marginatum in 14.6%; and subcutaneous nodules in 4.9%. An atypical pattern was observed in 22 of 31 cases of arthritis (70.9%): involvement of small joints and/or axial skeleton in 12 cases (38.7%); >3 weeks of duration in 9 (29%); inadequate response to NSAIDs in 2 (6.5%); oligoarthritis (?4 joints) in 22/31 (71%), with monoarthritis in 6/31 (1 in the foot, 1 in the ankle, and 4 in the knee). Fever was present in 78% of the cases, and 82.9% of patients were regularly on secondary prophylaxis. Conclusion: Atypical arthritis was present in most patients presenting with joint involvement, being a confounding factor against a proper diagnosis and of therapeutic delay.

  13. Relation between shape of the articular eminence and disc displacement in the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the hypothesis that the morphology of the articular eminence of the temporomandibular joint is a predisposing factor for disc displacement. MR images of 126 temporomandibular joints in 94 patients were analyzed to assess for morphology of the articular eminence and disc displacement. The displaced disc was further categorized as disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) and disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). The morphology of the articular eminence was classified into four types; box, sigmoid, flattened, and deformed. The relationship between the four types of shape of the articular eminence and the two types of disc position was assessed. In the DDWR and DDWOR groups, the morphology of articular eminence were a box type in 40.5%, a sigmoid type in 30.2%, a flattened type in 24.6%, and a deformed type in 4.7%. The box type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 42.9% in the DDWOR group. The sigmoid type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 28.6% in the DDWOR group. The flattened type of the articular eminence were 28.6% in the DDWR group and 23.1% in the DDWOR group. The deformed type of the articular eminence were 2.9% in the DDWR group and 5.5% in the DDWOR group. Disc displacement in more likely to be found in the temporomandibular joints with a box-shaped articular eminence. It can be considered that shape of the articular eminence is related to the development of disc displacement

  14. ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

  15. Optical clearing of articular cartilage: a comparison of clearing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Alexander; Hautala, Tapio; Kinnunen, Matti; Popov, Alexey; Karhula, Sakari; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T.; Tuchin, Valery

    2015-07-01

    Optical clearing technique was applied to the problem of OCT imaging of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. We show that optical clearing significantly enhances visualization of articular cartilage and cartilage-bone interface. The effect of different clearing agents was analyzed. For the clearing, iohexol solution and propylene glycol (PG) were used. Clearing was performed in vitro at room temperature by immersion method. Cylindrical osteochondral samples (d=4.8mm) were drilled from bovine lateral femur and stored in phosphate-buffered saline at -20°C until clearing. Monitoring of clearing process was performed using high-speed spectral-domain OCT system providing axial resolution of 5.8?m at 930nm. Total duration of experiment was 90-100min to ensure saturation of clearing. We have shown that iohexol solution and PG are capable to optically clear articular cartilage enabling reliable characterization of cartilagebone interface with OCT. Being a low osmolarity agent, iohexol provides minimal changes to the thickness of cartilage sample. Clearing saturation time for the cartilage sample with the thickness of 0.9 mm measured with OCT is of 50 min. However, less than 15 min is enough to reliably detect the rear cartilage boundary. Alternatively, PG significantly (60%) reduces the cartilage thickness enabling better visualization of subchondral bone. It was observed that PG has higher clearing rate. The clearing saturation time is of 30 min, however less than 5 min is enough to detect cartilage-bone interface. We conclude that iohexol solution is superior for OCT imaging of cartilage and cartilage-bone interface, while PG suits better for subhondral bone visualization.

  16. ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Emi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

  17. Manifestações articulares nas viroses exantemáticas Joint complaints in exanthematic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A freqüência de manifestações articulares foi avaliada em 251 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial (detecção de IgM por ensaio imunoenzimático de virose exantemática. As artropatias (artralgia e/ou artrite foram mais observadas nos casos de dengue (49% e de rubéola (38,2% do que naqueles com parvovirose humana (30% e sarampo (28,1%. Com exceção do sarampo, as artropatias predominaram nos adultos (315 anos de idade, sendo tal diferença estatisticamente significativa. A ocorrência maior de artropatias em adultos foi mais evidente nos pacientes com parvovirose (75%, rubéola (65% e dengue (57,7% do que naqueles com sarampo (31%. As queixas articulares também predominaram nos pacientes do sexo feminino para todas as viroses avaliadas. Os resultados encontrados demonstram o freqüente acometimento articular nas doenças estudadas, e indicam a necessidade de comprovação laboratorial para o diagnóstico diferencial entre elas.The frequency of arthropathy was evaluated in 251 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis (specific IgM detection by enzyme immunoassay of exanthematic disease. Arthropathy (arthralgia and/or arthritis was more frequent in dengue fever (49% and rubella (38.2% cases than in human parvovirus (30% and measles (28.1% cases. Except for measles cases, joint complaints prevailed in adults (315 years of age and this difference was significant. The higher frequency of arthropathy in adults was more evident in human parvovirus (75%, rubella (65% and dengue fever (57.7% cases than in measles cases (31%. Arthropathy was also more frequent in females for all rash diseases studied. The results of this study showed the high occurrence of joint complaints in the diseases described here and the importance of laboratory confirmation for their differential diagnosis.

  18. Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Montero Parrilla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observaron facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función.

  19. Management and evaluation of extra-articular manifestations in spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Nurmohamed, Michael T

    2012-12-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with either predominantly axial symptoms of the spine and sacroiliac joints (axial SpA, including ankylosing spondylitis) or predominantly arthritis (peripheral SpA). Next to these spinal and articular symptoms, many patients with SpA also have extra-articular manifestations (EAMs). EAMs associated with SpA include anterior uveitis (25-30%), psoriasis (10-25%) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (5-10%) and cardiovascular manifestations. Peripheral arthritis occurs in approximately 30% of patients, especially in large joints, and shows an asymmetrical, oligoarticular pattern. Other common joint complaints are due to enthesitis, which manifest as extra-articular bony tenderness in areas such as the Achilles tendon. Acute anterior uveitis presents with acute pain, loss of vision and redness in one eye that usually subsides spontaneously after several weeks. Rapid treatment by an ophthalmologist is required to prevent synechiae formation which could ultimately result in glaucoma and blindness. Although less common, organ involvement in SpA can also be located in the heart, lungs or kidneys. The risk of cardiovascular events is increased in SpA. Cardiac manifestations can involve the aortic valve (1-10%) or the atrioventricular node and the risk of atherosclerotic events is increased in this group. Treatment of SpA includes physical exercise and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and in case of peripheral arthritis, sulphasalazine can be added. When there is insufficient response to NSAIDs, tumor necrosis factor blockers, especially infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and golimumab, are very effective in treating axial manifestations, arthritis, enthesitis and psoriasis. Anterior uveitis in SpA can be treated adequately by the ophthalmologist and in the case of refractory uveitis, treatment with adalimumab and infliximab seems to be more effective compared with etanercept. When IBD occurs with SpA, the use of NSAIDs should be minimized, except for celecoxib, and infliximab or adalimumab are preferred to etanercept. The incidence of atherosclerotic events or SpA-specific cardiac manifestations may be decreased by cardiovascular risk management or effective antirheumatic treatment. Overall it is important to realize that extra-articular manifestations frequently occur in patients with SpA and should be taken into account in the choice of treatment. PMID:23227118

  20. Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The ?2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  1. Focal Mechanism determination of local M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales, Dina; Custório, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    We determine the focal mechanisms of local small (MLwaveform with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) high enough to allow full waveform modelling. To overcome this limitation, we used a new approach called cyclic scanning of the polarity solutions (CSPS) (Fojtíková and Zahradnik, 2014), which performs a joint inversion of full waveform and first motion polarities to retrieve the focal mechanism. This methodology has the advantage of yielding reliable focal mechanism solutions, even when high SNR waveforms are available from only a few near field stations (or in the limiting case, only with one single station). To apply the CSPS method one needs to: i) run the the FOCal MEChanism (FOCMEC) code (Snoke, 2003) to obtain a suite of the DC solutions corresponding to the first motion polarities, and then ii) perform the waveform modelling in order to decrease the uncertainty. The ISOLated Asperities (ISOLA) software (Sokos and Zahradník, 2008, 2013) is used in this second step. We applied this method to weak events recorded by a network of 30 broadband seismic stations that transmit data in real-time to Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. We interpret the obtained fault plane solutions in light of active faults and regional tectonics, and in comparison with focal mechanisms previously inferred for events in the region. The focal mechanisms obtained for small earthquakes allow us to significantly expand the database of available focal mechanisms in mainland Portugal, contributing to the understanding of active deformation in the region.

  2. A Case of Linear Focal Elastosis with a Family History

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Jong Keun; Chun, Ji Sung; JUNG, SO YOUNG; Hwang, Seon Wook; Sung, Ho Suck; Lee, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Linear focal elastosis is an uncommon disorder typically occurring in the back region, which clinically presents as band-like striae, having a histological focal increase in abnormal elastic fibers. Until now, linear focal elastosis occurring in patients with a family history have been rarely reported. Here, we present one such case, of linear focal elastosis which occurred in a brother and sister.

  3. Listeria monocytogenes septic arthritis following intra-articular yttrium-90 therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A. P.; Prouse, P J; Gumpel, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of septic arthritis, which usually occurs in a host compromised by systemic illness. Intra-articular irradiation with yttrium-90 is generally free of complication. We report a case of intra-articular sepsis of the knee joint by Listeria monocytogenes acquired under unusual circumstances.

  4. Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea / Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Jezabel, Haye Salinas; Soledad, Retamozo; Lorena, Vetorazzi; Natalia, Peano; Patricia Ericka, Díaz Cuiza; María Sol, Castaños Menescardi; Evangelina María, Miretti; Laura Mariela, Encinas; Ana Cecilia, Álvarez; Verónica, Saurit; Alejandro, Alvarellos; Francisco, Caeiro.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR) pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA), relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP) son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico [...] en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987) mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p Abstract in english A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM), which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint dam [...] age and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987) with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p

  5. Intra-articular hyaluronate, tenoxicam and vitamin E in a rat model of osteoarthritis: evaluation and comparison of chondroprotective efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Uzer, Gokcer; Türkmen, Ismail; Yildiz, Yavuz; Senol, Serkan; Ozkan, Korhan; Turkmensoy, Fatih; Ramadan, Saime; Aktas, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate and compare the chondroprotective efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid, tenoxicam and vitamin E in osteoarthritis. Methods: An osteoarthritis model was created by anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial menisectomy in knees of 28 rats. The rats were randomized into four groups; first group served as a control group and received intra-articular injections of saline solution, intra-articular HA, intra-articular tenox...

  6. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  7. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  8. Strong reducing of the laser focal volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many applications of lasers seek nowadays for focal spots whose corresponding volume is getting smaller and smaller in order to ensure high spatial resolution. This problem, studied by many research groups around the world, is the core of this research work which deals with controlling the focal volume of a focused laser beam. Indeed, our objective is to develop a new method based on spatial treatment of laser beams, allowing to solve, in an original and efficient manner, two fundamental issues that have not been treated satisfactorily yet, i.e.: (i) The generation of a special laser beam, which has the ability to produce a focal volume smaller than the one resulting from a more common Gaussian beam, when focused by an ordinary lens. The expected reduction factor of the focal volume is in the order of several hundreds, when the existing methods do not exceed few tenths. (ii) The decoupling between transversal and longitudinal resolutions within the focal volume, contrary to Gaussian beams whose depth of field is proportional to the square of its beam-waist radius. The method that it is developed is based on two steps: First, the laser is forced to oscillate on a high-order but single transversal mode TEMp0, which is secondly spatially beam-shaped thanks a proper Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) that allocates the super-resolution feature A2. (authors)

  9. FocalCall: An R Package for the Annotation of Focal Copy Number Aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsman, Oscar; Benner, Christian; Meijer, Gerrit A; van de Wiel, Mark A; Ylstra, Bauke

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify somatic focal copy number aberrations (CNAs) in cancer specimens and to distinguish them from germ-line copy number variations (CNVs), we developed the software package FocalCall. FocalCall enables user-defined size cutoffs to recognize focal aberrations and builds on established array comparative genomic hybridization segmentation and calling algorithms. To distinguish CNAs from CNVs, the algorithm uses matched patient normal signals as references or, if this is not available, a list with known CNVs in a population. Furthermore, FocalCall differentiates between homozygous and heterozygous deletions as well as between gains and amplifications and is applicable to high-resolution array and sequencing data. PMID:25506197

  10. Non-linear model for compression tests on articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Alfio; Guaily, Amr; Giverso, Chiara; Federico, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Hydrated soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, are often modeled as biphasic systems with individually incompressible solid and fluid phases, and biphasic models are employed to fit experimental data in order to determine the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the tissues. Two of the most common experimental setups are confined and unconfined compression. Analytical solutions exist for the unconfined case with the linear, isotropic, homogeneous model of articular cartilage, and for the confined case with the non-linear, isotropic, homogeneous model. The aim of this contribution is to provide an easily implementable numerical tool to determine a solution to the governing differential equations of (homogeneous and isotropic) unconfined and (inhomogeneous and isotropic) confined compression under large deformations. The large-deformation governing equations are reduced to equivalent diffusive equations, which are then solved by means of finite difference (FD) methods. The solution strategy proposed here could be used to generate benchmark tests for validating complex user-defined material models within finite element (FE) implementations, and for determining the tissue's mechanical and hydraulic properties from experimental data. PMID:25840005

  11. Outcome of ACL Reconstruction and Concomitant Articular Injury Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Tahami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage injuries are a common clinical problem at the time of ACL reconstruction with an incidence rate of 16-46%. Good results of ACL reconstruction combined with the treatment of chondral lesions have been published in some studies. Method: After statistical analysis 30 patients were selected and divided in 2 groups. TheFfirst group consisted of 15 patients wite isolated ACL tear without any other concomitant injuries and the second group consisted of 15 patients with ACL tear and concomitant high grade (grade 3 or 4 of outerbridge classification contained articular cartilage injuries during arthroscopy. Group 1 underwent ACL reconstruction and group 2 underwent ACL reconstruction combined with chondroplasty via the drilling and microfracture technique. For each patient the Lysholm knee score questionnaire was completed before surgery, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Results: The mean Lysholm knee score in both groups improves: 9.6 points after 6 months and 16.06 points after 1 year in group 1 and 23.26 points after 6 months and 30.66 after 1 year in group 2, whict was statistically significant (Pvalue

  12. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thibault, Lemaire; Salah, Naili; Vittorio, Sansalone.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido [...] a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson) e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados. Abstract in english In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the [...] tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.

  13. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Lemaire

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.

  14. Menisectomized miniature Vietnamese pigs develop articular cartilage pathology resembling osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Raymundo; Ramírez, Carmen; Rojas, Oscar I; Casas-Mejía, Oscar; Kouri, Juan B; Vega-López, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    Animal models have been used to understand the basic biology of osteoarthritis (OA) and have helped to identify new candidate biomarkers for the early diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Small animals cannot sufficiently mimic human diseases; therefore, large animal models are needed. Pigs have been used as models for human diseases because they are similar to humans in terms of their anatomy, physiology and genome. Hence, we analyzed articular cartilage and synovial membrane pathology in miniature Vietnamese pigs after a unilateral partial menisectomy and 20-day exercise regimen to determine if the pigs developed pathological characteristics similar to human OA. Histological and protein expression analysis of articular cartilage from menisectomized pigs revealed the following pathologic changes resembling OA: fibrillation, fissures, chondrocyte cluster formation, decrease in proteoglycan content and upregulation of the OA-associated proteins MMP-3, MMP-13, procaspase-3 and IL-1?. Moreover, histological analysis of synovial membrane revealed mild synovitis, characterized by hyperplasia, cell infiltration and neoangiogenesis. Pathological changes were not observed in the contralateral joints or the joints of sham-operated pigs. Further studies are required to validate such an OA model; however, our results can encourage the use of pigs to study early stages of OA physiopathology. Based on their similarities to humans, pigs may be useful for preclinical studies to identify new candidate biomarkers and novel treatments for OA. PMID:26296921

  15. Multi-pelvis characterisation of articular cartilage geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Faye C; Dickinson, Alexander S; Schneider, Urs; Taylor, Andrew C; Browne, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The shape of the acetabular cartilage follows the contact stress distribution across the joint. Accurate characterisation of this geometry may be useful for the development of acetabular cup devices that are more biomechanically compliant. In this study, the geometry of the acetabular cartilage was characterised by taking plaster moulds of the acetabulum from 24 dry bone human pelvises and digitising the mould shapes using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The articular bone surface geometry was analysed, and the shape of the acetabulum was approximated by fitting a best-fit sphere. To test the hypothesis that the acetabulum is non-spherical, a best-fit ellipsoid was also fitted to the geometry. In each case, points around the acetabular notch edge that disclosed the articular surface geometry were identified, and vectors were drawn between these and the best-fit sphere or ellipsoid centre. The significantly larger z radii (into the pole) of the ellipsoids indicated that the acetabulum was non-spherical and could imply that the kinematics of the hip joint is more complex than purely rotational motion, and the traditional ball-and-socket replacement may need to be updated to reflect this motion. The acetabular notch edges were observed to be curved, with males exhibiting deeper, wider and shorter notches than females, although the difference was not statistically significant (mean: p = 0.30) and supports the use of non-gender-specific models in anatomical studies. PMID:23966364

  16. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  17. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  18. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  19. Extended defects in Germanium

    CERN Document Server

    Osgood, R M

    2008-01-01

    Intends to provide a fundamental understanding of the extended-defect formation during Ge materials and device processing, providing ways to distinguish harmful from less detrimental defects and should point out ways for defect engineering and control.

  20. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  1. Case report 333: Osteochondral fracture of the right patella without an osteochondral defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summary, a case is presented of a 14-year-old male who presented with pain in the right knee with a history which suggested the possibility that an injury of the knee had occurred during a summer in camp. Radiological studies showed a large defect in the articular surface of the right patella, but no loose body could be identified. (orig./WU)

  2. Mechano-regulation of stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration in osteochondral defects

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Daniel; PRENDERGAST, PATRICK JOHN

    2005-01-01

    Cartilage defects that penetrate the subchondral bone can undergo spontaneous repair through the formation of a fibrous or cartilaginous tissue mediated primarily by mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow. This tissue is biomechanically inferior to normal articular cartilage, and is often observed to degrade over time. The factors that control the type and quality of the repair tissue, and its subsequent degradation, have yet to be elucidated. In this paper, we hypothesise...

  3. Controling the number of focal elements

    OpenAIRE

    Osswald, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    A basic belief assignment can have up to 2^n focal elements, and combining them with a simple conjunctive operator will need O(2^2n) operations. This article proposes some techniques to limit the size of the focal sets of the bbas to be combined while preserving a large part of the information they carry. The first section revisits some well-known definitions with an algorithmic point of vue. The second section proposes a matrix way of building the least committed isopignist...

  4. Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata / Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Miguel, Montero Parrilla; Zuilén, Jiménez Quintana.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observar [...] on facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función. Abstract in english This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wea [...] r facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

  5. Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Montero Parrilla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observaron facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función.This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wear facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

  6. O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Oliveira Carneiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125; em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313. CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental.OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp. METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp and the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125, and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313. CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

  7. O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas / Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio de Oliveira, Carneiro; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; José, Barbieri Neto.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados [...] vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125); em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313). CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp). METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp a [...] nd the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125), and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313). CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

  8. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally degraded articular cartilage in vitro. As high resolution imaging of e.g. the knee joint is possible with pQCT, the present technique may be further developed for in vivo quantification of PG depletion in osteoarthritic cartilage. However, careful in vitro and in vivo characterization of diffusion mechanics and optimal contrast agent concentrations are needed before diagnostic applications are feasible

  9. Estimation of focal and extra-focal radiation profiles based on Gaussian modeling in medical linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, Shigeo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Araki, Fujio; Matsuki, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Nobuo

    2011-07-01

    The X-ray source or focal radiation is one of the factors that can degrade the conformal field edge in stereotactic body radiotherapy. For that reason, it is very important to estimate the total focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators, which consists of X-ray focal-spot radiation and extra-focal radiation profiles. Our purpose in this study was to propose an experimental method for estimating the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators based on triple Gaussian functions. We measured the total X-ray focal radiation profiles of the accelerators by moving a slit in conjunction with a photon field p-type silicon diode. The slit width was changed so that the extra-focal radiation could be optimally included in the total focal radiation. The total focal radiation profiles of an accelerator at 4-MV and 10-MV energies were approximated with a combination of triple Gaussian functions, which correspond to the focal-spot radiation, extra-focal radiation, and radiation transmitted through the slit assembly. As a result, the ratios of the Gaussian peak value of the extra-focal radiation to that of the focal spot for 4 and 10 MV were 0.077 and 0.159, respectively. The peak widths of the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles were 0.57 and 25.0 mm for 4 MV, respectively, and 0.60 and 22.0 mm for 10 MV, respectively. We concluded that the proposed focal radiation profile model based on the triple Gaussian functions may be feasible for estimating the X-ray focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles. PMID:21431890

  10. Lavado articular por punción en pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla / Articular washout by puncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Álvarez López; Yenima, García Lorenzo; Maruldis, García Lorenzo.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la osteoartritis de la rodilla constituye una de las causas más frecuente de dolor de esta articulación, en la actualidad para su alivio uno de los métodos empleados es el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de [...] esta modalidad de tratamiento para el alivio del dolor y la disminución en el consumo de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 75 pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla y tratados mediante lavado articular por punción más el uso de esteroides intra-articulares en el Centro Médico de Diagnóstico Integral, Caracas, República Bolivariana de Venezuela desde diciembre de 2008 hasta mayo 2009.El universo de estudio coincidió con la muestra Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino en más del 60% de los pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 56,9 años. El 48% de los enfermos mantuvo alivio del dolor a los tres meses de realizado el proceder. El uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo disminuyó considerablemente después de realizado el proceder. Un 17,3% de los pacientes requirió de un segundo lavado articular especialmente a partir del primer mes de haber hecho el primer lavado. El 76% de los enfermos a los tres meses se mantuvieron con resultados de excelente o bueno. Los factores de mal pronóstico que más influyeron en el resultado fueron el dolor al reposo, largo periodo de evolución de los síntomas y cambios radiográficos marcados. Conclusiones: el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares es un método útil en el alivio del dolor en la mayoría de los enfermos con Osteoartritis de la Rodilla hasta los tres meses de realizado, además de disminuir de forma significativa el uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Abstract in english Background:osteoarthritis of the knee constitutes one of the most frequent causes of pain of this joint, nowadays for its relief, one of the used methods is the articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of this treatmen [...] t modality for pain relief and the decrease of non-steroid anti-inflammatory consumption. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 75 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and treated them by means of articular washout by puncture, besides the use of intra-articular steroids in the Integral Diagnostic Medical Center from Caracas, Venezuela from December 2008 to May 2009; the universe coincided with the sample. Results: the female sex in more than 60% of patients prevailed. The mean age was about 56,9 years. The 48% of sick persons kept relief of pain to the three months of carrying out proceeding. The use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories diminished considerably after proceeding. The 17,3% of patients required a second articular washout especially starting from the first month of the first washout. The 76% of sick persons to the three months stayed with excellent or good results. Factors of bad prognostic that most influenced in the result was the pain to the rest, long period of evolution of the symptoms and marked radiographic changes. Conclusions: articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids is a useful method of pain relief in the majority of sick persons with osteoarthritis of the knee until the three months of carrying out the procedure, besides diminishing in a significant way the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories.

  11. Status of very long infrared-wave focal plane array development at DEFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravrand, O.; Chorier, Ph.

    2009-05-01

    The very long infrared wavelength (>14?m) is a very challenging range for the design of large HgCdTe focal plane arrays. As the wavelength gets longer (ie the semiconductor gap gets smaller), the physic of photodiodes asks for numerous technological improvements to keep a high level of detection performance. DEFIR (LETI-Sofradir common research team) has been highly active in this field during the last few years. The need (mainly expressed by the space industry ESA and CNES) of very long wave focal plane arrays appears very demanding in terms of dark current, defect density and of course quantum efficiency. This paper aims at presenting a status of long and very long wave focal plane array development at DEFIR for three different ion implanted technologies: n on p mercury vacancies doped technology, n on p extrinsic doped technology, and p on n arsenic on indium technology. Special focus is done to 15?m cut off n/p focal plane array fabricated in our laboratory demonstrating high uniformity, diffusion and shot noise limited photodiodes at 50K.

  12. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Moura Lima

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de impedir o aparecimento de larvas de Aëdes aegypti e de outros insetos, em pneus pintados, na face externa, com Sumition e com Malation.In four districts of the city of Rio dc Janeiro focal treatment essays with granulated Abate at 1 ppm and perifocal treatment essays with wettable powder of Sumithion at 2,5% were performed. These were made either alone or in combination as well as associated to insecticides applied at ultra low volume. The premise indices obtained one month after the treatments indicates that the focal treatment alone is effective, no other addicional methods being necessary. The perifocal treatment is not effective and did not prevent the development of Aedes aegypti larvae and other insects in tires which had their external surface painted with Sumithion and Malathion.

  13. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

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    Sahana M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  14. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  15. Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

  16. Crowding in the GAIA spectrograph focal plane

    OpenAIRE

    Zwitter, Tomaz; Henden, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Superpositions of stellar tracings are present in every slitless spectrograph. The probability for such overlaps in the GAIA RVS spectrograph focal plane is estimated using photometric observations of 66 stellar fields, mostly close to the Galactic plane. It is shown that overlaps of bright stars (V

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of immature articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, neutron activation analysis has characteristics that make it a favourable technique for the analysis of multi-elements and, as such, has frequently been applied to trace determinations in different materials. After activation with the whole reactor spectrum of neutrons, macro-activities of sodium-24 and chlorine-38 are produced in many biological materials and especially articular cartilage. These interfere with the gammma activities of determined elements or increase their detection limits. In this study, the possibility of exploiting the lower resonance integrals of these interfering elements relative to the important trace elements with epithermal neutrons was investigated. The use of thermal neutron filters, to enchance the selectivity of the analysis in cartilage matrix, was studied

  18. Contact mechanics of articular cartilage layers asymptotic models

    CERN Document Server

    Argatov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and unifying approach to articular contact mechanics with an emphasis on frictionless contact interaction of thin cartilage layers. The first part of the book (Chapters 1–4) reviews the results of asymptotic analysis of the deformational behavior of thin elastic and viscoelastic layers. A comprehensive review of the literature is combined with the authors’ original contributions. The compressible and incompressible cases are treated separately with a focus on exact solutions for asymptotic models of frictionless contact for thin transversely isotropic layers bonded to rigid substrates shaped like elliptic paraboloids. The second part (Chapters 5, 6, and 7) deals with the non-axisymmetric contact of thin transversely isotropic biphasic layers and presents the asymptotic modelling methodology for tibio-femoral contact. The third part of the book consists of Chapter 8, which covers contact problems for thin bonded inhomogeneous transversely isotropic elastic layers, and Cha...

  19. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah; Sansalone, Vittorio

    2010-03-01

    In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling. PMID:20209248

  20. Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ap Gwynn, I; Wade, S; Ito, K; Richards, R G

    2002-12-10

    Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3 mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly repeating patterns. This organization existed in the regions surrounding the columns of chondrocytes, known as chondrons. The load bearing property of the tissue was explained by the directed flow and containment of the interstitial fluid, modulated by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, along these collagen bounded tubular structures. The reason why such a structure has not been described previously may be that it is not retained by aldehyde fixation followed by dehydration, the method commonly used for tissue preparation for electron microscopy. PMID:14562249

  1. Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ap Gwynn I.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly repeating patterns. This organization existed in the regions surrounding the columns of chondrocytes, known as chondrons. The load bearing property of the tissue was explained by the directed flow and containment of the interstitial fluid, modulated by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, along these collagen bounded tubular structures. The reason why such a structure has not been described previously may be that it is not retained by aldehyde fixation followed by dehydration, the method commonly used for tissue preparation for electron microscopy.

  2. Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jezabel Haye Salinas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA, relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987 mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p < 0.01 y de factor reumatoideo (FR (108 vs. 34.5, p < 0.01. En el análisis multivariado hubo asociación entre la presencia de MExA y tabaquismo activo (p = 0.02, OR: 3.78, IC 95%: 1.17-12.2, FR positivo (p = 0.04, OR: 3.23, IC95%: 1.04-11.8 y anticuerpo ACCP positivo (p = 0.04, OR: 3.23, IC 95%: 1.04-10. Presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP que los controles los pacientes con xerostomía (109 vs. 34, p = 0.04, xeroftalmia (150 vs. 34, p < 0.01, nódulos sub-cutáneos (NSC (141 vs. 34, p < 0.01 y fibrosis pulmonar (158 vs. 34, p = 0.04. En conclusión, el anticuerpo ACCP positivo, el FR positivo y el tabaquismo activo fueron factores de riesgo independientes para el desarrollo de MExA.

  3. CT dose optimisation and reduction in osteo-articular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an improvement in the temporal and spatial resolution, computed tomography (CT) is indicated in the evaluation of a great many osteo-articular diseases. New exploration techniques such as the dynamic CT and CT bone perfusion also provide new indications. However, CT is still an irradiating imaging technique and dose optimisation and reduction remains primordial. In this paper, the authors first present the typical doses delivered during CT in osteo-articular disease. They then discuss the different ways to optimise and reduce these doses by distinguishing the behavioural factors from the technical factors. Among the latter, the optimisation of the milli-amps and kilo-voltage is indispensable and should be adapted to the type of exploration and the morpho-type of each individual. These technical factors also benefit from recent technological evolutions with the distribution of iterative reconstructions. In this way, the dose may be divided by two and provide an image of equal quality. With these dose optimisation and reduction techniques, it is now possible, while maintaining an excellent quality of the image, to obtain low-dose or even very low-dose acquisitions with a dose sometimes similar that of a standard X-ray assessment. Nevertheless, although these technical factors provide a major reduction in the dose delivered, behavioural factors, such as compliance with the indications, remain fundamental. Finally, the authors describe how to optimise and reduce the dose with specific applications in musculoskeletal imaging such as the dynamic CT, CT bone perfusion and dual energy CT. (authors)

  4. MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms

  5. Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jezabel Haye Salinas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA, relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987 mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM, which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint damage and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987 with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p < 0.01 and rheumatoid factor (108 vs. 34.5, p < 0.01. Independent association with current smoking habit (p = 0.02, OR = 3.78, 95%: 1.17-12.2, RF positive (p = 0.04, OR 3.23, CI 95%: 1.04 to 11.8 and ACCP antibody positive (p = 0.04, OR 3.23, 95% CI: 1.04-10 was found. The patients with xerostomia (109 vs. 34, p = 0.04, xerophthalmia (150 vs. 34, p < 0.01, subcutaneous nodules (141 vs. 34, p < 0.01 and pulmonary fibrosis (158 vs. 34, p = 0.04 had a higher degree of the ACCP antibody, than controls. In conclusion, ACCP antibody positive, RF positive and smoking were independent risk factors for the development of MEXA.

  6. Screening for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is a birth defect? A birth defect is a problem that is present at birth, although it may not be noticed until the ... appearance, a body function, or both. What causes birth defects? Some birth defects are caused by problems with ...

  7. [Structure and function of the external part of the articular cartilage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiaev, V P; Ankina, M A

    1978-04-01

    The data on electron microscopic studies of the main structural elements of the superficial layer of the articular cartilage are represented. The articular cartilage of the femoral lead in young rabbits has been studied. The articular cartilage has no ideal smooth surface but three are some pressings of different sizes. The most superficial cartilage layer--cell-free zone--consists of collagene fibers and hyaluronic fibrils which are closely connected with the ground substance of the cartilage. Superficial chondrocytes are mature, differentiated but functionally weakly active cells. Under normal conditions, destruction (obliteration) of the cell-free zone and desquamation of superficial cells are impossible. PMID:678128

  8. Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskin, Cree M.; Anderson, Mark W.; Choudhri, Asim [UVA Health System, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Diduch, David R. [UVA Health System, Department of Orthopedics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

  9. Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

  10. Radioulnar fusion for forearm defects in children - a salvage procedure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MN, Rasool.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight children aged 1-14 yrs with defects in the forearm were treated with the one-bone forearm procedure and followed up for 1-11 yrs. The defects were due to pyogenic osteomyelitis (n=3), osteochondroma (n=3), neurofibromatosis (n=1) and ulnar dysmelia (n=1). The radius was fixed to the ulna shaft [...] with an intramedullary pin in six cases, and two children had centralisation of the radial metaphysis onto the ulna for "radial club hand" type deformity with Kirschner wires. All forearms united in 3-6 months. Shortening ranged from 1-10 cm. Fixed flexion deformity of the elbow (20°) resulted in one child and cubitus valgus (20°) occurred in another. One child had a radial articular tilt of 45°. The procedure achieved stability at the wrist and elbow. There was cosmetic and functional improvement in all patients.

  11. Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

  12. The Geometric Osteotomy: Joint Preservation in Juxta-Articular Surface Bone Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Bell

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present the oncologic and functional results of a consecutive series of patients treated by geometric osteotomy and allograft reconstruction for juxta-articular surface bone neoplasms.

  13. The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rajiah, Prabhakar [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics. (orig.)

  14. Ultrastructural study of the extra-articular Leeds-Keio ligament prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, E.; Inoue, M.; Sugiura, H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: There have been several histological studies of the Leeds-Keio ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, but there have been few of the Leeds-Keio ligament in the extra-articular portion.

  15. Preemptive analgesia with intra-articular pethidine reduces pain after arthroscopic knee surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Jalal Hashemi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that preemptive intra-articular pethidine 50 mg injection is more effective than preventive injection for postoperative pain relief at rest and joint movement in arthroscopic knee surgery.

  16. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  17. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random. For double-couple source orientation the random probability distribution function is not uniform, which complicates the calculation of the likelihood value. To better understand the resulting complexities we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two rota...

  18. [Focal neuropathies: new possibilities for pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, V A; Bakhtereva, E V; Le?derman, E L

    2011-01-01

    An open randomized trial of 58 patients with focal neuropathies of upper extremities has compared the efficacy of neyromidin (ipidacrinum) used in intramuscular injections and by the introduction of local injection perineural therapy. Both methods were combined with the following electroneurostimulation at the peak of drug action (30 min after the injection). The efficacy of treatment was assessed 14 days and 1 month after the end of treatment course by specific questionnaires and scales and an electroneuromyographic study. The data obtained indicate the efficacy of neyromidin in the treatment of patients with focal neuropathies of upper extremities. The introduction of the drug using local injection perineural therapy has demonstrated significantly better results. PMID:21716251

  19. Aerogel detector with a Fresnel lens focalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of threshold Cherenkov detectors for the identification of high momentum particles in high energy physics experiments is connected with the efficiency of detection of light in the aerogel. As one goes lower in the refractive index, less photons are emitted, and more attention should be paid to the improvements of the detection efficiency. The light integration box method relies on photomultipliers of large size and requires even two of them. We have studied the possibility to use a thin focalizing element (Fresnel lens) between the aerogel and the photomultiplier to focalize the light onto a smaller diameter photomultiplier. The results show that for good aerogel and low indices of refraction (<1.01) the scheme with the aerogel and the Fresnel lens may be superior and less costly than the conventional set-up.

  20. Defects in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to the study of defects in metals has led to increased knowledge on lattice-defect properties during the past decade in two areas: the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation and post-quench annealing. The study of defects in metals by PAS is reviewed within the context of the other available techniques for defect studies. The strengths and weaknesses of PAS as a method for the characterization of defect microstructures are considered. The additional possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the atomic and electronic structures of atomic defects are discussed, based upon theoretical calculations of the annihilation characteristics of defect-trapped positrons and experimental observations. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals is considered. 71 references, 9 figures

  1. Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2010-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of ...

  2. Two unusual presentations of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, James F; Slone, Harris S

    2013-07-01

    Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FFCD) is an uncommon, yet well documented, cause of long-bone angular deformities in children. We report two unusual cases of FFCD involving the tibia: one within the proximal tibia inducing genu valgum and one apparent FFCD lesion of the distal tibia that generated a varus deformity of the distal tibia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of FFCD in the distal tibia. Each lesion led to an angular deformity that required surgical management. PMID:22751479

  3. Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: Current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, Muhammed

    2012-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS), also known as collapsing glomerulopathy is currently classified under the rubric of FSGS. However, its defining morphological features are in stark contrast to those observed in most other variants of FSGS. During the early stage of the disease, the lesion is characterized pathologically by an implosive segmental and/or global collapse of the glomerular capillary tufts, marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of podocytes, and severe tubuloint...

  4. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesi...

  5. The Biological Effects of Sex Hormones on Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes from Different Genders

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu Jen Chang; Shyh Ming Kuo; Yen Ting Lin; Shan-Wei Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of sex hormones (17?-estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones. We evaluate cell proliferation and biochemical functions by MTT and GAG assay. The chondrocyte function and phenotypes were analyzed by mRNA level using RT-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to evaluate ...

  6. Changes in Proton Dynamics in Articular Cartilage Caused by Phosphate Salts and Fixation Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shaokuan; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of phosphate salts and fixation solutions on the proton dynamics in articular cartilage in vitro. Microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (?MRI) T2 anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) double quantum–filtered (DQF) spectroscopy were used to study the full-thickness articular cartilage from several canine humeral heads. The in-plane pixel size across the depth of the cartilage tissue was 13 ?m. The acid phosphate salt was an effective exchange ca...

  7. Chondroitin Sulfate Sulfation Motifs as Putative Biomarkers for Isolation of Articular Cartilage Progenitor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anthony J.; Tudor, Debbie; Nowell, Mari A.; Caterson, Bruce; Hughes, Clare E.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic, debilitating joint disease characterized by progressive destruction of articular cartilage. Recently, a number of studies have identified a chondroprogenitor cell population within articular cartilage with significant potential for repair/regeneration. As yet, there are few robust biomarkers of these cells. In this study, we show that monoclonal antibodies recognizing novel chondroitin sulfate sulfation motif epitopes in glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans can be ...

  8. Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulhall, K J

    2002-10-01

    We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

  9. Human articular cartilage and fibrocartilage: a study with high-angle x-ray diffraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Albiser, G; Netter, P; Faure, G.; Horn, P.; Delagoutte, J P; Gaucher, A

    1984-01-01

    High-angle x-ray diffraction was applied to the study of four meniscal fibrocartilages and 11 articular cartilages from patients suffering from various articular disorders. In eight samples microcrystals were seen, apatite most frequently, CaHPO4 in two instances, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) in one. These results confirm the association of various crystals in a single joint, and favour their heterogenous partition on collagen fibres.

  10. Chondrogenesis, chondrocyte differentiation, and articular cartilage metabolism in health and osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mary B. Goldring

    2012-01-01

    Chondrogenesis occurs as a result of mesenchymal cell condensation and chondroprogenitor cell differentiation. Following chondrogenesis, the chondrocytes remain as resting cells to form the articular cartilage or undergo proliferation, terminal differentiation to chondrocyte hypertrophy, and apoptosis in a process termed endochondral ossification, whereby the hypertrophic cartilage is replaced by bone. Human adult articular cartilage is a complex tissue of matrix proteins that varies from sup...

  11. Arthroscopic Excision of Intra-Articular Hip Osteoid Osteoma: A Report of 2 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzi Moucharafieh; Fouad C. Jabbour; Imad, Joseph P.; Nehme, Alexandre H.; Joseph Wehbe; Bou Ghannam, Alaa G.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-articular osteoid osteoma is uncommon accounting for approximately 12% of all osteoid osteomas. It presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges since several traumatic or degenerative pathologies of the joint can be simulated with delay in the diagnosis. We report the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings in 2 cases of intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the femoral neck and of the acetabulum. Technical aspects of arthroscopic excision and results of surgery are discus...

  12. Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Brinks Aaltien; Koes Bart W; Volkers Aloysius CW; Verhaar Jan AN; Bierma-Zeinstra Sita MA

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue) corticosteroid injection. Methods A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were...

  13. Condylar osteochondroma treated with total condylectomy and preservation of the articular disc: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Manuel Fernandez; Castillo, Jose Luis Del; Guerra, Mario Muñoz; Sanchez, Ruth Sanchez; La Plata, Maria Mancha De

    2015-06-01

    Osteochondroma is frequently found in the general skeleton but is rare in the condylar region of the mandible. We report a case of an osteochondroma of large size and rapid growth in the mandibular condyle, which was treated with total condylectomy and condylar replacement with a costochondral graft and preservation of the articular disc. In cases with a healthy and well-positioned articular disc, it may be preserved with no need of disc repositioning. PMID:26000086

  14. Arthroscopic Excision of Solitary Intra-articular Osteochondroma of the Knee

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong In; Kwon, Jae Ho; Park, Yong Jee; D'Almeida, Vivian R.; Soni, Shaishav M.; Nha, Kyung Wook

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondroma is the most common benign tumor of the growing bone commonly involving the knee joint region. It often involves the metaphysis of the long bone, occurring extra-articularly. In spite of this, solitary intra-articular osteochondroma has rarely been reported in the literature. A 41-year-old man presented with diffuse pain and discomfort of the left knee for over 2 months. Clinical examination revealed a bony prominence involving the superolateral aspect of the left distal femur. ...

  15. Para-articular chondroma and osteochondroma of the infrapatellar fat pad: a report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, H.; K. Tamai; Iwamoto, A.; Saotome, K.

    1999-01-01

    We report three cases of para-articular chondroma and osteochondroma in the region of infrapatellar fat pad. All three lesions were resected and examined histologically. Two of them were primarily cartilaginous with a lobular pattern internally, and one uniformly osseous with peripheral cartilage. We conclude that these lesions are not the same. The former should be designated para-articular chondroma after Jaffe and the latter, osteochondroma.

  16. Focal increase of cerebral blood flow during stereognostic testing in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, E; Larsen, B

    1976-01-01

    An attempt was made to study the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pattern during stereognostic discrimination in man. The rCBF was measured in 18 subjects who had no major neurological defects. The clearance from the hemisphere of xenon 133 injected (133Xe) into the carotid artery was measured with a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. During stereognostic discrimination with hand, mouth, or foot, the rCBF increased focally in the corresponding contralateral sensory-motor region and increased f...

  17. Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Belloul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate two different textures of smectic A liquid crystals. These textures are particularly symmetric when they are observed at crossed polars optical microscopy. For both textures, a model has been made in order to examine the link between the defective macroscopic texture and the microscopic disposition of the layers. We present in particular in the case of some hexagonal tiling of circles (similar to the Apollonius tiling some numeric simulation in order to visualize the smectic layers. We discuss of the nature of the smectic layers, which permit to assure their continuity from one focal conic domain to another adjacent one.

  18. Dynamic focal retinal arteriolar vasospasm in migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahman Anmar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented following an episode of sudden onset simultaneous inferior altitudinal visual loss in his left eye and visual obscuration with shimmering in the inferonasal quadrant of the right eye. Clinical examination demonstrated left superior hemiretinal artery occlusion and an area of focal dynamic spasm along the right superior temporal branch retinal artery, the arteriolar spastic cycle was about 2 sec in duration. Hematological (including complete blood count, thrombophilia screen, vasculitic screen and serum magnesium, carotid, and cardiac investigations were normal. He was given acetazolamide 500 mg orally, timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops once daily and sublingual amyl-nitrate 0.8 mg, and maintained on felodipine 10 mg/day and aspirin 100 mg/day. The area of focal arteriolar spasm in the right eye resolved over two months. To our knowledge there are no prior reports of photographically documented dynamic focal retinal vascular spasm on a MEDLINE and PUBMED search.

  19. Large Focal Plane Arrays for Future Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Hoenk, Michael; Gontijo, Ivair; Shapiro, Andrew; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd; Seshadri, Suresh; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Lisman, Doug; Dickie, Matthew; Blacksberg, Jordana

    2009-01-01

    We outline the challenges associated with the development and construction of large focal plane arrays for use both on the ground and in space. Using lessons learned from existing JPL-led and ASU/JPL partnership efforts to develop technology for, and design such arrays and imagers for large focal planes, we enumerate here the remaining problems that need to be solved to make such a venture viable. Technologies we consider vital for further development include: (1) architectures, processes, circuits, and readout solutions for production and integration of four-side buttable, low-cost, high-fidelity, high-performance, and high-reliability CCD and CMOS imagers; (2) modular, four-side buttable packaging of CCD/CMOS imagers; (3) techniques and hardware to test and characterize the large number of chips required to produce the hundreds of flight-grade detectors needed for large focal-plane missions being conceived at this time; (4) ground based testbed needs, such as a large format camera mounted on a ground-based ...

  20. Smart focal plane technologies for ELT instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin R.; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Garzon, Francisco; Parry, Ian R.; Prieto, Eric; Robertson, David J.; Zamkotsian, Frederic

    2004-07-01

    Smart Focal Planes are devices that enable the efficient sampling of a telescope's focal plane to feed spectroscopic and imaging instruments. Examples are integral field units (fiber and image slicers), cryogenic beam manipulators, and MOEMS (micro-opto-electromechanical systems) such as miniature slit shutters. These technologies are critical in making best use of the current 8m class telescopes for key science goals such as spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, and will be even more important for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) instruments. In fact, the density of pixels in an ELT focal plane with several milliarcsecond resolution will mean that sub-sampling of the field will be needed even for imaging. We have proposed a joint European project to develop these technologies, building on expertise from partners in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany and others, and led by the UK. We describe the current status of these technologies, showing how they will contribute to the feasibility and performance of proposed instruments for ELTs, and concentrating on capabilities within Europe. We then outline the proposed future developments, highlighting the technical challenges, such as the difficulties of manufacturing and verifying complex image slicers with thousands of optical surfaces, and building highly reliable cryogenic mechanisms such as pick-off arms, beam steering mirrors and reconfigurble slit mechanisms.

  1. Cerebral microvessel responses to focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Zoppo, Gregory J; Mabuchi, Takuma

    2003-08-01

    Cerebral microvessels have a unique ultrastructure form, which allows for the close relationship of the endothelium and blood elements to the neurons they serve, via intervening astrocytes. To focal ischemia, the cerebral microvasculature rapidly displays multiple dynamic responses. Immediate events include breakdown of the primary endothelial cell permeability barrier, with transudation of plasma, expression of endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion receptors, loss of endothelial cell and astrocyte integrin receptors, loss of their matrix ligands, expression of members of several matrix-degrading protease families, and the appearance of receptors associated with angiogenesis and neovascularization. These events occur pari passu with neuron injury. Alterations in the microvessel matrix after the onset of ischemia also suggest links to changes in nonvascular cell viability. Microvascular obstruction within the ischemic territory occurs after occlusion and reperfusion of the feeding arteries ("focal no-reflow" phenomenon). This can result from extrinsic compression and intravascular events, including leukocyte(-platelet) adhesion, platelet-fibrin interactions, and activation of coagulation. All of these events occur in microvessels heterogeneously distributed within the ischemic core. The panorama of acute microvessel responses to focal cerebral ischemia provide opportunities to understand interrelationships between neurons and their microvascular supply and changes that underlie a number of central nervous system neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:12902832

  2. Acercamiento a la mecanobiología del cartílago articular a través de un modelo computacional Approach to mechanobiology of articular cartilage through a computation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Stella Landínez Parra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El cartílago articular es un complejo tejido biológico que recubre los extremos de las articulaciones diartrodiales y proporciona resistencia a la compresión y excelentes propiedades de fricción durante el movimiento articular. La presencia de cargas mecánicas influye en el comportamiento y condición fisiológica del cartílago. Es así como, mediante el mecanismo de mecanotrasducción, los condrocitos perciben la magnitud de la carga y a partir de éste estímulo mecánico expresan genes como el Sox9 o el Runx2, los cuales generan cambios bioquímicos en las células y por tanto en el cartílago mismo. Diferentes trabajos experimentales se reportan acerca del efecto de las cargas impuestas al cartílago relacionadas con la expresión morfogénica del condrocito, sin embargo, no se cuenta con un modelo matemático y/o computacional que pueda explicar el comportamiento antagónico del Sox9 y el Runx2. El objetivo de este trabajo es introducir un modelo matemático que permita predecir el comportamiento mecano-biológico del cartílago articular a partir de las cargas mecánicas cíclicas, la presión hidrostática y la expresión génica y/o de proteínas que facilitan el proceso de síntesis o destrucción del tejido. El modelo se implementó numéricamente con el uso del método de los elementos finitos y los resultados obtenidos permitieron predecir diversos comportamientos mecano-biológicos del cartílago articular.Articular cartilage is a biological tissue complex coating the extremes of diarthric joints and provides resistance to compression and excellent friction properties during the articular movement. Presence of mechanical stress influenced on the behavior and physiologic condition of cartilage. That is how by means of the mechanotransduction, the chondrocytes may to perceive the stress magnitude and from this mechanical stimulus, they express gens like the Sox9 or the Runx2, which generate biochemical changes in cells and thus in the cartilage. Different experimental papers reporting on the effect of the stress imposed on the cartilage related to chondrocytes morphogenetic expression, however, there are not a mathematical model and/or computation to explain the antagonist behavior of Sox9 and the Runx2. The aim of present paper is to introduce a mathematical model allows predicting the mechano-biological behavior of articular cartilage from the cyclic mechanic stress, the hydrostatic pressure and the genic expression and or proteins providing the tissue synthesis or destruction. Model was numerically implemented using the finite elements method and the results obtained allowed to predict different mechano-biological behaviors of articular cartilage.

  3. Comparison of friction and wear of articular cartilage on different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sandra; Boettcher, Kathrin; Wiegleb, Lorenz; Urban, Joanna; Burgkart, Rainer; Lieleg, Oliver; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-09-18

    The exceptional tribological properties of articular cartilage are still far from being fully understood. Articular cartilage is able to withstand high loads and provide exceptionally low friction. Although the regeneration abilities of the tissue are very limited, it can last for many decades. These biomechanical properties are realized by an interplay of different lubrication and wear protection mechanisms. The deterioration of cartilage due to aging or injury leads to the development of osteoarthritis. A current treatment strategy focuses on supplementing the intra-articular fluid with a saline solution containing hyaluronic acid. In the work presented here, we investigated how changing the lubricating fluid affects friction and wear of articular cartilage, focusing on the boundary and mixed lubrication as well as interstitial fluid pressurization mechanisms. Different length and time scales were probed by atomic force microscopy, tribology and profilometry. We compared aqueous solutions with different NaCl concentrations to a viscosupplement containing hyaluronic acid (HA). In particular, we found that the presence of ions changes the frictional behavior and the wear resistance. In contrast, hyaluronic acid showed no significant impact on the friction coefficient, but considerably reduced wear. This study confirms the previous notion that friction and wear are not necessarily correlated in articular cartilage tribology and that the main role of HA might be to provide wear protection for the articular surface. PMID:26294356

  4. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Engraft into Rabbit Articular Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA. Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals.

  5. Participation of autonomic nerve in tonsillar focal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T; Kozuki, K; Kubo, N; Ishibe, T; Kumazawa, H; Otani, K; Kumazawa, T

    1988-01-01

    Participation of the autonomic nerve in tonsillar focal infection was investigated by measuring neurotransmitters, receptors and microvibration. In focal infection patients, the volume of norepinephrine in the tonsil increased significantly and the number of a-adrenergic receptors decreased. These findings suggest that the focally infected tonsil exhibits a high degree of sympathetic nerve activity. The ratio of N-type in microvibration decreased systematically, which indicates some imbalance or immaturity of the autonomic nervous system in focal infection patients. Based on this data, the production mechanism of tonsillar focal infection was speculated from the point of view of the autonomic nerve. PMID:3223255

  6. Intracortical chondroblastoma mimicking intra-articular osteoid osteoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of intra-articular intracortical chondroblastoma of the femoral condyle which radiologically appeared to be osteoid osteoma. A 19-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of gradually increasing pain in the right knee and had been on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief. Laboratory data were within normal limits. Radiographs showed a well-demarcated lucent lesion in the medial condyle of the right femur. A nidus-like lesion with calcifications and a sclerotic rim located in the cortex was imaged by computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and soft tissue swelling around the lesion, with low signal intensity of the nidus-like lesion on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was excised en bloc and the histological diagnosis of chondroblastoma was made. A mild inflammatory reaction was observed in the bone marrow and synovium around the tumor. The chondroblastoma cells were shown to express cyclooxygenase-2 with immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

  7. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications

  8. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross-Aviv, Talia [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: taliag@bgu.ac.il; DiCarlo, Bryan B. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: bdicarlo@rice.edu; French, Margaret M. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: mmfrench@rice.edu; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: athanasiou@rice.edu; Vago, Razi [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: rvago@bgu.ac.il

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications.

  9. Proteoglycon synthesis by articular chondrocytes in agarose culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Articular chondrocytes were isolated from knee joints of full-term bovine foetuses and grown in long-term agarose cultures. At intervals, cultures were labelled with 35S-[sulphate] or D[6-3H] glucosamine. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were extracted with 4 M guanidine HCl and purified by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation or on DEAE cellulose in the presence of 8 M urea. Characterization of the proteoglycans revealed them to be identical in size to those present in the tissue and to be similarly capable of aggregation with hyaluronate. Newly synthesized chondroitin sulphate chains were identical in size, but newly synthesized keratan sulphate chains were somewhat larger than those present in the tissue. The newly synthesized proteoglycans were shown to contain the same range of O-linked oligosaccharides identified in proteoglycans of the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma. Cartilage-specific proteoglycan continued to be synthesized by the chondrocytes for up to 60 days; however, with time, proportionately more of a small non-aggregating proteoglycan appeared

  10. Intracortical chondroblastoma mimicking intra-articular osteoid osteoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Mukai, Kiyoshi [First Department of Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku 6-1-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Goto, Takahiro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Motoi, Noriko [Department of Pathology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We report a case of intra-articular intracortical chondroblastoma of the femoral condyle which radiologically appeared to be osteoid osteoma. A 19-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of gradually increasing pain in the right knee and had been on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief. Laboratory data were within normal limits. Radiographs showed a well-demarcated lucent lesion in the medial condyle of the right femur. A nidus-like lesion with calcifications and a sclerotic rim located in the cortex was imaged by computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and soft tissue swelling around the lesion, with low signal intensity of the nidus-like lesion on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was excised en bloc and the histological diagnosis of chondroblastoma was made. A mild inflammatory reaction was observed in the bone marrow and synovium around the tumor. The chondroblastoma cells were shown to express cyclooxygenase-2 with immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

  11. Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohi Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

  12. ACTIVITY OF CANONICAL WNT SIGNAL SYSTEM IN HYALINE CARTILAGE ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES IN PROCESS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Molotkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Canonical and non-canonical Wnt systems are essential regulators of chondrogenesis and bone development. However, the roles of these systems in synovial joint development are not well studied. To determine if canonical Wnt system is active in developing articular chondrocytes we used immunohistochemistry for ?-galactosidase and doublecortin (cell-type specific marker for articular chondrocytes to double label sections through joint regions of E14.5, E18.5, P10 and adult mice. Here the following results are presented. Canonical Wnt signal system does not work in developing articular chondrocytes at early embryonic stages (E14.5; it is active in the articular chondrocytes at late embryonic stages (E16.5-E18.5 and during postnatal development (P7-P10, but is turned off again in the adult articular chondrocytes. These results suggest that canonical Wnt signaling is being regulated during articular chondrocytes differentiation and joint formation.

  13. Fisiopatología celular de la osteoartritis: el condrocito articular como protagonista / Osteoarthritis cellular pathophysiology: The articular chondrocyte as a central player

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Sánchez Naranjo; Diego Fernando, López Zapata.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La osteoartritis es una de las enfermedades más prevalentes y que más discapacidad produce en todo el mundo, lo que ocasiona costos altos para el paciente y la sociedad. En años recientes se ha venido obteniendo información importante sobre el funcionamiento normal del condrocito, la única célula pr [...] esente en el cartílago articular y responsable de la síntesis de matriz extracelular. El condrocito responde a las condiciones fluctuantes del medio, generadas por los cambios de presión, modificando su composición iónica y alterando el transporte de solutos y agua en su membrana. Esta capacidad de respuesta es clave para el mantenimiento de la matriz extracelular y, por ende, de un cartílago funcional. Diversos factores relacionados con enfermedades crónicas metabólicas inician una cascada de eventos que termina con una respuesta inadecuada del condrocito ante la carga mecánica, lo cual lleva a un predominio del catabolismo de la matriz y a un cartílago defectuoso que es la base del desarrollo de la osteoartritis. En este proceso están implicadas diversas citocinas y hormonas que afectan la homeostasis del cartílago y que pueden constituirse en blancos terapéuticos prometedores. Abstract in english Worldwide, osteoarthritis is one of the most prevalent diseases. It causes high disability rates and represents a heavy burden to patients and society. In recent years, important findings about the normal function of the chondrocyte, the only cell in articular cartilage and responsible for matrix me [...] tabolism, have been made. Chondrocytes respond to the fluctuant conditions of their environment, generated by mechanical pressure changes, by modifying their ionic composition and altering solute and water membrane transport. This characteristic is a key factor to extracellular matrix maintenance, necessary for a functional cartilage. A number of factors related to chronic metabolic diseases initiate a cascade of events that lead to an inadequate response of chondrocytes to mechanical load; this ends in a preponderance of matrix catabolism and impairement of the cartilage, which is the basis for the development of osteoarthritis. Several cytokines and hormones are involved in this process and they may become promising therapeutic targets.

  14. Comparative, osteochondral defect repair: Stem cells versus chondrocytes versus Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, solely or in combination

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, R.; MK Pec; Sánchez, E.; C del Rosario; Delgado, A; C Évora

    2013-01-01

    Full-thickness articular cartilage damage does not resolve spontaneously. Studies with growth factors, implantation of autologous chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells have led to variable, to some extent inconsistent, results. This work compares osteochondral knee-defect repair in rabbits upon implantation of a previously described alginate/(poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) osteochondral scaffold in distinct conditions. Systems were either in vitro pre-cultured with a small number of a...

  15. Cosmic defects and cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Magueijo, Joao; Brandenberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    We provide a pedagogical overview of defect models of structure formation. We first introduce the concept of topological defect, and describe how to classify them. We then show how defects might be produced in phase transitions in the Early Universe and approach non-pathological scaling solutions. A very heuristic account of structure formation with defects is then provided, following which we introduce the tool box required for high precision calculations of CMB and LSS pow...

  16. Oral focal mucinosis: report of two cases / Mucinose oral focal: relato de dois casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AS, Madhusudhan; Das, Nagarajappa; BS, Manjunatha; Saawarn, Swati; HS, Charan Babu.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mucinose oral focal (MOF), uma lesão equivalente à mucinose cutânea focal, é uma doença rara de etiologia desconhecida. Sua patogênese pode ser devido a superprodução de ácido hialurônico pelo fibroblasto às expensas de produção de colágeno, resultando em degeneração mixoide focal de tecid [...] o conjuntivo primariamente afetando a mucosa sobre o osso. Não tem características clínicas distintas e o diagnóstico é baseado somente em características histopatológicas. Este artigo relata dois casos e discute as características clinico-patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas, bem como o diagnóstico diferencial de lesões mixomatosas da cavidade bucal. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: Os dois casos de lesões de MOF estavam presentes no palato duro de um paciente do sexo masculino, de 50 anos de idade, e na mandíbula de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 26 anos. Estes parecem ser os primeiros casos relatados na população da India. CONCLUSÃO: A análise histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica de Vimentin e proteína S-100 podem ter um papel importante no correto diagnóstico de MOF. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to overproduction of hyaluronic acid by fibroblast at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of connective tis [...] sue primarily affecting the mucosa overlying bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, since the diagnosis is solely based on histopathological features. This paper reports two cases and discusses clinicopathological, immunohistochemical features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. CASE DESCRIPTION: The two cases of OFM lesions were present in a 50 year-old patient on the hard palate and in a 26 year-old female patient in the mandible, which seem to be the first report in the Indian population. CONCLUSION: The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of Vimentin and S-100 protein may play a vital role in the correct diagnosis of OFM.

  17. Advantages of the Ilizarov external fixation in the management of intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspiris Angelos; Papavasileiou Evangelos; Psarakis Spyridon A; Grivas Theodoros B; Vasiliadis Elias S; Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Treatment of distal tibial intra-articular fractures is challenging due to the difficulties in achieving anatomical reduction of the articular surface and the instability which may occur due to ligamentous and soft tissue injury. The purpose of this study is to present an algorithm in the application of external fixation in the management of intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia either from axial compression or from torsional forces. Materials and methods Thirty tw...

  18. Combined Intra- and Extra-articular Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: The Reconstruction of the Knee Anterolateral Ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; da Mota e Albuquerque, Roberto Freire; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique for the combined intra- and extra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Intra-articular reconstruction is performed in an outside-in manner according to the precepts of the anatomic femoral tunnel technique. Extra-articular reconstruction is performed with the gracilis tendon while respecting the anatomic parameters of the origin and insertion points and the path described for the knee anterolateral ligament. PMID:26258037

  19. Arthroscopic intra- and extra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with gracilis and semitendinosus tendons: a review

    OpenAIRE

    MARCACCI, MAURILIO; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria; Neri, Maria Pia; Bondi, Alice; Nitri, Marco; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; Grassi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to summarize the concepts relating to the use of a combined intra-articular and extra-articular reconstructive procedure in the arthroscopic treatment of a torn ACL and to review several operative techniques utilizing gracilis and semitendinosus tendons that are currently in use to treat this instability. The highly satisfactory results obtained over the time show that a combination of intra- and extra-articular procedures for ACL reconstruction is a valid surgi...

  20. A Case Report of Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture for Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwangho; Ryu, YoungJin; Sun, SeungHo; Kwon, KiRok

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This case was to report a case of Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. Methods: The patient was treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. The Effect of Treatment was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale(VAS) and Modified Mayo Wrist Score(Wrist Score). Results & Conclusions: After Treatment, Patient's VAS decreased and Wrist Score increased. For this results, Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopunct...

  1. The influence of some factors on carcass defects during fattening period in broilers / Incidencia de algunos factores sobre defectos de la canal de pollos durante el engorde

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z., Kun; A.N., Uluocak; M., Karaman.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la edad de sacrificio, densidad de población, sexo, tipo de yacija, tipo de alimentador y tipo de gallinero sobre posibles defectos de la canal tales como huesos rotos, defectos articulares, erosiones en la pechuga, sangre y hematomas de la pe [...] chuga, muslo o alas, hematomas de la pechuga. La incidencia de estos problemas decreció al aumentar la edad del ave. La incidencia de huesos rotos, defectos articulares y hematomas en la pechuga aumentó con la densidad de población. Los defectos articulares y sangre o hematomas del muslo en las hembras fueron más frecuentes que en los machos. No se encontraron diferencias entre tipos de yacija, tipos de alimentador o tipo de gallinero. Huesos rotos, hematomas u otros defectos indican ausencia de bienestar y pérdidas económicas. Se determinó la contribución al total de la naturaleza e incidencia de defectos. Abstract in english The aim of present study was to determine the effect of slaughtering age, stocking density, gender, litter type, feeder type and poultry house type on the possible carcass defects such as broken bones, joint defects, breast blister, blood and bruise on breast, thigh and wing, breast bruise. The inci [...] dence of these carcass defects decreased with increasing age of broiler. The incidence of broken bones, joint defects and breast bruise increased with increasing stocking density. The incidence of joint defects and blood and bruise on thigh for female were significantly higher than those for male broiler. There are no significant differences among litter type in terms of the carcass defects of broilers. There are no significant differences among type of feeder and of house in terms of incidence of carcass defects measured in this experiment. Broken bones, bruising and other defects with carcass indicate adverse animal welfare and loss in product yield. This experiment determined the nature and incidence of defects contributing to the total.

  2. Incidencia de las extracciones del primer molar inferior permanente en los ruidos articulares / Permanent lower first molar extraction incidence in articular noises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Julia, López Vallejos; Carlos Eduardo, Buffil; María Mercedes, González.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ruidos articulares se presentan frecuentemente en la práctica diaria odontológica, algunos son audibles a simple oído y en otros casos es necesario tener entrenado el oído ya que pueden resultar imperceptibles. Mediante un examen clínico y desarrollo de un protocolo destinado especialmente para [...] la articulación temporomandibular (ATM), los odontólogos registraron los datos en fichas individuales. Además se registraron los datos relacionados con la frecuencia de aparición según el sexo y la edad. Los resultados demostraron que la extracción prematura del primer molar inferior permanente no incide en la aparición de ruidos articulares. Abstract in english Articular noises are frequently present in the daily dental practice. Some are easily discernible, nevertheless, in some other cases a trained ear might be necessary to perceive them since they might be imperceptible. In the present study, by means of a physical examination and development of a spec [...] ifically TMJ-designed (temporomandibular joint) protocol dentists recorded data in individual files. Data related to onset frequency according to age and gender were equally recorded. Results revealed the fact that premature extraction of the permanent lower first molar did not bear influence on the onset of articular noises.

  3. Análise termogravimétrica da cartilagem articular de ratos exercitados após imobilização / Thermogravimetric analysis of articular cartilage of exercised rats after immobilization / Análisis termogravimétrico del cartílago articular de ratones ejercitados después de inmovilización

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Akio Tamura, Ozaki; Fábio Yoshikazu, Kodama; Regina Celi Trindade, Camargo; Aldo Eloizo, Job; Tatiana Emy, Koike; Adriana Yukie, Watanabe; José Carlos Silva, Camargo Filho.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A imobilização articular é uma técnica de tratamento frequentemente utilizada na ortopedia e, associada ao processo de senescência, promove alterações tanto na estrutura quanto na síntese e biomecânica do tecido cartilaginoso. OBJETIVO: Descrever os efeitos da imobilização, da remobiliz [...] ação livre e por meio de exercício físico sobre a cartilagem articular de ratos situados em duas faixas etárias. MÉTODOS: Trinta e nove ratos Wistar divididos em dois grupos etários, um grupo adulto (cinco meses de idade) e um idoso (15 meses de idade), subdivididos em: controle, imobilizado, remobilizado livre e remobilizado por meio de exercício físico. Os membros posteriores dos ratos foram imobilizados por sete dias. O protocolo de exercícios foi composto por cinco sessões diárias de natação, de 25 minutos cada. A cartilagem articular do quadril foi submetida à análise termogravimétrica, tendo sido avaliado seu conteúdo de água. RESULTADOS: Nos animais adultos a imobilização reduziu a quantidade de água presente no tecido cartilaginoso, e os protocolos de remobilização foram eficazes para restabelecer a condição inicial do tecido. Nos animais idosos não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos, porém o grupo idoso controle obteve resultado significantemente menor que o grupo adulto controle (X: 13,10 ± 5,24 vs 10,70 ± 1,95). CONCLUSÕES: A imobilização e o processo de senescência induzem a diminuição do conteúdo de água da cartilagem articular e os protocolos de remobilização foram eficientes para restabelecer esta propriedade apenas nos animais adultos. Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: La inmovilización articular es una técnica de tratamiento frecuentemente utilizada en ortopedia y asociada al proceso de senescencia, que promueve alteraciones tanto en la estructura como en la síntesis y la biomecánica del tejido cartilaginoso. OBJETIVO: Describir los efectos de la i [...] nmovilización, de la removilización libre y mediante el ejercicio físico sobre el cartílago articular de ratones de dos grupos de edad. MÉTODOS: Treinta y nueve ratones Wistar divididos en dos grupos de edad, un grupo adulto (cinco meses) y un grupo anciano (15 meses), y subdividos en control, inmovilizado, removilizado libre y removilizado a través de ejercicio físico. Los miembros posteriores de los ratones fueron inmovilizados durante un período de siete días. El protocolo de ejercicios fue compuesto por cinco sesiones diarias de natación, de 25 minutos cada una. El cartílago articular de la cadera fue sometido a análisis termogravimétrico, siendo evaluado su contenido de agua. RESULTADOS: En los animales adultos la inmovilización redujo la cantidad de agua presente en el tejido cartilaginoso, y los protocolos de removilización fueron eficaces para restablecer la condición inicial del tejido. En los animales ancianos no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos, aunque el grupo anciano control obtuvo resultado significativamente menor que el grupo adulto control (X: 13,10 ± 5,24 vs 10,70 ± 1,95). CONCLUSIONES: La inmovilización y el proceso de senescencia inducen la disminución en el contenido de agua de cartílago articular y los protocolos de removilización fueron eficientes para restablecer esta propiedad sólo en los animales adultos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Joint immobilization is a technique often used in orthopedic treatment and, associated with the aging process, promotes changes in both the structure and synthesis and biomechanics of cartilage tissue. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of immobilization, free remobilization and remob [...] ilization by physical exercise over articular cartilage of rats of two age groups. METHODS: Thirty nine Wistar rats divided into two groups according to age, an adult group (five months old) and an elderly group (15 months old), and subdivided into: control, immobilized, free remobilized and remobilized by physical exercise. The pelvic limb of rats was immobilized for seven days. The

  4. Lavado articular por punción versus artroscopia en el tratamiento de la osteoartritis de rodilla Articular lavage by puncture versus arthroscopy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Chico Capote

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe que el lavado articular y el debridamiento son opciones en el tratamiento de la osteoartritis de rodilla. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, abierto y aleatorizado que incluyó 100 pacientes con OA de rodilla (criterio ACR en estadios II y III de Kellgren y Lawrence para evaluar la utilidad y la eficacia del lavado articular por punción en comparación con el lavado y debridamiento artroscópico. Se distribuyeron en: grupo A (lavado por punción y grupo B (lavado y debridamiento artroscópico. Se consideraron variables relacionadas con el dolor y la función articular que fueron analizadas al inicio del tratamiento y 90 d después; se realizó un análisis estadístico con el empleo del test de Chi cuadrado y el de t-Student, significación estadística pIt is known that the articular lavage and débridement are options for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A prospective, open and randomized study that included 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis (criterion of the American College of Rheumatology at stages II and III of Kellgren and Lawrence was conducted to evaluate the usefulness and efficiency of the articular lavage by puncture compared with lavage and arthroscopic débridement. They were distributed into: group A (lavage by puncture and group B (lavage and arthroscopic débridement. Variables related to pain and articular function that were analyzed at the beginning of the treatment and 90 days later, were considered. A statistical analysis was made by using Chi square test and Student's t test with a statistical significance of p<0.05. It was observed that both groups of patients improved in all the variables analyzed with the treatment variants.There were no statistically significant differences between one group and the other. Approximately 90 % of the cases felt satisfied with the procedure. No complications were reported. It was concluded that the articular lavage by puncture and the lavage and arthroscopic débridement proved to be useful for the relief of symptoms in patients with mild and moderate osteoarthritis after 3 months.

  5. Usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Jae Sung; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yeon [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    To determine the accuracy of the intra-articular location of hyaluronic acid injection using a blind approach and to establish the usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection. A fluoroscopy unit was used for 368 intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid to 93 knees in 65 patients. Initially, blind needle positioning was conducted on the fluoroscopy table. The failure rate of the blind approach among the 368 injections was evaluated, and a relationship between the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade) and the incidence of repeated failures using the blind approach was determined for injections to 52 knees in 37 patients who received a complete cycle of injections (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections). Using a blind approach, 298 of 368 trials (81.2%) resulted in a needle tip being placed in an intra-articular location, while 70 of 368 trials resulted in an extra-articular placement of the needle tip. Among 52 knees to which a complete cycle of injection (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections) was administered, repeated failure of intra-articular placement using the blind approach was seen for 18 knees (34.6%); a more severe K-L grade assigned was associated with a higher rate of repeated failure. However, the trend was not statistically significant based on the Chi-squared test ({rho} value = 0.14). Fluoroscopy-guided needle placement may be helpful to ensure therapeutic intra-articular injection of the knee.

  6. Usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the accuracy of the intra-articular location of hyaluronic acid injection using a blind approach and to establish the usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection. A fluoroscopy unit was used for 368 intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid to 93 knees in 65 patients. Initially, blind needle positioning was conducted on the fluoroscopy table. The failure rate of the blind approach among the 368 injections was evaluated, and a relationship between the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade) and the incidence of repeated failures using the blind approach was determined for injections to 52 knees in 37 patients who received a complete cycle of injections (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections). Using a blind approach, 298 of 368 trials (81.2%) resulted in a needle tip being placed in an intra-articular location, while 70 of 368 trials resulted in an extra-articular placement of the needle tip. Among 52 knees to which a complete cycle of injection (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections) was administered, repeated failure of intra-articular placement using the blind approach was seen for 18 knees (34.6%); a more severe K-L grade assigned was associated with a higher rate of repeated failure. However, the trend was not statistically significant based on the Chi-squared test (? value = 0.14). Fluoroscopy-guided needle placement may be helpful to ensure therapeutic intra-articular injection of the knee

  7. Dorsal defect of the patella: Concept of its origin and relationship with bipartite and multipartite patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of 2286 single radiographic examinations of the knee in 1985, 6 dorsal defects of the patella (DDP) were detected. The diagnosis was made if a round lucent lesion of the dorsal superolateral surface of the patella was found abutting against articular cartilage. In four of our patients, an association with a multipartite patella (MP) was found. Biopsy of one lesion showed dense connective tissue and areas of bone necrosis. In one patient, the pattern of reossification of the lesion could be demonstrated. Our observations provide further evidence that the DDP is a stress-induced anomaly of ossification rather than a post-traumatic subarticular cyst of the patella, a diagnosis sometimes suggested by the clinical context. The initial lesion is probably a traction lesion at the insertion of the vastus lateralis muscle rather than ulceration of articular cartilage. We suggest a possible relationship between dysfunction of the quadriceps mechanism, patellar subluxation, and the genesis of the DDP. (orig.)

  8. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics

  9. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  10. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  11. Nimodipine binding in focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, M; Gjedde, A; Hakim, A M

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the binding properties of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel antagonist nimodipine in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 g underwent occlusion of both the proximal middle cerebral artery and the ipsilateral common carotid artery. 3H-nimodipine (130 Ci/mmol) was infused intravenously and circulated for 30 minutes before the rats were killed at 5 minutes, 4, 24, and 48 hours after occlusion. The brains were removed and examined by autor...

  12. Focal hepatic infarction with bile lake formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives is a well recognized phenomenon. Arterial thrombosis, while less common, is also a known risk, as evidenced by the increased incidence of cerebral vascular accidents and myocardial ischemia or infarction. The liver is relatively protected from the usual consequences of arterial thrombosis because of its dual blood supply. The authors present an unusual case of a young woman with a history of oral contraceptive and cigarette use who developed hepatic artery thrombosis and had focal liver lesions on computed tomography (CT) due to hepatic infarction and bile lake formation despite an intact portal venous system

  13. Transthoracic cutting biopsy of focal pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of percutaneous, fluoroscopically-guided cutting biopsies of focal pulmonary lesions in 126 patients were evaluated retrospectively. In 90% of malignant lesions an exact diagnosis could be made from the material obtained. In 40% of the malignant lesions, histological examinations was possible, in addition to cytology. In 87% of these, there was agreement between histology and cytology. Of the cases coming to surgery, 84% of the biopsies proved correct. Specificity was 100%. Multiple punctures were necessary in only 13%. Significant complications occurred in 5%. The cutting biopsy technique has the advantage of producing more biopsy material suitable for histology. (orig.)

  14. Focal plane filter microassemblies: a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Thomas A.

    1997-12-01

    Satellites, and consequently satellite instruments, are undergoing size, power, volume and cost reductions, due primarily to national budget and commercial economic considerations. As instruments have become smaller, so have the filters used by them. Presently, several systems employ miniature multicolor focal plane filters, and more are planned. This paper documents the status of the development and refinements of these specialized devices in order to inform the instrument designer as to some of the newly available filter options, and hopefully to encourage new ideas for their use.

  15. Ictal body turning in focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Metin; Y?ld?r?m, ?rem; Akdemir, Özgür; Bilir, Erhan

    2015-03-01

    Despite the explanations of many lateralization findings, body turning in focal epilepsy has been rarely investigated. One of the aims of this study was to evaluate the role of ictal body turning in the lateralization of focal epilepsies. The records of 263 patients with focal epilepsy (temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), n=178; extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE), n=85) who underwent prolonged video-EEG monitoring during presurgical epilepsy evaluation were reviewed. Preoperative findings (TLE, n=16; ETLE, n=6) and postoperative outcomes (TLE, n=7) of patients with focal epilepsy with ictal body turning were assessed. For the evaluation of ictal body turning, two definitions were proposed. Nonversive body turning (NVBT) was used to denote at least a 90° nonforced (without tonic or clonic component) rotation of the upper (shoulder) and lower (hip) parts of the body around the body axis for a minimum of 3s. Versive body turning (VBT) was used to denote at least a 90° forced (with tonic or clonic component) rotation of the upper (shoulder) and lower (hip) parts of the body around the body axis for a minimum of 3s. Nonversive body turning was observed in 6% (n=11) of patients with TLE and 2% (n=2) of patients with ETLE. For VBT, these ratios were 5% (n=8) and 7% (n=6) for patients with TLE and ETLE, respectively. Nonversive body turning was frequently oriented to the same side as the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in TLE and ETLE seizures (76% and 80%, respectively). If the amount of NVBT was greater than 180°, then it was 80% to the same side in TLE seizures. Versive body turning was observed in 86% of the TLE seizures, and 55% of the ETLE seizures were found to be contralateral to the EZ. When present with head turning, NVBT ipsilateral to the EZ and VBT contralateral to the EZ were more valuable for lateralization. In TLE seizures, a significant correlation was found between the head turning and body turning onsets and durations. Our study demonstrated that ictal body turning is a rarely observed but reliable lateralization finding in TLE and ETLE seizures, which also probably has the same pathophysiological mechanism as head turning in TLE seizures. PMID:25769674

  16. Focal-plane sensor-processor chips

    CERN Document Server

    Zarandy, Kos

    2011-01-01

    Focal-plane sensor-processor imager devices are sensor arrays and processor arrays embedded in each other on the same silicon chip. This close coupling enables ultra-fast processing even on tiny, low power devices, because the slow and energetically expensive transfer of the large amount of sensory data is eliminated. This technology also makes it possible to produce locally adaptive sensor arrays, which can (similarly to the human retina) adapt to the large dynamics of the illumination in a single scene This book focuses on the implementation and application of state-of-the-art vision chips.

  17. Morphological Characteristics of the Temporomandibular Joint Articular Surfaces in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders / Características Morfológicas de las Superficies Articulares de la Articulación Temporomandibular de Pacientes con Trastornos Temporomandibulares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Alves; A, Schilling Quezada; A, Gonzalez Villalobos; J, Schilling Lara; N. F, Deana; C, Pastenes Riveros.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las características anatómicas de las superficies articulares de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) es fundamental para que clínicos y odontólogos reconozcan las alteraciones morfológicas que ocurren en la articulación de pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares (TTM). Di [...] versos investigadores asocian los TTMs con alteraciones en las superficies articulares de la ATM. La identificación de los cambios óseos relacionados con la ATM es crítica, ya que estos se asocian a signos y síntomas de TTM, y el conocimiento de estos es fundamental para el correcto diagnóstico y adecuada planificación de tratamiento. El objetivo fue analizar las características morfológicas de las superficies articulares de la ATM en pacientes con diagnóstico de TTM, diagnosticado de acuerdo a los Criterios Diagnósticos para Investigación de los Trastornos Temporomandibulares (CDI/TTM), junto con analizar la relación existente entre incremento de edad-osteoartrosis. Fueron seleccionados 19 pacientes, 17 mujeres y 2 hombres, de la Unidad de Trastornos Cráneo Cérvico Mandibulares (UCRACEM) - Universidad de Talca, Chile. La evaluación imagenológica se realizó mediante el examen de Tomografía Computarizada Cone-Beam (TCCB). En el análisis de las superficies articulares, 11 (28,94%) presentaron morfología normal. Los cambios óseos encontrados fueron: esclerosis, aplanamiento de la cabeza de la mandíbula, erosión, osteoartrosis, osteofitos y quiste subcondral. Hubo relación estadística significativa entre incremento de edad-osteoartrosis (p=0,00). Nuestros hallazgos nos permiten concluir que los cambios óseos en las caras articulares de la ATM en pacientes con TTM son frecuentes, y la esclerosis el hallazgo más común. También se encontró asociación entre incremento de edad y osteoartrosis. Abstract in english The knowledge of the anatomical characteristics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular surfaces is essentital to enable physicians and dentists to recognize the morphological changes that occur in this articulation in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Several researchers assoc [...] iate the TMD with changes of TMJ articular surfaces. The careful identification of bone changes related to TMJ is critical, since these abnormalities are associated with signs and symptoms of TMD and the knowledge of TMD signs and symptoms is fundamental for correctly diagnosing and for adequate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the TMJ articular surfaces in patients with TMD diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). In addition, therelationship between increasing age-osteoarthrosis was evaluated. For the sample we selected 19 patients, 17 female and 2 male, referred to the "Unidad de Trastornos Cráneo Cérvico Mandibulares (UCRACEM) - Universidad de Talca, Chile". The imaging assessment was carried out by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). In the imaging analysis of the articular surfaces 11 joints (28.94%) showed normal morphology. The bone changes found were: sclerosis, flattening, erosion, osteoarthrosis, osteophytes, subcondral cysts. We found statistically significant difference between increasing age-osteoarthrosis (p=0.00). Considering our results we concluded that bone changes of the TMJ articular surfaces in patients with TMD are very common, with sclerosis as the most frequent finding. It was also possible to conclude that there was a significant association between increasing age-osteoarthrosis.

  18. Fisiopatología celular de la osteoartritis: el condrocito articular como protagonista = Osteoarthritis cellular pathophysiology: The articular chondrocyte as a central player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Naranjo, Julio César

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La osteoartritis es una de las enfermedades más prevalentes y que más discapacidad produce en todo el mundo, lo que ocasiona costos altos para el paciente y la sociedad. En años recientes se ha venido obteniendo información importante sobre el funcionamiento normal del condrocito, la única célula presente en el cartílago articular y responsable de la síntesis de matriz extracelular. El condrocito responde a las condiciones fluctuantes del medio, generadas por los cambios de presión, modificando su composición iónica y alterando el transporte de solutos y agua en su membrana. Esta capacidad de respuesta es clave para el mantenimiento de la matriz extracelular y, por ende, de un cartílago funcional. Diversos factores relacionados con enfermedades crónicas metabólicas inician una cascada de eventos que termina con una respuesta inadecuada del condrocito ante la carga mecánica, lo cual lleva a un predominio del catabolismo de la matriz y a un cartílago defectuoso que es la base del desarrollo de la osteoartritis. En este proceso están implicadas diversas citocinas y hormonas que afectan la homeostasis del cartílago y que pueden constituirse en blancos terapéuticos prometedores.

  19. Combined effect of subchondral drilling and hyaluronic acid with/without diacerein in full-thickness articular cartilage lesion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai

    2012-01-01

    The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 and group 3). Starting at the first IA injection, rabbits were also gavaged daily for 9 weeks with NSS (group 1 and group 2) or with diacerein (group 3). The animals were then sacrificed for evaluation. The newly formed tissue in SCD lesions showed significantly better histological grading scale and had higher content of type II collagen in HA-treated group compared to NSS control. In addition, adding oral diacerein to HA injection enhanced healing potential of HA. PMID:22666105

  20. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  1. Point defect energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D J

    2015-01-01

    The point defect is just one of the menagerie of defects (comprising dislocations, disvections, discommensurations, stacking-faults, antiphase boundaries, etc.) which affect the mechanical and other properties of all materials. The class of point defect can be further divided into interstitial, substitutional and antisite. Various combinations of these defects lead to pairings such as those of Frenkel and Shottky type. The present volume comprises a compilation of selected data concerning point defects in metals, semiconductors, carbon and carbides, nitrides, halides, oxides and miscellaneous

  2. Postdevelopment defect evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Osamu; Kiba, Yukio; Ono, Yuko

    2001-08-01

    Reduction of defects after development is a critical issue in photolithography. A special category of post development defects is the satellite defect which is located in large exposed areas generally in proximity to large unexposed regions of photoresist. We have investigated the formation of this defect type on ESCAP and ACETAL DUV resists with and without underlying organic BARCs, In this paper, we will present AFM and elemental analysis data to determine the origin of the satellite defect. Imaging was done on a full-field Nikon 248nm stepper and resist processing was completed on a TEL CLEAN TRACK ACT 8 track. Defect inspection and review were performed on a KLA-Tencor and Hitachi SEM respectively. Results indicate that the satellite defect is generated on both BARC and resist films and defect counts are dependent on the dark erosion. Elemental analysis indicates that the defects are composed of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. We suspect that the defect is formed as a result of a reaction between PAG, quencher and TMAH. This defect type is removed after a DIW re-rinse.

  3. Ultrasound diagnostic value in focal hashimoto thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the ultrasound diagnostic value in focal hashimoto thyroiditis (FHT). Methods: Gray-scale and color Doppler flow images (CDFI) of 15 FHT patients confirmed by surgery pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Fifteen single lesions in the thyroids of 15 FTH patients were detected by gray-scale ultrasound scan. The around parenchyma was well-distributed. Eleven (73.3% ) of 15 lesions were of well-defined margin. Twelve (80% ) of 15 lesions were regular and 12 (80% ) lesions were hypoechoic. Eight lesions with uneven echogenicity were like the 'map' and were of no significant occupation effect. Hyperechoic calcification was detected in 2 (13.3% ) lesions. Extremely abundant blood flow sign as 'focal inferno' was showed in CDFIs of 4 (26.7% ) lesions. Ten (66.7% ) of 15 lesions showed mildly abundant blood flow sign and 1 (6.7% ) lesion had no blood flow sign. Conclusion: The FHT has characterized ultrasound appearance and ultrasound is helpful to the clinical diagnosis of FHT. (authors)

  4. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  5. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  6. PC-based focal plane evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael T.

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes a new focal plane evaluation system based on the IBM 386 PC. It has been used to evaluate three devices--a 4 X 128 X 128 pixel SWIR array, a 2098 X 3 linear CCD used as a panoramic camera, and a 1024 X 1024 MPP split frame CCD. Results and images from each are presented. The system includes a word generator implemented as a single PC/AT card, which generates all the complex looping timing signals required for focal plane operation and data acquisition. The word generator is described more fully in a companion paper. Software simulates a popular 'subpattern' style of timing editing. A commercial analog data acquisition module on a single PC/AT card, and software are used to acquire, pre-process and display up to four channels of an image at pixel rates to 1 MHz, continuously up to the extended memory limit of the 386, many Mbytes. Commercial image processing software is used to further process and display images. The system has proven to be powerful, easy and fast to use, flexible, transportable, and yet inexpensive due to the choice of the PC as its base.

  7. Extra-articular manifestations in psoriatic arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Rosario; Iervolino, Salvatore; Vitiello, Maria; Bruner, Vincenzo; Lupoli, Gelsy; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario

    2015-04-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disorder, associated with skin and/or nail psoriasis. It has been included in the spondyloarthropathies (SpA) group, with which it shares clinical, radiologic, and serologic features and familial and genetic relationship. Inclusion of disease among SpA is also based on their striking points of similarity for extra-articular manifestations (EAMs). The aim of study was to describe the EAMs in patients with PsA, evaluating the prevalence and clinical features associated with established and early PsA. The study was a retrospective analysis of case records of 387 PsA patients. Data recorded were demographic data, disease properties, laboratory tests, drug use, and presence of EAMs. Of 387 PsA patients, 190 have shown EAMs: 33.16 % had bowel involvement, 32.63 % ocular, 28.42 % cardiovascular, 25.79 % urogenital, 8.42 % skin (excluding psoriasis), 1.05 % pulmonary, and 0.53 % renal. A higher prevalence of EAMs was found in axial subset (p?

  8. Articular cartilage of the knee 3 years after ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Hosseini, Ali; Wang, Yang; Torriani, Martin; Gill, Thomas J; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Li, Guoan

    2015-10-01

    Background and purpose - T1? or T2 relaxation imaging has been increasingly used to evaluate the cartilage of the knee. We investigated the cartilage of ACL-reconstructed knees 3 years after surgery using T2 relaxation times. Patients and methods - 10 patients with a clinically successful unilateral ACL reconstruction were examined 3 years after surgery. Multiple-TE fast-spin echo sagittal images of both knees were acquired using a 3T MRI scanner for T2 mapping of the tibiofemoral cartilage. T2 values of the superficial and deep zones of the tibiofemoral cartilage were analyzed in sub-compartmental areas and compared between the ACL-reconstructed and uninjured contralateral knees. Results - Higher T2 values were observed in 1 or more sub-compartmental areas of each ACL-reconstructed knee compared to the uninjured contralateral side. Most of the T2 increases were observed at the superficial zones of the cartilage, especially at the medial compartment. At the medial compartment of the ACL-reconstructed knee, the T2 values of the femoral and tibial cartilage were increased by 3-81% compared to the uninjured contralateral side, at the superficial zones of the weight-bearing areas. T2 values in the superficial zone of the central medial femoral condyle differed between the 2 groups (p = 0.002). Interpretation - The articular cartilage of ACL-reconstructed knees, although clinically satisfactory, had higher T2 values in the superficial zone of the central medial femoral condyle than in the uninjured contralateral side 3 years after surgery. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these patients would undergo cartilage degeneration over time. PMID:25854533

  9. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR), are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a) as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging. PMID:25749104

  10. Intra-articular bupivacaine as treatment for postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the wrist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Inge Agergaard

    2008-01-01

    Intra-articular injection of local anaesthetic is a confirmed method of treatment of postoperative pain, particularly after arthroscopy of the knee. The wrist however, has a limited capacity for intra-articular instillation of local anaesthetic, and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intra-articular bupivacaine on postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the wrist. We did a prospective, non-randomised study with two comparable, consecutive series of patients undergoing diagnostic/therapeutic wrist joint arthroscopy 20 of whom were given intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine 5 ml at the end of the arthroscopic procedure and 20 of whom were not. Postoperative pain and use of analgesics (morphine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and paracetamol) were recorded in all patients during the following five postoperative days using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a pain diary. The bupivacaine group reported less pain and less use of analgesics in the first postoperative hours, but for the remaining five postoperative day's pain and the use of analgesics were similar in the two groups. We conclude that intra-articular injection of 0.5% bupivacaine 5 ml after wrist joint arthroscopy reduces pain and use of analgesics during the first postoperative hours, but has no effect during the following five days.

  11. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis

  12. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid reduce blood loss in cemented total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digas, G; Koutsogiannis, I; Meletiadis, G; Antonopoulou, E; Karamoulas, V; Bikos, Ch

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) versus control group for reduction in blood loss following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 90 patients were prospectively allocated to each of three groups (control, intravenous IV and intra-articular) and underwent unilateral total knee arthroplasty. In the IV group, patients received one dose of TXA of 15 mg/kg before deflation of the tourniquet, while in the intra-articular group patients received 2 g TXA via the drain retrogradely after closure of the wound. The mean drained blood loss in control, IV and intra-articular groups was 415 ± 24, 192 ± 21 and 121 ± 17 ml, respectively. About 43 % (control), 23 % (IV) and 17 % (intra-articular) of each group required transfusion, and the mean transfusion was 338, 168 and 79 ml, respectively. Preoperative hemoglobin values decreased at 24 h by 2.80 ± 0.14, 2.24 ± 0.17 and 2.26 ± 0.18 mg/dl, respectively. TXA reduced blood loss and transfusion requirement. Compared with one-dose intravenous administration, intra-articular administration of TXA seems to be more effective in terms of reducing drained blood loss and transfusion frequency. We recommend administration of topical TXA in primary TKA in healthy patients to decrease perioperative blood loss. PMID:26169991

  13. Ozonoterapia sistémica e intra-articular en la artritis de la articulación temporomandibular por artritis reumatoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne M\\u00E9ndez-P\\u00E9rez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia intra-articular combinada con la vía sistémica (vía rectal y se comparó con la sola aplicación por vía intra-articular en pacientes con artritis de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM por artritis reumatoide (AR mediante la evaluación clínica del dolor a la masticación, chasquido y trismo. Fueron estudiados veinte pacientes, divididos en dos grupos de diez cada uno, el primero recibió ozonoterapia intra-articular (concentración de ozono 10 mg/L y volumen de 3 mL, a razón de dos aplicaciones por semana, durante cinco semanas, y el segundo, terapia combinada (igual al primer grupo más ozono administrado por insuflación rectal, a una concentración de 30 hasta 40 mg/L y un volumen de 100 hasta 200 mL, veinte aplicaciones. Se evaluó el grosor del cartílago articular (por ultrasonido, al inicio y al final del tratamiento al igual que los síntomas clínicos: dolor a la masticación, chasquido y trismo. Como resultado, se obtuvo una disminución significativa de todos los síntomas estudiados, así como del grosor del cartílago articular diagnosticado en el estudio ultrasonográfico, teniendo una respuesta más rápida en el grupo de la terapia combinada. Se concluyó que ambas formas de tratamiento demuestran efectos beneficiosos en la artritis de la articulación temporomandibular de pacientes con artritis reumatoide, aunque la terapia combinada resulta la más eficiente, resultado que no ha sido reportado con anterioridad.

  14. Detection of underclad defects by non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following discovery of underclad defects ia various reactor vessel nozzles and steam generator tube sheets, Framatome undertook a lengthy test program to perfect and qualify non destructive test methods for detecting and characterizing this type of defect. Methods were studied to satisfy examination needs of both shop and site. The following situations were analysed: reactor vessel nozzles (manual and automatic UT (shop and site)); tube sheets (manual UT before sheet drilling (shop), automatic eddy current testing after tubing (shop and site)). The technique chosen for ultrasonic examination uses 2 MHz longitudinal waves with about 70 degrees refraction angle in the cladding thickness. The probes used are of the 'double probe' or 'focalized single probe' types. This method can detect defects with surface larger than or equal to 2 mm2. Examination of tube sheet by eddy current is performed using a probe placed inside the tubes. In this case, only open defects in drilled tube sheet holes can be detected. The feasibility of detection using both methods has been demonstrated on artificial representative defects and qualification has been obtained through numerous tests on natural defects. All methods and resources presently available to Framatome give an excellent detection rate for underclad defects

  15. Atomic structure of defects in GaN:Mg grown with Ga polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscope phase images, produced by direct reconstruction of the scattered electron wave from a focal series of high-resolution images, were used to determine the nature of defects formed in GaN:Mg crystals. We studied bulk crystals grown from dilute solutions of atomic nitrogen in liquid gallium at high pressure and thin films grown by the MOCVD method. All the crystals were grown with Ga-polarity. In both types of samples the majority of defects were three dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids with bases on the (0001) plane and six walls on {11(und 2)3} planes seen in cross-section as triangulars. Some other defects appear in cross-section as trapezoidal (rectangular) defects as a result of presence of truncated pyramids. Both type of defects have hollow centers. They are decorated by Mg on all six side walls and a base. The GaN which grows inside on the defect walls shows polarity inversion. It is shown that change of polarity starts from the defect tip and propagates to the base, and that the stacking sequence changes from ab in the matrix to bc inside the defect. Exchange of the Ga sublattice with the N sublattice within the defect leads to 0.6 ± 0.2(angstrom) displacement between Ga sublattices outside and inside the defects. It is proposed that lateral overgrowth of the cavities formed within the defect takes place to restore matrix polarity on the defect base

  16. Validating Phasing and Geometry of Large Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Shaun P.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Rabbette, Maura

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-sized and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The Kepler photometer is an array of 42 CCDs (charge-coupled devices) in the focal plane of a 95-cm Schmidt camera onboard the Kepler spacecraft. Each 50x25-mm CCD has 2,200 x 1,024 pixels. The CCDs accumulate photons and are read out every six seconds to prevent saturation. The data is integrated for 30 minutes, and then the pixel data is transferred to onboard storage. The data is subsequently encoded and transmitted to the ground. During End-to-End Information System (EEIS) testing of the Kepler Mission System (KMS), there was a need to verify that the pixels requested by the science team operationally were correctly collected, encoded, compressed, stored, and transmitted by the FS, and subsequently received, decoded, uncompressed, and displayed by the Ground Segment (GS) without the outputs of any CCD modules being flipped, mirrored, or otherwise corrupted during the extensive FS and GS processing. This would normally be done by projecting an image on the focal plane array (FPA), collecting the data in a flight-like way, and making a comparison between the original data and the data reconstructed by the science data system. Projecting a focused image onto the FPA through the telescope would normally involve using a collimator suspended over the telescope opening. There were several problems with this approach: the collimation equipment is elaborate and expensive; as conceived, it could only illuminate a limited section of the FPA (.25 percent) during a given test; the telescope cover would have to be deployed during testing to allow the image to be projected into the telescope; the equipment was bulky and difficult to situate in temperature-controlled environments; and given all the above, test setup, execution, and repeatability were significant concerns. Instead of using this complicated approach of projecting an optical image on the FPA, the Kepler project developed a method using known defect features in the CCDs to verify proper collection and reassembly of the pixels, thereby avoiding the costs and risks of the optical projection approach. The CCDs composing the Kepler FPA, as all CCDs, had minor defects. At ambient temperature, some pixels look far brighter than they should. These ghot h pixels have a higher rate of charge leakage than the others due to manufacturing variations. They are usually stable over time, and appear at temperatures above 5 oC. The hot pixels on the Kepler FPA were mapped before photometer assembly during module testing. Selected hot pixels were used as target gstars h for the purposes of EEIS testing. gDead h pixels are permanently off, producing a permanently black pixel. These can also be used if there is some illumination of the FPA. During EEIS testing, Dark Current Full Frame Images (FFIs) taken at room temperature were used to create the hot pixel maps for all 84 Kepler photometer CCD channels. Data from two separate nights were used to create two hot pixel maps per channel, which were cross-correlated to remove cosmic ray events which appear to be hot pixels. These hot pixel maps obtained during EEIS testing were compared to the maps made during module testing to verify that the end-to-end data flow was correct.

  17. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  18. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Illowsky Karp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  19. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial ...

  20. Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estudo comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade.OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II, 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%; and in group III, bupivacaine 0.25% associated with 1 mg of morphine. The groups were assessed for degree of pain by the Visual Analog Scale at 6, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Group III had less pain at all times, but the pain was not as intense in all groups to the point of needing extra medications beyond the established protocol. CONCLUSION: The intra-articular application of these medications after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft when performed under spinal anesthesia is not useful enough to use regularly. Level of Evidence II, Lesser quality RCT.

  1. Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA / Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus Vinicius, Danieli; Antonio, Cavazzani Neto; Paulo Adilson, Herrera.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estu [...] do comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine [...] with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II, 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%; and in group III, bupivacaine 0.25% associated with 1 mg of morphine. The groups were assessed for degree of pain by the Visual Analog Scale at 6, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Group III had less pain at all times, but the pain was not as intense in all groups to the point of needing extra medications beyond the established protocol. CONCLUSION: The intra-articular application of these medications after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft when performed under spinal anesthesia is not useful enough to use regularly. Level of Evidence II, Lesser quality RCT.

  2. What can biophotonics tell us about the 3D microstructure of articular cartilage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connective tissues such as articular cartilage have been the subject of study using novel optical techniques almost since the invention of polarized light microscopy (PLM). Early studies of polarized light micrographs were the main evidential basis for the establishment of quantitative models of articular cartilage collagen structure by Benninghoff and others. Even now, state of the art optical techniques including quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM), optical coherence tomography (OCT), polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, Raman and optical hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging are providing new insights into articular cartilage structure from the nanoscale through to the mesoscale. New insights are promised by emerging modalities such as optical elastography. This short review highlights some key recent results from modern optical techniques. PMID:25694964

  3. Quantitative characterization of articular cartilage using Mueller matrix imaging and multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Pa?L. Gunnar; Lilledahl, Magnus Borstad; Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Davies, Catharina De Lange; Kildemo, Morten

    2011-11-01

    The collagen meshwork in articular cartilage of chicken knee is characterized using Mueller matrix imaging and multiphoton microscopy. Direction and degree of dispersion of the collagen fibers in the superficial layer are found using a Fourier transform image-analysis technique of the second-harmonic generated image. Mueller matrix images are used to acquire structural data from the intermediate layer of articular cartilage where the collagen fibers are too small to be resolved by optical microscopy, providing a powerful multimodal measurement technique. Furthermore, we show that Mueller matrix imaging provides more information about the tissue compared to standard polarization microscopy. The combination of these techniques can find use in improved diagnosis of diseases in articular cartilage, improved histopathology, and additional information for accurate biomechanical modeling of cartilage.

  4. Couple Control Model Implementation on Antagonistic Mono- and Bi-Articular Actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Prattico, Flavio; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh

    2014-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, a couple control model for lower-limb orthosis of a body weight support gait training system is proposed. The developed leg orthosis implements the use of pneumatic artificial muscle as an actuation system. The pneumatic muscle was arranged antagonistically to form two pair of mono-articular muscles (i.e., hip and knee joints), and a pair of bi-articular actuators (i.e., rectus femoris and hamstring). The results of the proposed couple control model showed that, it was able to simultaneously control the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators and sufficiently performed walking motion of the leg orthosis.

  5. INTRA-ARTICULAR SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR PRESENTING WITH MORRANT BAKER CYST- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varunjikar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The giant cell tumor of the synovium (GCT- is a benign growth, which rarely occurs intra articularly. In this report, we describe a case of intra-articular GCT in the left knee joint. Clinically, the patient presented to our orthopedic clinic with anterior knee pain, accompanied by suprapatellar fullness and popliteal swelling, provisionally diagnosed as chronic synovitis of knee and Morrant Baker cyst X-ray didn’t show any bony abnormality, USG confirmed Morrant- Baker cyst. The final diagnosis of GCT was made from evidence of typical histological findings revealing giant cells and hemosiderin-laden foam cells within a matrix of ovoid to polygonal cells. In this case report we stress that intra-articular GCT should be included in the differential diagnosis of a knee swelling, is encountered in patients presenting with knee pain and swelling in popliteal fossa.

  6. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  7. Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss critical aspects of imaging system design and describe several different imaging systems employing focal plane array receivers operating in the 3mm--2mm wavelength range. Recent progress in millimeter-wavelength optics, antennas, receivers and other components permits greatly enhanced system performance in a wide range of applications. The authors discuss a radiometric camera for all-weather autonomous aircraft landing capability and a high sensitivity cryogenically cooled array for use in radio astronomical spectroscopy. A near-focus system for identification of plastic materials concealed underneath clothing employs a two element lens, and has been demonstrated in active (transmitting) and passive (radiometric) modes. A dual mode imaging system for plasma diagnostics utilize both active and passive modes at its ?140 GHz operating frequency to study small-scale structure. The radiometric imaging systems employ between 15 and 256 Schottky barrier diode mixers while the imaging receivers for the active systems include 64 element video detector arrays

  8. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon [refs]. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology [ref]. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation.

  9. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase-DeLima M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

  10. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ARTICULAR FACETS OF THE THORACOLUMBAR VERTEBRAL COLUMN IN NORTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimpi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The articular processes of thoracolumbar vertebral column play an important role in weight transmission and determining the range and direction of movements between any two vertebrae. Size of these facets has been correlated with the magnitude of stress imposed on them. Purpose of study: The present study has been conducted on the articular processes of 510 vertebrae (thoracic: 360; lumbar:150 with the aim to provide high quality data sets for constructing the models of spine to study mechanics of spinal instrumentation. The length , width and the distance between the right & left superior & inferior articular processes have been measured with the vernier callipers. The presence/ absence of mamillary tubercle has been observed in the present study. Results: The length of thoracic SAFs was almost same at all levels whereas that of the lumbar SAFs increased gradually from L1-L5. However the width showed a variable trend. In case of thoracic IAFs both these parameters showed a variable trend. Whereas in lumbar region, these increased gradually from L1-L5. The distance between two inferior articular processes was more than that between two superior articular processes at almost all levels except T1-T3 & L1-L4 where reverse was true. The mamillary tubercle/process was altogether absent from T-1 to T-8. From T-9 to T-11, the number of vertebral column showing mamillary tubercle increased from 4-19. However at T-12, it was seen in 29 Vertebral columns. In lumbar region, it was well developed in all vertebrae and termed as mamillary process. Conclusion: The measurements obtained by present study reveals the importance of articular facets in understanding basic spinal mechanics and its application with respect to weight transmission.

  11. PKCa Agonists Enhance the Protective Effect of Hyaluronic Acid on Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis of Articular Chondrocytes in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jian-Lin; Fang, Hong-song; Peng, Hao; Hu, Qiong-jie; Liu, Shi-Qing; Ming, Jiang-Hua; Bo QIU

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Protein kinase C (PKC?) is involved in modulating articular chondrocytes apoptosis induced by nitric oxide (NO). Hyaluronic acid (HA) inhibits nitric oxide-induced apoptosis of articular chondrocytes by protecting PKC?, but the mechanism remains unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of PKC? regulate protective effect of hyaluronic acid.

  12. Imaging defects and dopants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Philipp Ebert

    2003-06-01

    With the invention of the transistor, a revolution in the development of semiconductor-based electronic devices began. However, even in the very early stages, the importance of defects and dopant atoms became obvious. In fact, if one incorporates the right defects and dopant atoms into semiconductor materials, one can tune their electrical properties such that optimal device characteristics are achieved. Unfortunately, counteractive defects are often also formed unintentionally during semiconductor processing, leading to unfavorable electronic properties. Considerable research efforts have, therefore, focused on understanding the nanoscale physics that governs the formation of point defects, the incorporation behavior of impurities, and their respective electronic properties.

  13. Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Finan, John D.; Guilak, Farshid; Wax, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally implement label-free phase microscopy using wide-field digital interferometry (WFDI) techniques to retrieve quantitative volumetric data of articular chondrocyte dynamics. Using the scanless interferometric system, we visualize chondrocyte swelling and bursting induced by hypo-osmotic pressure. Reconstructed images are obtained by an efficient digital process. We use the resulting images to calculate quantitative temporal-spatial morphological parameters of the cell, with the observed dynamics limited only by the true frame rate of the camera. To show the utility of WFDI in recording articular chondrocyte dynamics, we also provide an experimental comparison of WFDI and differential interference contrast microscopy.

  14. MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features differentiating three paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions that contain blood products, from post-traumatic or haemorrhagic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of MRI findings of 22 paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions, including venous malformation (VM) (n = 12), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; n = 8), and synovial sarcoma (SS; n = 2). These MRI features were compared with 22 paediatric post-traumatic or inflammatory intra-articular processes containing blood products and producing mass effect. The following imaging features were assessed: presence of a discrete mass, extension, extra-articular oedema, susceptibility, joint effusion, and size. Fisher's exact test was used and results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: The three intra-articular synovial lesions, compared with controls, were more likely to directly invade osseous structures when a discrete mass was present (13/16, 81.3% versus 1/9, 11.1%; p < 0.002) and extend into extra-articular soft tissues (13/21, 61.9% versus 2/17, 11.8%; p < 0.003), but were less likely to show extra-articular oedema (3/22, 13.6% versus 13/22, 59.1%; p < 0.004), a joint effusion (10/22,45.5% versus 19/22, 86.4%, p < 0.01), susceptibility within a joint effusion (0/22, 0% versus 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema (3/16, 18.8% versus 7/9, 77.8%; p < 0.009), and synovial enhancement (8/21, 38.1% versus 14/16, 87.5%; p < 0.003). VMs had characteristic tubular vessels with internal fluid-fluid levels (11/12) that extended into bone (10/12) and extracapsular soft tissues (11/12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, despite the overlapping presence of haemorrhagic products, intra-articular VM, PVNS, and SS show MRI features that permit distinction from acquired post-traumatic and haemorrhagic inflammatory lesions

  15. MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States)], E-mail: herman.kan@vanderbilt.edu; Hernanz-Schulman, M. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States); Damon, B.M.; Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Connolly, S.A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, IL (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Aim: To determine reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features differentiating three paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions that contain blood products, from post-traumatic or haemorrhagic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of MRI findings of 22 paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions, including venous malformation (VM) (n = 12), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; n = 8), and synovial sarcoma (SS; n = 2). These MRI features were compared with 22 paediatric post-traumatic or inflammatory intra-articular processes containing blood products and producing mass effect. The following imaging features were assessed: presence of a discrete mass, extension, extra-articular oedema, susceptibility, joint effusion, and size. Fisher's exact test was used and results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: The three intra-articular synovial lesions, compared with controls, were more likely to directly invade osseous structures when a discrete mass was present (13/16, 81.3% versus 1/9, 11.1%; p < 0.002) and extend into extra-articular soft tissues (13/21, 61.9% versus 2/17, 11.8%; p < 0.003), but were less likely to show extra-articular oedema (3/22, 13.6% versus 13/22, 59.1%; p < 0.004), a joint effusion (10/22,45.5% versus 19/22, 86.4%, p < 0.01), susceptibility within a joint effusion (0/22, 0% versus 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema (3/16, 18.8% versus 7/9, 77.8%; p < 0.009), and synovial enhancement (8/21, 38.1% versus 14/16, 87.5%; p < 0.003). VMs had characteristic tubular vessels with internal fluid-fluid levels (11/12) that extended into bone (10/12) and extracapsular soft tissues (11/12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, despite the overlapping presence of haemorrhagic products, intra-articular VM, PVNS, and SS show MRI features that permit distinction from acquired post-traumatic and haemorrhagic inflammatory lesions.

  16. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor in leprosy patients with articular involvement

    OpenAIRE

    S.L.E. Ribeiro; H.L.A Pereira; N.P. Silva; R.M.S. Neves; E.I Sato

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to evaluate the usefulness of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and the IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF) test for the differential diagnosis of leprosy with articular involvement and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were measured in the sera of 158 leprosy patients (76 with and 82 without articular involvement), 69 RA patients and 89 healthy controls. Leprosy diagnosis was performed according to Ridley and ...

  17. Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anderson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Anderson1,2, Hollis Krug1,2, Christopher Dorman1, Pari McGarraugh1, Sandra Frizelle1, Maren Mahowald1,21Rheumatology Section, Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Division of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAObjective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain.Methods and materials: Chronic arthritis was produced in adult C57Bl6 mice by intra-articular injection of Type IV collagenase into the left knee. Following induction of arthritis, the treatment group received intra-articular BoNT/B. Arthritic control groups were treated with intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Pain behavior testing was performed prior to arthritis, after induction of arthritis, and following treatments. Pain behavior measures included analysis of gait impairment (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness evaluation (evoked pain response. Strength was measured as ability to grasp and cling.Results: Visual gait analysis showed significant impairment of gait in arthritic mice that improved 43% after intra-articular BoNT/B, demonstrating a substantial articular analgesic effect. Joint tenderness, measured with evoked pain response scores, increased with arthritis induction and decreased 49.5% after intra-articular BoNT/B treatment. No improvement in visual gait scores or decrease in evoked pain response scores were found in the control groups receiving intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Intra-articular BoNT/B was safe, and no systemic effects or limb weakness was noted.Conclusions: This study is the first report of intra-articular BoNT/B for analgesia in a murine model of arthritis pain. The results of this study validate prior work using intra-articular neurotoxins in murine models. Our findings show chronic degenerative arthritis pain can be quantitated in a murine model by measuring gait impairment using visual gait analysis scores (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness scores (evoked pain responses. Reduction of joint pain seen in this study is consistent with our hypothesis of inhibition of release of pain mediators by intra-articular BoNT/B, supporting further investigation of this novel approach to treatment of arthritis pain with intra-articular neurotoxins.Keywords: intra-articular BoNT/B, osteoarthritis

  18. The position of the centre of the distal radial articular surface in the sagittal plane: a radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K M; Bassi, R S; Deshmukh, S C

    2003-06-01

    Using a digital vernier calliper, measurements of the position of the centre of the distal radial articular surface in the sagittal plane with respect to the long axis of the distal radius were made on 50 lateral radiographs of normal wrists. In all 50 cases, the centre of the distal radial articular surface was palmar on the long axis of the radius. The mean value for this palmar position was 5.3mm (44% of the radial shaft width). There was no correlation between the position of the centre of the distal radial articular surface and either the width of the radial shaft, the length of the articular surface of the distal radius or the age or sex of the individuals. However, the position of the centre of rotation was found to correlate with palmar tilt. The palmar position of the centre of the distal radial articular surface on the long axis of the radius may be biomechanically important. PMID:12809661

  19. Hiperceratose focal acral associada à hipocromia de dermatóglifos Focal acral hyperkeratosis with hypochromic dermatoglyphics

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho; Hiram Larangeira de Almeida Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Hiperceratose focal acral é dermatose rara caracterizada por pápulas ceratóticas acrais que afetam preferencialmente as superfícies marginais das mãos e dos pés, pertencendo ao grupo das hiperceratoses marginais. Apresentamos variante inédita de mulher de 45 anos de idade, branca, dona-de-casa, sem história familiar, com lesões ceratóticas papulosas localizadas nos pés e hipocromia de dermatóglifos na região afetada. Histologicamente apresentou hiperortoceratose, desnível da epiderme (degrau)...

  20. Locking knee after intra-articular migration of broken patella tension band wire: an extraordinary intra-articular migration via pseudarthrosis line

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lushun; Lee, Keng Thiam

    2014-01-01

    Fixation of displaced patella fractures with tension band wiring is a commonly performed technique. Broken metal wires after such surgeries are not uncommon, however, intra-articular wire migration after failure of the tension band wires in the patella is uncommon and rarely described. In this study, we report a case of locking knee symptoms secondary to the migration of a broken patella wire into the knee joint through the pseudarthrosis line.

  1. Locking knee after intra-articular migration of broken patella tension band wire: an extraordinary intra-articular migration via pseudarthrosis line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lushun; Lee, Keng Thiam

    2013-01-01

    Fixation of displaced patella fractures with tension band wiring is a commonly performed technique. Broken metal wires after such surgeries are not uncommon, however, intra-articular wire migration after failure of the tension band wires in the patella is uncommon and rarely described. In this study, we report a case of locking knee symptoms secondary to the migration of a broken patella wire into the knee joint through the pseudarthrosis line. PMID:24509227

  2. Marco de trabajo fenomenológico para el daño del cartílago articular / Cadre de travail phénoménologique pour le dommage du cartilage articulaire / Phenomenology work setting for articular cartilage damage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy Stella, Landínez Parra; Diego Alexander, Garzón-Alvarado; Juan Carlos, Vanegas Acosta.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se supone la falla del cartílago articular por muerte de los condrocitos, lo cual conlleva una pérdida de la matriz extracelular. Dado que el cartílago articular es avascular, la viabilidad de los condrocitos puede ser uno de los factores críticos que limitan la respuesta de r [...] eparación. En este artículo se propone un modelo de daño por fatiga del tejido cartilaginoso, análogo al modelo utilizado en los metales, donde se considera que cualquier carga que varíe con el tiempo puede causar una falla por fatiga, a causa de la acumulación de daño por esfuerzos repetidos. De forma similar, en el caso del cartílago, el daño del tejido se produce por la muerte celular ante la presencia de cargas repetidas en el tiempo. Se realizaron simulaciones computacionales que están en concordancia con los resultados clínicos y experimentales hallados sobre el daño de cartílago. Abstract in english In present paper it is supposed the lack of articular cartilage by chondrocytes death leading to a loss of extracellular matrix. Given that the articular cartilage is avascular, chondrocytes viability may be one of the critical factors limiting the repair response. In present article is exposed a da [...] mage model due to cartilaginous tissue fatigue, similar to that used in metals, where it is considered that any load varying in time may provokes a fatigue failure caused by damage accumulation by repetitive efforts. Likewise, in the case of cartilage, tissue damage is produced by cellular death in presence of repeated loads in time. Computation simulations were performed in agreement with clinical and experimental results obtained on cartilage damage.

  3. Idiopathic unilateral focal hyperhidrosis with social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorpade, V. Anand Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis especially palmoplantar type are commonly referred to psychiatrist for management. Focal type of hyperhidrosis is less commonly seen more so associated with social anxiety disorder. Focal type is associated with variety of organic causes which has to be excluded before labeling it as Idiopathic variety. The variety of treatment that they are subjected to and its outcome are discussed in this case report.

  4. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  5. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  6. Cosmic defects and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Magueijo, Joao; Brandenberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    We provide a pedagogical overview of defect models of structure formation. We first introduce the concept of topological defect, and describe how to classify them. We then show how defects might be produced in phase transitions in the Early Universe and approach non-pathological scaling solutions. A very heuristic account of structure formation with defects is then provided, following which we introduce the tool box required for high precision calculations of CMB and LSS power spectra in these theories. The decomposition into scalar vector and tensor modes is reviewed, and then we introduce the concept of unequal-time correlator. We use isotropy and causality to constrain the form of these correlators. We finally show how these correlators may be decomposed into eigenmodes, thereby reducing a defect problem to a series of ``inflation'' problems. We conclude with a short description of results in these theories and how they fare against observations. We finally describe yet another application of topological d...

  7. Displasia cortical focal, aspectos neurofisiológicos, imaginológicos e histológicos Focal cortical dysplasia, aspects of neurophysiologic, imaginological and histological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Piccolotto Carvalho Camargo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Displasia cortical focal é uma das formas mais frequentes de malformações do desenvolvimento cortical, estando intimamente relacionada com epilepsia de difícil controle em crianças e adultos. Caracterizam-se por alterações histológicas, imaginológicas e eletrofisiológicas peculiares. OBJETIVO: Fazer uma revisão sucinta dos principais aspectos imaginológicos, histológicos e neurofisiológicos das displasias corticais focais. MÉTODOS: Revisão bibliografia. CONCLUSÃO: As displasias corticais focais têm características clínicas peculiares, A prevalência de epilepsia refrataria entre pacientes com displasia cortical focal é bastante elevada. A RM de crânio apresenta alterações distintas a doença, podendo em muitos casos ser normal e se correlaciona com os achados histológicos. Descargas contínuas e surtos paroxísticos de alta frequência são altamente sugestivos de epilepsia devido à displasia cortical focal.INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common ways of malformation of the cortical development where they are intimate related among hard control epilepsy on children and adults. It's characterized by peculiar histological, imaginological and electrophysiological amendment. PURPOSE: To make a succinct review of the main aspects of imaginological, histological and neurophysiologic focal cortical dysplasias. METHOD: Bibliographic review. CONCLUSION: The focal cortical dysplasias have peculiar clinical features. The prevalence of refractory epilepsy among focal cortical dysplasia patients is highly elevated. The skull magnetic resonance image (MRI presents specific amendments to the disease that could be normal in many cases and correlates with histological results. Continuous discharges and high frequency paroxistic bursts are highly pointed as epilepsy due the Focal cortical dysplasia.

  8. ?-XRF and ?-XANES at calcification fronts of human articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the main threats to human health from heavy metals is associated with exposure to lead (Pb), which is associated with chronic diseases in the nervous, hematopoietic, skeletal, renal and endocrine system. Although much progress has been made to limit Pb exposure in industrialized countries, primarily through the elimination of leaded gasoline, workplace exposures and leaded pipes, most adults have already accumulated a substantial body burden of Pb. Most of the affiliated Pb is deposited in human bones, where it is stored up to 20 years and accounts for 90.95 of the total lead body burden. Pb is able to displace Ca2+ by cation exchange processes in the hydroxyapatite crystal (the main constituent of bone) and is liberated from it in cases of increased bone turnover such as osteoporosis, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism. Besides these phenomenological studies on the release of Pb from human calcified tissue analytical studies are essential to gain insight on storage sites and storage mechanisms on a microscopic scale. Therefore detailed synchrotron radiation induced micro x-ray fluorescence analyses (SR ? - XRF) have been carried out to study the distribution of Pb in bones from human joints (femoral heads and patellas). As a very recent result we found a highly specific accumulation of Pb in the tidemark, which is a metabolically active mineralization front (thickness about 5 - 10 ?m) between calcified and non-calcified articular cartilage and plays an important role in developing osteoarthritis. From the results obtained for single tidemark bones one would expect an accumulation of Pb in both tidemarks of bones showing tidemark duplication. However, Pb shows a strong accumulation at the older of the two tidemarks, while it is not present at the younger one. A comparison of the Pb distribution with the one of other tidemark-seekers (e.g. Zn) exhibits a time difference in the accumulation of different metals at the calcification fronts of human calcified tissue. The finding of elevated Pb levels in cartilage compared to the subchondral region of the bone (about 10 times higher) motivated a study on the chemical speciation of Pb in both compartments of calcified human tissue. Comparing results from micro x-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (?XANES) measurements in the tidemark with the ones from adequate standard materials gives information on the chemical bond of Pb in human cartilage. Results from a first ?-XANES experiment carried out at HASYLAB beamline L will be presented in this paper. ?-XANES scans at the tidemark of a femoral head and patella, and on a set of standard materials namely Pb-hydroxyapatite, PbO, PbS, PbCO3, and PbSO4 have been compared and will be presented. Although suffering from weak counting statistics one could estimate from the results, that most of the accumulated Pb in the tidemark is bound to hydroxyapatite. (author)

  9. Effect of corticosteroids on articular cartilage: have animal studies said everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Zhao, Yang; Nisolle, Jean-François; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhihong, Liu; Clegg, Peter; Gustin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroids (CS) have been used in the treatment of osteoarthritis for many years, although their effects on articular cartilage are not fully understood. To identify whether previous animal studies have provided enough evidence about the effects of CS, we undertook a systematic review that identified 35 relevant in vivo animal experimental studies between 1965 and 2014 assessing the effects of CS on either normal cartilage, or in either induced osteoarthritis (OA) or synovitis. The quality of the methodology was assessed. Deleterious effects, both structural and biochemical, have mainly been reported in rabbits and are associated with frequent administration of CS, sometimes at high dose and with systemic side effects. In dogs, four identified studies concluded that there were beneficial effects with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and triamcinolone hexacetonide therapy. In horses, MPA was mostly deleterious, while triamcinolone acetonide had positive effects in one study highly rated at quality assessment. However, many methodological weaknesses have been identified, such as the lack of pharmacokinetic and pharmocodynamics data and the large variation in doses between studies, the limited selection criteria at baseline, the absence of blinding, and the lack of statistics or appropriate controls for testing the effects of the vehicle of the drug. Those methodological weaknesses weaken the conclusions of numerous studies that assess beneficial or deleterious effects of CS on articular cartilage. Animal studies have not yet provided definitive data, and further research is required into the role of CS in articular pathobiology. PMID:26211421

  10. Decontamination by electron beams of liposomes used in the treatment of human articular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation under 100 Krad allows decontamination of liposomes carrying gold salts, prepared in the condition of a usual research laboratory. Such liposomes can be injected in the intra-articular space with no risks of infection. Electron beams from a linear accelerator were used. Experimental details are given. The results are presented and discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Decontamination by electron beams of liposomes used in the treatment of human articular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laoussadi, S. (Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France)); Gallien, Cl.L. (Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France)); Olivier, J.L.; Rabaut, M.; Amor, B.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation under 100 Krad allows decontamination of liposomes carrying gold salts, prepared in the condition of a usual research laboratory. Such liposomes can be injected in the intra-articular space with no risks of infection. Electron beams from a linear accelerator were used. Experimental details are given. The results are presented and discussed.

  12. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University Hospital, and College of Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of the influence of orthognathic surgery on articular in skeletal class II patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Firoozeai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of orthognathic surgery is to correct facial deformity and dental malocclusion and to obtain normal orofacial function. However, there are controversies of whether orthognathic surgery might have any negative influence on temporomandibular joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of orthognathic surgery on articular disc position and temporomandibular joint symptoms of skeletal CI II patients by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (10 women and 5 men with skeletal CI II malocclusion, aged 19-32 years (mean 23 years, from the Isfahan Department of Maxillofacial surgery were studied. All received lefort I & bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO and all patients received pre- and post surgical orthodontic treatment, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed 1 day preoperatively and 3 month post operatively. Statistical analysis of the positional change of the disk was done by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: The change of articular disc position after mandibular advancement surgery by means of sagittal split ramus osteotomy was not statistically significant, but it tended to be positioned anteriorly. Conclusion: It can be suggested that orthognathic surgery dose not significantly change the position of the articular disc.Key words: MRI, Articular disk, Orthognatic surgery.

  14. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  15. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  16. Evaluation of influence of proteoglycans on hydration of articular cartilage with the use of ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-yi YANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To monitor the changes in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage induced by degradation of proteoglycans, and to explore the effect of proteoglycans on hydration behaviour of articular cartilage by using high-frequency ultrasound. Methods?Twelve porcine patellae with smooth cartilage surface were prepared and equally divided into two groups: normal group without any enzyme treatment, and trypsin group they were treated with 0.25% trypsin for 8h to digest proteoglycan in the cartilage. The hydration behaviour of the cartilage tissue was scanned by high-frequency ultrasound system with a central frequency of 25MHz. Parameters including cartilage hydration strain and cartilage thickness were measured. The histopathological changes in the articular cartilage were observed under a light microscope. Results?It took approximately 20min to reach equilibrium during the hydration process in the normal cartilages, while proteoglycan-degraded cartilage took only about 5min to achieve equilibrium. The equilibrium strain of normal cartilage was 3.5%±0.5%. The degradation of proteoglycans induced a significant decrease in equilibrium strain (1.8%±0.2%, P0.05. Conclusion?Proteoglycans play an important role in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage. The degradation of proteoglycans could induce degeneration of cartilage structure and decrease in hydration behaviour after dehydration. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.03

  17. Cycloolefin-Copolymer/Polyethylene (COC/PE) Blend Assists with the Creation of New Articular Cartilage.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Bastl, Zden?k; Kruliš, Zden?k; Hulejová, H.; Polanská, M.; Lísal, J.; Danešová, J.; ?erný, P.

    294-I, - (2010), s. 120-132. ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : articular cartilage * biomaterials * cycloolefin-copolymer blend Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Septic arthritis of both knees following intra-articular injection of petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Janbakhsh, Alireza; Mansouri, Feizollah; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Ghaffari, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    A 70 years old man was referred to our center with bilateral knee arthritis following intra-articular petrol injection. Because of previous antibiotics use gram stain and culture were negative. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and antibiotics and drainage were started. After 2 years he improved eventually and was able to walk. But, some movement limitation remained.

  19. Septic arthritis of both knees following intra-articular injection of petrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbakhsh, Alireza; Mansouri, Feizollah; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Ghaffari, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    A 70 years old man was referred to our center with bilateral knee arthritis following intra-articular petrol injection. Because of previous antibiotics use gram stain and culture were negative. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and antibiotics and drainage were started. After 2 years he improved eventually and was able to walk. But, some movement limitation remained. PMID:24879072

  20. Gold chloride technique to study articular innervation. A protocol validated through computer-assisted colorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Barrena, E.; Martinez-Moreno, E.; Ballesteros Massó, R.; Martinez Perez, D.; Munuera Martinez, L.

    1999-01-01

    We studied variations in gold chloride techniques to elicit neural elements within articular samples, after "in toto" staining. These techniques attempt the differentiation of neural and vascular structures. Major changes in differential staining were observed when the gold chloride concentration was empirically modified. After the rest of the technique was standardized, we selected three gold chloride solutions to perform quantitative color experiments: l%, 0....

  1. Anterolateral Portal Is Less Painful than Superolateral Portal in Knee Intra-Articular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Yup; GN, Kiran Kumar; Chung, Byung June; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intra-articular knee injections are commonly performed in clinical practice for treating various knee joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. When selecting the portal for injection, not only intra-articular needle accuracy but also procedural pain should be taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether injection through anterolateral portal provokes less pain and provides better pain relief compared to superolateral portal. Materials and Methods A total of 60 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee receiving intra-articular injections were randomized into 2 groups according to the type of portal approach; anterolateral or superolateral. All patients received hyaluronic acid (20 mg) and triamcinolone (40 mg) as the first injection followed by second and third injections of hyaluronic acid on a weekly basis. Underlying knee pain, procedural pain, and knee pain at 4 weeks were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Injection through anterolateral portal provoked less pain (VAS, 1.5±1.3) than the superolateral portal (VAS, 1.5 vs. 2.7; p=0.004). No differences were found in the degree of pain relief at weeks between the two groups (p=0.517). Conclusions We recommend the use of anterolateral portal for intra-articular knee injection as it provokes less pain and comparably short-term pain relief than the superolateral portal. PMID:26676089

  2. Xanthan gum protects rabbit articular chondrocytes against sodium nitroprusside-induced apoptosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qixin; Mei, Xifan; Han, Guanying; Ling, Peixue; Guo, Bin; Guo, Yuewei; Shao, Huarong; Wang, Guan; Cui, Zan; Bai, Yuxin; Xu, Fang

    2015-10-20

    We have previously reported that intra-articular injection of xanthan gum (XG) could significantly ameliorate the degree of joint cartilage degradation and pain in experimental osteoarthritis (OA) model in vivo. In this present study, we evaluated the protective effect of XG against Sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced rabbit articular chondrocytes apoptosis in vitro. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were incubated with various concentrations of XG for 24h prior to 0.5mmol/L SNP co-treatment for 24h. The proliferation of chondrocytes was analyzed using MTT assay. The chondrocytes early apoptosis rates were evaluated using Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry. The morphology of apoptosis chondrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The loss/disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was detected using rhodamin 123 by confocal microscope. The concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in cell culture supernatants was evaluated using ELISA assay. The results showed that XG could significantly reverse SNP-reduced cell proliferation and inhibited cell early apoptosis rate in a dose-dependent manner. XG alleviated loss/disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased the PGE2 level of chondrocytes cell culture supernatants in SNP-induced chondrocytes. These results of the present research strongly suggest that XG can protect rabbit articular chondrocytes against SNP-induced apoptosis in vitro. PMID:26256195

  3. Role of platelet-rich plasma in articular cartilage injury and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Randy; Saltzman, Bryan M; Fortier, Lisa A; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    Clinical and laboratory research aimed at biological approaches to cartilage repair are currently in high demand due to the poor regenerative capacity of articular cartilage in the setting of a diseased articular environment. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) takes advantage of supraphysiological concentrations of platelets and their growth factors harbored in ?-granules, which together attempt to return the diseased articular cartilage to a preinjury state. The local use of PRP directly at the site of cartilage injury is thought to stimulate a natural healing cascade and accelerate the formation of cartilage repair tissue. This article provides an overview of the basic science behind the use of PRP in the treatment of cartilage injury and disease. Both initial and current examples of the use of intra-articular PRP in clinical human studies are provided. These include the use of PRP either alone or as an augmentation device with various other procedures, including arthroscopic microfracture and cell-free resorbable polyglycolic acid-hyaluronan implantation. Finally, the authors describe some of the potential future roles of PRP in clinical settings based on recent literature. These include Achilles tendon rupture, chronic tendinosis, chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy or tearing, muscle injury, and meniscal repair. PMID:25068847

  4. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis of the knee: A case report of MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodular fasciitis, a benign soft tissue tumor consisting of myofibroblastic proliferation, is commonly located in the subcutaneous or inter- or intra-muscular layer of extremites. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis is extremely rare. We report a case of MRI findings of a nodular fasciitis in the knee of a 13-year-old boy which was removed by arthroscopic surgery and pathologically confirmed.

  5. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis of the knee: A case report of MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, O Hyun; Cho, Kil Ho; Suh, Jang Ho; Choi, Joon Hyuk [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Nodular fasciitis, a benign soft tissue tumor consisting of myofibroblastic proliferation, is commonly located in the subcutaneous or inter- or intra-muscular layer of extremites. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis is extremely rare. We report a case of MRI findings of a nodular fasciitis in the knee of a 13-year-old boy which was removed by arthroscopic surgery and pathologically confirmed.

  6. A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author)

  7. Condrometaplasia tenosinovial extraarticular / Chondrométaplasie ténosynoviale extraarticulaire / Extra-articular tenosynovitis chondrometaplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando Manuel, Pérez Rivera; Mario, Sarmiento de la Guardia; Tomas, Ortiz Rivera; Ricardo Mauro, Pérez Rivera; Elisabeth, Ortiz Estanque.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La condromatosis tenosinovial es una metaplasia idiopática benigna de la membrana sinovial. Se caracteriza por la formación de nódulos cartilaginosos en la membrana sinovial y en la cavidad articular. La localización extraarticular es un hallazgo poco frecuente. Los síntomas predominantes son dolor, [...] inflamación y limitación de los movimientos. Los métodos diagnósticos más efectivos comprenden la radiología, la tomografía computarizada, la resonancia magnética y la ecografía. Se presenta un nuevo caso de condromatosis tenosinovial extraarticular, se incluyen imágenes diagnósticas, se exponen el tratamiento realizado y los resultados histológicos. Además se ofrece una revisión de la literatura médica sobre el tema. Abstract in english Tenosynovitis chondromatosis is a benign idiopathic metaplasia os sinovial membrane. It is characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules in synovial membrane and in the articular cavity. Extra-articular location is an infrequent finding. Predominant symptoms are: pain, inflammation and movemen [...] ts limitation. The more effective diagnostic methods include radiology, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and echography. This is a new case of extra-articular tensosynovial chondromatosis where diagnostic images are included, as well as the treatment applied and histological results. Also, a review of medical literature on this subject is offered.

  8. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read article ] National estimates for 21 selected major birth defects, 2004–2006 [ Read summary ] Birth Defects* Cases per ... live birth population, 2004–2006. Top of Page Birth Defects Prevention Folic acid is a B vitamin that, ...

  9. YAP (Ce) as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YAP (Ce) has been known to be one of the commercially available new scintillators that can be used for several applications. It has a good timing response and a very high value for the radiation hardness, compared to other known inorganic scintillators. Several studies have been reported on the properties of the scintillator, viz., light yield, decay time constant, gamma and charged particle response, pulse shape discrimination and timing characteristics. The YAP(Ce) crystals has a very good response to the energetic heavy ions and attempts have been made to employ it as a viable alternative to the Si detectors for the detection of heavy ions. As a part of the experimental facilities, being developed for the upcoming Superconducting cyclotron at VECC, the possibility is being explored for using the YAP(Ce) as an E detector, preceded by a position sensitive MWPCs as ?E counterpart, at the focal plane of the proposed superconducting solenoid spectrometer. The selection of Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMT) has been very crucial in such cases in order to have good timing response and energy resolution for energetic heavy ions. The responses have been tested for different bias voltages of the tube and the best values have been reported here

  10. Kindler syndrome: a focal adhesion genodermatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai-Cheong, J E; Tanaka, A; Hawche, G; Emanuel, P; Maari, C; Taskesen, M; Akdeniz, S; Liu, L; McGrath, J A

    2009-02-01

    Kindler syndrome (OMIM 173650) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by trauma-induced blistering, poikiloderma, skin atrophy, mucosal inflammation and varying degrees of photosensitivity. Although Kindler syndrome is classified as a subtype of epidermolysis bullosa, it has distinct clinicopathological and molecular abnormalities. The molecular pathology of Kindler syndrome involves loss-of-function mutations in a newly recognized actin cytoskeleton-associated protein, now known as fermitin family homologue 1, encoded by the gene FERMT1. This protein mediates anchorage between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix via focal adhesions, and thus the structural pathology differs from other forms of epidermolysis bullosa in which there is a disruption of the keratin intermediate filament-hemidesmosome network and the extracellular matrix. In the skin, fermitin family homologue 1 is mainly expressed in basal keratinocytes and binds to the cytoplasmic tails of beta1 and beta3 integrins as well as to fermitin family homologue 2 and filamin-binding LIM protein 1. It also plays a crucial role in keratinocyte migration, proliferation and adhesion. In this report, we review the clinical, cellular and molecular pathology of Kindler syndrome and discuss the role of fermitin family homologue 1 in keratinocyte biology. PMID:19120339

  11. Recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtman, Rebecca; Sran, Simranjeet S; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-10-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is an important cause of glomerular disease in children and adolescents and nearly 50 % of affected patients will progress to end-stage kidney disease over a 5 to 10-year period. Unfortunately, there is no established treatment for disease in the native kidney. Moreover, up to 55 % of patients develop recurrent disease after receiving a kidney transplant, with a substantially higher risk in patients who have already experienced recurrent disease in a prior transplant. A number of clinical and laboratory factors have been identified as risk factors for this complication. In addition, new investigations into podocyte biology and circulating permeability factors have shed light on the cause of recurrent the disease. While a number of novel therapeutic agents have been applied in the management of this problem, there still is no proven treatment. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of recurrent FSGS in pediatric patients who have received a kidney transplant. PMID:25690943

  12. Medical image of the week: focal myopericaditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshisundaram C

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 44-year-old man with no significant past medical history was admitted with a history of two episodes of substernal chest pain unrelated to exertion which had resolved spontaneously. Admission vital signs were within normal limits and physical examination was unremarkable. Basic lab tests were normal and urine toxicology was negative. Electrocardiogram was unremarkable with no ST/T changes. Troponin I was elevated at 4.19 which trended up to 6.57. An urgent cardiac angiogram was done which revealed normal patent coronaries. His transthoracic echocardiogram was also reported to be normal. He continued to have intermittent episodes of chest pain that was partially relieved by morphine. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated. Work up for autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, myocarditis panel were insignificant. Later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with gadolinium enhanced contrast (Figure 1 was obtained which showed abnormal epicardial/subepicardial myocardial enhancement within the inferolateral wall and cardiac apex consistent with focal ...

  13. Effect of JJYMD-C, a novel synthetic derivative of gallic acid, on proliferation and phenotype maintenance in rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.J., Xu; Z.H., Lu; X., Lin; C.W., Lin; L., Zheng; J.M., Zhao.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering encapsulated cells such as chondrocytes in the carrier matrix have been widely used to repair cartilage defects. However, chondrocyte phenotype is easily lost when chondrocytes are expanded in vitro by a process defined as “dedifferentiation”. To ensure successful therapy, an effe [...] ctive pro-chondrogenic agent is necessary to overcome the obstacle of limited cell numbers in the restoration process, and dedifferentiation is a prerequisite. Gallic acid (GA) has been used in the treatment of arthritis, but its biocompatibility is inferior to that of other compounds. In this study, we modified GA by incorporating sulfamonomethoxine sodium and synthesized a sulfonamido-based gallate, JJYMD-C, and evaluated its effect on chondrocyte metabolism. Our results showed that JJYMD-C could effectively increase the levels of the collagen II, Sox9, and aggrecan genes, promote chondrocyte growth, and enhance secretion and synthesis of cartilage extracellular matrix. On the other hand, expression of the collagen I gene was effectively down-regulated, demonstrating inhibition of chondrocyte dedifferentiation by JJYMD-C. Hypertrophy, as a characteristic of chondrocyte ossification, was undetectable in the JJYMD-C groups. We used JJYMD-C at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 µg/mL, and the strongest response was observed with 0.25 µg/mL. This study provides a basis for further studies on a novel agent in the treatment of articular cartilage defects.

  14. Evaluation of Articular Eminence Morphology and Inclination in TMJ Internal Derangement Patients with MRI / Evaluación de la Morfología e Inclinación de la Eminencia Articular en Pacientes con Trastorno Interno de ATM con MRI

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aydin, Ozkan; Hasan Ayberk, Altug; Metin, Sencimen; Bugra, Senel.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La morfología e inclinación de la eminencia articular son reportados como dos factores predisponentes para el trastorno interno (TI). El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la inclinación y la morfología de la eminencia articular y el TI. El estudio incluyó a 70 articulaciones [...] temporomandibulares, con TI en 35 pacientes: 51 articulaciones con desplazamiento discal con reducción (DDCR) y 19 de las articulaciones tuvieron desplazamiento discal sin reducción (DDSR). Todos los sujetos fueron sometidos a imágenes de resonancia magnética bilaterales de alta resolución que se realizaron en los planos sagital y coronal con la boca cerrada y abierta. La morfología articular la eminencia se caracterizó como una caja, sigmoide, aplanada, o deforme. La inclinación de la eminencia articular se midió en tres posiciones: empinada (de 60 ° a 90 °), moderada (entre 30 ° a 60 °) y poco profunda (entre 15 ° y 30 °). Las imágenes fueron divididos en dos; DDCR y DDSOR, y estos criterios fueron comparados. Al comparar las imágenes de ambos grupos, la forma aplanada se observó con mayor incidencia en el grupo de DDSR, la forma sigmoide fue la más frecuente en el grupo de DDCR y la inclinación de la eminencia articular se encontró más pronunciada que en el grupo DDSR. La inclinación de la eminencia articular puede no tener un efecto predisponente en el desarrollo de los desplazamientos de disco. Abstract in english Articular eminence morphology and inclination are reported to be two predisposing factors for the internal derangement (ID). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the inclination and morphology of the articular eminence and ID. The study included 70 temporomandibular j [...] oints with ID in 35 patients: 51 joints had disc displacements with reduction (DDWR) and 19 joints had disc displacements without reduction (DDWOR). All subjects underwent bilateral high resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans which were performed in the sagittal and coronal planes with mouths closed and opened. Articular eminence morphology was characterized as box, sigmoid, flattened, or deformed. Articular eminence inclination was measured at three positions: steep (from 60° to 90°), moderate (from 30° to 60°) and shallow (from 15° to 30°). The images were divided into two; DDWR and DDWOR, and these two criteria were compared. The images of the two groups were compared; while flattened form was occurred with the highest incidence in the DDWOR group, sigmoid form was the most frequent in the DDWR group and articular eminence inclination was found steeper than it was for the DDWOR group. The steepness of the articular eminence may not have a predisposing effect on the development of disc displacements.

  15. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  16. Differences in articular-eminence inclination between medieval and contemporary human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranj?i?, Josip; Vojvodi?, Denis; Žabarovi?, Domagoj; Vodanovi?, Marin; Komar, Daniel; Mehuli?, Ketij

    2012-08-01

    The articular-eminence inclination is an important element in the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint and the entire masticatory system; however, very little is known about this inclination in archaeological human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the values of, in addition to the differences between, the articular-eminence inclination in medieval and contemporary human populations. The study was carried out on two dry skull groups. The first group consisted of 14 dry skulls from the medieval culture group Bijelo Brdo (BB) of East Croatia, and the other consisted of 137 recent dry skulls from the osteologic collection of the Institute of Anatomy (IA) in Zagreb. All BB skulls were dentulous, whereas the IA skulls were divided into dentulous and edentulous groups. The articular-eminence inclination was measured in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane on digital images of the skull's two lateral views using AutoCAD computer software. The mean value of the articular-eminence inclination in the BB sample group (49.57°) was lower, with a statistical significance (p<0.01), than those of the IA dentulous (61.56°), the IA edentulous (62.54°), and all the combined IA (61.99°) specimens. Because the values of the articular-eminence inclination can vary a lot with reference to the number of specimens and the different methods used for measuring, the obtained values yield only orientational information. Further investigations including a larger number of medieval specimens are needed to confirm the results obtained from this study. PMID:22721644

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, Abbas; Noruzi-Gangachin, Marruf [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Maryam; Mortazavi, Hamed [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  18. EFECTO DE UN PROGRAMA DE HIDROQUINESIA Y ACONDICIONAMIENTO FÍSICO EN LA MOVILIDAD ARTICULAR DE ADULTAS MAYORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de un programa combinado de hidroquinesia y acondicionamiento físico y otro de acondicionamiento físico solamente en la movilidad articular en las caderas de un grupo de adultas mayores. Sesenta y tres sujetos (edad promedio = 66.06 años, S.D. ±6.77 fueron asignados a los grupos control, hidroterapia y acondicionamiento físico y solo acondicionamiento físico. La duración del programa fue de una hora por sesión, dos veces a la semana durante 16 semanas. Se aplicó un pretest y un postest de movilidad articular para medir la movilidad global de las caderas (flexión, abducción, aducción, rotación interna y externa. Las variables independientes fueron lado izquierdo y derecho vs. grupos de tratamiento. Los resultados indicaron lo siguiente: el grupo control no varío la movilidad articular en las mediciones de flexión, rotación interna y externa (p>0.05 mientras que para la mediciones de abducción y aducción disminuyó significativamente (p<0.05. En cuanto a los grupos de tratamiento, el grupo que realizó el programa combinado de hidroquinesia y acondicionamiento físico aumentó significativamente (p<0.05 la movilidad articular a nivel de flexión, abducción y aducción, en tanto el grupo que realizó el programa de acondicionamiento físico solamente, mejoró significativamente (p<0.05 en flexión, abducción, aducción, rotación interna como externa. En conclusión se recomienda la práctica de actividad física tanto en el agua como fuera de ella, pues mejora los rangos de movilidad articular en cadera, a nivel global en personas adultas mayores.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  20. Hepatic parenchymal perfusion defects detected with CTAP: imaging-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M S; Baron, R L; Dodd, G D; Zajko, A J; Oliver, J H; Miller, W J; Carr, B I; Bron, K M; Campbell, W L; Sammon, J K

    1992-10-01

    To determine whether characteristics of focal hepatic parenchymal perfusion defects detected with computed tomographic arterial portography (CTAP) correlate with underlying pathologic processes, 245 perfusion defects detected with CTAP in 60 patients who subsequently underwent definitive hepatic surgery were characterized by shape, location within the liver, and relative attenuation value and were prospectively correlated with sectioned pathologic specimens. Of 177 round perfusion defects, 102 (58%) were malignant and 75 (42%) were benign. Only one (2%) of 53 peripheral wedge-shaped defects was malignant. All 15 peripheral flat defects were benign. Defects in characteristic locations anterior to the porta hepatis (n = 15) and adjacent to the intersegmental fissure (n = 7) were uniformly benign. While 83 (56%) of 147 soft-tissue attenuation defects were malignant, only four (6%) of 68 intermediate-attenuation defects were malignant. Although these characteristics of parenchymal perfusion defects aid in differentiation of benign from malignant processes, all other types of perfusion defects are nonspecific and may require biopsy. PMID:1326119

  1. Defect Prevention Based on 5 Dimensions of Defect Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthi Kumaresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available “Discovering the unexpected is more important than confirming the known [7]. In software development,the “unexpected” one relates to defects. These defects when unattended would cause failure to the productand risk to the users. The increasing dependency of society on software and the crucial consequences that afailure can cause requires the need to find out the defects at the origin itself. Based on the lessons learntfrom the earlier set of projects, a defect framework highlighting the 5 Dimensions (Ds of defect origin isproposed in this work. The defect framework is based on analyzing the defects that had emerged fromvarious stages of software development like Requirements, Design, Coding, Testing and Timeline (defectsdue to lack of time during development. This study is not limited to just identifying the origin of defects atvarious phases of software development but also finds out the reasons for such defects, and defectpreventive (DP measures are proposed for each type of defect. This work can help practitioners chooseeffective defect avoidance measures.In addition to arriving at defect framework, this work also proposes a defect injection metric based onseverity of the defect rather than just defect count, which gives the number of adjusted defects produced bya project at various phases. The defect injection metric value, once calculated, serves as a yardstick tomake a comparison in the improvements made in the software process development between similar set ofprojects

  2. Surface defects and symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jürgen; Schweigert, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    In quantum field theory, defects of various codimensions are natural ingredients and carry a lot of interesting information. In this contribution we concentrate on topological quantum field theories in three dimensions, with a particular focus on Dijkgraaf-Witten theories with abelian gauge group. Surface defects in Dijkgraaf-Witten theories have applications in solid state physics, topological quantum computing and conformal field theory. We explain that symmetries in these topological field theories are naturally defined in terms of invertible topological surface defects and are thus Brauer-Picard groups.

  3. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-19

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-?m pinhole using a 194-?m pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-?m pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems. PMID:25302004

  4. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-?m pinhole using a 194-?m pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The twodimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-?m pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  5. Pupillary anomaly masquerading as a glaucomatous visual field defect: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Adrian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients are often referred to ophthalmologists with focal visual field defects on routine testing, possibly related to a potential diagnosis of glaucoma. However, examination of the individual patient's ocular characteristics as well as facial characteristics may often reveal a cause of the visual field defect. Case presentation We describe a patient who was found to have a superior visual field defect on routine testing by the optician. Repeat perimetry with pharmacological dilatation of the pupil revealed that the cause of the field defect was related to an eccentric inferiorly displaced pupil, secondary to trauma some years previously. Discussion Individual patient characteristics, including both ocular, as well as facial, need to be considered, when interpreting any visual field defect.

  6. Hiperhidrosis focal primaria asociada a eritromelalgia primaria / Primary focal hyperhidrosis associated to primary erythromelalgia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MB, Leroux; CR, Lashak.

    2014-03-30

    Full Text Available Paciente femenina de 30 años de edad que consulta por un cuadro de hiperhidrosis, asociado a sensación de calor desde su niñez. Sufre crisis de calor en cara, cuello, parte superior del tronco y los cuatro miembros, que la inducen a transpirar. Durante estos episodios nota sensación de calor, dolor [...] y con aparición de rubor en manos y pies. Los síntomas ceden con aplicación de frío. Estos síntomas que presenta desde su adolescencia, dificultan el sueño, sus tareas habituales y el trato social. Sus antecedentes familiares respecto del mismo cuadro son floridos. Los estudios hematológicos, inmunológicos, la electromiografía y el ecodoppler de miembros superiores, resultaron dentro de límites normales. En el video sobre capilaroscopía periungueal de manos, se constata cambios micro vasculares inespecíficos. En la prueba de provocación mediante aumento de la temperatura, se obtiene resultado positivo a 39°C para miembros superiores. La paciente presenta signo-sintomatología compatible con hiperhidrosis focal primaria. Los episodios de calor, rubor y dolor de los cuatro miembros, que ceden a la exposición al frío fueron interpretados como eritromelalgia, en base a la clínica y los antecedentes familiares. Para la hiperhidrosis se indica solución de cloruro de aluminio hexa-hidratado al 20%, de aplicación tópica y para la eritromelalgia citrato de magnesio en grageas 528 mg, de dos a cuatro por día. Según la bibliografía por nosotros revisada, la asociación de hiperhidrosis focal primaria y eritromelalgia primaria familiar, no se ha registrado en la literatura. Abstract in english Female patient, aged 30 years-old, attending a medical consultation with hyperhidrosis associated with episodes of warmth and sweating since childhood, located in face, neck, upper thorax and extremities. These episodes are accompanied by heat, pain and reddening in hands and feet. The symptoms disa [...] ppear to cold exposure. These symptoms altered sleep, daily activities and social life. A positive family history with similar clinical characteristics was obtained. Hematological and immunological studies, as well as upper limbs electromyography and ecodoppler are within normal parameters. Unspecific microvascular alterations were observed with finger-periungueal video capillaroscopy. A provoking test yielded positive results when rising temperature to 39°C in upper limbs. The patient symptoms are compatible with focal primary hyperhidrosis. Heat, reddening and pain in the upper and low extremities responding to cold exposure and the positive family history led us to diagnose erythromelalgia. The hyperhidrosis treatment consisted of a topical application of 20% hexhydrate aluminum chloride. For erythromelalgia treatment 528 mg magnesium citrate pills, 2-4 daily were administered. Literature review to find out association of primary focal hyperhidrosis with primary familiar erythromelalgia was negative.

  7. A Case Report of Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture for Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Kwangho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case was to report a case of Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. Methods: The patient was treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. The Effect of Treatment was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale(VAS and Modified Mayo Wrist Score(Wrist Score. Results & Conclusions: After Treatment, Patient's VAS decreased and Wrist Score increased. For this results, Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture may be effective for Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex.

  8. Micro- and Nano-Carrier Mediated Intra-Articular Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide readers with current developments of intra-articular drug delivery systems. In recent years, although the search for a clinically successful ideal carrier is ongoing, sustained-release systems, such as polymeric micro- and nanoparticles, liposomes, and hydrogels, are being extensively studied for intra-articular drug delivery purposes. The advantages associated with long-acting preparations include a longer effect of the drug in the action site and a reduced risk of infection due to numerous injections consequently. This paper discusses the recent developments in the field of intra-articular sustained-release delivery systems for the treatment of osteoarthritis

  9. Secondary knee instability caused by fracture of the stabilizing insert in a dual-articular total knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Morten P; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard

    2004-01-01

    A case of a fractured polyethylene stabilizing insert causing secondary knee instability in a Dual-articular total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is presented. A 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery with a Dual-articular TKA 4 years earlier had a well-functioning prosthesis until a fall, after which she began complaining of an intermittent, audible clicking; pain; and instability. At surgery, a fractured polyethylene peg was discovered, and the tibial insert was replaced. At follow-up, she remains asymptomatic. This is the first description of a fractured stabilizing insert in a Dual-articular knee.

  10. Safety profile of 185 ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections for treatment of rheumatic diseases of the hip

    OpenAIRE

    Latini, A.; U. Massafra; Valente, C; L.S. Martin Martin; S. Tormenta; Migliore, A.; Alimonti, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We have developed a standardized technique for intra-articular injection of the hip joint with the purpose of extending routine intra-articular injection of hyaluronans and steroids to the hip, as commonly used in the knee. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of this technique in an extended series of patients. Methods: A 7 MHz linear or 3.5 MHz convex transducer was used with a sterilized biopsy guide attached. Intra-articular (IA) injection was performed by insert...

  11. Defect forces, defect couples and path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Definition and meaning of concepts like 'J integral' are given without any assumption about material behaviour. The key of the work is the field of 'defect forces' and 'defect couples' in a continuous media. These forces and couples, which can also be called 'material forces' and 'material couples' are related to the work done by a particle moving through a solid. It is shown that the resultant of all the defect forces included in a volume is the Jsub(k) integral computer on the surface surrounding this volume. A similar result is obtained about the moment resultant. Conventional form of the principle of virtual work is not applicable to fractures mechanics because equations of compatibility are not satisfied. A generalized form is given, which is valid when (virtual) crack propagation is considered. The virtual work of 'material' forces is included in the generalized form, and can be used as a new definition of J concept. As an illustration application, a simple procedure is described which allows to obtain the curve J-?a (the so called J-R curve) from only one experimental test

  12. Mucinosis bucal focal: Reporte de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Dávila Barrios; Susana, Arteaga Altuve; Belkis, Quiñónez Márquez; Manuel, Molina Barreto; Leonel, Castillo Cáceres.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las mucinosis son dermatosis caracterizadas por el depósito de mucina en la dermis. La mucinosis en la cavidad bucal es poco frecuente y hasta la fecha se han reportado en la literatura 38 casos. Clínicamente se presenta como una elevación asintomática, de consistencia firme, localizada con mayor fr [...] ecuencia en la encía y en la mucosa alveolar. Se reporta el caso de una paciente de 19 años de edad que presentaba una masa voluminosa de aspecto edematoso, superficie lisa, localizada en la encía vestibular entre 23 y 24, de consistencia firma, indolora y de tres años de evolución, con diagnóstico presuntivo de granuloma piógeno o hiperplasia gingival. El estudio de la biopsia reveló procesos fibrilares de aspecto mixoide y acúmulos de células inflamatorias consistentes en neutrófilos, linfocitos, plasmocitos y leucocitos polimorfonucleares. Se estableció el diagnóstico definitivo de mucinosis bucal focal y gingivitis. No se ha observado recurrencia un año después de su remoción Abstract in english Mucinosis are dermatosis characterised by mucin deposit on the dermis. Mucinosis in the oral cavity are not frequent and until this date 38 cases have been reported in literature. Clinically it is presented as an asymptomatic elevation, of firm consistency, more frequently localized in the gum or al [...] veolar mucous. A 19 year old patient case was reported. He had a voluminous mass with an edema aspect, a smooth surface, localized on the vestibular gum between 23 and 24, firm consistency, painless and with three years evolution, with a pyogenic granuloma or gingival hyperplasia alleged diagnose. After the biopsy sample was taken, the hystopatological study revealed fibrillar processes of a mixoid aspect and inflammatory cell accumulations consisting of neutrophiles, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes. A focused oral mucinosis and gingivitis was definitively diagnosed. No recurrence was observed after it was removed

  13. Recovery of Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Deep moonquakes are clustered not only in space but also in time: their recurrence times correspond to the durations of the anomalistic and draconic months, with some clusters preferring one of the two periods, while others are active with both periods. A key constraint for the understanding of the connection between the orbital motion of the Moon and its seismic activity is the focal mechanism: the orientation of the fault surface on which failure occurs during the quake. Due to the small aperture of the Apollo seismic network and the strong scattering of seismic waves within the lunar crust, the evaluation of P wave first motions to constrain the strike and dip of the fault planes is not feasible. Instead we evaluate the amplitude ratios of P and S waves. Seismograms are rotated into the P-SV-SH coordinate frame and amplitudes are determined as averages over short time windows after the arrival to reduce the impact of the scattering coda, which is independent of the source orientation. We allow for reversals of the fault motion, as observed for some clusters in previous studies, by taking into account the absolute amplitude only, without sign. An empirical site correction factor is applied to correct for amplitude distortions in the crust. We construct ensembles of fault plane solutions using an exhaustive grid search by accepting all orientations that reproduce the measured amplitude ratios within the observed standard deviations. Since all events of a given cluster are supposed to share the same fault plane, the combination of the individual inversion results further constrains the orientation. We evaluate 106 events from 25 different moonquake clusters. The most active cluster A001 contributes 37 events, while others contribute 1 to 9 events per cluster. Comparison of fault orientations with the variation of the tidal stress results in preferred orientations.

  14. Management of Intrathoracic Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Lo, Steven John; Kim, Joo Hyoung

    2011-01-01

    Intrathoracic defects continue to provide one of the most challenging problems faced by the reconstructive surgeon, particularly in the presence of bronchopleural fistula. We review the principles of management of bronchopleural fistulae and empyema, with an emphasis on the Clagett principle, pedicled and free muscle flaps, and the concept of a “designed air fistula” in bronchopleural fistula management. Although the importance of muscle flap closure in intrathoracic defects is undisputed, th...

  15. Neural Tube Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Copp, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechani...

  16. Hiperplasia epitelial focal. Tratamiento conservador con ácido tricloroacético: Conservative treatment with trichloroacetic acid / Focal epithelial hyperplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan, Harris Ricardo; Katherine, Vásquez Sanjuán; Natalia, Fortich Mesa.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia epitelial focal conocida también como enfermedad de Heck es una patología benigna que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples pápulas en la mucosa de la cavidad bucal, producida por el virus del papiloma humano afectando principalmente niños y adolescentes. Se reporta caso clínic [...] o de paciente femenina de 7 años de edad, remitida por odontopediatría al servicio de estomatología y cirugía oral, por presentar múltiples pápulas en mucosa bucal, de tamaño variable, asintomáticas y de 8 meses de evolución, se realizó biopsia excisional en una de las lesiones y el estudio anatomopatológico reportó hiperplasia epitelial sin atipias; como terapéutica se aplicó ácido tricloroacético al 80%, observándose resolución de las lesiones con seis topicaciones. Abstract in english Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia also known as Heck's disease is a benign pathology characterized by the presence of multiple papules in the mucosa of the oral cavity, produced by the human papilloma virus affecting mainly children and adolescents. A clinical case of a 7 year old female patient was repo [...] rted who was referred by Pediatric Dentistry to the Stomatology and Oral surgery Service due to the presence of multiple papules in the oral mucosa which were variable in size, asymptomatic and had a history of 8 months; an excisional biopsy was performed in one of the lesions and the anatomic pathological study reported epithelial hyperplasia without atypia. Trichloroacetic acid at 80% was applied as treatment and resolution of the lesions was observed with six topical applications.

  17. Hiperceratose focal acral associada à hipocromia de dermatóglifos Focal acral hyperkeratosis with hypochromic dermatoglyphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiperceratose focal acral é dermatose rara caracterizada por pápulas ceratóticas acrais que afetam preferencialmente as superfícies marginais das mãos e dos pés, pertencendo ao grupo das hiperceratoses marginais. Apresentamos variante inédita de mulher de 45 anos de idade, branca, dona-de-casa, sem história familiar, com lesões ceratóticas papulosas localizadas nos pés e hipocromia de dermatóglifos na região afetada. Histologicamente apresentou hiperortoceratose, desnível da epiderme (degrau, acantose e hipergranulose. Os tratamentos com ceratolíticos tópicos foram ineficientes, de forma semelhante aos casos descritos na literatura atual.Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare condition, characterized by acral keratotic papules that preferably affect hand and foot surfaces, and are included in the spectrum of marginal papular keratodermas. We report an unpublished variant of this condition, the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with acral keratotic papular lesions and hypochromic dermatoglyphics in the feet. Histological examination revealed orthohyperkeratosis, depression of the epidermis, acanthosis and hypergranulosis. Topical treatments with keratolytics were ineffective, similarly to previously described cases.

  18. Hiperceratose focal acral associada à hipocromia de dermatóglifos / Focal acral hyperkeratosis with hypochromic dermatoglyphics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Rheingantz da, Cunha Filho; Hiram Larangeira de, Almeida Jr.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiperceratose focal acral é dermatose rara caracterizada por pápulas ceratóticas acrais que afetam preferencialmente as superfícies marginais das mãos e dos pés, pertencendo ao grupo das hiperceratoses marginais. Apresentamos variante inédita de mulher de 45 anos de idade, branca, dona-de-casa, sem [...] história familiar, com lesões ceratóticas papulosas localizadas nos pés e hipocromia de dermatóglifos na região afetada. Histologicamente apresentou hiperortoceratose, desnível da epiderme (degrau), acantose e hipergranulose. Os tratamentos com ceratolíticos tópicos foram ineficientes, de forma semelhante aos casos descritos na literatura atual. Abstract in english Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare condition, characterized by acral keratotic papules that preferably affect hand and foot surfaces, and are included in the spectrum of marginal papular keratodermas. We report an unpublished variant of this condition, the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman wit [...] h acral keratotic papular lesions and hypochromic dermatoglyphics in the feet. Histological examination revealed orthohyperkeratosis, depression of the epidermis, acanthosis and hypergranulosis. Topical treatments with keratolytics were ineffective, similarly to previously described cases.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Task-specific focal dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brass instruments can develop what is known as embouchure dystonia. This condition causes muscle cramps or spasms ... focal hand dystonia may impair other activities, and embouchure dystonia can worsen to affect eating and speech. ...

  20. Stress Orientation Confidence Intervals from Focal Mechanism Inversion

    CERN Document Server

    Revets, Stefan A

    2010-01-01

    The determination of confidence intervals of stress orientation is a crucial element in the discussion of homogeneity or heterogeneity of the stress field under study. The error estimates provided by the grid search method Focal Mechanism Stress Inversion of Gephart and Forsyth (1984) have been shown to be too wide but the reasons for this failure have escaped elucidation. Through the use of directional statistics and synthetic focal mechanisms, I show that the grid search methodology does yield appropriate uncertainty estimates. The direct perturbation of the synthetic focal mechanisms introduces bias which leads to confidence intervals which become increasingly too wide as the amount of perturbation increases. The synthetic data also show at what point the method fails to overcome this bias and when confidence intervals will be too wide. The indirect perturbation of the focal mechanisms by perturbing the generating deviatoric stress tensor generates synthetic data devoid of bias. Inversion of these data set...

  1. Exploring EUV mask backside defectivity and control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Christina; Rankin, Jed; Kindt, Louis; Lawliss, Mark; Bolton, Luke; Collins, Kevin; Cheong, Lin; Bonam, Ravi; Poro, Richard; Isogawa, Takeshi; Narita, Eisuke; Kagawa, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    The backside of photomasks have been largely ignored during the last several decades of development, with the exception of avoiding gross damage or defects, as almost all problems are far enough out of the focal plane to have minimal effect on imaging. Since EUV masks are reflective, and the column is held in a vacuum, scanners have been designed to utilize electrostatic chucking. With the chucking system for EUV, the requirements for the backside of the mask must be redefined to integrate concerns in substrate design, mask manufacturing, and usage. The two key concerns with respect to an electrostatic chuck are defects and durability. Backside defects can affect imaging, while potentially damaging or contaminating the tool, the mask, or even subsequently used masks. Compromised durability, from either usage or cleaning, can affect the ability of the chuck to hold the mask in place. In this study, these concerns are evaluated in three stages: minimizing defects created during mask fabrication, actions taken upon discovery of defects, and durability of the backside film with continued cleans and chucking. Data incorporated in this study includes: sheet resistance, film thickness, and optical inspection images. Incorporating the data from the three stages of fabrication, disposition, and lifetime will help us define how to structure backside EUV mask handling during mask manufacture and indicate what further solutions are needed as EUV technology transitions into manufacturing.

  2. Clinical utility of ultrasound guidance for intra-articular knee injections: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkoff DJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available David J Berkoff1, Larry E Miller2,3, Jon E Block31Department of Orthopedics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Miller Scientific Consulting Inc, Arden, NC; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Intra-articular corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections provide short-term symptom amelioration for arthritic conditions involving structural damage or degenerative changes in the knee. Conventional palpation-guided anatomical injections frequently result in inaccurate needle placement into extra-articular tissue and adjacent structures. The purpose of this review was to determine the effect of ultrasound guidance on the accuracy of needle placement, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness in comparison with anatomical landmark-guided intra-articular large joint injections, with particular emphasis on the knee. A total of 13 relevant studies were identified; five studied the knee, seven studied the shoulder, one used both the knee and shoulder, and none studied the hip. Ultrasound was used in seven studies; the remaining studies utilized air arthrography, fluoroscopy, magnetic resonance arthrography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Across all studies (using all imaging modalities and all joints, needle placement accuracy ranged from 63% to 100% with ultrasound and from 39% to 100% with conventional anatomical guidance. Imaging guidance improved the accuracy of intra-articular injections of the knee (96.7% versus 81.0%, P < 0.001 and shoulder (97.3% versus 65.4%, P < 0.001. In particular, ultrasound guidance of knee injections resulted in better accuracy than anatomical guidance (95.8% versus 77.8%, P < 0.001, yielding an odds ratio of 6.4 (95% confidence interval 2.9–14. Ultrasound guidance notably improves injection accuracy in the target intra-articular joint space of large joints including the knee. The enhanced injection accuracy achieved with ultrasound needle guidance directly improves patient-reported clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness.Keywords: injection, intra-articular, knee, ultrasound

  3. Evaluation of Articular Eminence Morphology and Inclination in TMJ Internal Derangement Patients with MRI Evaluación de la Morfología e Inclinación de la Eminencia Articular en Pacientes con Trastorno Interno de ATM con MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin Ozkan; Hasan Ayberk Altug; Metin Sencimen; Bugra Senel

    2012-01-01

    Articular eminence morphology and inclination are reported to be two predisposing factors for the internal derangement (ID). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the inclination and morphology of the articular eminence and ID. The study included 70 temporomandibular joints with ID in 35 patients: 51 joints had disc displacements with reduction (DDWR) and 19 joints had disc displacements without reduction (DDWOR). All subjects underwent bilateral high resolution...

  4. Epilepsia focal en el niño:factores pronósticos de recurrencia

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo Alonso, Albia Josefina

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los factores pronósticos de recurrencia de las crisis epilépticas focales a los 2 años del diagnóstico y del inicio del tratamiento. Este estudio observacional, analítico y prospectivo incluyó a 207 niños que presentaron dos o más crisis epilépticas focales no provocadas, hospitalizados en el Departamento de Neuropediatría del Hospital “William Soler”, durante el período de tiempo comprendido desde diciembre de 2001 hasta diciembre de 2003. Al final...

  5. The focal plane instrumentation for the DUNE mission

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Jeff; Cropper, Mark; Eisenhauer, Frank; Refregier, Alexandre; collaboration, the DUNE

    2008-01-01

    DUNE (Dark Universe Explorer) is a proposed mission to measure parameters of dark energy using weak gravitational lensing The particular challenges of both optical and infrared focal planes and the DUNE baseline solution is discussed. The DUNE visible Focal Plane Array (VFP) consists of 36 large format red-sensitive CCDs, arranged in a 9x4 array together with the associated mechanical support structure and electronics processing chains. Four additional CCDs dedicated to atti...

  6. Focal Adhesion Kinase: An Old Protein with New Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Atul K. Pandey; Sonal Somvanshi; Singh, Vivek P.

    2012-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase, FAK is a tyrosine kinase which is prominently localized to focal adhesions and therefore its name, is an indispensable protein in integrin signaling. Since the discovery of FAK, this tyrosine kinase had been shown to regulate a variety of cell behavior like cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis which makes this molecule at a centre stage of cell and developmental biology research. We want to take this opportunity to briefly review the current state of ...

  7. Contemporary results of focal therapy for prostate cancer using cryoablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Johansen, Truls Erik Berklund; Polascik, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The concept of focal therapy is rapidly evolving and gaining popularity from both physician and patient perspectives. We review the rationale, candidate selection, and results of the first clinical studies of focal cryoablation for selected patients with low volume and low- to low-moderate-risk features of prostate cancer as an alternative to whole-gland treatment. In spite of improved understanding of the tumor biology of early stage disease, we currently have limited tools to select appropriat...

  8. Cell mechanosensitivity controls the anisotropy of focal adhesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, Alice; Geiger, Benjamin; Safran, Samuel A.

    2004-01-01

    Cellular adhesions are modulated by cytoskeletal forces or external stresses and adapt to the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix. We propose that this mechanosensitivity can be driven at least in part by the elastic, cell-contractility-induced deformations of protein molecules that form the adhesion. The model accounts for observations of anisotropic growth and shrinkage of focal adhesions in the direction of the force and predicts that focal adhesions only grow within a range ...

  9. Stress Orientation Confidence Intervals from Focal Mechanism Inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Revets, Stefan A.

    2010-01-01

    The determination of confidence intervals of stress orientation is a crucial element in the discussion of homogeneity or heterogeneity of the stress field under study. The error estimates provided by the grid search method Focal Mechanism Stress Inversion of Gephart and Forsyth (1984) have been shown to be too wide but the reasons for this failure have escaped elucidation. Through the use of directional statistics and synthetic focal mechanisms, I show that the grid search m...

  10. An index defined by focal points for periodic hamiltonians systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated to an n-dimensional linear Hamiltonian system a real number ? is defined as the mean number of focal points per unit of time. For general one parameter families of Hamiltonian systems with periodic coefficients the existence and the continuity of ? can be proved. Moreover, if the periodic system is hyperbolic, ? is associated to an integer. These results are extentions of Poincare's Study of Manpertuis' focal points. (Author)

  11. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome . However, for many birth defects, the causes are unknown. 1 Also, we don’t fully ... Published: February 10, 2014) Birth Defects are Critical Birth defects can cause lifelong challenges. (Published: January 27, 2014) Birth Defects ...

  12. Birth Defects. Matrix No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L.

    This report discusses the magnitude of the problem of birth defects, outlines advances in the birth defects field in the past decade, and identifies those areas where research is needed for the prevention, treatment, and management of birth defects. The problem of birth defects has consumed a greater portion of our health care resources because of…

  13. Focal Lesious of Thyroid Gland: efficacy of individual Iouide Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Martirosiyan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effectiveness of potassium iodide (200 mkg to focal changes there was a clinical study taken. Only the patients with focal changes in thyroid were included. The main group was represented with 29 patients with normal thyroid volume and took potassium iodide. 27 patients were included into the group under control and underwent dynamic examination. The third group was consisted of 13 patients with thyroid goiter and getting potassium iodide (200 mkg. The examination of the patient with focal changes of thyroid was suspected to check thyroid status: thyroid ultrasound study, TSH serum level and antibodies to TPO at the beginning, in six months and in 12 months. Follow-up period for each patient was 12 months. Physiological iodide dose recommended with the aim of prophylaxis was apt to prevent the growth of the existent focal changes in thyroid tissue but not led to their full regression; prevent new focal changes in thyroid tissue; normalize thyroid volume in patients with thyroid goiter; do not influence on TSH levels and antybodies to TPO in patients with focal changes in thyroid tissue.

  14. Evaluation using MRI T2 mapping of the articular cartilage after anterior cruciate ligament injury in young athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Articular cartilage damage coexisting in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in young athletes is not rare. We evaluated the conditions of the articular cartilage using MRI T2 mapping method and compared the vesults with the findings of arthroscopy. From June to August in 2010, we performed ACL reconstruction in 31 patients. We selected 17 cases (eleven men and six women, mean age 19.1 years old), all of whom were athletes and the under 29 years old. Articular cartilage damage was observed in six out of 10 cases, and their T2 values were high on MRI T2 mapping. On the other hand, damage was observed only in one out of seven cases, and T2 values were in the normal level of the mapping. Using MRI T2 mapping, we can evaluate the articular cartilage at an early phase noninvasively. MRI T2 mapping is useful and effective for athletes. (author)

  15. Condylar lesions in relation to mandibular growth in untreated and intra-articular corticosteroid-treated experimental temporomandibular joint arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter bangsgaard; Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Küseler, Annelise; Gelineck, John; Cattaneo, Paolo; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Herlin, Troels

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate condylar lesions in relation to mandibular growth in experimental temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis and to assess the outcome of treating this condition with repeated intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACIs). METHODS: Forty-two 10-week-old rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Seven animals served as controls. Experimental TMJ arthritis was induced in five animals which received intra-articular TMJ saline injections. Fifteen animals had TMJ arthri...

  16. Investigation of the effects of injury upon intracellular signalling pathways and expression of inflammatory response genes in articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Fiona Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Damage to joints predisposes to osteoarthritis. The mechanism by which injury to cartilage might lead to net matrix loss and cartilage degeneration remains unknown. Following experimental sharp injury to porcine articular cartilage (dissection from, or scoring of the articular surface), our group has previously shown rapid activation of the 3 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in cartilage. Activation of ERK, and probably also p38 MAPK, is due to release of fibrob...

  17. Transforming Growth Factor ?-Induced Superficial Zone Protein Accumulation in the Surface Zone of Articular Cartilage Is Dependent on the Cytoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2013-01-01

    The phenotype of articular chondrocytes is dependent on the cytoskeleton, specifically the actin microfilament architecture. Articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture undergo dedifferentiation and assume a fibroblastic phenotype. This process can be reversed by altering the actin cytoskeleton by treatment with cytochalasin. Whereas dedifferentiation has been studied on chondrocytes isolated from the whole cartilage, the effects of cytoskeletal alteration on specific zones of cells such as s...

  18. Flexiteste: proposição de cinco índices de variabilidade da mobilidade articular Flexitest: proposal of five variability indices for joint mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    A flexibilidade pode ser definida como a máxima amplitude fisiológica passiva em um dado movimento articular. A flexibilidade é específica para a articulação e para o movimento. O Flexiteste, originalmente descrito em 1980, permite a medida da flexibilidade de 20 movimentos articulares, em uma escala crescente de números inteiros entre 0 e 4, e a obtenção de um resultado global denominado de Flexíndice. Considerando que o mesmo Flexíndice pode ser obtido por diferentes combinações dos escores...

  19. Altered leucocyte trafficking and suppressed tumour necrosis factor ? release from peripheral blood monocytes after intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, J.; Ma, D; Dusci, L.; Garas, G; Pedersen, K; Joyce, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—A generalised transient improvement may follow intra-articular administration of glucocorticoids to patients with inflammatory arthropathy. This may represent a systemic anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoid released from the joint, mediated through processes such as altered leucocyte trafficking or suppressed release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients, who had received intra-articular injections of glucocorticoids were therefore studied for evidence of these two systemic...

  20. Preventing surgical complications: A survey on surgeons' perception of intra-articular malleolar screw misplacement in a cadaveric study

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque Rodrigo P; Amaral Ney P; Gomes Arthur FS; Giordano Vincenzo; Pires Robinson ES

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Intra-articular hardware penetration can occur during osteosynthesis of ankle fractures, jeopardizing patients' outcomes. The intraoperative recognition of misplaced screws may be difficult due to the challenge of adequate interpretation of specific radiographic views. The present study was designed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of standardized radiographic ankle views to determine the accuracy of diagnosis for intra-articular hardware placement of medial malleola...

  1. Collective Phenomena in Defect Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Reimer; Würger, Alois

    2000-01-01

    We investigate effects of interactions between substitutional defects on the properties of defect crystals at low temperatures, where defect motion is governed by quantum effects. Both, thermal and dynamical properties are considered. The influence of interactions on defect motion is described via a collective effect. Our treatment is semiclassical in the sense that we analyze collective effects in a classical setting, and analyze the influence on quantized defect motion onl...

  2. Functional evaluation of temporary focal cerebral ischemia: experimental model Avaliação funcional da isquemia cerebral focal temporária em modelo experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Sinésio Grace Duarte; Antônio Dorival Campos; Benedicto Oscar Colli

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite cerebral ischemia being a frequent clinical pathologic state, the tolerance of neural tissue to oxygen absence and to reperfusion is controversial. This study aims to evaluate the effects of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, by analyzing the mitochondrial respiration. METHOD: Sixty-four adult rats underwent focal cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion, during 15, 30 and 60 minutes, followed by 10 minutes or 19 hours of reperfusion. The effects of ischemia ...

  3. Isolated intra-articular fracture of the distal ulna: a rare injury related to airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goikoetxea, Xabier; Garmilla, Iñaki; Etxebarria, Iñigo; Careaga, Miguel

    2006-04-01

    An isolated intra-articular and adjacent shaft fracture of the distal ulna is described. A 38-old-year woman driver sustained an automobile accident with subsequent airbag deployment injuring her left wrist. Imaging studies showed displacement of a radiovolar fragment and deformity of the ulnar articular surface. The fracture was reduced and internally fixed with 3, 3.5-mm, cannulated screws to avoid future difficulties in forearm rotation, ulnocarpal impaction, and late posttraumatic arthritis. The final outcome was excellent. Careful clinical and radiologic examination is strongly recommended for this type of fracture, which seems to be a part of the spectrum of upper limb injuries associated with airbag deployment. Such injuries can be expected to occur more frequently with the increasing use of airbags. PMID:16721248

  4. Fluid extravasation of the articular capsule as a complication of temporomandibular joint pumping and perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a retrospective study of fluid extravasation as a complication of temporomandibular joint pumping and perfusion. Contrast-enhanced 3D-CT of the upper joint compartment was performed for presurgical diagnosis before temporomandibular joint arthroscopic surgery in our hospital from 1996 to 2000. From these cases, 43 joints and 38 patients were selected because they had not improved under conservative treatment during the previous six months. Fluid extravasation of the articular capsule was recognized in 9 joints (20.9%) in 9 patients, 3 males and 6 females. Two of the nine patients had undergone arthroscopic observation before surgery. This test had revealed only thin articular capsule, not a perforation, in any of these cases. The data indicate only extremely tiny perforations or infiltration leakage due to the fluid pressure in the upper joint compartment during pumping or perfusion. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of this complication. (author)

  5. Fluid extravasation of the articular capsule as a complication of temporomandibular joint pumping and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Kenichi; Watahiki, Ryuichirou; Tamura, Hidetoshi; Ogura, Motoi; Shibuya, Masayuki [Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    This report is a retrospective study of fluid extravasation as a complication of temporomandibular joint pumping and perfusion. Contrast-enhanced 3D-CT of the upper joint compartment was performed for presurgical diagnosis before temporomandibular joint arthroscopic surgery in our hospital from 1996 to 2000. From these cases, 43 joints and 38 patients were selected because they had not improved under conservative treatment during the previous six months. Fluid extravasation of the articular capsule was recognized in 9 joints (20.9%) in 9 patients, 3 males and 6 females. Two of the nine patients had undergone arthroscopic observation before surgery. This test had revealed only thin articular capsule, not a perforation, in any of these cases. The data indicate only extremely tiny perforations or infiltration leakage due to the fluid pressure in the upper joint compartment during pumping or perfusion. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of this complication. (author)

  6. Osseous scintigraphy in exploration of fever osteo-articular pain in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteo articular complications of sickle cell disease are multiple and can occur in the acute mode, (Bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic (osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis).Through 6 cases we present the interest, lack and limitations of planar scintigraphy with bis phosphonates. Two patients underwent an early bone scan supplemented by medullary scintigraphy with nano colloids, the diagnosis was a bone infarction. In two children, the bone scan was performed between 5 and 7 days after the beginning of symptoms and did not objectify image of acute osteo articular complication. In the last patient, abnormal scintigraphy does not allow to differentiate osteomyelitis and bone infarction. The bone scan remains an essential consideration in the exploration of bone manifestations in sickle cell disease. Its association with bone marrow scintigraphy provides better diagnostic accuracy in differentiating osteomyelitis and bone infarction and adjusting the therapeutic management. (N.C.)

  7. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna; Stanton, Paul; De Smet, Arthur [University of Wisconsin Hospital Clinical Science Center-E3/311, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Fine, Jason [University of Wisconsin Clinical Science Center-K6/4675, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation. (orig.)

  8. Synovial fluid filtration by articular cartilage in the human synovial joints.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavá?ek, Miroslav

    Svratka : Ústav termomechaniky AV?R, 2005 - (Fuis, V.; Návrat, T.), s. 113-114 ISBN 80-85918-93-5. [Inženýrská mechanika 2005. Svratka (CZ), 09.05.2005-12.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA103/04/0150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : synovial fluid filtration * articular cartilage * synovial joint Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  9. Accuracy of ultrasound-guided injections of thoracolumbar articular process joints in horses : a cadaveric study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglbjerg, Vibeke; Nielsen, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: Arthrosis of the articular process joints (APJs) in the caudal thoracolumbar region of horses may cause back pain and subsequent reduced performance or lameness. Ultrasound-guided injections of the APJs of the equine back have been described only briefly in the literature. Objectives: To evaluate factors of affecting the accuracy of intra-articular injections of the APJs in the caudal thoracolumbar region. Method: One-hundred-and-fifty-four injections with blue dye were performed on APJs including the T14-L6 region in 12 horses subjected to euthanasia for reasons unrelated to back problems. The backs were subsequently dissected to verify the location of the injectate in relation to the APJs. Results: Twenty-seven percent of the injections were found to be intra-articular and a total of 77% found to be within 2 mm of the joint capsule including the intra-articular deposits. Application of a medial approach and 18 gauge needle were significantly associated with an intra-articulr injection or deposition close to the joint capsule. Operator, APJ (location) and back number (chronological) did not significantly affect the accuracy of injection. Conclusions and potential relevance: Injection of the vertebral APJ in the thoracolumbar region using ultrasound guidance is a reliable method, as most of the injections were either in or within 2 mm of the joint. Based on the findings of this cadaver study, the medial approach is expected to be the most accurate in live horses. Further investigations are required to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of this method in clinical practice.

  10. Intra-articular entrapment of the medial collateral ligament: radiographic and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Displacement of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) into the medial knee joint is an extremely rare finding associated with MCL tears, and is easily diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging. A case of intra-articular interposition of the MCL during a severe knee injury is presented. A radiolucent ''fat stripe'' sign and adjacent skin dimpling on radiographs may be relatively specific indicators of this injury. (orig.)

  11. Clinical Testing for Extra-Articular Lateral Knee Pain. A Modification and Combination of Traditional Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Knee pain is one of the most common problems encountered by recreational and competitive athletes. Pain over the lateral aspect of the knee can be the result of intra or extra articular conditions. The purpose of this clinical suggestion is to present the modification of a traditional clinical test to aide in the differential diagnosis of lateral knee pain. This method has not been described elsewhere and anecdotally has been helpful in the evaluation of patients with lateral knee pain.

  12. Rehabilitation of Extra-Articular Sources of Hip Pain in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Timothy F.; Nicholas, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Among people who participate in sports, extra-articular soft tissue injuries around the hip are common. The hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, and abductor muscle groups are often the site of soft tissue injury. Overlapping conditions make it difficult to identify the primary cause of hip pain and dysfunction. A proper evaluation and diagnosis of the impairment are crucial for the selection of interventions and quick return to play. The purpose of the clinical commentary is to present an eviden...

  13. A Novel Method for Calculating the Frictional Properties of Articular Cartilage Using a Material Testing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease which causes chronic pain, joint destruction, disability, depression, and social in patients. Many researchers have studied the coefficient of friction of articular cartilage (AC) using a variety of methods, especially with the tribology method. Functional biotribology is a useful way to better understand how and why cartilage becomes osteoarthritis. In this study, a novel biomechanical measurement system was built to determine the fr...

  14. Alteraciones Biomecánicas Articulares en la Obesidad / Biomédical joint disorders in obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Freddy, González Jemio; Omar, Mustafá Milán; Alex, Antezana Arzabe.

    Full Text Available La osteoartrosis en el obeso a nivel de las articulaciones que soportan el peso del cuerpo, es frecuente, por alterarse su biomecánica y tener que soportar grandes tensiones por encima de la resistencia normal de los tejidos. Patologías previas y/o asociadas a la obesidad, producen mala estructuraci [...] ón de las articulaciones estudiadas, lo que provocaría una acelerada evolución de la destrucción del cartílago articular, con el consiguiente agravamiento de la artrosis, limitando la funcionalidad del segmento corporal afectado. El tratamiento del sobrepeso disminuye las fuerzas de tensión a nivel del cartílago articular y por consiguiente mejora la sintomatología clínica, lo que permite inferir que debe siempre tratarse inicialmente la obesidad, para después planificar el tratamiento quirúrgico que corresponda. Debemos considerar que el manejo adecuado de éste tipo de pacientes debe ser siempre multidisciplinario. En la presente revisión pretendemos demostrar el efecto nocivo del sobrepeso en las articulaciones que soportan el peso corporal: columna lumbo-sacra, caderas, rodillas y tobillos. Abstract in english Osteoarthrosis of joints that support body weight in the obese are very common, having altered biomechanics and having to withstand high weights above the normal resistance of the tissues. Previous pathologies and/or associated with obesity, produce structural joint alterations, causing a rapid evol [...] ution to articular cartilage destruction, leading to aggravation of osteoarthritis, limiting the functionality of the affected body segment. Treatment of overweight decreases the tensional forces at the articular cartilage and therefore improves the clinical symptoms, which can be inferred that should always be treated initially the problem of obesity, and the plan the appropriate surgical treatment. We consider that proper management of these patients should always be multidisciplinary. In this review we aim to prove the harmful effects of excess weight-bearing joints in the body weight: lumbosacral spine, hips, knees and ankles.

  15. Cytotoxicity of local anesthetics to rats' articular cartilage: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin; Kose, Gamze Torun; Ekinci, Isin D.; Bekler, Halil; Yilmaz, Cemil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both in vivo and in vitro bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and tramadol on articular cartilage and chondrocytes in experimental rat models. Methods: Thirty mature Sprague Dawley rats weighing 230-300 g were randomized into 3 groups. Bupivacaine (Group 1), levobupivacaine (Group 2) and tramadol (Group 3) were injected into the right knee joints and a physiological 0.9% saline into the left. From each group, 5 rats were executed 48...

  16. Tissue-Engineered Articular Cartilage Exhibits Tension-Compression Nonlinearity Reminiscent of the Native Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Terri-Ann N.; Roach, Brendan L.; Weidner, Zachary D.; Mackenzie-Smith, Charles R.; O'Connell, Grace D.; Lima, Eric G.; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, James. L.; ATESHIAN, GERARD A.; Hung, Clark T.

    2013-01-01

    The tensile modulus of articular cartilage is much larger than its compressive modulus. This tension-compression nonlinearity enhances interstitial fluid pressurization and decreases the frictional coefficient. The current set of studies examines the tensile and compressive properties of cylindrical chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs over different developmental stages through a novel method that combines osmotic loading, video microscopy, and uniaxial unconfined compression testing. This ...

  17. MR diagnosis of articular cartilage injury in the knee: compared with arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of FS-3D-FISP, FS-2D-FLASH and SE-T1WI sequences in the detection of articular cartilage injury of the knee. Methods: 34 consecutive patients with persistent symptoms of knee pain who were scheduled for arthroscopy underwent MR examination of the knee on a 1.5 TMR unit prior to arthroscopy. The 2D MR images were transferred to a workstation and processed tow-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Compared with the arthroscopy, the sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa were 91.4%, 97%, and 0.818, respectively with FS-3D-F ISP sequence, 77.1%, 98%, and 0.531, respectively with FS-2D-FLASH sequence, 70%, 99%, and 0.518, respectively with SE-T1WI sequence. In the cases that had no acute trauma, 77.6% lesions were shown lower SI on T1-WI in the region of the subchondral bone and marrow near the lesions, and higher SI on FS-3D-FISP and FS-2D-FLASH sequences. Conclusion: Comparing with arthroscopy, the diagnosis accuracy of FS-3D-FISP sequence is obviously better than that of FS-2D-FLASH and SE-T1WI sequences. Correlation between FS-3D-FISP sequence and arthroscopy in detecting articular cartilage injury is remarkeble. Abnormal signal in the subchondral bone and marrow is an important indirect sign of articular cartilage injury. Three-dimensional reconstruction of articular cartilage is helpful for localization of the lesions after injury. (authors)

  18. Intra-articular steroid injection for temporomandibular joint arthritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper D; Verna, Carlalberta; Küseler, Annelise; Pedersen, Thomas K; Herlin, Troels

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the current level of evidence for the use of intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI) against temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with a particular focus on clinical and radiological improvements and safety profile. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search strategy was performed in all major medical databases in February 2012. Studies were selected independently by two reviewers in accordance with a pre-sp...

  19. Hypersensitivity to mechanical and intra-articular electrical stimuli in persons with painful temporomandibular joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh, Emad; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Svensson, P

    2007-01-01

    This study tested whether persons with TMJ arthralgia have a modality-specific and site-specific hypersensitivity to somatosensory stimuli assessed by quantitative sensory tests (QST). Forty-three healthy persons and 20 with TMJ arthralgia participated. The QST consisted of: sensory and pain detection thresholds and summation threshold to intra-articular electrical stimulation, tactile and pin-prick sensitivity in the TMJ area, pressure-pain threshold and tolerance on the lateral side of the TMJ...

  20. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor in leprosy patients with articular involvement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.L.E., Ribeiro; H.L.A., Pereira; N.P., Silva; R.M.S., Neves; E.I., Sato.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to evaluate the usefulness of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and the IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF) test for the differential diagnosis of leprosy with articular involvement and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Anti-CCP antibodies and IgM [...] RF were measured in the sera of 158 leprosy patients (76 with and 82 without articular involvement), 69 RA patients and 89 healthy controls. Leprosy diagnosis was performed according to Ridley and Jopling classification criteria and clinical and demographic characteristics of leprosy patients were collected by a standard questionnaire. Leprosy patients with any concomitant rheumatic disease were excluded. Serum samples were obtained from all participants and frozen at _20°C. Measurement of anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were performed by ELISA, using a commercial second-generation kit, and the latex agglutination test, respectively. Anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were detected in low frequencies (2.6 and 1.3%, respectively) in leprosy patients and were not associated with articular involvement. Among healthy individuals both anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were each detected in 3.4% of the subjects. In contrast, in the RA group, anti-CCP antibodies were present in 81.2% and IgM RF in 62.3%. In the present study, both anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF showed good positive predictive value for RA, helping to discriminate between RA and leprosy patients with articular involvement. However, anti-CCP antibodies were more specific for RA diagnosis in the population under study.

  1. Analgesia intra-articular com morfina, bupivacaína ou fentanil após operação de joelho por videoartroscopia

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Rogério Helcias de; Issy Adriana Machado; Sakata Rioko Kimiko

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O uso de métodos que promovam analgesia para dor do joelho sem prejudicar a função motora tem sido bastante pesquisado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o efeito analgésico da morfina, da bupivacaína e do fentanil, com a solução fisiológica, injetada por via intra-articular após operação de joelho por videoartroscopia. MÉTODO: Sessenta pacientes foram divididos de forma aleatória, em quatro grupos: GI (n=15) - 10 ml de solução fisiológica; GII (n = 15) - 2...

  2. An In Vitro Model for the Pathological Degradation of Articular Cartilage in Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, Stephanie; Bhargava, Madhu M.; Torzilli, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro cartilage degradation model that emulates the damage seen in early-stage osteoarthritis. To this end, cartilage explants were collagenase-treated to induce enzymatic degradation of collagen fibers and proteoglycans at the articular surface. To assess changes in mechanical properties, intact and degraded cartilage explants were subjected to a series of confined compression creep tests. Changes in extracellular matrix structure and composit...

  3. Detection of changes in articular cartilage proteoglycan by T1? magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wheaton, Andrew J.; Dodge, George R.; Borthakur, Arijitt; Kneeland, J. Bruce; Schumacher, H Ralph; Reddy, Ravinder

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of T1?-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitatively measure changes in proteoglycan content in cartilage. The T1? MRI technique was implemented in an in vivo porcine animal model with rapidly induced cytokine-mediated cartilage degeneration. Six pigs were given an intra-articular injection of recombinant porcine interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into the knee joint before imaging to induce changes in cartilage via matrix metallopr...

  4. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch Ryan S; Ashwell Melissa S; O’Nan Audrey T; Mente Peter L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Results Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted por...

  5. Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muldrew Ken

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a relatively non-regenerative tissue, articular cartilage has been targeted for cryopreservation as a method of mitigating a lack of donor tissue availability for transplant surgeries. In addition, subzero storage of articular cartilage has long been used in biomedical studies using various storage temperatures. The current investigation studies the potential for freeze-thaw to affect the mechanical properties of articular cartilage through direct comparison of various subzero storage temperatures. Methods Both subzero storage temperature as well as freezing rate were compared using control samples (4°C and samples stored at either -20°C or -80°C as well as samples first snap frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C prior to storage at -80°C. All samples were thawed at 37.5°C to testing temperature (22°C. Complex stiffness and hysteresis characterized load resistance and damping properties using a non-destructive, low force magnitude, dynamic indentation protocol spanning a broad loading rate range to identify the dynamic viscoelastic properties of cartilage. Results Stiffness levels remained unchanged with exposure to the various subzero temperatures. Hysteresis increased in samples snap frozen at -196°C and stored at -80°C, though remained unchanged with exposure to the other storage temperatures. Conclusions Mechanical changes shown are likely due to ice lens creation, where frost heave effects may have caused collagen damage. That storage to -20°C and -80°C did not alter the mechanical properties of articular cartilage shows that when combined with a rapid thawing protocol to 37.5°C, the tissue may successfully be stored at subzero temperatures.

  6. Contrast Agent-Enhanced Computed Tomography of Articular Cartilage: Association with Tissue Composition and Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, T.S.; Jurvelin, J.S.; Aula, A.S.; Lammi, M.J.; Toeyraes, J. (Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    Background: Contrast agent-enhanced computed tomography may enable the noninvasive quantification of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of articular cartilage. It has been reported that penetration of the negatively charged contrast agent ioxaglate (Hexabrix) increases significantly after enzymatic degradation of GAGs. However, it is not known whether spontaneous degradation of articular cartilage can be quantitatively detected with this technique. Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic potential of contrast agent-enhanced cartilage tomography (CECT) in quantification of GAG concentration in normal and spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage by means of clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Material and Methods: In this in vitro study, normal and spontaneously degenerated adult bovine cartilage (n=32) was used. Bovine patellar cartilage samples were immersed in 21 mM contrast agent (Hexabrix) solution for 24 hours at room temperature. After immersion, the samples were scanned with a clinical pQCT instrument. From pQCT images, the contrast agent concentration in superficial as well as in full-thickness cartilage was calculated. Histological and functional integrity of the samples was quantified with histochemical and mechanical reference measurements extracted from our earlier study. Results: Full diffusion of contrast agent into the deep cartilage was found to take over 8 hours. As compared to normal cartilage, a significant increase (11%, P<0.05) in contrast agent concentration was seen in the superficial layer of spontaneously degenerated samples. Significant negative correlations were revealed between the contrast agent concentration and the superficial or full-thickness GAG content of tissue (|R|>0.5, P<0.01). Further, pQCT could be used to measure the thickness of patellar cartilage. Conclusion: The present results suggest that CECT can be used to diagnose proteoglycan depletion in spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage with a clinical pQCT scanner. Possibly, the in vivo use of clinical pQCT for CECT arthrography of human joints is feasible

  7. Radiolabeled anti granulocyte antibodies in the detection of osteo-articular prosthesis infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled anti-granulocyte antibodies (immunoscintigraphy) are of demonstrated effectiveness in the diagnosis of infection. The osteo-articular prosthesis infection, instead of its low prevalence, needs an accurate and fast diagnosis. The immunoscintigraphy in this group of patients is a debated subject as the results seem to be related to the experience, interpretation criteria and patients clinical features. In general, immunoscintigraphy is an useful technique with an easy, safe and fast preparation. (author)

  8. Viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage attached to subchondral bone at high frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Duncan ET

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is a viscoelastic material, but its exact behaviour under the full range of physiological loading frequencies is unknown. The objective of this study was to measure the viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage at loading frequencies of up to 92 Hz. Methods Intact tibial plateau cartilage, attached to subchondral bone, was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. A sinusoidally varying compressive force of between 16 N and 36 N, at frequencies from 1 Hz to 92 Hz, was applied to the cartilage surface by a flat indenter. The storage modulus, loss modulus and phase angle (between the applied force and the deformation induced were determined. Results The storage modulus, E', increased with increasing frequency, but at higher frequencies it tended towards a constant value. Its dependence on frequency, f, could be represented by, E' = Aloge (f + B where A = 2.5 ± 0.6 MPa and B = 50.1 ± 12.5 MPa (mean ± standard error. The values of the loss modulus (4.8 ± 1.0 MPa mean ± standard deviation were much less than the values of storage modulus and showed no dependence on frequency. The phase angle was found to be non-zero for all frequencies tested (4.9 ± 0.6°. Conclusion Articular cartilage is viscoelastic throughout the full range of frequencies investigated. The behaviour has implications for mechanical damage to articular cartilage and the onset of osteoarthritis. Storage modulus increases with frequency, until the plateau region is reached, and has a higher value than loss modulus. Furthermore, loss modulus does not increase with loading frequency. This means that more energy is stored by the tissue than is dissipated and that this effect is greater at higher frequencies. The main mechanism for this excess energy to be dissipated is by the formation of cracks.

  9. Safety of Intra-Articular Use of Atelocollagen for Enhanced Tissue Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Magarian, Elise M; Vavken, Patrick; Connolly, Susan A; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Murray, Martha M.

    2012-01-01

    Collagen is an important biomaterial in intra-articular tissue engineering, but there are unanswered questions about its safety. We hypothesize that the addition of type-I-collagen for primary repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) might result in a local and systemic reaction in a porcine model after 15 weeks as demonstrated by joint effusion, synovial thickening, elevated intraarticular and systemic leukocyte counts. Further, this reaction might be aggravated by the addition of a pl...

  10. Snorc is a novel cartilage specific small membrane proteoglycan expressed in differentiating and articular chondrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, J; Taipaleenmäki, H; Roering, P; Takatalo, M; Harkness, L; Sandholm, J; Uusitalo-Järvinen, H; Kassem, M; Kiviranta, I; Laitala-Leinonen, T; Säämänen, A-M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype is a major issue in prevention of degeneration and repair of articular cartilage. Although the critical pathways in chondrocyte maturation and homeostasis have been revealed, the in-depth understanding is deficient and novel modifying components and interaction partners are still likely to be discovered. Our focus in this study was to characterize a novel cartilage specific gene that was identified in mouse limb cartilage during embryonic developme...

  11. Intra-articular membranous interposition detected by MRI in developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, W.; Itoi, Eiji; Sato, Kozo [Akita Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    2000-12-01

    Intra-articular membranous interposition was detected by MRI in the hip joint with residual subluxation of a girl aged 5 years 10 months. This structure, which had low signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images, separated the femoral head from the acetabulum. Histological examination revealed chondrometaplasia, which suggested that this interposition might be transformed to a surface cartilaginous tissue of the secondary acetabulum often observed in residual subluxation of the hip. (orig.)

  12. Promotion of the articular cartilage proteoglycan degradation by T-2 toxin and selenium protective effect*

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Si-Yuan; Cao, Jun-ling; Shi, Zhong-li; Chen, Jing-hong; Zhang, Zeng-tie; Hughes, Clare E.; Caterson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the relationship between T-2 toxin and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), the effects of T-2 toxin on aggrecan metabolism in human chondrocytes and cartilage were investigated in vitro. Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from human articular cartilage and cultured in vitro. Hyaluronic acid (HA), soluble CD44 (sCD44), IL-1? and TNF-? levels in supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD44 content in chondrocyte membrane was determined by flow cyt...

  13. Acute arthritis after intra-articular hyaluronate injection: onset of effusions without crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardeau, C; Bucki, B; Liote, F

    2001-01-01

    Side effects of intra-articular hyaluronate injection include aseptic acute arthritis, which develops within hours after injection. Based on standard crystal analysis, calcium crystal shedding has been postulated to explain this complication. However, it is not known whether apatite crystals or low amounts of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are also involved as to determine this requires a complete synovial fluid (SF) analysis. Two cases of such an acute arthritis are reported...

  14. More intrinsic parameters should be used in assessing degeneration of articular cartilage with quantitative ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yan-Ping

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, the quantitative ultrasound technique has been widely employed as a versatile modality to investigate a thin but crucial tissue layer – the articular cartilage. Previous studies provide information about the morphology and mechanical and acoustic properties of the tissue derived from ultrasound measurements and correlate them with cartilage degeneration. In a previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Kuroki and colleagues presented a study about the relationship ...

  15. Raman spectroscopy of articular cartilage and subchondral bone on osteoarthritic human femoral heads

    OpenAIRE

    Kontoyannis, Christos; Vardaki, Martha; Megas, Panagiotis; Panteliou, Sofia; Orkoula, Malvina; Papachristou, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), is a very common skeletal disease, characterized by the degeneration of the articular/hyaline cartilage and the subchondral bone. It is mostly caused by excessive mechanical loading on the joints, although it can also have biological/metabolic origins or contributions. Because cartilage is avascular it repairs very slowly, if at all. In the OA patients, hyaline cartilage is gradually destroyed and becomes eventually sufficiently thin that bony surfaces rub against each ot...

  16. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor in leprosy patients with articular involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.E. Ribeiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to evaluate the usefulness of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibodies and the IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF test for the differential diagnosis of leprosy with articular involvement and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were measured in the sera of 158 leprosy patients (76 with and 82 without articular involvement, 69 RA patients and 89 healthy controls. Leprosy diagnosis was performed according to Ridley and Jopling classification criteria and clinical and demographic characteristics of leprosy patients were collected by a standard questionnaire. Leprosy patients with any concomitant rheumatic disease were excluded. Serum samples were obtained from all participants and frozen at _20°C. Measurement of anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were performed by ELISA, using a commercial second-generation kit, and the latex agglutination test, respectively. Anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were detected in low frequencies (2.6 and 1.3%, respectively in leprosy patients and were not associated with articular involvement. Among healthy individuals both anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were each detected in 3.4% of the subjects. In contrast, in the RA group, anti-CCP antibodies were present in 81.2% and IgM RF in 62.3%. In the present study, both anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF showed good positive predictive value for RA, helping to discriminate between RA and leprosy patients with articular involvement. However, anti-CCP antibodies were more specific for RA diagnosis in the population under study.

  17. Reduction of Environmental Temperature Mitigates Local Anesthetic Cytotoxicity in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Onur, Tarik; Dang, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether reducing environmental temperature will lead to increased chondrocyte viability following injury from a single-dose of local anesthetic treatment. Bovine articular chondrocytes from weight bearing portions of femoral condyles were harvested and cultured. 96-well plates were seeded with 15,000 chondrocytes per well. Chondrocytes were treated with one of the following conditions: ITS Media, 1x PBS, 2% lidocaine, 0.5% bupivacaine, or 0.5% ropivacai...

  18. Clinical utility of ultrasound guidance for intra-articular knee injections: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Berkoff DJ; Miller LE; Block JE

    2012-01-01

    David J Berkoff1, Larry E Miller2,3, Jon E Block31Department of Orthopedics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Miller Scientific Consulting Inc, Arden, NC; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Intra-articular corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections provide short-term symptom amelioration for arthritic conditions involving structural damage or degenerative changes in the knee. Conventional palpation-guided anatomical injections frequently...

  19. The emerin-binding transcription factor Lmo7 is regulated by association with p130Cas at focal adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A. Wozniak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Loss of function mutations in the nuclear inner membrane protein, emerin, cause X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD. X-EDMD is characterized by contractures of major tendons, skeletal muscle weakening and wasting, and cardiac conduction system defects. The transcription factor Lmo7 regulates muscle- and heart-relevant genes and is inhibited by binding to emerin, suggesting Lmo7 misregulation contributes to EDMD disease. Lmo7 associates with cell adhesions and shuttles between the plasma membrane and nucleus, but the regulation and biological consequences of this dual localization were unknown. We report endogenous Lmo7 also associates with focal adhesions in cells, and both co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with p130Cas, a key signaling component of focal adhesions. Lmo7 nuclear localization and transcriptional activity increased significantly in p130Cas-null MEFs, suggesting Lmo7 is negatively regulated by p130Cas-dependent association with focal adhesions. These results support EDMD models in which Lmo7 is a downstream mediator of integrin-dependent signaling that allows tendon cells and muscles to adapt to and withstand mechanical stress.

  20. CAMBIOS ESTRUCTURALES DEL COMPLEJO ARTICULAR TEMPOROMANDIBULAR (CATM) EN DISTINTAS EDADES GESTACIONALES / HUMAN TEMPOROMANDIBULAR ARTICULAR COMPLEX STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN DEFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. E., Ferraris; M., Carranza; A., Actis; A., Simbrón.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se analizaron los cambios estructurales de los distintos componentes del CATM en fetos humanos de 16, 18, 24 y 37 semanas de gestación, con el propósito de identificar el grado de maduración tisular y asociarlo con su posible capacidad funcional para efectuar los movimientos mandibulares. S [...] e emplearon técnicas histoquímicas de rutina y de inmunomarcación. Los anticuerpos utilizados fueron proteína de neurofilamentos (NE14), vimentina y mioglobina mediante el sistema avidina-biotina, DAB. Las variaciones observadas en las distintas edades gestacionales se encontraron principalmente, a nivel del disco articular y cóndilo mandibular. Entre las 16 y 18 semanas, el disco mostró fibrillas PAS positivas y abundantes fibras argirófilas dispuestas en plexos. Las fibras elásticas fueron escasas y muy delgadas en la zona bilaminar póstero-superior. A las 24 semanas, el CATM mostró un aumento notable en las dimensiones de todos sus componentes. El disco de mayor espesor exibió una proporción más elevada de fibras colágenas y elásticas, mientras que las fibrillas argirófilas organizadas en haces adquirieron una disposición específica. Se identificaron nervios inmunorreactivos con NE14 en la zona anterior y en el espacio laminar póstero-inferior próximo al cóndilo. En los especímenes de mayor edad, los cortes sagitales del disco aislado, mostraron diferentes regiones según el espesor y la disposición de las fibras colágenas. Algunos haces musculares del pterigoideo dispuestos en zig-zag y con apariencia de un estado de semicontracción, no expresaron la mioglobina. A las 24 semanas, los componentes del CATM presentaron, en general, características similares a las observadas en los fetos de término. La maduración de los músculos asociados y de los tejidos articulares, en especial del disco, permite sugerir que los componentes del CATM estarían capacitados para desarrollar actividades de apertura y cierre mandibular a partir de esta etapa prenatal Abstract in english SUMMARY:Structural changes in temporomandibular articular complexe of 16, 18, 24 and 37 week-old human fetuses were studied with the aim to establishing the possible relationship between the tissular maturity level and its capacity for mandibular movements. Histochemical and immunostaining technique [...] s were used. The antibodies employed were: neurofilament proteins (NE14), vimentin and myoglobin, avidin-biotin system, DAB. The variations between the different ages mainly occurred at the level of the articular disk and mandibular condyle. Between the sixteenth and eighteenth week, the disk showed Schiff-periodic acid (PAS) positive fibrils and abundant argyrophile fibres in plexus arrangement. Elastic fibres were scarce and thin in the bilaminar postero-superior area. In the twenty-fourth week, the disk showed a high proportion of collagen and elastic fibres, whereas the argyrophile fibres had a laxer arrangement. Nerves immunoreactive with NE14 were observed both in the anterior and postero-inferior areas next to the condyle. In thirty seven old specimens, the sagittal sections of the isolated disk showed different areas according to the collagen fibres thickness and arrangement. Some bundles of pterigoid muscles displayed a zig-zag pattern, thus having an appearance of semicontraction, though the expression of myoglobin was negative. In the twenty-fourth week, the components of the articulation had similar characteristics to those of a newborn child. This suggests that the articular and muscular tissues are capable of performing mandibular opening and closing activities from this prenatal stage

  1. CAMBIOS ESTRUCTURALES DEL COMPLEJO ARTICULAR TEMPOROMANDIBULAR (CATM EN DISTINTAS EDADES GESTACIONALES HUMAN TEMPOROMANDIBULAR ARTICULAR COMPLEX STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN DEFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ferraris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se analizaron los cambios estructurales de los distintos componentes del CATM en fetos humanos de 16, 18, 24 y 37 semanas de gestación, con el propósito de identificar el grado de maduración tisular y asociarlo con su posible capacidad funcional para efectuar los movimientos mandibulares. Se emplearon técnicas histoquímicas de rutina y de inmunomarcación. Los anticuerpos utilizados fueron proteína de neurofilamentos (NE14, vimentina y mioglobina mediante el sistema avidina-biotina, DAB. Las variaciones observadas en las distintas edades gestacionales se encontraron principalmente, a nivel del disco articular y cóndilo mandibular. Entre las 16 y 18 semanas, el disco mostró fibrillas PAS positivas y abundantes fibras argirófilas dispuestas en plexos. Las fibras elásticas fueron escasas y muy delgadas en la zona bilaminar póstero-superior. A las 24 semanas, el CATM mostró un aumento notable en las dimensiones de todos sus componentes. El disco de mayor espesor exibió una proporción más elevada de fibras colágenas y elásticas, mientras que las fibrillas argirófilas organizadas en haces adquirieron una disposición específica. Se identificaron nervios inmunorreactivos con NE14 en la zona anterior y en el espacio laminar póstero-inferior próximo al cóndilo. En los especímenes de mayor edad, los cortes sagitales del disco aislado, mostraron diferentes regiones según el espesor y la disposición de las fibras colágenas. Algunos haces musculares del pterigoideo dispuestos en zig-zag y con apariencia de un estado de semicontracción, no expresaron la mioglobina. A las 24 semanas, los componentes del CATM presentaron, en general, características similares a las observadas en los fetos de término. La maduración de los músculos asociados y de los tejidos articulares, en especial del disco, permite sugerir que los componentes del CATM estarían capacitados para desarrollar actividades de apertura y cierre mandibular a partir de esta etapa prenatalSUMMARY:Structural changes in temporomandibular articular complexe of 16, 18, 24 and 37 week-old human fetuses were studied with the aim to establishing the possible relationship between the tissular maturity level and its capacity for mandibular movements. Histochemical and immunostaining techniques were used. The antibodies employed were: neurofilament proteins (NE14, vimentin and myoglobin, avidin-biotin system, DAB. The variations between the different ages mainly occurred at the level of the articular disk and mandibular condyle. Between the sixteenth and eighteenth week, the disk showed Schiff-periodic acid (PAS positive fibrils and abundant argyrophile fibres in plexus arrangement. Elastic fibres were scarce and thin in the bilaminar postero-superior area. In the twenty-fourth week, the disk showed a high proportion of collagen and elastic fibres, whereas the argyrophile fibres had a laxer arrangement. Nerves immunoreactive with NE14 were observed both in the anterior and postero-inferior areas next to the condyle. In thirty seven old specimens, the sagittal sections of the isolated disk showed different areas according to the collagen fibres thickness and arrangement. Some bundles of pterigoid muscles displayed a zig-zag pattern, thus having an appearance of semicontraction, though the expression of myoglobin was negative. In the twenty-fourth week, the components of the articulation had similar characteristics to those of a newborn child. This suggests that the articular and muscular tissues are capable of performing mandibular opening and closing activities from this prenatal stage

  2. Structure-function relations and rigidity percolation in the shear properties of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jesse L; Barrett, Aliyah R; Das, Moumita; Petersen, Poul B; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cohen, Itai

    2014-10-01

    Among mammalian soft tissues, articular cartilage is particularly interesting because it can endure a lifetime of daily mechanical loading despite having minimal regenerative capacity. This remarkable resilience may be due to the depth-dependent mechanical properties, which have been shown to localize strain and energy dissipation. This paradigm proposes that these properties arise from the depth-dependent collagen fiber orientation. Nevertheless, this structure-function relationship has not yet been quantified. Here, we use confocal elastography, quantitative polarized light microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared imaging to make same-sample measurements of the depth-dependent shear modulus, collagen fiber organization, and extracellular matrix concentration in neonatal bovine articular cartilage. We find weak correlations between the shear modulus |G(?)| and both the collagen fiber orientation and polarization. We find a much stronger correlation between |G(?)| and the concentration of collagen fibers. Interestingly, very small changes in collagen volume fraction vc lead to orders-of-magnitude changes in the modulus with |G(?)| scaling as (vc - v0)(?). Such dependencies are observed in the rheology of other biopolymer networks whose structure exhibits rigidity percolation phase transitions. Along these lines, we propose that the collagen network in articular cartilage is near a percolation threshold that gives rise to these large mechanical variations and localization of strain at the tissue's surface. PMID:25296326

  3. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis of the knee: an investigation into mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, P; Sharif, M; George, E; Meadows, K; Cushnaghan, J; Shinmei, M; Dieppe, P

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms of action of intra-articular hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Twelve patients with bilateral knee OA and synovial effusions entered a randomized, single-blind, blind observer study. Hyaluronic acid ("Hyalgan", Fidia SpA, Italy) or placebo were given by intra-articular injection weekly for 5 weeks. Assessments included clinical indices and imaging (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 99m Tc bone scanning) before and after the course of injections. In addition, synovial fluid keratan sulfate (KS), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII) were measured. MRI and 99m Tc scanning showed no change in either treated or placebo knees over the 6-week study period. A fall in KS levels occurred in treated knees compared with placebo (Wilcoxon paired test, P = 0.1), although this did not reach significance perhaps due to small sample numbers). Ten out of 12 treated knees showed a fall in KS, compared with four out of 12 placebo knees. CS and CPII levels did not change significantly. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid did not result in any improvement in the clinical indices compared to the placebo. In conclusion, assessment of cartilage markers may be of value when studying novel therapies in OA. MRI appearances remain remarkably stable over a 6-week period. PMID:11548229

  4. Analgesic efficacy of intra-articular morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery in sport injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Yari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL tearing is a common injury among football players. The present study aims to determine the best single-dose of intra-articular morphine for pain relief after arthroscopic knee surgery that, in addition to adequate and long-term analgesia, leads to fewer systemic side effects. METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted on 40 ASA-I athletes. After surgery, all participants received an injection of 20cc of 0.5% intra-articular bupivacaine. In addition, the first control group received a saline injection and 5, 10 and 15 mg of morphine were respectively injected into the joints of the second, third and fourth groups by use of Arthroscopic equipment before the Arthroscopic removal. The amount of pain based on VAS at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours after surgery, duration of analgesia and the consumption of narcotic drugs were recorded. RESULTS: The VAS scores in the fourth, sixth and twenty-fourth hours after surgery showed a significant difference between the study groups. The average time to the first analgesic request from the bupivacaine plus 15 mg morphine group was significantly longer than other groups and total analgesic requests were significantly lower than other groups. No drowsiness complications were observed in any of the groups in the first 24 hours after injection. CONCLUSION: Application of 15 mg intra-articular morphine after Arthroscopic knee surgery increases the analgesia level as well as its duration (IRCT138902172946N3 .

  5. Efficacy of Intra-articular Local Anesthetics in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Liu, Zhenfeng; Alijiang, Asila; Jia, Heng; Deng, Yingjie; Song, Yucheng; Meng, Qingcai

    2015-07-01

    Pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains among the most important challenges for patients with TKA. Intra-articular local anesthetic has been shown to reduce postoperative pain following TKA. However, studies report conflicting results. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-dose intra-articular local anesthetics for pain control after TKA. Databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Databases) were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials comparing local anesthetic with placebo in patients undergoing TKA. Data were extracted independently by 2 researchers using a standardized form. Risk of bias was assessed with the use of the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias by 2 observers. Relative risk, standardized mean difference, and corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated. Seventeen trials met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 1338 participants. The results showed that, compared with the placebo group, the single local anesthetic group had a significant lower pain score with rest at 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours; less opioid consumption at 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperatively; and greater range of motion at 24, 48, and 72 hours. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in length of hospital stay, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, or deep venous thrombosis. The study findings showed that pain relief after TKA was significantly better with intra-articular local anesthetic than with placebo. PMID:26186318

  6. Amelioration of osteoarthritis by intra-articular hyaluronan synthase 2 gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Yang, Quan-Sheng; Zhu, Jin-Yu; Cao, Xiao-Rui; Li, Li-Wen; Zhu, Qing-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, degenerative disorder of multifactorial aetiology, characterized by loss of articular cartilage and periarticular bone remodelling. Goals of managing OA include controlling pain, maintaining and improving function and health-related quality of life, and limiting functional impairment. Although several managements had been proved to ameliorate the symptoms of osteoarthritis, no methods could cure it thoroughly. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is a major component of synovial joint fluids which physically acts as a viscous lubricant for slow joint movements and as an elastic shock absorber during rapid movements. It also has a variety of biologic effects in vivo, such as inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors and suppressing the degradation of cartilage matrix. Intra-articular injection of synthetic HMW-HA has been used as viscosupplement for knee OA and its therapeutic efficacy has been verified. However, repeated injections of HMW-HA which is needed to control symptoms increase the probability of infection and sometimes there will have acute joint pain with effusion, which requires aspiration to exclude sepsis. In order to overcome the disadvantages of repeated injections of HMW-HA, novel strategies should be developed. As HMW-HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthase-2 (HAS2), we postulate that HAS2 gene could be delivered into intra-articular cells by methods of gene therapy to achieve long-lasting synthesis of HMW-HA. In our opinion, this strategy seems to hold interesting future prospects for the treatment of OA. PMID:17433560

  7. Intra-articular injection of tenoxicam following temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, I; Yalcin, S; Sencer, S

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the clinical and radiological effects of intra-articular tenoxicam injection following arthrocentesis and compared them with arthrocentesis alone in patients with disc displacement without reduction (DDwoR). 24 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in 21 patients with DDwoR were studied. Patients were divided randomly into Group A in which only arthrocentesis was performed (14 TMJs in 14 patients) and Group AT which received arthrocentesis plus intra-articular injection of tenoxicam (10 TMJs in 7 patients). Patients were evaluated before the procedure, on postoperative day 7, then 2, 3, 4 weeks, and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 months postoperatively. Intensity of joint pain was assessed using a visual analog scale. Maximum mouth opening was recorded at each follow-up. TMJ sounds and palpation scores were noted as positive or negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed before and 6 months after treatment in both groups. Disc form, disc location during neutral position, reduction with movement, joint effusion, structures of the articular surfaces, and bone marrow anomalies were evaluated all in MRIs. Both treatments succesfully increased maximum mouth opening and reduced TMJ pain; there were no complications. Difference between the groups was not statistically significant and a larger controlled study is necessary to clarify this use of tenoxicam. PMID:20211542

  8. Diffusion and near-equilibrium distribution of MRI and CT contrast agents in articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, Tuomo S; Toeyraes, Juha [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, PO Box 1777, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kokkonen, Harri T; Jurvelin, Jukka S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Quinn, Thomas M [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B2 (Canada); Nieminen, Miika T [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, PO Box 50, 90029, Oulu (Finland)], E-mail: Tuomo.Silvast@uku.fi

    2009-11-21

    Charged contrast agents have been used both in vitro and in vivo for estimation of the fixed charge density (FCD) in articular cartilage. In the present study, the effects of molecular size and charge on the diffusion and equilibrium distribution of several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) contrast agents were investigated. Full thickness cartilage disks (Oe = 4.0 mm, n = 64) were prepared from fresh bovine patellae. Contrast agent (gadopentetate: Magnevist (registered) , gadodiamide: Omniscan(TM), ioxaglate: Hexabrix(TM) or sodium iodide: NaI) diffusion was allowed either through the articular surface or through the deep cartilage. CT imaging of the samples was conducted before contrast agent administration and after 1, 5, 9, 16, 25 and 29 h (and with three samples after 2, 3, 4 and 5 days) diffusion using a clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) instrument. With all contrast agents, the diffusion through the deep cartilage was slower when compared to the diffusion through the articular surface. With ioxaglate, gadopentetate and gadodiamide it took over 29 h for diffusion to reach the near-equilibrium state. The slow diffusion of the contrast agents raise concerns regarding the validity of techniques for FCD estimation, as these contrast agents may not reach the equilibrium state that is assumed. However, since cartilage composition, i.e. deep versus superficial, had a significant effect on diffusion, imaging of the nonequilibrium diffusion process might enable more accurate assessment of cartilage integrity.

  9. Arthroscopic study of injuries in articular fractures of distal radius extremity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Araf; Rames, Mattar Junior.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of wrist ligament and cartilage associated fractures of the distal radius, through arthroscopy, correlating with AO/ASIF classification. METHODS: Thirty patients aged between 20 and 50 years old, with closed fracture from groups B and C according to AO/ASIF [...] classification were selected. All of them were submitted to wrist arthroscopy to address intra-articular injuries and reduction and osteosynthesis of the fracture. RESULTS: A high incidence of intra-articular injuries was noticed, and 76.6% of them presented injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, 36.6% of the intrinsic scapholunate ligament, 6.6% of the intrinsic triquetrolunate ligament, and 33% articular cartilage injury larger than three millimeters. Patients with fractures from type C according to AO/ASIF classification presented a higher incidence of ligament injuries. CONCLUSION: There is no relationship between the presence of chondral injury and the AO/ASIF classification of the fractures in the cases reported in this study. Level of Evidence III, Non Randomized Controlled Trial.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of osteochondral defects of the ankle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ML, Reilingh; CJA, van Bergen; CN, van Dijk.

    Full Text Available An osteochondral defect of the talus is a lesion involving talar articular cartilage and subchondral bone. It is frequently caused by a traumatic event. The lesions may either heal, stabilise or progress to subchondral bone cysts. The subchondral cysts may develop due to the forcing of cartilaginous [...] or synovial fluid with every step. Malalignment of the hindfoot plays an important role in the development of further degeneration. Plain radiographs may disclose the lesion. Modern imaging technology has enhanced the ability to fully evaluate and accurately determine the size and extent of the lesion, which are fundamental for proper treatment. Asymptomatic or low-symptomatic lesions are treated nonoperatively. For surgical treatment the following types of surgery are in clinical use: debridement and bone marrow stimulation, retrograde drilling, internal fixation, cancellous bone grafting, osteochondral autograft transfer, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and allograft transplantation. Although these are often successful, malalignment may persist with these treatment options. Calcaneal correction osteotomy may be suitable for osteochondral defects in select cases.

  11. Semilocal topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semilocal defects are those formed in field theories with spontaneously broken symmetries, where the vacuum manifold M is fibred by the action of the gauge group in a non-trivial way. Studied in this paper is the simplest such class of theories in which M?S2N-1, fibred by the action of a local U(1) symmetry. Despite M having trivial homotopy groups up to ?2N-2, this theory exhibits a fascinating variety of defects: Vortices, or semilocal strings; monopoles (on which the strings terminate); and (when N=2) textures, which may be stabilised by their associated magnetic field to produce a skyrmion. (orig.)

  12. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some problems openned in the study of defects in semiconductors are presented. In particular, a review is made of the more important problems in Si monocrystals of basic and technological interest: microdefects and the presence of oxigen and carbon. The techniques usually utilized in the semiconductor material characterization are emphatized according its potentialities. Some applications of x-ray techniques in the epitaxial shell characterization in heterostructures, importants in electronic optics, are shown. The increase in the efficiency of these defect analysis methods in semiconductor materials with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources is shown. (L.C.)

  13. Supersymmetric k-defects

    CERN Document Server

    Koehn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In supersymmetric theories, topological defects can have nontrivial behaviors determined purely by whether or not supersymmetry is restored in the defect core. A well-known example of this is that some supersymmetric cosmic strings are automatically superconducting, leading to important cosmological effects and constraints. We investigate the impact of nontrivial kinetic interactions, present in a number of particle physics models of interest in cosmology, on the relationship between supersymmetry and supercurrents on strings. We find that in some cases it is possible for superconductivity to be disrupted by the extra interactions.

  14. Atrial – Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Panagiotopoulos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atrial and ventricular septal defect constitute the most common congenital heart disease.Aim: ?he aim of the present retrospective study was to record data and factors that affect atrial and ventricular septal defect.Method and material: The sample study included patients of both sexes who were hospitalized with diagnosis atrial and ventricular septal defect in a Cardiac Surgery hospital of Athens. A specially constructed printed form was used for data collection, where were recorded the demographic and personal variables, the pathological, surgical, cardiology and obstetric history, the habits of adults, as well as the personal characteristics of mothers. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistical analysis.Results: The sample study consisted of 101 individuals with diagnosis atrial or ventricular Septal Defect, of which 40% were boys and 60% girls. The 70% of the sample study suffered from atrial Septal Defect and the 30% suffered from ventricular Septal Defect. Regarding age, 12% of the sample study was 0-1 years old, 35% was >1 years old, 8% was >12-18 years old and 45% over than 18 years old. Regarding educational status of the adult participants, 9% was of 0-6 years education, 22%>6 -12 years, 13%>12 years. 14% of the adult paticipants smoked, 4% consumed alcohol and 5% smoked in conjunction with alcohol. In terms of the obstetric history of the sample studied, 32% of the cases had normal birth, 4% had a twin birth and 1% had a triplet one. According to the variables related to mothers, the mean age of the mother was 30 years and 3 months, 10% were smokers at pregnancy and 3% used chemical substance and mainly hair color. Also, the results of the present study showed that individuals of 12-18 and >18 years old did not suffer from ventricular Septal Defect, whereas the infants 0-1 years old did not suffer from Atrial Septal Defect. The mean value of age at the admission in intensive care unit was 7 months (12% for the infants, 4 years and 8 months for children (35%, 15 years and 2 months (8% for adolescents and 41 years and 4 months for the adult. 58% of the sample study manifested clinical symptoms at the admission in intensive care unit, whereas complications during their care manifested the 79% of cases.Conclusions: It is a matter of great importance, if society in collaboration with health care professionals could early organize systematic diagnostic and educational programs for improving the knowledge of the disease.

  15. Post develop stain defect reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harumoto, Masahiko; Kuroda, Takuya; Sugiyama, Minoru; Hisai, Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    This study reports on stain defect reduction on KrF, ArF and Immersion resist system. Stain defects that appear after develop are a common problem with i-line, KrF, ArF and ArF-immersion resists. Last year we reported a reduction of this type of defect by optimizing the developer process. However, that optimized process used a long rinse time, and this negatively impacts throughput. In this work, we designed a novel develop process that reduced stain defects on the resist. Previous work showed that stain defect formation was mainly governed by the develop process conditions. Hence, in this work we focused on develop system improvements. On this system we identified the process both significantly reduced stain defect count and used a shorter develop process time. In addition to reducing defect count, we identified the mechanism of reduction of the stain defect. This was done by analyzing the composition of the defect.

  16. CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia: correlation with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings to help differentiating from lung cancer. We evaluated radiologic and pathologic findings of five patients with solitary pulmonary nodule which were confirmed as focal organizing pneumonia pathologically. On CT scan, focal organizing pneumonia had irregular margin contacting the pleura in all five cases. The shape of the nodules were spherical to wedge or elliptical and the size from 3.5cm to 5.5cm(average 4.2 cm) in largest diameter. On postcontrast CT scan, all nodules showed enhancement and four cases showed central low density components. Two nodules contained air within the nodule. In four cases, pleural changes such as effusion and/or focal thickening were noted. No lymphadenopathy was found in all cases. Pathologically, the enhancing portion on CT showed findings of organizing pneumonia such as granulation tissue with fibroblast proliferation in alveolar space and interstitial thickening. The central low density areas on CT were due to ischemic necrosis, abscess and exudate, transudate and infiltration of foamy histiocyte. The possibility of focal organizing pneumonia should be considered when peripherally located solitary pulmonary nodule had enhancing component with no combined lymphadenopathy on CT scan

  17. Collective Phenomena in Defect Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kühn, R; Kuehn, Reimer; Wuerger, Alois

    2000-01-01

    We investigate effects of interactions between substitutional defects on the properties of defect crystals at low temperatures, where defect motion is governed by quantum effects. Both, thermal and dynamical properties are considered. The influence of interactions on defect motion is described via a collective effect. Our treatment is semiclassical in the sense that we analyze collective effects in a classical setting, and analyze the influence on quantized defect motion only thereafter. Our theory describes a crossover to glassy behavior at sufficiently high defect concentration. Our approach is meant to be general. For the sake of definiteness, we evaluate most of our results with parameters appropriate for Li-doped KCl crystals.

  18. Correlation between He-Ne scatter and 2.7-microm pulsed laser damage at coating defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteus, J O; Spiker, C J; Franck, J B

    1986-11-01

    A reported correlation between defect-initiated pulsed laser damage and local predamage scatter in multilayer infrared mirror coatings has been analyzed in detail. Examination of a much larger data base confirms the previous result on dielectric-enhanced reflectors with polished substrates over a wide range of energy densities above the damage onset. Scatter signals from individual undamaged defects were detected using a He-Ne scatter probe with a focal spot that nearly coincides with the 150-microm-diam (D1/e(2)) focal spot of the damage-probe beam. Subsequent damage frequency measurements (1-on-1) were made near normal or at 45 degrees incidence with 100-ns pulses at 2.7-microm wavelength. The correlation is characterized by an increase in damage frequency with increasing predamage scatter signal and by equivalence of the defect densities indicated by the two probes. Characteristics of the correlation are compared with a simple model based on focal spot intensity profiles. Conditions that limit correlation are discussed, including variable scatter from defects and background scatter from diamond-turned substrates. Results have implication for nondestructive defect detection and coating quality control. PMID:18235711

  19. Defect identification by compositional defect review using auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect identification plays an enabling role in determining the source of particles that occur during semiconductor processing and are subsequently detected by defect inspection tools. Auger electron spectroscopy provides a high spatial resolution, surface sensitive analytical probe that is well matched to examining small, thin or complex defects. A focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to cross-section buried defects and structures for subsequent Auger analysis. Such measurements have been made on defects from two wafers pulled at different process steps. One wafer was analyzed after poly-Si deposition, and the other wafer was analyzed after metal 2 etch. The defects on the poly-Si wafer are Si particles. Three types of particles were found on the metal 2 wafer: C-based, stainless steel, and Si-oxide. The majority of defects on this wafer are C-based. Auger, EDS and FIB results will be compared for representative defects on these two wafers

  20. Controversies in the management of intra-articular fractures of distal humerus in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babhulkar, Sudhir; Babhulkar, Sushrut

    2011-01-01

    Background: The surgical approach, type of olecranon osteotomy, method of stabilization of osteotomy, type of fracture stabilization, orthogonal vs parallel plate fixation, need for transposition of ulnar nerve, place for primary total elbow replacement, and type of rehabilitation schedule after surgical fracture treatment are the controversial issues in the treatment of complex intra-articular distal humerus fractures (C2 and C3) in adults. Severe comminution, bone loss, and osteoporosis at the site of distal articular fractures of humerus often lead to unsatisfactory results due to inadequate fixation. We hereby report the outcome of a series of intracondylar fractures of the humerus treated by open reduction and internal fixation and discuss the controversies in light of published literature. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-four patients of intra-articular fractures of distal humerus (C2 and C3) were operated by posterior transolecranon approach between January 1980 and December 2008. Initially, in the first part Chevron intra-articular osteotomy (n=108) was performed out of which 94 have been published in another publication. In later second part (1993 onward), extra-articular olecranon osteotomy (n=76) was routinely performed. Both columns were stably fixed by orthogonal methods; (n=174) however, during the last 2 years, in 10 patients with severe comminution with bone loss, stabilization was achieved by parallel plating. The osteotomy was routinely stabilized by tension band wiring with two parallel K-wires introduced up to the anterior ulnar cortex. The results were evaluated by the staging system of Caja et al. at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Results: In the first part of the study (n=94), there was delayed union in 4% (n=4), with the fracture taking more than 20 weeks for union. There was delayed union of ulnar osteotomy (n=3) and failure of one tension band wiring, requiring revision. Some loss of motion was seen in 20% of cases and these patients did not achieve full flexion and extension. However, all these patients had useful range of function, with 20°–110° of flexion and full pronation-supination. As per the staging system of Caja et al., the results were in the range of excellent to good in 72% cases (n=67), fair in 19% (n=18), and poor in 9% patients (n=9). In the second part of study (n=90) dual plate fixation of both columns by orthogonal methods (n=80) and parallel plate fixation in 10 patients was performed. The results were excellent to good in 78 patients (86%). Conclusions: The high rate of union can be achieved in complex intra-articular fractures of distal humerus if the proper principles of stable fracture fixation are followed, i.e., a posterior transolecranon approach and dual fixation of both columns and restoration of the continuity of articular surface. The stability achieved by this technique permits institution of early intensive physiotherapy to restore elbow function. PMID:21559100

  1. Controversies in the management of intra-articular fractures of distal humerus in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Babhulkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surgical approach, type of olecranon osteotomy, method of stabilization of osteotomy, type of fracture stabilization, orthogonal vs parallel plate fixation, need for transposition of ulnar nerve, place for primary total elbow replacement, and type of rehabilitation schedule after surgical fracture treatment are the controversial issues in the treatment of complex intra-articular distal humerus fractures (C2 and C3 in adults. Severe comminution, bone loss, and osteoporosis at the site of distal articular fractures of humerus often lead to unsatisfactory results due to inadequate fixation. We hereby report the outcome of a series of intracondylar fractures of the humerus treated by open reduction and internal fixation and discuss the controversies in light of published literature. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-four patients of intra-articular fractures of distal humerus (C2 and C3 were operated by posterior transolecranon approach between January 1980 and December 2008. Initially, in the first part Chevron intra-articular osteotomy (n=108 was performed out of which 94 have been published in another publication. In later second part (1993 onward, extra-articular olecranon osteotomy (n=76 was routinely performed. Both columns were stably fixed by orthogonal methods; (n=174 however, during the last 2 years, in 10 patients with severe comminution with bone loss, stabilization was achieved by parallel plating. The osteotomy was routinely stabilized by tension band wiring with two parallel K-wires introduced up to the anterior ulnar cortex. The results were evaluated by the staging system of Caja et al. at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Results: In the first part of the study (n=94, there was delayed union in 4% (n=4, with the fracture taking more than 20 weeks for union. There was delayed union of ulnar osteotomy (n=3 and failure of one tension band wiring, requiring revision. Some loss of motion was seen in 20% of cases and these patients did not achieve full flexion and extension. However, all these patients had useful range of function, with 20?-110? of flexion and full pronation-supination. As per the staging system of Caja et al., the results were in the range of excellent to good in 72% cases (n=67, fair in 19% (n=18, and poor in 9% patients (n=9. In the second part of study (n=90 dual plate fixation of both columns by orthogonal methods (n=80 and parallel plate fixation in 10 patients was performed. The results were excellent to good in 78 patients (86%. Conclusions: The high rate of union can be achieved in complex intra-articular fractures of distal humerus if the proper principles of stable fracture fixation are followed, i.e., a posterior transolecranon approach and dual fixation of both columns and restoration of the continuity of articular surface. The stability achieved by this technique permits institution of early intensive physiotherapy to restore elbow function.

  2. Asymptotically embedded defects

    OpenAIRE

    Lepora, Nathan F.

    2002-01-01

    For many cases, the conditions to fully embed a classical solution of one field theory within a larger theory cannot be met. Instead, we find it useful to embed only the solution's asymptotic fields as this relaxes the embedding constraints. Such asymptotically embedded defects have a simple classification that can be used to construct classical solutions in general field theories.

  3. Quantum computing with defects

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, J R; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center stands out for its robustness - its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally-coor...

  4. Defect detection module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''defect detector'' module is aimed at exceptional event or state recording. Foreseen for voltage presence monitoring on high supply voltage module of drift chambers, its characteristics can also show up the vanishing of supply voltage and take in account transitory fast signals

  5. Rac function is crucial for cell migration but is not required for spreading and focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, Anika; Ladwein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is commonly accompanied by protrusion of membrane ruffles and lamellipodia. In two-dimensional migration, protrusion of these thin sheets of cytoplasm is considered relevant to both exploration of new space and initiation of nascent adhesion to the substratum. Lamellipodium formation can be potently stimulated by Rho GTPases of the Rac subfamily, but also by RhoG or Cdc42. Here we describe viable fibroblast cell lines genetically deficient for Rac1 that lack detectable levels of Rac2 and Rac3. Rac-deficient cells were devoid of apparent lamellipodia, but these structures were restored by expression of either Rac subfamily member, but not by Cdc42 or RhoG. Cells deficient in Rac showed strong reduction in wound closure and random cell migration and a notable loss of sensitivity to a chemotactic gradient. Despite these defects, Rac-deficient cells were able to spread, formed filopodia and established focal adhesions. Spreading in these cells was achieved by the extension of filopodia followed by the advancement of cytoplasmic veils between them. The number and size of focal adhesions as well as their intensity were largely unaffected by genetic removal of Rac1. However, Rac deficiency increased the mobility of different components in focal adhesions, potentially explaining how Rac - although not essential - can contribute to focal adhesion assembly. Together, our data demonstrate that Rac signaling is essential for lamellipodium protrusion and for efficient cell migration, but not for spreading or filopodium formation. Our findings also suggest that Rac GTPases are crucial to the establishment or maintenance of polarity in chemotactic migration.

  6. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief introduction to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and in particular lo its use for defect studies in metals is given. Positrons injected into a metal may become trapped in defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, voids, bubbles and dislocations and subsequently annihilate from the trapped state iri the defect. The annihilation characteristics (e.g., the lifetime of the positron) can be measured and provide information about the nature of the defect (e.g., size, density, morph...

  7. Nefritis Aguda Focal: Caso Clínico / Focal Acute Nephritis: A Case Report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FRANCISCO, CANO SCH; PABLO, STRODTHOFF R; OSCAR, MUÑOZ A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La nefritis aguda focal o nefronia lobar aguda constituye un cuadro poco común caracterizado por una infección localizada en el riñon, la que corresponde a una masa inflamatoria sin licuefacción. Posee una clínica variable, siendo la tomograña computada (TAC) la prueba más sensible y específica para [...] el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Esta patología se diferencia histológicamente de la pielonefritis aguda por no presentar un infiltrado inflamatorio difuso. Objetivo: presentar un caso de nefronia aguda multifocal en un paciente pediátrico. Caso clínico: Escolar de 10 años que consultó por dolor abdominal, al examen destacaba la presencia de percusión dolorosa en fosa lumbar. Los exámenes de orina y urocultivo fueron negativos. Al ingreso no se detectó cambios renales ecográficamente evidenciables. Se realizó un TAC de abdomen que mostraba múltiples focos renales hipodensos. Respondió favorablemente a terapia antibiótica con cefotaxima siendo dado de alta al tercer día, completando terapia en forma ambulatoria. La diferenciación de este cuadro de otros procesos renales como la pielonefritis aguda (PNA) es muy importante, ya que precisa un tratamiento oportuno y controlado por el riesgo de evolucionar a absceso renal. El diagnóstico de esta patología debe ser buscado a pesar de contar con exámenes de orina negativos. Abstract in english Focal acute nephritis (FAN) or acute lobar nephronia is a rare clinical picture characterized by an infection localized in the kidney, with an inflammatory mass without liquefaction. Of variable clinical manifestations, diagnosis is achieved through CT scanning. Histologically, unlike acute pyelonep [...] hritis, it does not present a diffuse infíltrate. Objective: Case report of FAN in a pediatric patient. Case Report: Ten year old male complaining of abdominal pain, presents painful percussion in the right lumbar fossa. Urinary analysis and culture were negative, renal sonogram was negative. Abdominal CT sean showed múltiple hypodense renal foci. He responded well to cephotaxim, being discharged in the third day of hospitalization with completion of treatment as outpatient. Differential diagnosis with Acute Pyelonephritis is very important, as it requires controlled and opportune treatment to prevent renal absceses. Diagnosis of this pathology must be pursued despite a normal UA.

  8. Intra-articular temperatures of the knee in sports – An in-vivo study of jogging and alpine skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerulli Guiliano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to date, no information exists about the intra-articular temperature changes of the knee related to activity and ambient temperature. Methods In 6 healthy males, a probe for intra-articular measurement was inserted into the notch of the right knee. Each subject was jogging on a treadmill in a closed room at 19°C room temperature and skiing in a ski resort at -3°C outside temperature for 60 minutes. In both conditions, temperatures were measured every fifteen minutes intra-articulary and at the skin surface of the knee. A possible influence on joint function and laxity was evaluated before and after activity. Statistical analysis of intra-articular and skin temperatures was done using nonparametric Wilcoxon's sign rank sum test and Mann-Whitney's-U-Test. Results Median intra-articular temperatures increased from 31.4°C before activity by 2.1°C, 4°C, 5.8°C and 6.1°C after 15, 30, 45 and 60 min of jogging (all p ? 0.05. Median intra-articular temperatures dropped from 32.2°C before activity by 0.5°C, 1.9°C, 3.6°C and 1.1°C after 15, 30, 45 and 60 min of skiing (all n.s.. After 60 minutes of skiing (jogging, the median intra-articular temperature was 19.6% (8.7% higher than the skin surface temperature at the knee. Joint function and laxity appeared not to be different before and after activity within both groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates different changes of intra-articular and skin temperatures during sports in jogging and alpine skiing and suggests that changes are related to activity and ambient temperature.

  9. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs

  10. Efficient subwavelength focusing of light with a long focal depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Li, Qing; Fu, Jian; Wu, James; Lin, Feng; Wu, Xingkun

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an efficient method for far-field subwavelength focusing by a novel two-component axicon structure. Annular beams generated by a fiber axicon are focused using a micro-cone reflector, creating a quasi-Bessel beam with a high convergence angle of up to 40°. A center focal spot diameter of 0.41? was achieved at a power efficiency of over 40%, with a focal depth of 9? and a working distance as long as 35 ?m. We further demonstrate that experimental knife-edge measurements mapping the beam focal intensity agree with numerical simulations of the structure. This method shows demonstrable promise in overcoming the optical focusing limit of single-element axicons and great potential for use in high tolerance, high-resolution applications in optical systems. PMID:26395150

  11. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntaner, L. [Department of Radiology, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]|[Avda Alejandro Rossello 27, E-07002 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Perez-Ferron, J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Herrera, M. [Department of Radiology, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Rosell, J. [Department of Genetics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Taboada, D. [Clinica Femenia, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Climent, S. [Department of Pediatrics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    1997-08-01

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  12. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  13. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongxuan, E-mail: Guo.hongxuan@nims.go.jp [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based on Nanomaterials Science, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei [Active State Technology Research Group, Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1 Umezono 1-Chome, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke [Nano Characterization Unit, Advanced Key Technologies Division, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-07-14

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  14. Fresh Osteochondral Allografts for Posttraumatic Knee Defects: Long-term Followup

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Gross; KIm, W.; Las Heras, F.; D. Backstein; Safir, O.; Pritzker, K. P. H.

    2008-01-01

    Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation has been an effective treatment option with promising long-term clinical outcomes for focal posttraumatic defects in the knee for young, active individuals. We examined histologic features of 35 fresh osteochondral allograft specimens retrieved at the time of subsequent graft revision, osteotomy, or TKA. Graft survival time ranged from 1 to 25 years based on their time to reoperation. Histologic features of early graft failures were lack of chondr...

  15. Adhesion defective BHK cell mutant has cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan of altered properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, R; Woods, A; Hughes, R C

    1988-01-01

    In the light of accumulating data that implicate cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) with a role in cell interactions with extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin, we have compared the properties of these molecules in wild-type BHK cells and an adhesion-defective ricin-resistant mutant (RicR14). Our results showed that the mutant, unlike BHK cells, cannot form focal adhesions when adherent to planar substrates in the presence of serum. Furthermore, while both cell lines...

  16. Facts about Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Congenital Heart Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) ... are living longer and healthier lives. Learn more facts about CHDs below. What are Congenital Heart Defects ( ...

  17. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention. Commit to Healthy Choices to Help Prevent Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir We know that not all birth defects can be prevented. But, we also know that ...

  18. Ultrasonic testing of defect dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limitations of the conventional ultrasonic testing method are shown, particularly for small defects. A technique is presented, which uses focused ultrasonic sensors and allows very accurate measurements of real defect dimensions

  19. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hyperemia was seen in 8 patients in the form of early filling veins. In 5 of these the hyperemic areas were located within infarcted areas and in 3 patients in areas which appeared normal on CT. In the remai...

  20. Focal myositis of the thigh: unusual MR pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llauger, Jaume; Palmer, Jaume; San Roman, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bague, Silvia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier [Department of Pathology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Doncel, Antonio [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-05-01

    Focal myositis is a commonly referenced, infrequently reported and poorly documented benign inflammatory pseudotumor which may be misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant tumor. We report the clinicopathologic features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of focal myositis in the thigh of a 55-year-old woman. A different radiologic presentation of this disorder is described. The gross appearance of the lesion, previously undescribed, appears to be rather specific for such a pseudoneoplastic disorder, and correlates very well with the magnetic resonance imaging features. (orig.)