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Sample records for focal articular defects

  1. A second-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation approach to the treatment of focal articular cartilage defects

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Rocky S.

    2007-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is the most widely used cell-based surgical procedure for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Challenges to successful ACI outcomes include limitation in defect size and geometry as well as inefficient cell retention. Second-generation ACI procedures have thus focused on developing three-dimensional constructs using native and synthetic biomaterials. Clinically significant and satisfactory results from applying autologous chondrocytes seeded in...

  2. Focal full thickness articular cartilage lesions treated with an articular resurfacing prosthesis in the middle-aged

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Hobbs; N, Ketse-Matiwane; W, van der Merwe; M, Posthumus.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Localised full thickness articular defects of the knee are common and disabling in the middle-aged. There are numerous treatment options for articular defects, the results of which are unpredictable in this age group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a focal articular resurfac [...] ing prosthesis used in the treatment of these defects. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients treated between 2005 and 2010 with a HemiCAP® resurfacing procedure were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up scores of the KOOS, IKDC, SF-36 and patient satisfaction were obtained. Radiographic evaluation was also obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen patients were followed-up 4.7 ± 5.9 years after surgery. Three patients had revision surgery and were not followed up. The patients were 44.7 ± 5.9 years old. The follow-up KOOS scores demonstrated comparable scores on the pain and activities of daily living sub-scales when compared to normative data; however, the sports (P

  3. Predicting the effects of knee focal articular surface injury with a patient-specific finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, George; Demetropoulos, Constantine K; King, Yang H

    2010-01-01

    Successful focal articular surface injury (FAI) repair depends on appropriate matching of the geometrical/material properties of the repaired site, and on the overall dynamic response of the knee to in-vivo loading. There is evidence linking the pathogenesis of lesion progression (e.g. osteoarthritis) to weightbearing site and defect size. The paper investigates further this link by studying the effects of osteochondral defect size on the load distribution at the human knee. Experimental data from cadaver knees (n=8) loaded at 30 degrees of flexion was used as input to a validated finite element (FE) model. Contact pressure was assessed for the intact knees and over a range of circular osteochondral defects (5 mm to 20 mm) at 30 degrees of flexion with 700 N axial load. Patient specific FE models and the specific boundary conditions of the experimental set-up were used to analyze the osteochondral defects. Stress concentration around the rims of defects 8 mm and smaller was not significant and pressure distribution was dominated by the menisci. Experimental data was confirmed by the model. For defects 10 mm and greater, distribution of peak pressures followed the rim of the defect with a mean distance from the rim of 2.64 mm on the medial condyle and 2.90 mm on the lateral condyle (model predictions were 2.63 and 2.87 mm respectively). Statistical significance was reported when comparing defects that differed by 4 mm or greater (except for the 5 mm case). Peak rim pressure did not significantly increase as defects were enlarged from 10 mm to 20 mm. Peak values were always significantly higher over the medial femoral condyle. Although the decision to treat osteochondral lesions is multifactorial, the results of this finite element analysis indicate that a size threshold of 10 mm, may be a useful early adjunct to guide clinical decision-making. This modified FE method can be employed for in-vivo studies. PMID:19477131

  4. Surgical Treatment of Articular Cartilage Defects in the Knee: Are We Winning?

    OpenAIRE

    J. F. Quinlan; A. R. Memon

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) injury is a common disorder. Numerous techniques have been employed to repair or regenerate the cartilage defects with varying degrees of success. Three commonly performed techniques include bone marrow stimulation, cartilage repair, and cartilage regeneration. This paper focuses on current level of evidence paying particular attention to cartilage regeneration techniques.

  5. Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering for Regenerative Repair of Articular Cartilage Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kâz?m Tur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage defects heal very poorly and lead to degenerative arthritis. Existing medications cannot promote healing process; cartilage defects eventually require surgical replacements with autografts. As there is not enough source of articular cartilage that can be donated for autografting, materials that promote cartilage regeneration are important in both research and clinical applications. Tissue engineering involves cell growth on biomaterial scaffolds in vitro. These cells are then injected into cartilage defects for biological in vivo regeneration of the cartilage tissue. This review aims first to provide a brief introduction to the types of materials in medicine (biomaterials, to their roles in treatment of diseases, and to design factors and general requirements of biomaterials. Then, it attempts to sum up the recent advances in engineering articular cartilage; one of the most challenging area of study in biomaterials based tissue engineering, as an example to the research on regenerative solutions to musculoskeletal problems with an emphasis on the biomaterials that have been developed as scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. The definitive goal on cartilage regeneration is to develop a system using biomimetic approach to produce cartilage tissue that mimics native tissue properties, provides rapid restoration of tissue function, and is clinically translatable. This is obviously an ambitious goal; however, significant progress have been made in recent years; and further advances in materials design and technology will pave the way for creating significantly custom-made cellular environment for cartilage regeneration.

  6. Repair of articular cartilage in rabbit osteochondral defects promoted by extracorporeal shock wave therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C.-H.; Yen, Y.-S.; Chen, P.-L.; Wen, C.-Y.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the stimulative effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the articular cartilage regeneration in the rabbit osteochondral defect model for the first time. An osteochondral defect, 3 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth, was drilled in the patellar groove at the distal end of each femur in 24 mature New Zealand rabbits. The right patellar defects received 500 impulses of shock waves of (at 14 kV) at 1 week after surgery and were designated as the experimental samples; the left patellar defects served as control. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after ESWT, cartilage repair was evaluated macroscopically and histologically using a semiquantitative grading scale. The total scores of the macroscopic evaluation at 4, 8, and 12 weeks in the experimental group were superior to those in the control group (statistical significance level ). As to the total scores of the histologic evaluation, the experimental group showed a tendency toward a better recovery than the control group at 4 weeks (). At 8 and 12 weeks the differences between the experimental and control groups became mild and had no significance on statistical analysis. These findings suggested that regeneration of articular cartilage defects might be promoted by ESWT, especially at the early stage. The easy and safe ESWT is potentially viable for clinical application.

  7. Ongoing studies of cell-based therapies for articular cartilage defects in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Ogura,1 Akihiro Tsuchiya,2 Shuichi Mizuno1 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Funabashi Orthopaedic Hospital Sports Medicine Center, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Recently, cell-based therapies have generated great interest in the repair of articular cartilage defects and degeneration. Surgical treatments for these indications have multiple options, including marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft transplant, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. The autologous chondrocyte implantation technique has been improved using a cell scaffold and other devices. Meanwhile, advanced cell-based therapies, including cultured stem cell treatment, have been studied in clinical trials. Most studies have been designed and authorized by institutional review boards and/or the regulatory agencies of the investigators’ countries. For cellular products in regenerative medicine, regulations of many countries are amenable to expedited approval. This paper aims to provide an update on ongoing and prospective cell-based therapies, focusing on articular cartilage injury at designated institutions authorized by the Japanese Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Agency. Keywords: autologous chondrocyte implantation, mesenchymal stem cell, knee joint

  8. Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sotoudeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II. Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  9. Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amir, Sotoudeh; Amirali, Jahanshahi; Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, Takhtfooladi; Ali, Bazazan; Amin, Ganjali; Maryam Pourramezani, Harati.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New [...] Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  10. Late pulmonary scintigraphic defects after uneventful recovery from simple focal pneumonia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, I J; Lenney, W; Lutkin, J E; Gordon, I

    1993-11-01

    We present a pilot study designed to determine whether pneumonia in children accompanied by focal consolidation on the chest radiograph (CXR) is associated with late abnormality as detected by radionuclide lung scintigraphy. 14 children with focal pneumonia were assessed 1 year after initial presentation. In 12 both krypton-81m ventilation and technetium-99m MAA perfusion studies were performed, while in two only perfusion studies were obtained. All cases had a further CXR. Abnormal or equivocal cases were reviewed clinically. Scans and CXRs were independently assessed by two observers and subsequently consensus reached by discussion. There were five abnormal and nine normal lung scans. Two defects matched the site of the initial pneumonia while three did not. A CXR at the time of lung scanning was normal except for one case with a small focus of consolidation on the opposite side to the initial pneumonia but with a normal lung scan. Similarly, clinical assessment at the time of scanning was unremarkable, with no history of further respiratory episodes except in one child excluded from the study because of an interval diagnosis of asthma. This pilot study indicates that lung scan defects are common in the medium term after supposedly uncomplicated pneumonia in childhood. The cause of these defects remains uncertain. The correlation with the site of the initial radiological abnormality is variable, pointing to the need for further research in this area. The importance of independent blind interpretation is also highlighted. PMID:8281378

  11. ICRS Recommendation Document : Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments for Use in Patients with Articular Cartilage Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend patient-reported outcome instruments for use in patients with articular cartilage lesions undergoing cartilage repair interventions. Methods: Nonsystematic literature search identifying measures addressing pain and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic requirements for reliability, validity, and responsiveness in cartilage repair patients. A major difference between them is that the former results in a single score and the latter results in 5 subscores. A single score is preferred for simplicity’s sake, whereas subscores allow for evaluation of separate constructs at all levels according to the International Classification of Functioning. Conclusions: Because there is no obvious superiority of either instrument at this time, both outcome measures are recommended for use in cartilage repair. Rescaling of the Lysholm Scoring Scale has been suggested, and confirmatory longitudinal studies are needed prior to recommending this scale for use in cartilage repair. Inclusion of a generic measure is feasible in cartilage repair studies and allows analysis of health-related quality of life and health economic outcomes. The Marx or Tegner Activity Rating Scales are feasible and have been evaluated in patients with knee injuries. However, activity measures require age and sex adjustment, and data are lacking in people with cartilage repair.

  12. Cultured articular chondrocytes sheets for partial thickness cartilage defects utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kaneshiro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of articular cartilage has several functions that are unique to joints. Although a technique for transplanting cultured chondrocytes has already been introduced, it is difficult to collect intact ECM when using enzymes to harvest samples. Temperature-responsive culture dishes have already been clinically applied in the fields of myocardial and corneal transplantation. Earlier studies have shown that a sheet of cultured cells with intact ECM and adhesive factors can be harvested using such culture dishes, which allow the surface properties of the dish to be reversibly altered by changing the temperature. Human chondrocytes were subjected to enzymatic digestion and then were seeded in temperature-responsive culture dishes. A sheet of chondrocytes was harvested by only reducing the temperature after the cultured cells reached confluency. A real-time PCR analysis of the chondrocyte sheets confirmed that type II collagen, aggrecan, and fibronectin were present. These results suggested that, although chondrocytes undergo dedifferentiation in a monolayer culture, multilayer chondrocyte sheets grown in a similar environment to that of three-dimensional culture may be able to maintain a normal phenotype. A histological examination suggested that multilayer chondrocyte sheets could thus prevent the loss of proteoglycans because the area covered by the sheets was well stained by safranin-O. The present experiments suggested that temperature-responsive culture dishes are useful for obtaining cultured chondrocytes, which may then be clinically employed as a substitute for periosteal patches because such sheets can be applied without a scaffold.

  13. Finite Element Simulations of Biphasic Articular Cartilages With Localized Metal Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Manda, Krishnagoud

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a specialized connective soft tissue that resides onthe ends of long-bones, transfers the load smoothly between the bones in diarthrodialjoints by providing almost frictionless, wear resistant sliding surfacesduring joint articulation. Focal chondral or osteochondral defects in articularcartilage are common and show limited capacity for biological repair. Furthermore,changes in the bio-mechanical forces at the defect site may makethe tissue more susceptible to continued...

  14. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor ?1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-?1 that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-?1 gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA3-TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA3 gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the qualixperimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-?1 gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-?1 gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease

  15. The repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Immune responses to reparative tissue formed by allogeneic growth plate chondrocyte implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth plate cartilage cultivated in vitro was attached with a fibrin clot to a full-thickness articular cartilage defect on knee joints in allogeneic New Zealand rabbits. The healing of the defects was assessed by gross examination, light microscopy, and immunologic analysis for 24 weeks. Immunologic assessment of cell-mediated immunity, cytotoxicity of a humoral antibody by a 51 chromium release assay, and immunofluorescence studies were carried out. During the first two weeks following grafting, healing was excellent in 11 of the 17 defects. From three to 24 weeks, 11 of 42 defects examined had good results. Host lymphocytes had accumulated around the allograft at two to 12 weeks. Most of the implanted cartilage grown in vitro died and was replaced by fibrous tissue. The immunologic studies suggested that the implanted cartilage began to degenerate two to three weeks after implantation partially because of a humoral immune response but more importantly because of cell-mediated cytotoxicity

  16. Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel combined with Ad-hTGF-?1 transfected mesenchymal stem cells to repair rabbit articular cartilage defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bai-wen; Yu, Ai-xi; Zhu, Shao-bo; Zhou, Min; Wu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the feasibility and therapeutic effect of repairing rabbit articular cartilage defects using thermo-sensitive chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) composite hydrogel engineered Ad-hTGF-?1-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Rabbit's bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were obtained and cultured in vitro and transfected with a well-constructed Ad-hTGF-?1 vector, the cartilage phenotype of the transfected cells was tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits with articular cartilage defects were randomly divided into four groups: group A was treated with CS/PVA gel and transfected BMSCs; group B received CS/PVA gel and un-transfected BMSCs; group C was treated with CS/PVA gel alone and group D was the untreated control group. Experimental animals of each group were killed at 16 weeks after operation. General observation, Masson's trichrome staining and collagen II immunohistological staining of the specimens were performed to evaluate the repair effect. The Wakitani scoring method was used to evaluate the repair effect. RT-PCR and Western blot confirmed that the hTGF-?1 gene was expressed in BMSCs and triggered the expression of specific markers of cartilage differentiation such as aggrecan mRNA and Collagen II in BMSCs after transfection with Ad-hTGF-?1. Sixteen weeks after operation, the defects in group A had smooth and flat surfaces, and the defects appeared to have completely healed, exhibiting almost the same color and texture as the surrounding cartilage. Masson's trichrome staining showed that the cell arrangement and density of regenerated cartilage tissue in group A was not significantly different from that of normal cartilage tissue. The immunohistochemical staining of Col II showed a strong expression in group A and weak expression in group B, but no expression in groups C and D. According to the Wakitani score, the difference between experimental group A and all of the other groups was statistically significant (P thermosensitive and injectable scaffold material, CS/PVA gel engineered with BMSCs transfected with hTGF-?1 can effectively repair rabbit articular cartilage defects. PMID:23479760

  17. Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica / PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia M, Malmonge; Cecília A. C, Zavaglia.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato) - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blenda [...] s do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN) de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis. Abstract in english The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA) as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose ac [...] etate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

  18. Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Malmonge

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blendas do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis.The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose acetate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

  19. Quality of Newly Formed Cartilaginous Tissue in Defects of Articular Surface after Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Composite Scaffold Based on Collagen I with Chitosan Micro- and Nanofibres.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ne?as, A.; Plánka, L.; Srnec, R.; Crha, M.; Hlu?ilová, Jana; Klíma, Ji?í; Starý, L.; K?en, L.; Amler, Evžen; Vojtová, L.; Jan?á?, J.; Gál, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 59, ?. 4 (2010), s. 605-614. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Cartilaginous Tissue * Defects of Articular Surface * Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  20. High-contrast coronagraph performance in the presence of focal plane mask defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shaklan, Stuart; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Cady, Eric

    2014-08-01

    We have carried out a study of the performance of high-contrast coronagraphs in the presence of mask defects. We have considered the effects of opaque and dielectric particles of various dimensions, as well as systematic mask fabrication errors and the limitations of material properties in creating dark holes. We employ sequential deformable mirrors to compensate for phase and amplitude errors, and show the limitations of this approach in the presence of coronagraph image-mask defects.

  1. A novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model for assessing the regeneration of focal cartilage defects with biocompatible bacterial nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Current therapies for articular cartilage defects fail to achieve qualitatively sufficient tissue regeneration, possibly because of a mismatch between the speed of cartilage rebuilding and the resorption of degradable implant polymers. The present study focused on the self-healing capacity of resident cartilage cells in conjunction with cell-free and biocompatible (but non-resorbable) bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). This was tested in a novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model. Methods Standardized bovine cartilage discs with a central defect filled with BNC were cultured for up to eight weeks with/without stimulation with transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1. Cartilage formation and integrity were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Content, release and neosynthesis of the matrix molecules proteoglycan/aggrecan, collagen II and collagen I were also quantified. Finally, gene expression of these molecules was profiled in resident chondrocytes and chondrocytes migrated onto the cartilage surface or the implant material. Results Non-stimulated and especially TGF-?1-stimulated cartilage discs displayed a preserved structural and functional integrity of the chondrocytes and surrounding matrix, remained vital in long-term culture (eight weeks) without signs of degeneration and showed substantial synthesis of cartilage-specific molecules at the protein and mRNA level. Whereas mobilization of chondrocytes from the matrix onto the surface of cartilage and implant was pivotal for successful seeding of cell-free BNC, chondrocytes did not immigrate into the central BNC area, possibly due to the relatively small diameter of its pores (2 to 5 ?m). Chondrocytes on the BNC surface showed signs of successful redifferentiation over time, including increase of aggrecan/collagen type II mRNA, decrease of collagen type I mRNA and initial deposition of proteoglycan and collagen type II in long-term high-density pellet cultures. Although TGF-?1 stimulation showed protective effects on matrix integrity, effects on other parameters were limited. Conclusions The present bovine cartilage punch model represents a robust, reproducible and highly suitable tool for the long-term culture of cartilage, maintaining matrix integrity and homoeostasis. As an alternative to animal studies, this model may closely reflect early stages of cartilage regeneration, allowing the evaluation of promising biomaterials with/without chondrogenic factors. PMID:23673274

  2. Can technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine replace technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid in the exclusion of a focal renal defect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, I; Anderson, P J; Lythgoe, M F; Orton, M

    1992-12-01

    The presence of focal renal damage dictates different management of a child with urinary tract infection (UTI) compared with children who have normal kidneys. Technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic (DMSA) has a high sensitivity in the detection of a focal defect, and allows estimation of differential function. The introduction of 99mTc-MAG3 with high renal extraction suggests that this may be useful in children with UTI but its role remains speculative. Fifty-nine children with previous UTI underwent both 99mTc-DMSA and MAG3 within 4 wk of each other. Differential function and assessment of the images were undertaken. There is close correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the differential function. Analysis of the 99mTc-DMSA and functional MAG3 images showed that the functional image had a specificity of 88% and a sensitivity of 88% in the detection of a focal parenchymal defect. Technetium-99m-MAG3 in the clinical setting of a child with UTl allows accurate assessment of differential function and a high probability of detecting a focal renal abnormality. PMID:1334134

  3. Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica / Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L.M., Yamada; A.M., Carvalho; P.G.G., Oliveira; S.L., Felisbino; D.L., Queiroz; M.J., Watanabe; C.A., Hussni; A.L.G., Alves.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulaçõe [...] s foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos. Abstract in english The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. [...] After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero) and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

  4. Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.M. Yamada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos.The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

  5. Differentiation between grade 3 and grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the knee: Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted versus fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Fat-suppressed (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FS three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo imaging such as spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence have been established as accurate methods for detecting articular cartilage defects. Purpose: To retrospectively compare the diagnostic efficacy between FS PD-weighted and FS 3D gradient-echo MRI for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects of the knee with arthroscopy as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: Twenty-one patients who had grade 3 or 4 cartilage defects in medial femoral condyle at arthroscopy and knee MRI were included in this study: grade 3, >50% cartilage defects; grade 4, full thickness cartilage defects exposed to the bone. Sagittal FS PD-weighted MR images and FS 3D gradient-echo images with 1.5 T MR images were independently graded for the cartilage abnormalities of medial femoral condyle by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. Inter-observer agreement in grading of cartilage was assessed using ? coefficients. Results: Arthroscopy revealed grade 3 defects in 17 patients and grade 4 defects in 4 patients in medial femoral condyles. For FS 3D gradient-echo images grade 3 defects were graded as grade 3 (n=15) and grade 4 (n=2), and all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. However, for FS PD-weighted MR images all grade 3 defects were misinterpreted as grade 1 (n=1efects were misinterpreted as grade 1 (n=1) and grade 4 (n=16), whereas all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. FS 3D gradient-echo MRI could differentiate grade 3 from grade 4 defects (P=0.003), whereas FS PD-weighted imaging could not (P=1.0). Inter-observer agreement was substantial (?=0.70) for grading of cartilage using FS PD-weighted imaging, whereas it was moderate (?=0.46) using FS 3D gradient-echo imaging. Conclusion: FS 3D gradient-echo MRI is more helpful for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects than is FS PD-weighted imaging

  6. Imaging of articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawan K. Paunipagar; Rasalkar, DD

    2014-01-01

    We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequentl...

  7. Cardiac developmental defects and eccentric right ventricular hypertrophy in cardiomyocyte focal adhesion kinase (FAK) conditional knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xu; Wu, Xiaoyang; Druso, Joseph E.; Huijun WEI; Park, Ann Yong-Jin; Kraus, Marc S.; Alcaraz, Ana; Chen, Ju; Chien, Shu; Cerione, Richard A.; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in integrin-mediated signal transduction. To explore the role and mechanisms of FAK in cardiac development, we inactivated FAK in embryonic cardiomyocytes by crossing the floxed FAK mice with myosin light chain-2a (MLC2a) Cre mice, which expressed Cre as early as embryonic day 9.5 in the heart. The majority of conditional FAK knockout mice generated from MLC2a-Cre (CFKO-2a) died in the embryonic stage wi...

  8. Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Malmonge; C.A.C., Zavaglia; W.D., Belangero.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remain [...] ed empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups with postoperative follow-up periods of 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Indentation tests were performed on the neoformed surfaces in the knee joint (with or without a hydrogel implant) and on adjacent articular cartilage in order to assess the mechanical properties of the newly formed surface. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the mechanical behavior of the neoformed surfaces was significantly different from that of normal cartilage. Histological analysis of the repaired defects showed that the hydrogel implant filled the defect with no signs of inflammation as it was well anchored to the surrounding tissues, resulting in a newly formed articular surface. In the case of empty control defects, osseous tissue grew inside the defects and fibrous tissue formed on the articular surface of the defects. The repaired surface of the hydrogel implant was more compliant than normal articular cartilage throughout the 16 weeks following the operation, whereas the fibrous tissue that formed postoperatively over the empty defect was stiffer than normal articular cartilage after 5 weeks. This stiffness started to decrease 16 weeks after the operation, probably due to tissue degeneration. Thus, from the biomechanical and histological point of view, the hydrogel implant improved the articular surface repair.

  9. Equine Models of Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwraith, C. Wayne; Fortier, Lisa A.; Frisbie, David D.; Nixon, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage injuries of the knee and ankle are common, and a number of different methods have been developed in an attempt to improve their repair. Clinically, there are 2 distinct aims of cartilage repair: 1) restoration of joint function and 2) prevention or at least delay of the onset of osteoarthritis. These goals can potentially be achieved through replacement of damaged or lost articular cartilage with tissue capable of functioning under normal physiological environments for an extended period, but limitations of the final repair product have long been recognized and still exist today. Screening of potential procedures for human clinical use is done by preclinical studies using animal models. This article reviews equine chondral defect models that have been recently recognized to have specific advantages for translation into human articular cartilage regeneration. Defect models in the femoropatellar, femorotibial, and tibiotalar joints have been developed. The horse provides the closest approximation to humans in terms of articular cartilage and subchondral bone thickness, and it is possible to selectively leave the entire calcified cartilage layer or completely remove it. The defect on the equine medial femoral condyle emulates medial femoral condylar lesions in humans. Other advantages of the equine model include an ability to use an arthroscope to create lesions and perform second-look arthroscopies, the large lesion size allowing for more tissue for evaluation, and the ability to have controlled exercise and test the ability of the repair to cope with athletic exercise as well as institute rehabilitation regimens. PMID:26069590

  10. Laser soldering of articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueger, Benno J.; Ott, Beat; Mainil-Varlet, P. M.; Schaffner, Thomas; Clemence, Jean-Francois; Weber, Heinz P.; Frenz, Martin

    2001-05-01

    The surgical treatment of full thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint remains a therapeutic challenge. Recently, new techniques for articular cartilage transplantation, such as mosaicplasty, have become available for cartilage repair. The long-term success of these techniques, however, depends not only on the chondrocyte viability, but also on a lateral integration of the implant. We evaluated the feasibility of cartilage welding using albumin solder that was dye-enhanced to allow coagulation with 808 nm laser diode irradiation. Therefore circular cartilage defects (1-2 mm depth and 6 mm diameter) were made and subsequently repaired using healthy cartilage grafts, which were solder welded through the graft. Conventional histology was compared with viability staining to precisely determine the extent of thermal damage after laser welding.

  11. Condrocalcinose articular familiar / Familial articular chondrocalcinosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mittermayer Barreto, Santiago; Liliana, Galrão; Isabella, Lima; Lucas, Prado; Melba, Moura.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite i [...] ntermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica. Abstract in english Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical featur [...] es of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

  12. Evaluating endogenous repair of focal cartilage defects in C57BL/6 and MRL/MpJ mice using 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, J; Leonard, C; Foniok, T; Rushforth, D; Dunn, J F; Krawetz, R

    2015-06-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating joint injuries is often considered superior to radiography due to the capacity of MRI for visualizing both soft and hard tissues. While longitudinal studies regarding cartilage repair have been undertaken on patients and in larger animal models, a method has yet to be developed for mouse cartilage to be repeatedly and non-invasively evaluated over time. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if morphological changes following a focal cartilage injury in mice could be measured by 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging. Focal cartilage defects were induced in the left knee of 4-6weeks old C57BL/6 and MRL/MpJ mice. At endpoints 0, 2, and 4weeks post-injury, legs were dissected out and imaged ex vivo. The defect could be detected by MRI immediately after injury, appearing as a hyperintense focal point and with size similar to that of the surgical tool used. Defects were visible in both strains up to 4weeks post-injury, although signal intensity decreased over time. One C57BL/6 in particular, displayed extensive fibrosis in the patellar tendon at 4weeks as assessed by histology, while the MR images of the same animal displayed a clear, structural distinction between the patella and the new tissue growth. Overall, our results suggest that MRI could be used for longitudinal studies in murine cartilage injury models to evaluate certain characteristics of repair not detectable through histology. PMID:25597446

  13. Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair – the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Johnstone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach – combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

  14. Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    A. L.M. Yamada; A.M. de Carvalho; P.G.G. Oliveira; S.L. Felisbino; D.L. Queiroz; M.J. Watanabe; C.A. Hussni; A.L.G. Alves

    2012-01-01

    Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações ...

  15. Focal myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Sweet, D.E. [Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

  16. Otro humanismo por articular

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Díaz Álvarez.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de un contexto de intenso contacto intercultural marcado por la globalización económica, un profundo proceso de urbanización mundial y las amplias migraciones humanas, el presente artículo aboga por des-velar el carácter nacional-etnocéntrico que ha marcado al humanismo clásico, para propo [...] ner articular uno de corte pluralista, que incorpore y esté atento a otros relatos y formas de vida no occidentalocéntricas. El reto parece claro: una época marcada por la incomprensión y el conflicto de interpretaciones exige pensar en formas de comunicarse y solidarizarse entre diversos.

  17. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  18. Activation of WNT and BMP signaling in adult human articular cartilage following mechanical injury

    OpenAIRE

    Accio, Francesco; Bari, Cosimo; El Tawil, Noha Mf; Barone, Francesca; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; O Dowd, John; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2006-01-01

    Acute full thickness joint surface defects can undergo repair, which involves tissue patterning and endochondral bone formation. Molecular signals regulating this process may contribute to the repair outcome, chronic evolution and, eventually, the onset of osteoarthritis. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical injury modulates morphogenetic pathways in adult human articular cartilage explants. Adjacent articular cartilage explants were obtained from preserved areas of the femoral condyles o...

  19. Extra-articular hip endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, L.; Guevara, V.; De Schepper, J.; Van Melkebeek, J.; Pattyn, C.; Audenaert, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy. PMID:23610664

  20. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  1. First ex vivo study demonstrating that {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachin, Florent; Culot, Damien [Jean Perrin Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Boisgard, Stephane [Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Vidal, Aurelien; Auzeloux, Philippe; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth [Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Filaire, Marc [Universite d' Auvergne, Anatomy Laboratory, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, Serge [Cyclopharma Laboratoire, Saint-Beauzire (France)

    2011-11-15

    Preclinical data pointed to {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 {+-} 2.35 and 0.76 {+-} 0.24, respectively, for {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. The tracer {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

  2. Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica / Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.S., Iamaguti; C.V.S., Brandão; L.S.L.S., Mota; J.J.T., Ranzani; L.M., Ribeiro; V.J.V., Rossetto; C.R., Padovani; S.L., Felisbino.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelare [...] s. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT); os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC). A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorder [...] s were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

  3. Focal neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    A focal neurologic deficit is a problem with nerve, spinal cord, or brain function. It affects a specific location, such as ... A focal neurologic problem can affect any of these functions: ... paralysis, weakness , loss of muscle control, increased muscle ...

  4. Articular chondrocalcinosis in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman S. Al-Arfaj; Ahmed A. Al-Boukai

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in subjects aged 50 years and above in a radiographic survey through 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Over a period of 7 months extending from September 1998 to March 1999, 153 patients attending 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were interviewed, examined and then requested to have radiographs of knees (anteroposterior and lateral), wrists ...

  5. Transcriptional profiling differences for articular cartilage and repair tissue in equine joint surface lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromberg Arnold J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Full-thickness articular cartilage lesions that reach to the subchondral bone yet are restricted to the chondral compartment usually fill with a fibrocartilage-like repair tissue which is structurally and biomechanically compromised relative to normal articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptional differences between chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage and repair tissue cells four months post-microfracture. Methods Bilateral one-cm2 full-thickness defects were made in the articular surface of both distal femurs of four adult horses followed by subchondral microfracture. Four months postoperatively, repair tissue from the lesion site and grossly normal articular cartilage from within the same femorotibial joint were collected. Total RNA was isolated from the tissue samples, linearly amplified, and applied to a 9,413-probe set equine-specific cDNA microarray. Eight paired comparisons matched by limb and horse were made with a dye-swap experimental design with validation by histological analyses and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Statistical analyses revealed 3,327 (35.3% differentially expressed probe sets. Expression of biomarkers typically associated with normal articular cartilage and fibrocartilage repair tissue corroborate earlier studies. Other changes in gene expression previously unassociated with cartilage repair were also revealed and validated by RT-qPCR. Conclusion The magnitude of divergence in transcriptional profiles between normal chondrocytes and the cells that populate repair tissue reveal substantial functional differences between these two cell populations. At the four-month postoperative time point, the relative deficiency within repair tissue of gene transcripts which typically define articular cartilage indicate that while cells occupying the lesion might be of mesenchymal origin, they have not recapitulated differentiation to the chondrogenic phenotype of normal articular chondrocytes.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

    2010-01-15

    Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

  7. FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENCE OF SPINOUS PROCESS, LAMINAE AND INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES. – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vertebral disorders are the ones which lead to disability and lot of health problems. Since the lumbar part of the vertebral column is the main weight bearing and weight transmitting region, if there is a defective development, the area for muscle attachment and the strong bony structure for the transmission of weight would be missing leading to instability at an early age. In the present case dry and processed fifth lumbar vertebra, of unknown sex which presented the features with absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes on both sides which were obtained for teaching the medical undergraduate students in M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore. There was absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes of fifth lumbar vertebra leading to a wide spina bifida with absence of laminae, inferior articular processes on both sides and spinous process of fifth lumbar vertebra which could be a developmental anomaly.

  8. CT features and clinical significance of lumbar articular facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the CT features and its clinical significance of lumbar articular facet syndrome. Methods: Based on CT findings and clinical data of lumbar articular facet, 51 cases with lumbar articular facet syndrome and 11 normal young adults were analyzed and compared retrospectively. Results: The CT findings of lumbar articular facet syndrome were: (1)hyperostosis and hypertrophy of articular process; (2)the narrowing space of inter-articular facet; (3)vacuum sign in articular facet; (4)coarse and osteosclerosis of articular facet; (5)partial dislocation of articular facet; (6)calcification in peri-articular facet; (7)complications including disc bulge, discprotrusion, vacuum sign in disc, hypertrophy and calcification of ligamentum flavum. Conclusion: CT features of lumbar articular facet syndrome are multifarious, which should be analyzed in all respects. . (authors)

  9. MRI of articular cartilaginous lesions. MRI findings in osteoarthritis of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for imaging of the knee joint, especially for detecting articular cartilaginous lesions associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 141 patients with osteoarthritis were examined (23 males, 118 females). Their age range was 40-93 (mean age 66.2). Using radiotherapy examinations, patients were classified according to Hokkaido University Classification Criteria; 22, 49, 46, 16, and 8 patients were classified as Type I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Articular cartilage defects were examined using MRI, and the number of such defects increased as the X-ray stage progressed. The appearance of a low signal intensity area in the bone marrow was examined using MRI, and the number of patients observed to have such areas increased as the x-ray stages progressed. JOA OA scores were significantly low for patients with meniscal tears. Patients were classified and results reviewed using MRI examinations. Classification by MRI of articular cartilage lesions correlated with the JOA OA scores. Low signal intensity areas in the bone marrow were frequently observed in advanced osteoarthritis cases, and there was correlation between FTA and MRI classifications of these areas. MRI is extremely valuable in detecting articular cartilage lesions in the knee joint, showing those lesions which cannot be detected by conventional radiography examinations. Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically us Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically useful method for diagnosis of osteoarthritis. (author)

  10. Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Ana Carolina S.; Oliveira Filho, Joa?o X.; Paula, Daphine A. J.; Branda?o, Laila Natasha S.; Dias, Danny Franciele S.; Luciano Nakazato; Valéria Dutra

    2011-01-01

    No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%...

  11. Effects of rapid cooling on articular cartilage.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Guan; Urban, JP; Li, ZH; Ferguson, DJ; Gong, CY; Cui, ZF

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the technique and protocols of cryopreservation of articular cartilage, a study was carried out to assess the effects of rapid cooling on the intact articular cartilage. Cartilage slices with a thickness ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mm taken from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints were subjected to rapid cooling by immersing them in liquid nitrogen with and without treatment of the VS55 cryoprotective agent (CPA). The ultrastructure, chondrocyte viability, swelling property, a...

  12. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hari Reddi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  13. BMP Receptor Signaling Is Required for Postnatal Maintenance of Articular Cartilage

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    Rountree Ryan B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression specifically in this tissue have not been available. Here we use regulatory information from the mouse Gdf5 gene (a bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] family member to develop new mouse lines that can be used to either activate or inactivate genes specifically in developing joints. Expression of Cre recombinase from Gdf5 bacterial artificial chromosome clones leads to specific activation or inactivation of floxed target genes in developing joints, including early joint interzones, adult articular cartilage, and the joint capsule. We have used this system to test the role of BMP receptor signaling in joint development. Mice with null mutations in Bmpr1a are known to die early in embryogenesis with multiple defects. However, combining a floxed Bmpr1a allele with the Gdf5-Cre driver bypasses this embryonic lethality, and leads to birth and postnatal development of mice missing the Bmpr1a gene in articular regions. Most joints in the body form normally in the absence of Bmpr1a receptor function. However, articular cartilage within the joints gradually wears away in receptor-deficient mice after birth in a process resembling human osteoarthritis. Gdf5-Cre mice provide a general system that can be used to test the role of genes in articular regions. BMP receptor signaling is required not only for early development and creation of multiple tissues, but also for ongoing maintenance of articular cartilage after birth. Genetic variation in the strength of BMP receptor signaling may be an important risk factor in human osteoarthritis, and treatments that mimic or augment BMP receptor signaling should be investigated as a possible therapeutic strategy for maintaining the health of joint linings.

  14. Joint surface defects: clinical course and cellular response in spontaneous and experimental lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Dell’accio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint surface defects (JSD involving the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone are a common clinical problem in rheumatology and orthopaedics. The recent availability of accurate imaging for diagnosis and efficacious therapeutic options has stirred new interest in their natural history and biology. The evidence that some of these lesions can heal spontaneously whereas others precipitate osteoarthritis has raised important questions as to which lesions should be treated, when, and how. Evidence of repair of some of these lesions has also stimulated research into which factors contribute to successful healing and which ones determine chronic evolution and development of osteoarthritis (OA. Older anatomical observations, together with novel molecular tools and experimental models, have revealed a complex cellular and molecular response of cartilage to focal defects, which could explain differences in healing responses between individuals, and may provide clues to stimulating intrinsic tissue repair. In the first part of this review we will discuss clinical aspects of these lesions in the patient, with particular emphasis on their biology and natural history. In the second part we will summarize the data coming from in vitro and in vivo models of cartilage injury and regeneration, focussing on the molecular control of cartilage homeostasis after creation of cartilage surface defects.

  15. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in articular cartilage catabolism, while walking with -40% body weight did not. Cardiovascular response (HR and RPE) was not significantly different during walking with normal body weight and when compared to walking with -40% body weight.

  16. Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina S. Faria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%, creche (44,35% e crescimento/terminação (25,22% de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs para avaliação microbiológica e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5% amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%, Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13% e Escherichia coli (12,68% os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%. Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%, Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45% e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%. Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69% de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação.In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%, nursery (44.35% and growing-finishing (25.22% phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total of 57 (49.5% samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%, Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13% and Escherichia coli (12.68%, and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%. In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%, Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45% and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%. Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%. Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

  17. Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos / Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina S., Faria; João X. de, Oliveira Filho; Daphine A.J. de, Paula; Laila Natasha S., Brandão; Danny Franciele S., Dias; Luciano, Nakazato; Valéria, Dutra.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica [...] e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%), Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13%) e Escherichia coli (12,68%) os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%). Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45%) e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%). Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69%) de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação. Abstract in english In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%), nursery (44.35%) and growing-finishing (25.22%) phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs) for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total o [...] f 57 (49.5%) samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13%) and Escherichia coli (12.68%), and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%). In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45%) and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%). Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%). Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

  18. Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of f with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of 35S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate

  19. Focal spinal intramedullary cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ritesh; Chauhan, Shishu Pal Singh; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, Premala A; Gopal, Nitya Nand

    2008-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infestation of the CNS. Most authors have reported the incidence of spinal neurocysticercosis as only 1.5-3% of all cases, even in endemic areas. Spinal neurocysticercosis represents a distinct clinical entity that usually appears due to mass effect on the spinal cord. Most cases occur in the spinal subarachnoid space and cysticercosis in intramedullary location is extremely rare. The authors present a case of focal intramedullary spinal cysticercosis. The authors highlight the strategy for successful treatment of focal lesions in the intramedullary location. PMID:18551821

  20. Intra-articular angiolipoma of the knee: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimori Makoto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of intra-articular angiolipoma of the knee. This case report describes our experience in excising an intra-articular angiolipoma of the knee joint. Complete resection under arthroscopy was performed in a 30-year-old man. Two years after the surgery, no evidence of recurrence was seen. Intra-articular angiolipomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-articular masses in adolescents with recurrent hemarthrosis without trauma.

  1. Repair of articular cartilage and meniscal tears by photoactive dyes: in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Jackson, Robert W.; Nosir, Hany R.; Matthews, James Lester; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

    1996-12-01

    We describe healing results of our 6 month study of a repair procedure which evokes the healing response in meniscal tears and partial thickness defects in articular cartilage by a non-thermal tissue sparing photochemical weld using 1,8-naphthalimide dyes. Welds of incisional flaps in adult sheep meniscus and femoral articular cartilage were made using the dye MBM Gold 012011012 at 12 mM in PBS, 457.9nm Argon ion laser radiation at 800 mW/cm2, 7.5 minutes with approximately 1 kg/cm2 externally applied pressure. Gross appearance of tissues in all welded knees appeared normal. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections disclosed close bonding of welded areas and continuing healing response as cellular recruitment.

  2. Localization of viscous behavior and shear energy dissipation in articular cartilage under dynamic shear loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mark R; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Though remarkably robust, articular cartilage becomes susceptible to damage at high loading rates, particularly under shear. While several studies have measured the local static and steady-state shear properties of cartilage, it is the local viscoelastic properties that determine the tissue's ability to withstand physiological loading regimens. However, measuring local viscoelastic properties requires overcoming technical challenges that include resolving strain fields in both space and time and accurately calculating their phase offsets. This study combined recently developed high-speed confocal imaging techniques with three approaches for analyzing time- and location-dependent mechanical data to measure the depth-dependent dynamic modulus and phase angles of articular cartilage. For sinusoidal shear at frequencies f = 0.01 to 1 Hz with no strain offset, the dynamic shear modulus |G*| and phase angle ? reached their minimum and maximum values (respectively) approximately 100 ?m below the articular surface, resulting in a profound focusing of energy dissipation in this narrow band of tissue that increased with frequency. This region, known as the transitional zone, was previously thought to simply connect surface and deeper tissue regions. Within 250 ?m of the articular surface, |G*| increased from 0.32 ± 0.08 to 0.42 ± 0.08 MPa across the five frequencies tested, while ? decreased from 12 deg ± 1 deg to 9.1 deg ± 0.5 deg. Deeper into the tissue, |G*| increased from 1.5 ± 0.4 MPa to 2.1 ± 0.6 MPa and ? decreased from 13 deg ± 1 deg to 5.5 deg ± 0.2 deg. Viscoelastic properties were also strain-dependent, with localized energy dissipation suppressed at higher shear strain offsets. These results suggest a critical role for the transitional zone in dissipating energy, representing a possible shift in our understanding of cartilage mechanical function. Further, they give insight into how focal degeneration and mechanical trauma could lead to sustained damage in this tissue. PMID:24231813

  3. Childhood Focal Epilepsies

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    Wael hayel khreisat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done in order to obtain a baseline profile of childhood focal epilepsies Patient and methods: Subjects included in this study were children suffering from focal epilepsy with age above 2 y. They were attending pediatric neurology clinic in Queen Rania Hospital for children in Jordan . The study included 112 children with ages ranging from 2-14 years. The following data were obtained: age, sex, detailed of seizures type, age at first unprovoked seizure, family history of seizure disorders, history and type of febrile seizures, etiological factors, socioeconomic class, history of consanguinity, additional neuro -impairment, Electroencephalography and brain imaging finding and the use of antiepileptic drugs, the results were recorded for further study. Results: A total of 112 consecutive cases of focal epilepsy were enrolled , 59 were male. The commonest partial seizure recorded was simple partial type 52 (46.4% while simple partial with secondary generalization had 17 (16.9% and complex partial seizure formed 36.8 %. , In partial onset seizures the peak age was between 11-14 years and complex partial seizures plateau was seen between ages 6-10 years. Twenty six (23.2% patients reported a family history of epilepsy, 91% of low socioeconomic class .11.5 % of cases have history of febrile seizures, idiopathic epilepsy was 53.5 % . In most of epileptic patients have accessory neurological impairment, the most common were learning difficulties Electroencephalography was normal in 20.4 %, mono-therapy was used in 68.8 % Conclusion: the pattern of focal epilepsies in our country do not differ from that of developed countries, further population ­based epidemiological research is indicated to confirm the prevalence of seizure disorders in this locality

  4. Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Eyre

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia syndromes. Here we review what is known of the collagen assembly and present new evidence that collagen type III becomes covalently added to the polymeric fabric of adult human articular cartilage, perhaps as part of a matrix repair or remodelling process.

  5. Polarized IR microscopic imaging of articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Xia Yang; Bidthanapally, Aruna [Department of Physics and Center for Biomedical Research, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)

    2007-08-07

    The objective of this spectroscopic imaging study is to understand the anisotropic behavior of articular cartilage under polarized infrared radiation at 6.25 {mu}m pixel resolution. Paraffin embedded canine humeral cartilage-bone blocks were used to obtain 6 {mu}m thick tissue sections. Two wire grid polarizers were used to manipulate the polarization states of IR radiation by setting them for various polarizer/analyzer angles. The characteristics of the major chemical components (amide I, amide II, amide III and sugar) of articular cartilage were investigated using (a) a polarizer and (b) a combination of a polarizer and an analyzer. These results were compared to those obtained using only an analyzer. The infrared anisotropy (variation in infrared absorption as a function of polarization angles) of amide I, amide II and amide III bands correlates with the orientation of collagen fibrils along the tissue depth in different histological zones. An 'anisotropic flipping' region of amide profiles indicates the possibility of using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to determine the histological zones in cartilage. Cross-polarization experiment indicates the resolution of overlapping peaks of collagen triple helix and/or proteoglycan in articular cartilage.

  6. [The focal renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful. PMID:23735765

  7. Focal Myositis of Unilateral Leg

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Jin; Im, Sun; Park, Joo Hyun; Yoo, Soon Hei; Park, Geun-young

    2011-01-01

    Focal myositis is a rare, benign inflammatory pseudotumor of the skeletal muscle of unknown etiology. In Korea, there is no case report of focal myositis, which is not combined with connective tissue disease. We present an unusual case of focal myositis with ankle contracture, involving more than two muscles. A 26-year-old man visited our clinic complaining of right ankle contracture and leg muscle pain. Physical examination revealed no muscle weakness or any other neurological abnormality. T...

  8. Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinks Aaltien

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue corticosteroid injection. Methods A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were examined. We divided the reported adverse events into major (defined as those needing intervention or not disappearing and minor ones (transient, not requiring intervention. Results The search yielded 87 relevant studies:44 case reports, 37 prospective studies and 6 retrospective studies. The major adverse events included osteomyelitis and protothecosis; one fatal necrotizing fasciitis; cellulitis and ecchymosis; tendon ruptures; atrophy of the plantar fat was described after injecting a neuroma; and local skin effects appeared as atrophy, hypopigmentation or as skin defect. The minor adverse events effects ranged from skin rash to flushing and disturbed menstrual pattern. Increased pain or steroid flare after injection was reported in 19 studies. After extra-articular injection, the incidence of major adverse events ranged from 0-5.8% and that of minor adverse events from 0-81%. It was not feasible to pool the risk for adverse effects due to heterogeneity of study populations and difference in interventions and variance in reporting. Conclusion In this literature review it was difficult to accurately quantify the incidence of adverse effects after extra-articular corticosteroid injection. The reported adverse events were relatively mild, although one fatal reaction was reported.

  9. Outcomes following microfracture of full-thickness articular cartilage lesions of the knee in adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, J Richard; Briggs, Karen K; Matheny, Lauren M; Guillet, Alyson; Hanson, Chad M; Willimon, S Clifton

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to document outcomes following microfracture for full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee in adolescents. Our hypothesis was that patients aged 18 years or less would have excellent outcomes and function following microfracture of full-thickness knee articular cartilage defects. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Patients < 19 years old with full-thickness knee articular cartilage defects treated with microfracture between January 1992 and June 2008 were identified. Surgical, demographic data, Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction were collected prospectively. A total of 26 patients (14 females, 12 males) met inclusion criteria. Average age was 16.6 years (range: 12-18.9 years). Ninety-six percent of lesions were patellar (37%) or femoral condyle defects (medial 26%, lateral 33%). Minimum 2-year follow-up was obtained in 22/26 patients (85%) with average follow-up of 5.8 years (range: 2.0-13.3 years). Average postoperative Lysholm score was 90 (range: 50-100). Median Tegner scale was 6 (range: 2-10). Median patient satisfaction with outcome was 10 (range: 1-10). Lysholm correlated with Tegner scale (rho = 0.586; p = 0.011) and patient satisfaction (rho = 0.70; p = 0.001). Average postoperative Lysholm score in males was 93 and 86 in females (p = 0.22). One patient underwent revision microfracture. This study showed that adolescent patients who underwent microfracture for treatment of full-thickness knee chondral defects demonstrated increased activity levels and excellent function following surgery. PMID:24764229

  10. Systemic focal epileptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

  11. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ? Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ? High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred ?m) of nanofibrous scaffolds ? Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ? Differentiation not significantly affected ? Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  12. The use of trans-articular and extra-articular external fixation for management of distal tibial intra-articular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, M; Dalby-Ball, J; Burton, M; Saleh, M

    2001-12-01

    Twenty-nine consecutive cases of distal tibial intra-articular fractures treated by trans-articular or extra-articular external fixation techniques have been reviewed. Eleven cases were treated initially with a trans-articular dynamic axial fixator. Of these seven were converted to an extra-articular SHF, for a combination of poor ankle motion and delayed healing of the metaphyseo-diaphyseal dissociation (MDD). Three of these cases (two patients) required bone grafting for delayed healing of the diaphyseal component of the fracture. Apart from one refracture through the MDD, no major complications were seen. No deep infections and no angular malalignments were noted. There were 11 pin track infections. Subjective assessment using short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires, however, revealed significant differences compared to a normal population particularly in physical function and pain at a mean follow-up of 21 months. Using Bone's criteria for assessment of range of motion there were 62% excellent and good results, which dropped to 53% when fractures with a metaphyseo-diaphyseal extension were included. The use of minimally invasive techniques of internal fixation and stabilisation with a Sheffield hybrid frame in the management of distal tibial intra-articular fractures has minimal complications. Trans-articular external fixation is a good primary treatment for badly comminuted articular fractures with poor soft tissue condition. Conversion to extra-articular external fixation is recommended for slower healing fractures allowing ankle movement and early weight-bearing. The presence of a MDD dissociation lengthens the treatment time significantly, adds to the morbidity and affects final outcome. PMID:11812483

  13. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2013-01-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75 to +75 degrees, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalog. In the new forecasts we've improved the spatial resolution to 0.1 degree and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each grid point. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method ...

  14. Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-cheng LI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

  15. Viral articular deformations in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A goat belonging to an animal aid association was presented for bilateral deformation of the tarsus and carpus and signs of high-grade pain. ELISA serology was positive for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus. Radiography revealed marked osseous remodelling of the tarsus. The blood fibrinogen concentration was very elevated. On infected commercial farms, it is recommended that both seropositive animals and their offspring are culled when the level of infected is low, or to separate the kids from the mothers at an early age. In this case, palliative treatment was prescribed based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and articular puncture-lavages

  16. Effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on proliferation and phenotype maintenance in rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haojia; Liu, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wu, Huayu; Zheng, Li

    2015-01-01

    In autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) to restore defective cartilage, limited cell numbers and dedifferentiation of chondrocytes are the major difficulties. An alternative is the use of growth factors, but their high cost and potential for tumorigenesis are major obstacles. To ensure successful ACI therapy, it is important to find an effective substitute pro-chondrogenic agent. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the green tea catechins, has been widely investigated in studies of interleukin-1?-induced chondrocytes. In the present study, the effects of EGCG on rabbit articular chondrocytes were investigated through the examination of cell proliferation, morphology, glycosaminoglycan synthesis and cartilage-specific gene expression. The results showed that EGCG could effectively promote chondrocyte growth and enhance the secretion and synthesis of the cartilage extracellular matrix by upregulating expression levels of aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9 genes. Expression of the collagen I gene was downregulated, which showed that EGCG effectively inhibited the dedifferentiation of chondrocytes. Hypertrophy, which may lead to chondrocyte ossification, was also undetectable in the EGCG groups. In conclusion, the recommended dose of EGCG was found to be in the range of 5 to 20 ?M, with the most marked response observed with 10 ?M. The present study may provide a basis for the development of a novel agent as a substitute for growth factors in the treatment of articular cartilage defects. PMID:25452805

  17. MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, L. [University of Melbourne, Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium); Ditchfield, M.; Jaremko, J.L.; Stephens, N. [University of Melbourne, Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Verstraete, K. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium)

    2010-07-15

    Juxta-articular venous malformations (VMs) are uncommon, but may cause early arthropathy of the knee in children and adolescents. We sought to describe the prevalence, extent and initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee arthropathy in children with VM adjacent to the knee joint. Thirty-five patients with VM adjacent to the knee who had MRI performed between 2000 and 2009 were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system. VM extended to the joint in 17 of the 35 patients (5.4-21.5 years, mean 11.8 years). Most of these 17 patients had joint changes (15/17, 88%), most commonly haemosiderin deposition (14/17, 82%). Other findings included the presence of subchondral bone lesions (eight, 47%), cartilage loss (six, 35%), synovial thickening (six, 35%), marrow oedema (six, 35%), joint effusion (five, 29%), subchondral cysts (five, 29%) and one loose body (6%). VM location and size did not correlate with the degree of articular involvement. Joint changes were present in focal as well as non-discrete VM. We found that the frequency of arthropathy increased with extension of VM into the joint itself. This finding stresses the importance of early MRI evaluation of all juxta-articular VM. (orig.)

  18. Imaging of articular cartilage: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    RONGA, MARIO; ANGERETTI, GLORIA; FERRARO, SERGIO; DE FALCO, GIOVANNI; GENOVESE, EUGENIO A.; CHERUBINO, PAOLO

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard method for non-invasive assessment of joint cartilage, providing information on the structure, morphology and molecular composition of this tissue. There are certain minimum requirements for a MRI study of cartilage tissue: machines with a high magnetic field (> 1.5 Tesla); the use of surface coils; and the use of T2-weighted, proton density-weighted fast-spin echo (T2 FSE-DP) and 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient echo (3D-FS T1W GRE) sequences. For better contrast between the different joint structures, MR arthography is a method that can highlight minimal fibrillation or fractures of the articular surface and allow evaluation of the integrity of the native cartilage-repair tissue interface. To assess the biochemical composition of cartilage and cartilage repair tissue, various techniques have been proposed for studying proteoglycans [dGEMRIC, T1rho mapping, sodium (23Na) imaging MRI, etc.], collagen, and water distribution [T2 mapping, “magnetisation transfer contrast”, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and so on]. Several MRI classifications have been proposed for evaluating the processes of joint degeneration (WORMS, BLOKS, ICRS) and post-surgical maturation of repair tissue (MOCART, 3D MOCART). In the future, isotropic 3D sequences set to improve image quality and facilitate the diagnosis of disorders of articular structures adjacent to cartilage. PMID:25606557

  19. Imaging of articular cartilage: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronga, Mario; Angeretti, Gloria; Ferraro, Sergio; DE Falco, Giovanni; Genovese, Eugenio A; Cherubino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard method for non-invasive assessment of joint cartilage, providing information on the structure, morphology and molecular composition of this tissue. There are certain minimum requirements for a MRI study of cartilage tissue: machines with a high magnetic field (> 1.5 Tesla); the use of surface coils; and the use of T2-weighted, proton density-weighted fast-spin echo (T2 FSE-DP) and 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient echo (3D-FS T1W GRE) sequences. For better contrast between the different joint structures, MR arthography is a method that can highlight minimal fibrillation or fractures of the articular surface and allow evaluation of the integrity of the native cartilage-repair tissue interface. To assess the biochemical composition of cartilage and cartilage repair tissue, various techniques have been proposed for studying proteoglycans [dGEMRIC, T1rho mapping, sodium (23Na) imaging MRI, etc.], collagen, and water distribution [T2 mapping, "magnetisation transfer contrast", diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and so on]. Several MRI classifications have been proposed for evaluating the processes of joint degeneration (WORMS, BLOKS, ICRS) and post-surgical maturation of repair tissue (MOCART, 3D MOCART). In the future, isotropic 3D sequences set to improve image quality and facilitate the diagnosis of disorders of articular structures adjacent to cartilage. PMID:25606557

  20. Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Henak, Corinne R; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-18

    The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis. PMID:25698236

  1. Hot spot liver scan in focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In scintigraphy of the liver with radiocolloid, space-occupying lesions generally are visualized as regions of decreased accumulation of radioactivity. Rarely focal areas of increased activity are depicted; most are related to altered vascular dynamics in the liver secondary to obstruction of the superior or inferior vena cava or the hepatic veins. There are reports of single cases of focally increased activity due to a hepatic hemangioma, hepatic venoocclusive disease, herniation of a part of the liver, and a liver hot spot found after radiocolloid injection via a malpositioned central venous catheter in one of the hepatic vein branches. In patients with focal nodular hyperplasia, liver scans with solitary defects as well as normal patterns are found. In some cases, increased uptake of colloid in the lesion has been documented. Pasquier and Dorta reported a patient with a palpable mass in the left liver lobe with increased accumulation of radioactivity on the radiocolloid liver scan. The histologic diagnosis was hamartoma, but reviewing the description and considering the confusion in the past concerning the nomenclature, this case is suggestive of focal nodular hyperplasia. We report a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia who had increased radiocolloid uptake in the lesion. The radionuclide studies are compared with angiography, sonography, and computed tomography. An explanation for the localized increased colloid accumulation based on histologic findings is suggation based on histologic findings is suggested

  2. Ossification defects detected in CT scans represent early osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Kristin; Kongsro, Jørgen; Grindflek, Eli; Dolvik, Nils Ivar

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to validate the use of CT for selection against osteochondrosis in pigs by calculating positive predictive value and comparing it to the positive predictive value of macroscopic evaluation, using histological examination as the reference standard. Eighteen male, hereditarily osteochondrosis-predisposed piglets underwent terminal examination at biweekly intervals from the ages of 82-180 days old, including CT scanning, macroscopic, and histological evaluation of the left distal femur. Areas of ischemic chondronecrosis (osteochondrosis) were confirmed in histological sections from 44/56 macroscopically suspected lesions, resulting in a positive predictive value of 79% (95% CI: 67-84%). Suspected lesions, that is; focal, radiolucent defects in the ossification front in CT scans corresponded to areas of ischemic chondronecrosis in 36/36 histologically examined lesions, resulting in a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90-100%). CT was superior to macroscopic evaluation for diagnosis of early stages of osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets. The current histologically validated observations can potentially be extrapolated to diagnostic monitoring of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans in children, or to animal models of human juvenile articular cartilage injury and repair. PMID:24740876

  3. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  4. Surgery for focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlik, Katrina S; Spencer, Dennis D

    2002-01-01

    Interest in surgery for focal cortical dysplasia has grown with the enhanced ability to detect these lesions preoperatively with modern imaging techniques. This article focuses on the surgical management of epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia. The authors highlight the approaches practiced at Yale University, review their recent series of operative cases, and discuss a representative case example to illustrate important aspects of surgical strategy. PMID:11754320

  5. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nod...

  6. Modelos computacionales del comportamiento del cartílago articular / Computational models of articular cartilage behavior

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar Rodrigo, López-Vaca; Carlos Alberto, Narváez-Tovar; Diego Alexander, Garzón-Alvarado.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El cartílago articular suministra a las articulaciones diartrodiales baja fricción, resistencia al desgaste en las superficies de contacto y distribuye los esfuerzos en las zonas donde se presenta contacto con el hueso; adicionalmente, es un tejido alinfático y avascular, razón por la cual su regene [...] ración toma demasiado tiempo y en pacientes con avanzada edad no es posible realizarla. Con el propósito de estudiar y entender completamente el comportamiento del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones de carga y en presencia de enfermedades como la osteoartritis, se han creado diferentes modelos computacionales que incluyen características propias de la estructura del tejido cartilaginoso que permiten predecir su comportamiento en condiciones normales y anormales, disminuyendo tiempos y costos de experimentación. Este artículo de actualización expone las principales características estructurales y biológicas del cartílago articular y presenta diferentes modelos computacionales que permiten modelar el tejido cartilaginoso de acuerdo con sus principales características y de esta forma simular el deterioro del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones y enfermedades. Abstract in english The articular cartilage provides diarthrodial articulations with low friction, resistance to wear on contact surfaces, and an effective distribution of efforts in areas of contact with the bone. On the other hand, because their tissue is alymphatic and avascular, regeneration takes a long time and i [...] s not possible in elderly patients. Various computational models have been developed to study and fully understand cartilage behavior under varying load conditions and in the presence of diseases such as osteoarthritis. The models include specific features of cartilaginous tissue allowing to predict its behavior in normal and abnormal conditions, reducing experimentation time and costs. This update paper presents the main structural and biological characteristics of the articular cartilage, as well as various computational models representing cartilaginous tissue according to its main features, with a view to simulating cartilage deterioration under varying conditions and diseases.

  7. REVISIÓN DE MODELOS CONSTITUTIVOS PARA CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR / REVIEW OF CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PEDRO J., CABALLERO; NELSON, ARZOLA.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de varios modelos utilizados para explicar el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular. La revisión hace énfasis en modelos mecánicos ya que los modelos físico químicos desbordan el alcance del análisis de sólidos que se quiere tratar. La mayoría de los modelos revisa [...] dos retoman la idea planteada por Mow, la cual plantea que este tipo de tejidos puede ser modelado como un material bifásico, en donde cada fase tiene sus características específicas y la interacción entre ellas brinda las propiedades mecánicas del tejido como un global. El planteamiento de un modelo fenomenológico para el cartílago articular es complejo debido a la naturaleza de la respuesta bajo cargas transitorias y a los fenómenos físico químicos acoplados que tienen lugar. Los modelos futuros deberán estar orientados a considerar integralmente dichas características e interacciones. Abstract in english In this article, a review of several models used to explain the mechanical behavior of the articular cartilage is presented. This review makes an emphasis on the mechanical models because the physical-chemical models are out of scope of the solid behavior analysis explained in this study. Most of th [...] e revised models retake the idea proposed by Mow which states that this type of tissues can be modeled as a biphasic material where each phase has got its specific characteristics and the interaction among these phases offers the tissue overall mechanical properties. The approach of a phenomenological model for an articular cartilage is complex due to the nature of the transitory loads answer and bonded physical-chemical phenomena. The future models will have to be oriented to consider, in an integrated way, these characteristics and interactions among them.

  8. Modelos computacionales del comportamiento del cartílago articular Computational models of articular cartilage behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El cartílago articular suministra a las articulaciones diartrodiales baja fricción, resistencia al desgaste en las superficies de contacto y distribuye los esfuerzos en las zonas donde se presenta contacto con el hueso; adicionalmente, es un tejido alinfático y avascular, razón por la cual su regeneración toma demasiado tiempo y en pacientes con avanzada edad no es posible realizarla. Con el propósito de estudiar y entender completamente el comportamiento del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones de carga y en presencia de enfermedades como la osteoartritis, se han creado diferentes modelos computacionales que incluyen características propias de la estructura del tejido cartilaginoso que permiten predecir su comportamiento en condiciones normales y anormales, disminuyendo tiempos y costos de experimentación. Este artículo de actualización expone las principales características estructurales y biológicas del cartílago articular y presenta diferentes modelos computacionales que permiten modelar el tejido cartilaginoso de acuerdo con sus principales características y de esta forma simular el deterioro del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones y enfermedades.The articular cartilage provides diarthrodial articulations with low friction, resistance to wear on contact surfaces, and an effective distribution of efforts in areas of contact with the bone. On the other hand, because their tissue is alymphatic and avascular, regeneration takes a long time and is not possible in elderly patients. Various computational models have been developed to study and fully understand cartilage behavior under varying load conditions and in the presence of diseases such as osteoarthritis. The models include specific features of cartilaginous tissue allowing to predict its behavior in normal and abnormal conditions, reducing experimentation time and costs. This update paper presents the main structural and biological characteristics of the articular cartilage, as well as various computational models representing cartilaginous tissue according to its main features, with a view to simulating cartilage deterioration under varying conditions and diseases.

  9. Effects of recombination human bone morphogenetic protein 2 on articular cartilage repair in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is one of the growth factors capable of inducing the new cartilage or bone formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reparative effect of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on articular cartilage defects in rabbits. rhBMP-2 and polylactic acid-polyglycol acid copolymers (PLGA) were from Genetics Institute, (Cambridge, America). The implants consisted of rhBMP-2 and 100 mg of PLGA as a carrier and 0.6 ml of autologous peripheral blood. An Osteochondral defect (6 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth) was made on each femoral groove of rabbit knees. Then, rhBMP-2 composites were implanted into the defects. Rabbits were divided into following 3 groups based on implanted materials. For group 1, the implants without rhBMP-2 were implanted into the defects. For group 11, the implants including I 00 pg of rhBMP-2, and for group 111, those including 200 pg of rhBMP-2 were implanted. These animals were killed at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after implantation. Sections from each osteochondral defect were examined histologically with H and E stain and Safranin-0 stain. The depth of new cartilage formation was measured at the center of the defect area. Some extent of cartilage formation was observed in all groups from 4 weeks, although it was particularly poor in group 1. Group 11 and III had more white surface of newborn cartilage. The surface of new cartilage could be distinguished from adjacent cartilage by its color. Group I showed osteochonage by its color. Group I showed osteochondral conduction from the surrounding tissue. Group 11 and III had chondrocytes and matrix stained well with Safranin-0. Columnar cell alignment was observed on week 12 of Group 11 and 111. The depth of new cartilage increased by 200 % on week 4 of group III and by 150 % on week 8 of group 11, compared with that of the adjacent cartilage, and decreased by 40-60 % on week 12. The result revealed that 200 pg of rhBMP-2 with 100 mg of PLGA is an effective implant to repair the articular cartilage defects

  10. Arthoscopy La artroscopia y las lesiones articulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Naranjo

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A general view is presented on arthroscopy; its history, indications and limitations are described and analyzed; its advantages in comparison with open surgery are emphasized.

    La artroscopia es un procedimiento que permite, mediante un instrumento óptico, evaluar el Interior de las cavidades articulares. Comenzó a desarrollarse como un procedimiento diagnóstico y pronto sus grandes ventajas frente a las exploraciones abiertas aceleraron el desarrollo de las técnicas y del instrumental. La minimización del trauma a los tejidos y la menor morbilidad posoperatoria permiten que la deambulación y la recuperación funcional sean precoces lo cual, sumado a un mejor resultado estético, ha colocado a la artroscopia como procedimiento de elección para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de múltiples estados patológicos intraarticulares.

  11. The Role of Tissue Engineering in Articular Cartilage Repair and Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lijie; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2009-01-01

    Articular cartilage repair and regeneration continue to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased articular cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving articular cartilage therapy. This review provides an overall description of the current state and progress in articular cartilage repair ...

  12. Lesiones focales hepáticas en niños / Focal liver lesions in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalis, Rossell; Dianora, Navarro; Karolina, López; Enicar, Perla; Betzabeth, Quintana; Credy, Figueredo; Andrea, Nogales; Katiuska, Belandria.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones focales del hígado comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de entidades como tumores benignos y malignos, sólidos o quistes, vasculares, masas inflamatorias y metástasis, entre otras. Objetivo: reportar lesiones focales hepáticas en niños, características clínicas, estudios por im [...] ágenes y conducta terapéutica. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en la revisión de 16 historias clínicas de niños con lesiones focales hepáticas en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2007 a enero 2012. Se excluyeron los abscesos hepáticos. Resultados: El 68,75%11 eran del sexo masculino y 31,25%5 del sexo femenino; con edad promedio de 9,5 años (rango: 10 días - 14 años). Las lesiones focales benignas fueron: hemangioma 4/16 (25%), hematoma hepático 4/16 (25%), quiste hepático 3/16 (18,75%), hiperplasia nodular focal 1/16 (6,25%) adenoma 1/16 (6,25%) y las malignas: hepatocarcinoma 2/16 (12,50%) y hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6,25%). La mayoría de los pacientes (56,25%) se encontraban asintomáticos, 3/16 (18,75%) presentaron dolor abdominal, 3/16 (18,75%) masa palpable y 2/16 (12,5%) ictericia. La lesión fue identificada por ultrasonido abdominal en todos los pacientes y sólo el 56,25% (9/16) ameritaron tomografía con contraste. Al 43,75% (7/16) se les realizó marcadores tumorales y de estos el 42,85% (3/7) reportaron neoplasias. El funcionalismo hepático reportó normal en el 75% de los casos. Conclusión: El ultrasonido abdominal es el método de elección para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las lesiones focales hepáticas, mientras el origen de las mismas, guía la conducta terapéutica. Abstract in english Introduction: focal liver lesions comprise a heterogeneous group of entities such as benign and malignant, solid or cysts, vascular, inflammatory masses and metastasis among others. Objective: To report focal liver lesions in children, clinical features, imaging and therapeutic behavior. Patients an [...] d Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study based on a review of 16 case histories of children with focal liver lesions in the period from January 2007 to January 2012. Liver abscesses were excluded. Results: 68.75%11 were male and 31.25%5 females, mean age 9.5 years (range: 10 days - 14 years). Focal lesions were benign: Hemangioma 4/16 (25%), liver hematoma 4/16 (25%), hepatic cyst 3/16 (18.75%), nodular focal hyperplasia 1/16 (6.25%) and adenomas 1/16 (6.25%) and malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma 2/16 (12.50%) and hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6.25%). Most patients (56.25%) were asymptomatic, 3/16 (18.75%) had abdominal pain, 3/16 (18.75%) and palpable mass 2/16 (12.5%) jaundice. The lesion was identified by abdominal ultrasound in all patients and only 56.25% (9/16) needed tomography with contrast. To 43.75% (7/16) underwent tumor markers and of these 42.85% (3/7) reported neoplasm. Normal hepatic function reported in 75% of cases. Conclusion: An abdominal ultrasound is the method of choice for the diagnosis and management of focal liver lesions, while the origin of them, guide therapeutic conduct.

  13. Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography provides detailed information on articular cartilage lesions in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Moller, N C R; Brommer, H; Liukkonen, J; Virén, T; Timonen, M; Puhakka, P H; Jurvelin, J S; van Weeren, P R; Töyräs, J

    2013-09-01

    Arthroscopy enables direct inspection of the articular surface, but provides no information on deeper cartilage layers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on measurement of reflection and backscattering of light, is a diagnostic technique used in cardiovascular surgery and ophthalmology. It provides cross-sectional images at resolutions comparable to that of low-power microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine if OCT is feasible for advanced clinical assessment of lesions in equine articular cartilage during diagnostic arthroscopy. Diagnostic arthroscopy of 36 metacarpophalangeal joints was carried out ex vivo. Of these, 18 joints with varying degrees of cartilage damage were selected, wherein OCT arthroscopy was conducted using an OCT catheter (diameter 0.9 mm) inserted through standard instrument portals. Five sites of interest, occasionally supplemented with other locations where defects were encountered, were arthroscopically graded according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification system. The same sites were evaluated qualitatively (ICRS classification and morphological description of the lesions) and quantitatively (measurement of cartilage thickness) on OCT images. OCT provided high resolution images of cartilage enabling determination of cartilage thickness. Comparing ICRS grades determined by both arthroscopy and OCT revealed poor agreement. Furthermore, OCT visualised a spectrum of lesions, including cavitation, fibrillation, superficial and deep clefts, erosion, ulceration and fragmentation. In addition, with OCT the arthroscopically inaccessible area between the dorsal MC3 and P1 was reachable in some cases. Arthroscopically-guided OCT provided more detailed and quantitative information on the morphology of articular cartilage lesions than conventional arthroscopy. OCT could therefore improve the diagnostic value of arthroscopy in equine orthopaedic surgery. PMID:23810744

  14. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes

  15. Generation of articular chondrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, April M; Rockel, Jason S; Nartiss, Yulia; Kandel, Rita A; Alman, Benjamin A; Keller, Gordon M

    2015-06-01

    The replacement of articular cartilage through transplantation of chondrogenic cells or preformed cartilage tissue represents a potential new avenue for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases. Although many studies have described differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to the chondrogenic lineage, the generation of chondrocytes able to produce stable articular cartilage in vivo has not been demonstrated. Here we show that activation of the TGF? pathway in hPSC-derived chondrogenic progenitors promotes the efficient development of articular chondrocytes that can form stable cartilage tissue in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, chondrocytes specified by BMP4 signaling display characteristics of hypertrophy and give rise to cartilage tissues that initiate the endochondral ossification process in vivo. These findings provide a simple serum-free and efficient approach for the routine generation of hPSC-derived articular chondrocytes for modeling diseases of the joint and developing cell therapy approaches to treat them. PMID:25961409

  16. Reparação de defeitos osteocondrais de cães com implante de cultura de condrócitos homólogos e membrana biossintética de celulose: avaliação clínica, ultrassonográfica e macroscópica / The repair of osteochondral defects in dogs with homologous articular chondrocytes and biosynthetic cellulose membrane: clinical, ultrasound and macroscopic evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.S., Iamaguti; C.V.S., Brandão; L.S.L.S., Mota; M.G., Sereno; M.F., Almeida; C.R., Padovani.

    1483-14-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o implante de condrócitos homólogos em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando a membrana biossintética à base de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães adultos e clinicamente sadios foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de quatro milímetros de diâme [...] tro por quatro milímetros de profundidade foram induzidos na tróclea femoral de ambos os membros. A MBC foi aplicada na base e superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados e formaram o grupo tratado (GT); e os defeitos do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, formaram o grupo controle (GC). Os animais foram avaliados clínica e ultrassonograficamente aos 30 e 60 dias. A evolução pós-operatória dos cães foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de macroscopia. Não houve diferença clínica e ultrassonográfica entre os grupos. Entretanto, à macroscopia, ocorreu maior prevalência de formação de tecido cicatricial esbranquiçado no GT. O tecido neoformado apresentou melhor qualidade associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, mas não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the repair of deep cartilaginous defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joi [...] nts and defects with four millimeters diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM was applied in the lesion's base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), the defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), the defects of the left limb were filled without cellular implant. The animals were evaluated by physical examination and ultrasound at 30 and 60 days. The postoperative follow up of the dogs was done by macroscopy with special interest in the healing process of the osteochondral defect. No clinical and ultrasonographic differences were observed in both groups. In the macroscopic evaluation higher prevalence of whitish scar tissue formation was noted in TG, but without statistical difference. The neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

  17. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  18. Morphologic study of posterior articular depression in Schatzker IV fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qilin; Hu, Chengfang; Xu, Yafeng; Wang, Dan; Luo, Congfeng

    2015-02-01

    The Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures is widely accepted. Type IV fractures are medial tibial plateau fractures that are either split off as a wedge fragment or depressed and comminuted. Posterior articular surface depression in Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures can be seen as a unique variant that increases the difficulty of reduction of the articular surface. Its morphologic characteristics have not been fully studied, and the incidence is sometimes underestimated. The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphologic characteristics of posterior articular depression in Schatzker type IV fractures based on computed tomography measurements. From January 2009 to December 2011, the medical records, including digital radiologic data, of all patients treated for tibial plateau fracture at the authors' institution were retrospectively analyzed. Articular surface depression deeper than 5 mm was the criterion for study inclusion. The depression depth, precise location of the articular depression center, surface area percentage, and distance of the fracture gap to the depression center were calculated. One hundred fifteen cases of Schatzker type IV fracture were retrieved, and a total of 47.83% (55 of 115) cases had posterior articular surface depression. The average depth of the depressed articular surface was 12.41 mm, the surface area percentage was 20.15% of the entire tibial plateau, and the gap distance from the medial direction was 41.40 mm, 2.8 times longer than that from the posterior direction, which was 14.91 mm. Posterior articular surface depression occurs in nearly half of Schatzker type IV fractures, and the posterior approach provides more direct access to the depression than the medial approach. PMID:25665117

  19. Differential gene expression associated with postnatal equine articular cartilage maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromberg Arnold J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage undergoes an important maturation process from neonate to adult that is reflected by alterations in matrix protein organization and increased heterogeneity of chondrocyte morphology. In the horse, these changes are influenced by exercise during the first five months of postnatal life. Transcriptional profiling was used to evaluate changes in articular chondrocyte gene expression during postnatal growth and development. Methods Total RNA was isolated from the articular cartilage of neonatal (0–10 days and adult (4–5 years horses, subjected to one round of linear RNA amplification, and then applied to a 9,367-element equine-specific cDNA microarray. Comparisons were made with a dye-swap experimental design. Microarray results for selected genes (COL2A1, COMP, P4HA1, TGFB1, TGFBR3, TNC were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Results Fifty-six probe sets, which represent 45 gene products, were up-regulated (p Conclusion Differential expression of genes encoding matrix proteins and matrix-modifying enzymes between neonates and adults reflect a cellular maturation process in articular chondrocytes. Up-regulated transcripts in neonatal cartilage are consistent with growth and expansion of the articular surface. Expression patterns in mature articular cartilage indicate a transition from growth to homeostasis, and tissue function related to withstanding shear and weight-bearing stresses.

  20. Combined Effect of Subchondral Drilling and Hyaluronic Acid with/without Diacerein in Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Lesion in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai

    2012-01-01

    The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 an...

  1. Focal rigidity of flat tori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Kwakkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ?i?i called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets ?i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ?i?i chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos ?i estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, Claus [Marienhospital Vechta, Department of Radiology, Vechta (Germany); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Mo Ahn, Joong [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

  3. Sex prevalence of focal dystonias.

    OpenAIRE

    Soland, V L; Bhatia, K. P.; Marsden, C. D.

    1996-01-01

    The sex prevalence of idiopathic focal dystonia is reported from a data base review of all patients seen at the National Hospital of Neurology, Queen Square and King's College, London up to 1993. There was a higher prevalence of females to males in all categories of focal dystonia involving the craniocervical region. The female to male ratio for cranial dystonia was 1.92:1 (P < 0.01) and 1.6:1 (P < 0.001) for spasmodic torticollis. On the other hand, twice as many men than women had writer's ...

  4. Caracterización clínica de pacientes parcialmente desdentados con disfunciones articulares / Clinical characterization of partially edentulous patients with articular dysfunctions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia Hortensia, Corona Carpio; Zulema, Chávez González; María Luisa, Duque de Estrada Bertot; Ana, Duharte Escalante.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 374 desdentados parciales con disfunción mandibular, quienes acudieron al servicio de prótesis Estomatológica de la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente "Mártires del Moncada" de Santiago de Cuba desde octubre de 2013 hasta igual mes de 2014, p [...] ara determinar la presencia de ruidos articulares en su articulación temporomandibular. Entre los principales resultados prevalecieron el sexo femenino, el grupo etario de 20-29 años y como manifestaciones clínicas de disfunción articular: el sonido articular en forma de chasquido al inicio y final de la apertura bucal (51,6 y 38,7 %, respectivamente), así como la desviación mandibular (42,4 %) Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 374 partially edentulous patients with mandibular dysfunction who assisted the Stomatological Prosthesis Service from "Mártires del Moncada" Teaching Provincial Stomatological Clinic in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from October, 2013 to the same month o [...] f 2014, to determine the presence of articular sounds in their temporomandibular joints. Among the main results there were the female sex, the age group 20-29 and as clinical manifestations of articular dysfunction: the articular sound in crack form at the beginning and end of the oral opening (51.6 and 38.7%, respectively), as well as the mandibular deviation (42.4%)

  5. Focal weakness following herpes zoster.

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerell, O. C.; Ormerod, I. E.

    1993-01-01

    Three patients presented with focal weakness of an arm which followed segmental herpes zoster affecting the same limb. Neurophysiological investigations suggest that the site of the lesion lay at the root, plexus, or peripheral nerve level. This reflects the various ways in which the virus may affect the peripheral nervous system.

  6. Focal lesions of the patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

  7. Focal lesions of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, B. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

  8. Luxación intra-articular de rótula / Intra-articular dislocation of patella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., García-Mata; A. M., Hidalgo-Ovejero.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se re [...] alizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones. Abstract in english The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was [...] carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

  9. Luxación intra-articular de rótula Intra-articular dislocation of patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. García-Mata

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se realizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones.The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

  10. Defect detective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEFECT DETECTIVE is an expert system computer program that is used by AECL to detect and evaluate fuel defects on the basis of data received from the four operating CANDU-600s. By applying the rules of data interpretation, the program evaluates the condition of the fuel defect in each suspect channel and recommends the removal priority. The recommendations are designed to minimize the costs associated with premature refuellings and the occupational exposures associated with the buildup of gamma radiation fields. These fields are due to depositing fission products that are released from some defects. Since both factors can have an impact on station economics, it is important to routinely analyze all available data that provides clues on the number, the condition, and the location of fuel defects. This expert system is intended to speed up routine analysis of fuel defect detection. It is written entirely in the PROLOG programming language which offers several advantages beyond expert system shells

  11. Doppelganger defects

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Melinda; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We study k-defects - topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion - and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of DBI instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub doppelgangers, that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelganger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgangers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonic...

  12. How to 'visualize' lattice defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods to recognize objects are discussed. In case of optics, lenses are used, and light from objects passing through the lenses focuses on focal planes. The amplitude of light on the focal planes in given as a function of the structure factor of scattering light from objects, images of objects are made on image planes. In case of X-ray or neutron diffraction, lenses which make images by X-ray or neutrons can not be made, accordingly images cannot be obtained. Images can be seen with electron microscopes. By X-ray or thermal neutron diffraction, intensity on focal planes in observed, and the defects to be studied are recognized as diffuse scattering. Since it is necessary to minimize aberration in case of image observation with electron microscopes, slits are used to utilize electron beam near optical axis exclusively. Therefore large resolving power cannot be expected. The information concerning structure obtained from focal planes is of statistical nature, and that from image planes is local information. The principle of neutron topography, by which the informations concerning local points are obtained, is explained. A photograph of LiF irradiated by 0.5 MeV proton beam was taken by the topographic method, and shown in this paper. (Kato, T.)

  13. Animal Models of Focal Dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Evinger, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Animal models indicate that the abnormal movements of focal dystonia result from disordered sensorimotor integration. Sensorimotor integration involves a comparison of sensory information resulting from a movement with the sensory information expected from the movement. Unanticipated sensory signals identified by sensorimotor processing serve as signals to modify the ongoing movement or the planning for subsequent movements. Normally, this process is an effective mechanism to modify ...

  14. Ultrasound Backscattering Is Anisotropic in Bovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, Satu I; Liukkonen, Jukka; Tiitu, Virpi; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2015-07-01

    Collagen, proteoglycans and chondrocytes can contribute to ultrasound scattering in articular cartilage. However, anisotropy of ultrasound scattering in cartilage is not fully characterized. We investigate this using a clinical intravascular ultrasound device with ultrasound frequencies of 9 and 40 MHz. Osteochondral samples were obtained from intact bovine patellas, and cartilage was imaged in two perpendicular directions: through articular and lateral surfaces. At both frequencies, ultrasound backscattering was higher (p imaging. Reference methods indicated that acoustic anisotropy of ultrasound scattering arises mainly from non-uniform distribution of chondrocytes and anisotropic orientation of collagen fibers. To conclude, ultrasound backscattering in articular cartilage was found to be anisotropic and dependent on the frequency in use. PMID:25933711

  15. Usefulness of bone scintigraphy for detecting loosening of articular prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important complication of articular substitution is the loosening of the prostheses as a result of permanent overstraining, trauma, chemical or infectious noxae. The value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of loosening of the endoprothesis was examined in 53 articular prostheses (49 hip joints and 4 knee joints). A pathological scan was evident in all cases where the prosthesis had become loose (18 cases). whereas a normal scan was found in 34 firmly positioned prostheses. A false positive scan occured in one case of periarthritis. Bone scintigraphy can be employed as a means of diagnosing loosening of prostheses after a period of nine months following the operation; up to that time, enhancement can be due to the operation. A positive scan in case of loosening of the prosthesis is manifested earlier than radiological signs. For this reason, scintigraphy can be recommended as a routine examination method in pain after articular substitution surgery. (orig.)

  16. Tuberculosis extrapulmonar: Forma articular / Tuberculose extrapulmonaire: à localisation articulaire / Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Articular form

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio C., Escarpanter Buliés; Yoel, García Rodríguez; Marta A., Gutiérrez Guillén.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión del tema de la Tuberculosis extrapulmonar de forma articular, por haber encontrado un paciente con esta patología de presentación "pura" sin otras manifestaciones sistémicas. Se trata del primer paciente diagnosticado en el Hospital Comunitario Integral de "San Andrés", del m [...] unicipio de Caracollo, provincia Cercado, en el departamento de Oruro, Bolivia. En la revisión del tema se demuestra la infrecuencia de esta forma de presentación de la enfermedad a pesar de ser la Tuberculosis pulmonar frecuente en la región por sumarse los factores: frío, altura con poco tenor de oxígeno, desnutrición, tormentas de polvo, muchos trabajadores mineros, etc. Se realiza la presentación del paciente, se muestra su evolución satisfactoria en cuanto a la patología de base y se arriban a conclusiones dentro de las que se destacan que la Tuberculosis en su forma articular es infrecuente en apariencia y su diagnóstico se hace difícil al no existir, por la misma razón, patrones ecográficos o radiográficos definidos. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico es el único que puede definir la etiología de la Tuberculosis de una lesión proliferativa de la sinovial y que la sinovectomía es una intervención generalmente invalidante por lo que un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento médico adecuado, a tiempo, evitaría limitaciones funcionales a posteriori. Se recomienda que en todo caso portador de una sinovitis de rodilla de larga evolución, se le realice una ecografía diagnóstica, y en los pacientes en los que se observen imágenes complejas de bordes regulares, del tipo "copos de nieve", se le efectúen estudios específicos para la detección de la Tuberculosis. Abstract in english A review of the topic on extrapulmonary articular tuberculosis was made for having found a male patient with this pathology of pure presentation with no other systemic manifestations. This is the first patient diagnosed at the Community Comprehensive Hospital of San Andrés, municipality of Caracollo [...] , Cervado province, department of Oruro, Bolivia. On reviewing the topic it was proven the infrequency of this form of presentation in spite of the fact that extrapulmonary tuberculosis is common in the region due to the existence of the following factors: cold, height with little tenor of oxygen, malnutrition, dust storms, many mining workers, etc. The patient was presented and his satisfactory evolution as regards the base pathology was showed. It was concluded that tuberculosis in its articular form is rare in appearance and that its diagnosis is difficult due to the absence of echographic or radiographic patterns defined. The anatomopathological diagnosis is the only one that can determine the aetiology of the tuberculosis of a proliferative injury of the synovia. As synovectomy is a generally disabling intervention, an early diagnosis and an adequate medical treatment on time will prevent functional future limitations. It is recommended to perform a diagnostic echography in every carrier of knee synovitis of long evolution, and to conduct specific studies for the detection of tuberculosis in those patients among whom complex images of regular snowflake-like edges are observed.

  17. Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares Update on infections in articular prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infectadas, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-positivas são predominantes nas contaminações das próteses articulares, em especial o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus epidermidis. As infecções causadas por bacilos gram-negativos e fungos como Candida sp vêm sendo relatadas com maior frequência em todo o mundo. As infecções de próteses articulares apresentam sinais característicos que podem ser divididos em manifestações agudas (dor severa, febre alta, toxemia, calor, rubor e secreção na ferida operatória e crônicas (dor progressiva, formação de fístulas cutâneas, com drenagem de secreção purulenta, sem febre. O diagnóstico definitivo da infecção deve ser realizado através do isolamento em cultura do micro-organismo obtido a partir da punção do líquido articular, secreção da ferida cirúrgica e materiais colhidos durante desbridamento cirúrgico. É fundamental a cobertura de S.aureus meticilino-resistente, visto a importância epidemiológica deste agente nessas infecções. O tempo total da antibioticoterapia varia de seis semanas a seis meses, sendo que o tratamento deve ser readequado quando necessário, com base nos resultados das culturas colhidas.The implantation of artificial joints, especially the hip and knee, is becoming increasingly common, representing a significant reduction in discomfort and an immeasurable improvement in patient mobility. Reviews of the global literature indicate that 1-5% of these grafts become infected, though it is important to remember that, as the number of surgeries for implantation of these prosthesis grows, so will the number of cases of this type of infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the contamination of joint prosthesis, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections caused by gram-negative bacilli and fungi such as Candida sp have been reported with increased frequency throughout the world. Infections of joint prosthesis have characteristic signals that can be divided into acute (severe pain, high fever, toxemia, heat, redness, and wound secretion and chronic (progressive pain, cutaneous fistula formation, with pus drainage, no fever manifestations. The definitive diagnosis of the infection should be made through the isolation in culture of the micro-organism obtained from the puncture of the joint fluid, surgical wound secretion, and material collected during surgical debridement. It is essential to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, given the epidemiological importance of this agent in these infections. The total time of antibiotic therapy varies from six weeks to six months, and that treatment should be adjusted as needed, based on the results of culturing.

  18. Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares / Update on infections in articular prosthesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz, Lima; Priscila Rosalba Domingos de, Oliveira.

    Full Text Available O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infecta [...] das, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-positivas são predominantes nas contaminações das próteses articulares, em especial o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus epidermidis. As infecções causadas por bacilos gram-negativos e fungos como Candida sp vêm sendo relatadas com maior frequência em todo o mundo. As infecções de próteses articulares apresentam sinais característicos que podem ser divididos em manifestações agudas (dor severa, febre alta, toxemia, calor, rubor e secreção na ferida operatória) e crônicas (dor progressiva, formação de fístulas cutâneas, com drenagem de secreção purulenta, sem febre). O diagnóstico definitivo da infecção deve ser realizado através do isolamento em cultura do micro-organismo obtido a partir da punção do líquido articular, secreção da ferida cirúrgica e materiais colhidos durante desbridamento cirúrgico. É fundamental a cobertura de S.aureus meticilino-resistente, visto a importância epidemiológica deste agente nessas infecções. O tempo total da antibioticoterapia varia de seis semanas a seis meses, sendo que o tratamento deve ser readequado quando necessário, com base nos resultados das culturas colhidas. Abstract in english The implantation of artificial joints, especially the hip and knee, is becoming increasingly common, representing a significant reduction in discomfort and an immeasurable improvement in patient mobility. Reviews of the global literature indicate that 1-5% of these grafts become infected, though it [...] is important to remember that, as the number of surgeries for implantation of these prosthesis grows, so will the number of cases of this type of infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the contamination of joint prosthesis, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections caused by gram-negative bacilli and fungi such as Candida sp have been reported with increased frequency throughout the world. Infections of joint prosthesis have characteristic signals that can be divided into acute (severe pain, high fever, toxemia, heat, redness, and wound secretion) and chronic (progressive pain, cutaneous fistula formation, with pus drainage, no fever) manifestations. The definitive diagnosis of the infection should be made through the isolation in culture of the micro-organism obtained from the puncture of the joint fluid, surgical wound secretion, and material collected during surgical debridement. It is essential to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, given the epidemiological importance of this agent in these infections. The total time of antibiotic therapy varies from six weeks to six months, and that treatment should be adjusted as needed, based on the results of culturing.

  19. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in focal adhesions decreases cell motility and proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, A P; Romer, L H

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates focal adhesion formation through tyrosine phosphorylation during cell adhesion. We investigated the role of FAK in focal adhesion structure and function. Loading cells with a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein (GST-Cterm) containing the FAK focal adhesion targeting sequence, but not the kinase domain, decreased the association of endogenous FAK with focal adhesions. This displacement of endogenous FAK in both BALB/c 3T3 ...

  20. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:24693305

  1. Duality Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Gadde, Abhijit; Putrov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a unified approach to a general class of codimension-2 defects in field theories with non-trivial duality symmetries and discuss various constructions of such "duality defects" in diverse dimensions. In particular, in d=4 we propose a new interpretation of the Seiberg-Witten u-plane by "embedding" it in the physical space-time: we argue that it describes a BPS configuration of two duality defects (at the monopole/dyon points) and propose its vast generalization based on Lefschetz fibrations of 4-manifolds.

  2. Duality Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei; Putrov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a unified approach to a general class of codimension-2 defects in field theories with non-trivial duality symmetries and discuss various constructions of such "duality defects" in diverse dimensions. In particular, in d=4 we propose a new interpretation of the Seiberg-Witten u-plane by "embedding" it in the physical space-time: we argue that it describes a BPS configuration of two duality defects (at the monopole/dyon points) and propose its vast generalization ba...

  3. Conferencia en propedéutica clínica para el Síndrome de inflamación articular / Lecture on clinical Propedeutics for the articular inflammation syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Ángel, Blanco Aspiazú; Roberto, Suárez Bergado; Marino Gabriel, Canelles Pupo; Josefina, Fernández Camejo; Jorge Luis, González Pérez; Justo, Ramírez Chávez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen criterios de los autores, obtenidos tras revisión de la literatura y su experiencia docente, sobre las conferencias, en forma de orientaciones metodológicas. De forma secuencial se exponen como ejemplo, elementos del Síndrome de inflamación articular en Propedéutica Clínica, excluyendo lo [...] s aspectos propios del estudio de entidades nosológicas. Abstract in english Authors' criteria are expounded obtained after the review of literature and their teaching experience on the lectures in the shape of methodological guiding. In a sequential way as example authors expose the elements of the articular inflammation syndrome in Clinical Propedeutics ruling out the feat [...] ures typical of Nosology entities study.

  4. Double-Barrel Remplissage: An Arthroscopic All–Intra-articular Technique Using the Double-Barrel Knot for Anterior Shoulder Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Deepak N.

    2015-01-01

    The arthroscopic remplissage procedure is an effective addition to a standard anterior repair in traumatic anterior shoulder instability associated with large humeral defects. The double-barrel remplissage is an all–intra-articular technique that uses a double-pulley, sliding, and self-retaining knot mechanism called the double-barrel knot. A 70° arthroscope (posterior portal) is necessary for adequate visualization of the humeral defect and the rotator cuff. Trans-tendon anchors (single or double loaded) are inserted into the superior and inferior aspects of the humeral defect through a cannula that is placed posterior to the infraspinatus. Placement of anchors is facilitated by insertion of a guidewire, as well as an anchor sleeve that is threaded over it. The double-barrel knot is formed using the anchors as a double-pulley system, and the knot is tensioned after the anterior repair is complete. Intra-articular visualization confirms adequate approximation and compression of the infraspinatus tendon and capsule into the defect. Advantages include an increased surface area (footprint) for healing and ease of knotting without the necessity for additional subacromial dissection. PMID:25973376

  5. THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavityCon el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron analizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular

  6. THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION / MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Elisa, Toscano; Silvia Regina, Arruda de Moraes; Katiúcia Samara, da Silva Almeida.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron ana [...] lizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular Abstract in english To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the [...] inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavity

  7. Focal mechanism estimation by classification

    CERN Document Server

    Lasscock, Ben G; Glinsky, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    A classification technique for identifying focal mechanism type and fault plane orientation based on the polarity of P-wave "first motion" data is derived. A support vector machine is used to classify the polarity data in the space of spherical harmonic functions. The classification is non-parametric in the sense that there is no requirement to make a priori assumptions source mechanism. A metric of similarity potentially able to distinguish shear versus tensile dislocation without requiring estimation of the fault plane orientation is a natural consequence of this procedure. Going further, correlation functions between template source mechanism is derived, gives an estimate of fault plane orientation assuming a particular source mechanism.

  8. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Gheliani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck is a rare lesion caused by human papilloma virus subtype 13 or 32 and presents as multiple small white or pink papules on the mucosal surface of lips, buccal mucosa and tongue usually seen in children and adolescent of American Indian and Eskimo background. This disease has a genetic basis. The site of new lesions and recurrence are unpredictable. Continued follow up of the patient is often necessary. In this report, a 50-year-old woman is described with benign papillomatous lesions on dorsal surface of tongue for 15 years

  9. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  10. Tribological changes in the articular cartilage of a human femoral head with avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Min; Shrestha, Suman K; Duong, Cong-Truyen; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Kim, Tae-Woo; Vijayachandra, Ayyappan; Thompson, Mark S; Cho, Myung Guk; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Kwanghoon; Park, Seonghun; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the tribological properties of the articular cartilage surface of the human femoral head with postcollapse stage avascular necrosis (AVN) using atomic force microscopy. The cartilage surface in the postcollapse stage AVN of the femoral head was reported to resemble those of disuse conditions, which suggests that the damage could be reversible and offers the possibilities of success of head-sparing surgeries. By comparing the tribological properties of articular cartilage in AVN with that of osteoarthritis, the authors intended to understand the cartilage degeneration mechanism and reversibility of AVN. Human femoral heads with AVN were explanted from the hip replacement surgery of four patients (60-83 years old). Nine cylindrical cartilage samples (diameter, 5?mm and height, 0.5?mm) were sectioned from the weight-bearing areas of the femoral head with AVN, and the cartilage surface was classified according to the Outerbridge Classification System (AVN0, normal; AVN1, softening and swelling; and AVN2, partial thickness defect and fissuring). Tribological properties including surface roughness and frictional coefficients and histochemistry including Safranin O and lubricin staining were compared among the three groups. The mean surface roughness Rq values of AVN cartilage increased significantly with increasing Outerbridge stages: Rq?=?137?±?26?nm in AVN0, Rq?=?274?±?49?nm in AVN1, and Rq?=?452?±?77?nm in AVN2. Significant differences in Rq were observed among different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p?articular cartilage that is also observed in osteoarthritis. With regard to the tribological properties, the cartilage degeneration mechanism in AVN was similar to that of osteoarthritis without reversibility. PMID:25924607

  11. Focal axis resolver for offset reflector antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. F. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the focal axis of an asymmetrical antenna such as an offset paraboloid reflector whose physical rim is not coincident with the boundary of the electrical aperture but whose focal point is known is provided. A transmitting feed horn array consisting of at least two feed horn elements is positioned asymmetrically on either side of an estimated focal axis which is generally inclined with respect to the boresight axis of the antenna. The feed horn array is aligned with the estimated focal axis so that the phase centers (CP sub 1, CP sub 2) of the two feed horn elements are located on a common line running through the focal point (F) orthogonally with respect to the estimated focal axis.

  12. Healing results in meniscus and articular cartilage photochemically welded with 1,8-naphthalimide dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Jackson, Robert W.; Nosir, Hany R.; Matthews, James Lester; Loyd, John D.; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

    1997-05-01

    Meniscal tears and partial thickness defects in articular cartilage do not heal spontaneously. In this paper results are described of studies of a procedure for evoking the healing response in such lesions by a non-thermal tissue sparing photochemical weld using 1,8-naphthalimide dyes. Fifteen essentially mature Barbados sheep 40 - 60 pounds in weight received a 2 - 3 mm flap tear by incision in the red white zone of the medial meniscus oriented parallel to the table of the tibia. The animals were divided into four groups; Group I, no treatment; Group II, treatment by laser activated photoactive dyes; Group III, treatment by suturing; Group IV, treatment by laser irradiation only; Group V, treatment by photoactive dyes only. In another group of 12 sheep partial thickness flap tear was created by incision in the articular cartilage of the femoral condyle. These were divided into four groups as for the meniscus study, omitting the sutured control. Welds were made using the dimeric dye MBM Gold BW 012-012-012 at 12 mM in PBS, 457.9 nm argon ion laser radiation at 800 mW/cm2, 7.5 minutes (360 J/cm2) with approximately 2 kg/cm2 externally applied pressure. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hr, 4 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Gross appearance of menisci and cartilage in all welded knees was normal and all welds resisted deformation or loosening under forceful probing. Histology of studies of both tissues out to 6 moths disclosed close bonding of welded area, continuing healing response in the form of cellular recruitment and protein deposition and the absence of inflammatory response. Tissue erosion and arthritic changes were evident in all unwelded controls.

  13. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova ?.?.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  14. RTG diagnostics of dental focal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of focal infection has always been and still is a controversial issue for many dentists and scientists. Even though the focal infection does not occupy the first place in modern medicine, its understanding is imperative. The authors summarized the knowledge about dental focal infection and its relationship to systemic the diseases of the whole body in their publication and they also focused on the radiodiagnostics of this disease. (authors)

  15. On focal stability in dimension two

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio M., Peixoto; Charles C., Pugh.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Em Kupka et al. 2006, consideramos a Conjectura da Estabilidade Focal: a decomposição focal da estrutura Riemaniana genérica em uma variedade M é estável por perturbações dessa estrutura. No presente trabalho demonstramos essa conjectura quando M tem dimensão dois e não existem pontos conjugados. [...] Abstract in english In Kupka et al. 2006 appears the Focal Stability Conjecture: the focal decomposition of the generic Riemann structure on a manifold M is stable under perturbations of the Riemann structure. In this paper, we prove the conjecture when M has dimension two, and there are no conjugate points. [...

  16. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  17. On focal stability in dimension two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio M. Peixoto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Kupka et al. 2006 appears the Focal Stability Conjecture: the focal decomposition of the generic Riemann structure on a manifold M is stable under perturbations of the Riemann structure. In this paper, we prove the conjecture when M has dimension two, and there are no conjugate points.Em Kupka et al. 2006, consideramos a Conjectura da Estabilidade Focal: a decomposição focal da estrutura Riemaniana genérica em uma variedade M é estável por perturbações dessa estrutura. No presente trabalho demonstramos essa conjectura quando M tem dimensão dois e não existem pontos conjugados.

  18. Interferometric back focal plane microellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feke, G D; Snow, D P; Grober, R D; de Groot, P J; Deck, L

    1998-04-01

    We present a technique for ellipsometric analysis of materials with high lateral resolution. A Michelson-type phase-shifting interferometer measures the phase distribution in the back focal plane of a high numerical aperture objective. Local measurements of the ellipsometric parameter delta are performed over the entire spectrum of angles of incidence. We show that delta is to leading order linearly proportional to the phase change on reflection of normally incident light. We furthermore invert the Fresnel reflection equations and derive expressions for the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index as functions of the phase change on reflection and the reflectivity at normal incidence, both of which are measurable with the same apparatus. Hence we accomplish local measurements of the refractive indices of our samples. Determination of the phase change on reflection permits correction of interferometric topography measurements of heterogeneous specimens. PMID:18273090

  19. Gene expression profiling of articular cartilage reveals functional pathways and networks of candidate genes for osteochondrosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangkasenee, Noppawan; Murani, Eduard; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2013-09-16

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is a joint disorder that frequently causes leg weakness in growing pigs, resulting in welfare problems and economic losses. We aimed to detect molecular pathways relevant to the emergence of the disease and to identify candidate genes for the liability to the disorder. Therefore, we compared microarray-based expression patterns of articular cartilage with (n=11) and without (n=11) histologically diagnosed OC lesions obtained from discordant sib-pairs. A total of 1,564 genes were found with different transcript abundance [differentially expressed (DE) genes] at q?0.05. To further identify candidate genes, we integrated data from quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association (GWA) studies with the expression analysis. We detected 317 DE genes within the QTL confidence intervals, of which 26 DE genes also overlapped GWA regions. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis suggests a pathogenic role of immune response, angiogenesis, and synthesis of extracellular matrix pathways for OC. These processes could facilitate the emergence of defects. But they may also promote the degradation of articular cartilage and the worsening of the disease. A functional network was derived that comprised genes with functional and positional clues of their role in bone and cartilage metabolisms and development, including extracellular matrix genes (e.g., LOX, OGN, and ASPN), angiogenesis genes (e.g., ANGPTL4 and PDGFA), and immune response genes (e.g., ICAM1, AZGP1, C1QB, C1QC, PDE4B, and CDA). The study identified molecular processes linked to OC and several genes with positional, genetic-statistical, and functional evidence for their role in the emergence of articular cartilage lesions and the liability to OC. PMID:23922127

  20. Usefulness of computed tomography for intra-articular distal radius fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of only plain radiographs with that of plain radiographs plus computed tomography (CT) scanning for the evaluation of intra-articular distal radius fractures. We classified the fractures into 3 types: type L1, only lunate facet; type L2, lunate facet and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) articular surfaces; and type S, lunate and scaphoid facets. Further, we classified the fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces into 2 types: type D1, DRUJ articular surface gap/step-off under 2 mm; and type D2, DRUJ articular surface gap/step-off over 2 mm. Six observers classified 43 intra-articular distal radius fractures using only plain radiographs and compared the results with those obtained by using plain radiographs plus CT scans. There were several cases of fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces (n=31, 72%). The inter-observer reliability was poor for fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces (types L2, D1, and D2). CT scans were shown to demonstrate the articular surface gap/step-off of the distal radius more accurately than plain radiographs. In conclusion, CT scanning was useful for evaluating intra-articular distal radius fractures. (author)

  1. Análise da sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular / Analysis of symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sílvio Henrique de Paula, DONEGÁ; Renato, CARDOSO; Antonio Sílvio Fontão, PROCÓPIO; João Gualberto de Cerqueira, LUZ.

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo analisando a sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular. A queixa mais citada foi de dor na região pré-auricular (40,7%). Sintomatologia dolorosa articular (63,2%) e ruídos articulares (83,3%) foram os achados mais comuns ao exa [...] me clínico. Os ruídos articulares mais freqüentes foram os estalos (66,6%). Dor muscular ocorreu, em especial, nos músculos pterigóideo medial e lateral e na inserção do temporal. Houve decréscimo na amplitude para a protrusão dentre os movimentos mandibulares máximos Abstract in english The study analyzed the symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The most frequent complaint was pain in the preauricular region (40.7%). Articular pain (63.2%) and articular sounds (83.3%) were the most common findings during clinical examination. Mus [...] cular pain occurred particularly in the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles and at the insertion of the temporalis muscle. The most frequent articular sound was clicking (66.6%). There was a decrease in extent of protrusion among the mandibular border positions.

  2. Análise da sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular Analysis of symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Henrique de Paula DONEGÁ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo analisando a sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular. A queixa mais citada foi de dor na região pré-auricular (40,7%. Sintomatologia dolorosa articular (63,2% e ruídos articulares (83,3% foram os achados mais comuns ao exame clínico. Os ruídos articulares mais freqüentes foram os estalos (66,6%. Dor muscular ocorreu, em especial, nos músculos pterigóideo medial e lateral e na inserção do temporal. Houve decréscimo na amplitude para a protrusão dentre os movimentos mandibulares máximosThe study analyzed the symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The most frequent complaint was pain in the preauricular region (40.7%. Articular pain (63.2% and articular sounds (83.3% were the most common findings during clinical examination. Muscular pain occurred particularly in the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles and at the insertion of the temporalis muscle. The most frequent articular sound was clicking (66.6%. There was a decrease in extent of protrusion among the mandibular border positions.

  3. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2012-01-01

    Acclaimed by Nature as ""an ideal text,"" this extensive survey provides coverage of defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids and discusses extended defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries. 191 figures. 43 tables. 1985 edition.

  4. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass, and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton, que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis.

  5. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep / Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano A., Pimentel; Diego M., Oliveira; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Antônio F.M., Dantas; Francisco, Uzal; Franklin, Riet-Correa.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS) é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 7 [...] 0 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton), que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis. Abstract in english Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the [...] state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass), and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.

  6. Intra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shraim Mubarak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-articular lipoma arborescens (LA is a rare entity that can present with monoarticular or polyarticular involvement of joints such as knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, and elbows. We describe a case in a 26-year-old man who presented with intermittent pain and swelling of the left knee joint for the previous 2 years. Physical examination showed only tenderness over the medial line of the left knee joint. MRI found only joint effusion; therefore, the patient was referred to the orthopedic clinic where he underwent arthroscopy, which revealed a diffuse yellow soft tissue synovial papillary growth involving both medial and lateral gutters of the suprapatellar pouch. A biopsy reported intra-articular LA. This is the first case of LA reported in Saudi Arabia. LA should be included in the clinical and radiologic differential diagnosis of cases with persistent knee joint effusion.

  7. 3D braid scaffolds for regeneration of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyunchul; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Park, Sook Young; Huh, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2014-06-01

    Regenerating articular cartilage in vivo from cultured chondrocytes requires that the cells be cultured and implanted within a biocompatible, biodegradable scaffold. Such scaffolds must be mechanically stable; otherwise chondrocytes would not be supported and patients would experience severe pain. Here we report a new 3D braid scaffold that matches the anisotropic (gradient) mechanical properties of natural articular cartilage and is permissive to cell cultivation. To design an optimal structure, the scaffold unit cell was mathematically modeled and imported into finite element analysis. Based on this analysis, a 3D braid structure with gradient axial yarn distribution was designed and manufactured using a custom-built braiding machine. The mechanical properties of the 3D braid scaffold were evaluated and compared with simulated results, demonstrating that a multi-scale approach consisting of unit cell modeling and continuum analysis facilitates design of scaffolds that meet the requirements for mechanical compatibility with tissues. PMID:24556323

  8. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins secreted from articular cartilage.

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, M.; Saklatvala, J.; Wait, R.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) is a powerful method for separation of complex mixtures of proteins. The standard procedure is not, however, well suited to analysis of articular cartilage, which contains high concentrations of proteoglycans, the polyanionic glycosaminoglycan chains of which interfere with isoelectric focusing. We have developed a method for selective removal of proteoglycans by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride, after which the residual cartilage proteins are ...

  9. Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    ap Gwynn I.; Wade S.; Ito K; Richards R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly ...

  10. Adaptive mechanically controlled lubrication mechanism found in articular joints

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, George W.; Banquy, Xavier; Lee, Dong Woog; Lowrey, Daniel D.; Yu, Jing; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly efficacious water-based tribological system that is optimized to provide low friction and wear protection at both low and high loads (pressures) and sliding velocities that must last over a lifetime. Although many different lubrication mechanisms have been proposed, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the tribological performance of cartilage cannot be attributed to a single mechanism acting alone but on the synergistic action of multiple “modes” of l...

  11. Differential responses of human articular cartilage to retinol.

    OpenAIRE

    Jubb, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    An in-vitro study has been made of the response of aged human articular cartilage to the catabolic agent retinol. Weight bearing cartilage from the femoral condyle degrades and releases proteoglycan with an associated reduction of sulphate incorporation. Similar cartilage from the femoral head responds to the retinol with an inhibition of sulphate incorporation but no degradation or loss of proteoglycan. Extraction of the proteoglycan from the femoral head samples failed to demonstrate any ev...

  12. Articular cartilage tissue engineering: today's research, tomorrow's practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getgood, A; Brooks, R; Fortier, L; Rushton, N

    2009-05-01

    Articular cartilage repair remains a challenge to surgeons and basic scientists. The field of tissue engineering allows the simultaneous use of material scaffolds, cells and signalling molecules to attempt to modulate the regenerative tissue. This review summarises the research that has been undertaken to date using this approach, with a particular emphasis on those techniques that have been introduced into clinical practice, via in vitro and preclinical studies. PMID:19407287

  13. Apoptosis in normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Heraud, F.; Heraud, A.; Harmand, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether apoptosis occurs in osteoarthritis (OA), and if this phenomenon is modulated by human recombinant interleukin 1? (hrIL1?).?METHODS—Human articular cartilage samples were obtained at the time of hip arthroplasty because of femoral neck fracture (normal cartilage) (n=4) or advanced coxarthrosis (OA cartilage) (n=14). Apoptotic chondrocytes, isolated by collagenase digestion and cultivated for 24 hours, or present in situ in frozen cartilage sections, w...

  14. Metabolic Effects of Avocado/Soy Unsaponifiables on Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Harlan; Tiffany Chiou; Joseph V. Nardo; Louis Lippiello

    2007-01-01

    Avocado/soy unsaponifiable (ASU) components are reported to have a chondroprotective effect by virtue of anti-inflammatory and proanabolic effects on articular chondrocytes. The identity of the active component(s) remains unknown. In general, sterols, the major component of unsaponifiable plant material have been demonstrated to be anti-inflammatory in vitro and in animal models. These studies were designed to clarify whether the sterol content of ASU preparations were the primary contributor...

  15. A vision on the future of articular cartilage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cucchiarini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An AO Foundation (Davos, Switzerland sponsored workshop "Cell Therapy in Cartilage Repair" from the Symposium "Where Science meets Clinics" (September 5-7, 2013, Davos gathered leaders from medicine, science, industry, and regulatory organisations to debate the vision of cell therapy in articular cartilage repair and the measures that could be taken to narrow the gap between vision and current practice. Cell-based therapy is already in clinical use to enhance the repair of cartilage lesions, with procedures such as microfracture and articular chondrocyte implantation. However, even though long term follow up is good from a clinical perspective and some of the most rigorous randomised controlled trials in the regenerative medicine/orthopaedics field show beneficial effect, none of these options have proved successful in restoring the original articular cartilage structure and functionality in patients so far. With the remarkable recent advances in experimental research in cell biology (new sources for chondrocytes, stem cells, molecular biology (growth factors, genes, biomaterials, biomechanics, and translational science, a combined effort between scientists and clinicians with broad expertise may allow development of an improved cell therapy for cartilage repair. This position paper describes the current state of the art in the field to help define a procedure adapted to the clinical situation for upcoming translation in the patient.

  16. Depth Dependence of Shear Properties in Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mark; Gleghorn, Jason; Bonassar, Lawrence; Cohen, Itai

    2007-03-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly complex and heterogeneous material in its structure, composition and mechanical behavior. Understanding these spatial variations is a critical step in designing replacement tissue and developing methods to diagnose and treat tissue affected by damage or disease. Existing techniques in particle image velocimetry (PIV) have been used to map the shear properties of complex materials; however, these methods have yet to be applied to understanding shear behavior in cartilage. In this talk, we will show that confocal microscopy in conjunction with PIV techniques can be used to determine the depth dependence of the shear properties of articular cartilage. We will show that the shear modulus of this tissue varies by over an order of magnitude over its depth, with the least stiff region located about 200 microns from the surface. Furthermore, our data indicate that the shear strain profile of articular cartilage is sensitive to both the degree of compression and the total applied shear strain. In particular, we find that cartilage strain stiffens most dramatically in a region 200-500 microns below the surface. Finally, we will describe a physical model that accounts for this behavior by taking into account the local buckling of collagen fibers just below the cartilage surface and present second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging data addressing the collagen orientation before and after shear.

  17. Potential for thermal damage to articular cartilage by PMMA reconstruction of a bone cavity following tumor excision: A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radev, Boyko R; Kase, Jonathan A; Askew, Michael J; Weiner, Scott D

    2009-05-29

    Benign, giant cell tumors are often treated by intralesional excision and reconstruction with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. The exothermic reaction of the in-situ polymerizing PMMA is believed to beneficially kill remaining tumor cells. However, at issue is the extent of this necrotic effect into the surrounding normal bone and the adjacent articular cartilage. Finite element analysis (ABAQUS 6.4-1) was used to determine the extent of possible thermal necrosis around prismatically shaped, PMMA implants (8-24cc in volume), placed into a peripheral, sagittally symmetric, metaphyseal defect in the proximal tibia. Temperature/exposure time conditions indicating necrotic potential during the exotherm of the polymerizing bone cement were found in regions of the cancellous bone within 3mm of the superior surface of the PMMA implant. If less than 3mm of cancellous bone existed between the PMMA implant and the subchondral bone layer, regions of the subchondral bone were also exposed to thermally necrotic conditions. However, as long as there were at least 2mm of uniform subchondral bone above the PMMA implant, the necrotic regions did not extend into the overlying articular cartilage. This was the case even when the PMMA was in direct contact with the subchondral bone. If the subchondral bone is not of sufficient thickness, or is not continuous, then care should be taken to protect the articular cartilage from thermal damage as a result of the reconstruction of the tumor cavity with PMMA bone cement. PMID:19344902

  18. Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient was believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy. (orig.)

  19. Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Graviss, E.R.

    1981-03-01

    Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient were believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy.

  20. Single Ventricle Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... print a PDF version of this information Congenital Heart Defects • Home • About Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Healthy Heart ... Care & Treatment • Tools & Resources Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the ...

  1. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... print a PDF version of this information Congenital Heart Defects • Home • About Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Healthy Heart ... it's free and easy. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the ...

  2. MODELADO MATEMÁTICO DEL COMPORTAMIENTO MECÁNICO DE UN FRAGMENTO DE CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR / MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF AN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE PIECE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NANCY STELLA, LANDÍNEZ; JUAN CARLOS, VANEGAS; DIEGO ALEXANDER, GARZÓN.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cartílago articular es un material biológico poroelástico que permite la distribución de las cargas mecánicas y el movimiento de las articulaciones. Como material bifásico, en presencia de carga, el cartílago articular deforma su matriz sólida y modifica la presión hidrostática del fluido en su i [...] nterior. El objetivo del presente trabajo es implementar numéricamente un modelo matemático que predice el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular teniendo en cuenta la dualidad entre la matriz sólida y el líquido articular, y la característica de poroelasticidad. Utilizando una metodología basada en el método de los elementos finitos, se simuló el comportamiento de un fragmento de cartílago articular en una y dos dimensiones, ante cargas mecánicas de tensión, compresión y oscilación. El análisis de los resultados permite validar cualitativamente el comportamiento poroelástico del modelo debido a la deformación de la matriz sólida y a la salida de fluido que modifica la presión del mismo de manera similar a lo reportado en trabajos experimentales. Se concluye que el modelo matemático permite realizar predicciones sobre el comportamiento biomecánico del cartílago articular, contribuyendo al proceso investigativo en áreas como la biomecánica y la ingeniería de tejidos. Abstract in english The articular cartilage is a poroelastic biological material that allows the distribution of mechanical loads and the joint movements. As a biphasic material, in presence of load, the articular cartilage deforms its solid matrix and modifies the fluid hydrostatic pressure inside. The aim of this wor [...] k is to implement numerically a mathematical model that predicts the mechanical behaviour of articular cartilage taking into account the duality between the solid matrix and articular liquid, and its poroelastic feature. Using a finite element method approach , the response of a piece of articular cartilage in one and two dimensions has been simulated, with tensile, compresive and oscillative mechanical loads. The analysis of results allows a qualitatively validation of the poroelastic behavior of the model due to the solid matrix deformation and the fluid outflow that causes variations of pressures inside the articular cartilage according with reported trials. We conclude that the mathematical model allows the prediction of the articular cartilage biomechanical behaviour. Our results contribute to the investigative processes in fields of study like biomechanics and tissue engineering

  3. Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Muldrew Ken; Szarko Matthew; Bertram John EA

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background As a relatively non-regenerative tissue, articular cartilage has been targeted for cryopreservation as a method of mitigating a lack of donor tissue availability for transplant surgeries. In addition, subzero storage of articular cartilage has long been used in biomedical studies using various storage temperatures. The current investigation studies the potential for freeze-thaw to affect the mechanical properties of articular cartilage through direct comparison of various ...

  4. Cellular origin of neocartilage formed at wound edges of articular cartilage in a tissue culture experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, P.K.; N Kops; Verhaar, J. A. N.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The regeneration capacity of cartilage in general is limited. Complete repair of partial thickness articular cartilage has only been reported in a fetal sheep model. However, in long-term culture studies of articular cartilage explants we have observed outgrowth of chondrocytes and neocartilage formation at wound edges. This illustrates that under optimal circumstances articular cartilage is capable to regenerate hyaline cartilage. Recent studies suggest the presence of mesenchymal...

  5. FRICTIONAL RESPONSE OF BOVINE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE UNDER CREEP LOADING FOLLOWING PROTEOGLYCAN DIGESTION WITH CHONDROITINASE ABC

    OpenAIRE

    Basalo, Ines M.; Chen, Faye Hui; Hung, Clark T; ATESHIAN, GERARD A.

    2006-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage against glass, under creep loading. The hypothesis is that chondroitinase ABC treatment increases the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage under creep. Articular cartilage samples (n=12) harvested from two bovine knee joints (1–3 months-old) were divided into a control group (intact specimens) and a treated group (chondroitinase AB...

  6. Magnesium whitlockite deposition in articular cartilage: a study of 80 specimens from 70 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Scotchford, C. A.; Ali, S. Y.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine articular cartilage from a number of joint sites, using a large sample group, for the presence of magnesium whitlockite crystal deposition. METHODS--Articular cartilage specimens were taken from a total of 70 patients. The majority of specimens were taken from femoral heads, with smaller numbers from femoral condyle, tibial plateau, radius, ulna, and several small peripheral joints. Normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage specimens were obtained from patients under...

  7. Mineralization of Articular Cartilage in the Sprague-Dawley Rat: Characterization and Mechanical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roemhildt, M. L.; Beynnon, B. D.; Gardner-morse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of mineralized deposits in human articular cartilage is a common occurrence [1–4]; however, the relationship between mineral deposition and material properties of the articular cartilage is not well understood nor the relationship between mineral deposition and the development of degenerative joint disease. Several different crystalline structures have been identified in articular cartilage and synovial fluid including monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), ...

  8. Focal Adhesion Kinase Mediates the Integrin Signaling Requirement for Growth Factor Activation of Map Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Renshaw, Mark W.; Price, Leo S.; Schwartz, Martin Alexander

    1999-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway is a critical regulator of cell growth, migration, and differentiation. Growth factor activation of MAP kinase in NIH 3T3 cells is strongly dependent upon integrin-mediated adhesion, an effect that contributes to the anchorage dependence of normal cell growth. We now show that expression of constructs that constitutively activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) rescued the defect in serum activation of MAP kinase in suspended cells without direct...

  9. Degenerative joint disease in cattle and buffaloes in the Amazon region: a retrospective study / Doença articular degenerativa em bovinos e búfalos na Amazônia: estudo retrospectivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Diomedes, Barbosa; Danillo Henrique S., Lima; Alessandra S., Belo-Reis; Cleyton P., Pinheiro; Melina G.S., Sousa; Jenevaldo B., Silva; Felipe M., Salvarani; Carlos Magno C., Oliveira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo sobre os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos em bovinos e búfalos com doença articular degenerativa (DAD) no estado do Pará, Brasil. Durante os anos de 1999 a 2014 foram avaliados 11 bovinos e 24 bubalinos. Todos os animais atendidos com suspeita clín [...] ica de DAD foram submetidos a exame clínico do sistema locomotor. Foram necropsiados sete bovinos e oito bubalinos com sinais clínicos da enfermidade. Os sinais clínicos comuns observados em ambas as espécies foram claudicação crônica, andar rígido, alterações posturais, crepitações audíveis no membro acometido, decúbito prolongado, dificuldade para levantar, e emagrecimento progressivo. As lesões articulares evidenciadas na necropsia consistiram em irregularidade da superfície articular, presença de erosão na cartilagem articular e no tecido ósseo subjacente, proliferação de tecido ósseo periarticular com formação de osteófitos. Tanto nos bovinos como nos bubalinos as articulações mais acometidas foram as dos membros posteriores. Nos bubalinos, possivelmente o principal fator predisponente ao surgimento de DAD foi à deficiência de fósforo, ao contrário dos bovinos, nos quais os defeitos de conformação anatômica dos membros posteriores, traumas crônicos em virtude da atividade exercida, como a coleta de sêmen e a idade avançada, foram o que, possivelmente, contribuíram para surgimento da enfermidade. Abstract in english A retrospective study of the epidemiological and clinic-pathological aspects of cattle and buffaloes with degenerative joint disease (DJD) was conducted in the state of Pará, Brazil. From 1999 to 2014, eleven cattle and 24 buffaloes were evaluated. All the treated animals with suspected DJD underwen [...] t a clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system. In seven cattle and eight buffaloes with clinical signs of the disease postmortem examination was performed. The common clinical signs observed in both species were chronic lameness, stiff gait, postural changes, audible crackles in the affected limb, prolonged recumbency, difficulty in getting up and progressive weight loss. The lesions observed at necropsy were: irregular articular surfaces, erosion of the articular cartilage and the underlying bone tissue, and proliferation of the periarticular bone tissue with formation of osteophytes. The most affected joints in cattle and buffaloes wereof the hind limb. In buffaloes, the main predisposing factor to the onset of DJD was phosphorus deficiency. In cattle, defects of the anatomical conformation of the hind limbs, chronic trauma due to the activities performed, such as semen collection, and advanced age possibly contributed to the emergence of the disease.

  10. Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, hais in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center

  11. A study on MR images of the articular cartilage in medial-type osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the articular cartilage of 88 knees of 73 cases (age range 40-78) diagnosed clinically and radiologically as OA (osteoarthritis) were studied by obtaining fat-suppressed MR images of the knee. On 27 knees out of the 88, moreover, macroscopic observation was performed to make a comparative study between the directly-observed findings and MR findings. Fat-suppressed MR images were obtained sagittally by 3D-FLASH (fast low angle shot) sequence. The examined regions consisted of the following 4 sites; the medial condyle of the femur, its lateral condyle, the medial condyle of the tibia, and its lateral condyle. The revealed conditions of the cartilage were morphologically classified into 4 Stages. The evidence of cartilage defect on MR images was most frequently found at the medial condyle of the femur, with the medial condyle of the tibia, the lateral condyle of the femur, and the lateral condyle of the tibia following in a less frequent order. Fat-suppressed MRI's sensitivity to cartilage defect against macroscopy was 94.5%, specificity 95.4%, and accuracy 95.2%. MR imaging using fat-suppression can reveal cartilaginous degeneration and defect so well that this technique provides an important indication for selecting a proper method of treatment. (author)

  12. Intra-Articular Injections of Polyphenols Protect Articular Cartilage from Inflammation-Induced Degradation: Suggesting a Potential Role in Cartilage Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Venkatachalam; Madhan, Balaraman; Tiku, Moti L.

    2015-01-01

    Arthritic diseases, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, inflict an enormous health care burden on society. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease with high prevalence among older people, and rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease, both lead to irreversible structural and functional damage to articular cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenols such as catechin, quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate, and tannic acid, on crosslinking type II collagen and the roles of these agents in managing in vivo articular cartilage degradation. The thermal, enzymatic, and physical stability of bovine articular cartilage explants following polyphenolic treatment were assessed for efficiency. Epigallocatechin gallate and tannic acid-treated explants showed >12 °C increase over native cartilage in thermal stability, thereby confirming cartilage crosslinking. Polyphenol-treated cartilage also showed a significant reduction in the percentage of collagen degradation and the release of glycosaminoglycans against collagenase digestion, indicating the increase physical integrity and resistance of polyphenol crosslinked cartilage to enzymatic digestion. To examine the in vivo cartilage protective effects, polyphenols were injected intra-articularly before (prophylactic) and after (therapeutic) the induction of collagen-induced arthritis in rats. The hind paw volume and histomorphological scoring was done for cartilage damage. The intra-articular injection of epigallocatechin gallate and tannic acid did not significantly influence the time of onset or the intensity of joint inflammation. However, histomorphological scoring of the articular cartilage showed a significant reduction in cartilage degradation in prophylactic- and therapeutic-groups, indicating that intra-articular injections of polyphenols bind to articular cartilage and making it resistant to degradation despite ongoing inflammation. These studies establish the value of intra-articular injections of polyphenol in stabilization of cartilage collagen against degradation and indicate the unique beneficial role of injectable polyphenols in protecting the cartilage in arthritic conditions. PMID:26046639

  13. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhamre, Hanna [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Thorvaldsson, Anna, E-mail: anna.thorvaldsson@swerea.se [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Enochson, Lars [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Walkenström, Pernilla [Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Lindahl, Anders [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brittberg, Mats [Cartilage Research Unit, University of Gothenburg, Department Orthopaedics, Kungsbacka Hospital, Kungsbacka (Sweden); Gatenholm, Paul [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ? Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ? High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred ?m) of nanofibrous scaffolds ? Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ? Differentiation not significantly affected ? Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum.

  14. CT signs of hepatic focal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) semiotics has been analysed for 288 patients with focal lesions of the liver. Most frequently occurring symptoms served the basis for establishing characteristic CT symptom complexes typical of various diseases

  15. Imaging strategies in focal hepatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Advanced therapies are improving significantly the survival of patients with malginant focal liver disease. For efficient implementation of these surgical and interventional techniques a clear concept of the diagnostic procedere is mandatory. Methods: Based on a review of the current literature, the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, nuclear medicine and angiography, are discussed and evaluated for their diagnostic efficacy in focal hepatic disease. Results: Considering clinical, diagnostic, and economical appropriateness, recommendations for diagnostic strategies in different clinical scenarios regarding focal hepatic disease are presented. Conclusion: If the power of specific imaging methods and relevant clinical information is known, problem-based diagnostic strategies help to avoid unnecessary, expensive and time-consuming studies in the work-up of focal liver lesions. (orig.)

  16. Surgery for drug-resistant focal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Malla Bhaskara; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Sinha, Sanjib; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Mahadevan, Anita; Bhat, Maya; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy

    2014-01-01

    During the colloquium on drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore on August 16-18, 2013, a number of presentations were made on the surgically remediable lesional epilepsy syndromes, presurgical evaluation, surgical techniques, neuropathology of drug resistance focal epilepsy and surgical outcome. This pictorial essay with the illustrative case examples provides an overview of the various surgical techniques for the management of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. PMID:24791080

  17. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  18. A Case of Focal Acral Hyperkeratosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun Ah; Kim, Hei Sung; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-01-01

    Focal acral hyperkeratosis (FAH) is a rare genodermatosis with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance; however, it may also be sporadic. FAH is characterized by late-onset crateriform keratotic papules, some coalescing into plaques, along the borders of the hands and feet. We herein report a case of FAH in a 47-year-old male with a family history of similar lesions in three generations. The histological findings revealed focal areas of orthohyperkeratosis over an area of depressed but o...

  19. Surgery for drug-resistant focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Malla Bhaskara; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Sinha, Sanjib; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Mahadevan, Anita; Bhat, Maya; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy

    2014-03-01

    During the colloquium on drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore on August 16-18, 2013, a number of presentations were made on the surgically remediable lesional epilepsy syndromes, presurgical evaluation, surgical techniques, neuropathology of drug resistance focal epilepsy and surgical outcome. This pictorial essay with the illustrative case examples provides an overview of the various surgical techniques for the management of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. PMID:24791080

  20. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Focal Musculoskeletal Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Choi, Jong Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies. Isolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encount...

  1. Arf GTPase-activating Protein AGAP2 Regulates Focal Adhesion Kinase Activity and Focal Adhesion Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yunjuan; Wu, Yuanjun; Kim, Jae I.; Wang, Zhimin; Daaka, Yehia; Nie, Zhongzhen

    2009-01-01

    Focal adhesions are specialized sites of cell attachment to the extracellular matrix where integrin receptors link extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton, and they are constantly remodeled during cell migration. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an important regulator of focal adhesion remodeling. AGAP2 is an Arf GTPase-activating protein that regulates endosomal trafficking and is overexpressed in different human cancers. Here we examined the regulation of the FA...

  2. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  3. Manifestações articulares atípicas em pacientes com febre reumática / Articular manifestations in patients with atypical rheumatic fever

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente, Robazzi; Simone Rocha de, Araújo; Silas de Araújo, Costa; Amaurí Batista de, Oliveira Júnior; Lívia Souza, Nunes; Isabel, Guimarães.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Descrever as características clínicas e a ocorrência de artrite atípica em crianças com diagnóstico de febre reumática (FR) acompanhadas em ambulatórios terciários em Salvador, Bahia. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo, de uma série de casos, do quadro clínico inicial ou recorrência de 41 [...] crianças com diagnóstico de FR. Resultados: Dos pacientes estudados (n=41), 61% eram do sexo masculino; com média de idade de 9,2 anos e idade no momento do diagnóstico entre 5 e 16 anos. Artrite esteve presente em 75,6% dos pacientes; cardite em 75,6%; coreia em 31,7%; eritema marginado em 14,6% e nódulos subcutâneos em 4,9%. Um padrão atípico foi observado em 22 dos 31 casos com artrite (70,9%): envolvimento de pequenas articulações e/ou esqueleto axial em 12 casos (38,7%); duração maior que três semanas em nove (29%); resposta inadequada ao AINH em dois (6,5%); oligoartrite (? quatro articulações) em 22/31 (71%), sendo monoartrite em 6/31 (uma em pés, uma em tornozelo e quatro em joelho). A febre esteve presente em 78% dos casos e 82,9% dos pacientes utilizavam a profilaxia secundária de forma regular. Conclusão: Artrite atípica esteve presente na maioria dos pacientes que cursaram com acometimento articular, constituindo um fator de confundimento diagnóstico e atraso terapêutico adequado. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and the occurrence of atypical arthritis in children diagnosed with rheumatic fever (RF) and followed in tertiary care clinics in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Methodology: A descriptive study of a case series, of the initial clinical presentation, [...] and of recurrence in 41 children diagnosed with RF. Results: Of the patients studied (n=41), 61% were male, mean age of 9.2 years, and mean age at diagnosis between 5 and 16 years. Arthritis was present in 75.6% of patients; carditis in 75.6%; chorea in 31.7%; erythema marginatum in 14.6%; and subcutaneous nodules in 4.9%. An atypical pattern was observed in 22 of 31 cases of arthritis (70.9%): involvement of small joints and/or axial skeleton in 12 cases (38.7%); >3 weeks of duration in 9 (29%); inadequate response to NSAIDs in 2 (6.5%); oligoarthritis (?4 joints) in 22/31 (71%), with monoarthritis in 6/31 (1 in the foot, 1 in the ankle, and 4 in the knee). Fever was present in 78% of the cases, and 82.9% of patients were regularly on secondary prophylaxis. Conclusion: Atypical arthritis was present in most patients presenting with joint involvement, being a confounding factor against a proper diagnosis and of therapeutic delay.

  4. Manifestações articulares nas viroses exantemáticas Joint complaints in exanthematic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A freqüência de manifestações articulares foi avaliada em 251 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial (detecção de IgM por ensaio imunoenzimático de virose exantemática. As artropatias (artralgia e/ou artrite foram mais observadas nos casos de dengue (49% e de rubéola (38,2% do que naqueles com parvovirose humana (30% e sarampo (28,1%. Com exceção do sarampo, as artropatias predominaram nos adultos (315 anos de idade, sendo tal diferença estatisticamente significativa. A ocorrência maior de artropatias em adultos foi mais evidente nos pacientes com parvovirose (75%, rubéola (65% e dengue (57,7% do que naqueles com sarampo (31%. As queixas articulares também predominaram nos pacientes do sexo feminino para todas as viroses avaliadas. Os resultados encontrados demonstram o freqüente acometimento articular nas doenças estudadas, e indicam a necessidade de comprovação laboratorial para o diagnóstico diferencial entre elas.The frequency of arthropathy was evaluated in 251 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis (specific IgM detection by enzyme immunoassay of exanthematic disease. Arthropathy (arthralgia and/or arthritis was more frequent in dengue fever (49% and rubella (38.2% cases than in human parvovirus (30% and measles (28.1% cases. Except for measles cases, joint complaints prevailed in adults (315 years of age and this difference was significant. The higher frequency of arthropathy in adults was more evident in human parvovirus (75%, rubella (65% and dengue fever (57.7% cases than in measles cases (31%. Arthropathy was also more frequent in females for all rash diseases studied. The results of this study showed the high occurrence of joint complaints in the diseases described here and the importance of laboratory confirmation for their differential diagnosis.

  5. ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. ? ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

  6. Metabolic Effects of Avocado/Soy Unsaponifiables on Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Joseph V.; Harlan, Robert; Chiou, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Avocado/soy unsaponifiable (ASU) components are reported to have a chondroprotective effect by virtue of anti-inflammatory and proanabolic effects on articular chondrocytes. The identity of the active component(s) remains unknown. In general, sterols, the major component of unsaponifiable plant material have been demonstrated to be anti-inflammatory in vitro and in animal models. These studies were designed to clarify whether the sterol content of ASU preparations were the primary contributors to biological activity in articular chondrocytes. ASU samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC mass spectrometry. The sterol content was normalized between diverse samples prior to in vitro testing on bovine chondrocytes. Anabolic activity was monitored by uptake of 35-sulfate into proteoglycans and quantitation of labeled hydroxyproline and proline content after incubation with labeled proline. Anti-inflammatory activity was assayed by measuring reduction of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced synthesis of PGE2 and metalloproteases and release of label from tissue prelabeled with S-35.All ASU samples exerted a similar time-dependent up-regulation of 35-sulfate uptake in bovine cells reaching a maximum of greater than 100% after 72 h at sterol doses of 1–10 ?g/ml. Non-collagenous protein (NCP) and collagen synthesis were similarly up-regulated. All ASU were equally effective in dose dependently inhibiting IL-1-induced MMP-3 activity (23–37%), labeled sulfate release (15–23%) and PGE2 synthesis (45–58%). Up-regulation of glycosaminoglycan and collagen synthesis and reduction of IL-1 effects in cartilage are consistent with chondroprotective activity. The similarity of activity of ASU from diverse sources when tested at equal sterol levels suggests sterols are important for biologic effects in articular chondrocytes. PMID:18604259

  7. Microscale surface friction of articular cartilage in early osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Jane; Amrein, Matthias W; Matyas, John R

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage forms the articulating surface of long bones and facilitates energy dissipation upon loading as well as joint lubrication and wear resistance. In normal cartilage, boundary lubrication between thin films at the cartilage surface reduces friction in the absence of interstitial fluid pressurization and fluid film lubrication by synovial fluid. Inadequate boundary lubrication is associated with degenerative joint conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA), but relations between OA and surface friction, lubrication and wear in boundary lubrication are not well defined. The purpose of the present study was to measure microscale boundary mode friction of the articular cartilage surface in an in vivo experimental model to better understand changes in cartilage surface friction in early OA. Cartilage friction was measured on the articular surface by atomic force microscopy (AFM) under applied loads ranging from 0.5 to 5 ?N. Microscale AFM friction analyses revealed depth dependent changes within the top-most few microns of the cartilage surface in this model of early OA. A significant increase of nearly 50% was observed in the mean engineering friction coefficient for OA cartilage at the 0.5 ?N load level; no significant differences in friction coefficients were found under higher applied loads. Changes in cartilage surface morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy included cracking and roughening of the surface indicative of disruption and wear accompanied by an apparent disintegration of the thin surface lamina from the underlying matrix. Immunohistochemical staining of lubricin - an important cartilage surface boundary lubricant - did not reveal differences in spatial distribution near the cartilage surface in OA compared to controls. The increase in friction at the 0.5 ?N force level is interpreted to reflect changes in the interfacial mechanics of the thin surface lamina of articular cartilage: increased friction implies reduced lubrication efficiency and a higher potential for cartilage surface wear in OA. The effects of mechanical or biochemical changes or loss of the thin surface lamina on the remaining tissue with respect to OA progression is unknown and requires further study, but preservation of the surface lamina seems an important early target for the maintenance of cartilage health and prevention of OA. PMID:23726921

  8. Role of subchondral bone in the restoration of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A; Stepanov, M A; Teplen'kii, M P

    2015-04-01

    The role of subchondral bone in the restoration of the articular cartilage was determined in experiments on mongrel dogs subjected to gonarthrosis modeling followed by subchondral zone tunneling and introduction of bone marrow suspension into the canal. Light microscopy, computer histomorphometry, and electron probe microanalysis showed that stimulation of functional activity of chondrocytes was achieved via correction of homeostasis of the cartilage and subchondral bone and improvement of tissue trophic. Restoration of the microarchitecture of the subchondral bone and improving its vascularization after tunneling with the introduction of bone marrow suspension into the drill holes enhances chondrocyte metabolism and recovers their functionality. PMID:25894785

  9. Evidence for a negative Pasteur effect in articular cartilage.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rb; Urban, Jp

    1997-01-01

    Uptake of external glucose and production of lactate were measured in freshly-excised bovine articular cartilage under O2 concentrations ranging from 21% (air) to zero (N2-bubbled). Anoxia (O2 concentration < 1% in the gas phase) severely inhibited both glucose uptake and lactate production. The decrease in lactate formation correlated closely with the decrease in glucose uptake, in a mole ratio of 2:1. This reduction in the rate of glycolysis in anoxic conditions is seen as evidence of a neg...

  10. Ultrasound speed varies in articular cartilage under indentation loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötjönen, Pauno; Julkunen, Petro; Tiitu, Virpi; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2011-12-01

    In ultrasound elastography, tissue strains are determined by localizing changes in ultrasound echoes during mechanical loading. The technique has been proposed for arthroscopic quantification of the mechanical properties of cartilage. The accuracy of ultrasound elastography depends on the invariability of sound speed in loaded tissue. In unconfined geometry, mechanical compression has been shown to induce variation in sound speed, leading to errors in the determined mechanical properties. This phenomenon has not been confirmed in indentation geometry, the only loading geometry applicable in situ or in vivo. In the present study, ultrasound speed during indentation of articular cartilage was characterized and the effect of variable sound speed on the strain measurements was investigated. Osteochondral samples (n = 7, diameter = 25.4 mm), prepared from visually intact bovine patellae (n = 7), were indented with a plane-ended ultrasound transducer (diameter = 5.6 mm, peak frequency: 8.1 MHz). A sequence of three compression tests (strain-rate = 10%/s, 2700-s relaxation) was applied using the mean strains of 2.2%, 4.5%, and 6.4%. Then, ultrasound speed during the ramp and stress-relaxation phases was determined using the time-of- flight technique. To investigate the role of cartilage structure and composition for sound speed in loaded articular cartilage, a sample-specific fibril-reinforced poroviscoelastic (FRPVE) finite element model was constructed and fitted to experimental mechanical data. Ultrasound speed in articular cartilage decreased significantly during dynamic indentation (p strain. However, the relative error in acoustically determined tissue strain was inversely related to the magnitude of true strain. The modeling results suggested that the compression-related variation in sound speed is controlled by changes in the collagen architecture during dynamic indentation. To conclude, variation in sound speed during dynamic indentation of articular cartilage may lead to significant errors in the values of measured mechanical parameters. Because the relative errors are inversely proportional to applied strain, higher strains should be used to minimize the errors in, e.g., in vivo measurements. PMID:23443716

  11. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Blumenkrantz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage has recently been recognized as a tool for the characterization of cartilage morphology, biochemistry and function. In this paper advancements in cartilage imaging, computation of cartilage volume and thickness, and measurement of relaxation times (T2 and T1? are presented. In addition, the delayed uptake of Gadolinium DTPA as a marker of proteoglycan depletion is also reviewed. The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using these imaging techniques show promise for cartilage assessment and for the study of osteoarthritis.

  12. [Brucine chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel for intra-articular injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Wen; Chen, Hong-Xuan; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sustained release converse thermosensitive hydrogel for intra-articular injection using chitosan-glycerol-borax as matrix, its physical properties and biocompatibility were investigated. Taking gelation time and gelation condition as index, the influence of concentration of chitosan, ratio of chitosan to glycerol, pH on physical properties of hydrogel were investigated. And then the in vitro drug release, rheological properties and biocompatibility were studied. The thermosensitive hydrogel flows easily at room temperature and turns to gelation at body temperature, which can certainly prolong the release of drug and has good biocompatibility. PMID:22812012

  13. Pupillary anomaly masquerading as a glaucomatous visual field defect: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Tey Adrian; Patton Niall

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients are often referred to ophthalmologists with focal visual field defects on routine testing, possibly related to a potential diagnosis of glaucoma. However, examination of the individual patient's ocular characteristics as well as facial characteristics may often reveal a cause of the visual field defect. Case presentation We describe a patient who was found to have a superior visual field defect on routine testing by the optician. Repeat perimetry with pharmacologi...

  14. Mechanical properties of articular cartilage elucidated by osmotic loading and ultrasound.

    OpenAIRE

    Tepic, S; Macirowski, T; Mann, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The time response of surface displacement and acoustic impedance of in situ layers of articular cartilage were measured by using pulse-echo ultrasound. Disturbances were introduced by altering the osmotic pressure. Strongly nonlinear behavior was observed near physiological equilibrium. A model of articular cartilage is proposed which relates our results to cartilage microstructure.

  15. Listeria monocytogenes septic arthritis following intra-articular yttrium-90 therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A. P.; Prouse, P J; Gumpel, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of septic arthritis, which usually occurs in a host compromised by systemic illness. Intra-articular irradiation with yttrium-90 is generally free of complication. We report a case of intra-articular sepsis of the knee joint by Listeria monocytogenes acquired under unusual circumstances.

  16. Articular Cartilage Increases Transition Zone Regeneration in Bone-tendon Junction Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Margaret Wan Nar; Qin, Ling; Lee, Kwong Man; Leung, Kwok Sui

    2008-01-01

    The fibrocartilage transition zone in the direct bone-tendon junction reduces stress concentration and protects the junction from failure. Unfortunately, bone-tendon junctions often heal without fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. We hypothesized articular cartilage grafts could increase fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. Using a goat partial patellectomy repair model, autologous articular cartilage was harvested from the excised distal third patella and interposed between ...

  17. A Case of Linear Focal Elastosis with a Family History

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Jong Keun; Chun, Ji Sung; Jung, So Young; Hwang, Seon Wook; Sung, Ho Suck; Lee, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Linear focal elastosis is an uncommon disorder typically occurring in the back region, which clinically presents as band-like striae, having a histological focal increase in abnormal elastic fibers. Until now, linear focal elastosis occurring in patients with a family history have been rarely reported. Here, we present one such case, of linear focal elastosis which occurred in a brother and sister.

  18. Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The ?2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  19. Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea / Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Jezabel, Haye Salinas; Soledad, Retamozo; Lorena, Vetorazzi; Natalia, Peano; Patricia Ericka, Díaz Cuiza; María Sol, Castaños Menescardi; Evangelina María, Miretti; Laura Mariela, Encinas; Ana Cecilia, Álvarez; Verónica, Saurit; Alejandro, Alvarellos; Francisco, Caeiro.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR) pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA), relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP) son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico [...] en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987) mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p Abstract in english A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM), which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint dam [...] age and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987) with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p

  20. Case report 333: Osteochondral fracture of the right patella without an osteochondral defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summary, a case is presented of a 14-year-old male who presented with pain in the right knee with a history which suggested the possibility that an injury of the knee had occurred during a summer in camp. Radiological studies showed a large defect in the articular surface of the right patella, but no loose body could be identified. (orig./WU)

  1. I Focalize, You Focalize, We All Focalize Together: Audience Participation in Persepolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie Nixon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: This article combines theories of cognition and empathy with focalization theory to examine how and why different forms of audience engagement in fictional worlds are cued. The article argues that critics should examine the differences between engagement that encourages audiences to apply their own frames to the world presented and type engagement cued by means of point-of-view shots and close-ups of facial expressions.

    Abstract (F: Cet article combine les théories de la cognition et de l’empathie avec la théorie de la focalisation afin d’analyser comment et pourquoi certaines œuvres construisent la manière dont le public est invité à s’investir dans des mondes fictionnels. Il défend l’idée que les critiques devraient examiner avant tout les différences entre un type d’investissement qui encourage les publics à appliquer leurs propres schémas de référence au monde de la fiction et un type d’investissement qui passe surtout par des techniques de point de vue et de plans rapprochés d’expressions faciles.

  2. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  3. Non-linear model for compression tests on articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Alfio; Guaily, Amr; Giverso, Chiara; Federico, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Hydrated soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, are often modeled as biphasic systems with individually incompressible solid and fluid phases, and biphasic models are employed to fit experimental data in order to determine the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the tissues. Two of the most common experimental setups are confined and unconfined compression. Analytical solutions exist for the unconfined case with the linear, isotropic, homogeneous model of articular cartilage, and for the confined case with the non-linear, isotropic, homogeneous model. The aim of this contribution is to provide an easily implementable numerical tool to determine a solution to the governing differential equations of (homogeneous and isotropic) unconfined and (inhomogeneous and isotropic) confined compression under large deformations. The large-deformation governing equations are reduced to equivalent diffusive equations, which are then solved by means of finite difference (FD) methods. The solution strategy proposed here could be used to generate benchmark tests for validating complex user-defined material models within finite element (FE) implementations, and for determining the tissue's mechanical and hydraulic properties from experimental data. PMID:25840005

  4. Delivering Agents Locally into Articular Cartilage by Intense MHz Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Heikki J; Ylitalo, Tuomo; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri; Rahunen, Krista; Salmi, Ari; Saarakkala, Simo; Serimaa, Ritva; Hæggström, Edward

    2015-08-01

    There is no cure for osteoarthritis. Current drug delivery relies on systemic delivery or injections into the joint. Because articular cartilage (AC) degeneration can be local and drug exposure outside the lesion can cause adverse effects, localized drug delivery could permit new drug treatment strategies. We investigated whether intense megahertz ultrasound (frequency: 1.138 MHz, peak positive pressure: 2.7 MPa, Ispta: 5 W/cm(2), beam width: 5.7 mm at -6 dB, duty cycle: 5%, pulse repetition frequency: 285 Hz, mechanical index: 1.1) can deliver agents into AC without damaging it. Using ultrasound, we delivered a drug surrogate down to a depth corresponding to 53% depth of the AC thickness without causing histologically detectable damage to the AC. This may be important because early osteoarthritis typically exhibits histopathologic changes in the superficial AC. In conclusion, we identify intense megahertz ultrasound as a technique that potentially enables localized non-destructive delivery of osteoarthritis drugs or drug carriers into articular cartilage. PMID:25922135

  5. Multi-pelvis characterisation of articular cartilage geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Faye C; Dickinson, Alexander S; Schneider, Urs; Taylor, Andrew C; Browne, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The shape of the acetabular cartilage follows the contact stress distribution across the joint. Accurate characterisation of this geometry may be useful for the development of acetabular cup devices that are more biomechanically compliant. In this study, the geometry of the acetabular cartilage was characterised by taking plaster moulds of the acetabulum from 24 dry bone human pelvises and digitising the mould shapes using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The articular bone surface geometry was analysed, and the shape of the acetabulum was approximated by fitting a best-fit sphere. To test the hypothesis that the acetabulum is non-spherical, a best-fit ellipsoid was also fitted to the geometry. In each case, points around the acetabular notch edge that disclosed the articular surface geometry were identified, and vectors were drawn between these and the best-fit sphere or ellipsoid centre. The significantly larger z radii (into the pole) of the ellipsoids indicated that the acetabulum was non-spherical and could imply that the kinematics of the hip joint is more complex than purely rotational motion, and the traditional ball-and-socket replacement may need to be updated to reflect this motion. The acetabular notch edges were observed to be curved, with males exhibiting deeper, wider and shorter notches than females, although the difference was not statistically significant (mean: p = 0.30) and supports the use of non-gender-specific models in anatomical studies. PMID:23966364

  6. Optical spectral imaging of degeneration of articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Jussi; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Mäkitalo, Jaana; Hauta-Kasari, Markku; Vahimaa, Pasi; Saarakkala, Simo

    2010-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common musculoskeletal disorder often diagnosed during arthroscopy. In OA, visual color changes of the articular cartilage surface are typically observed. We demonstrate in vitro the potential of visible light spectral imaging (420 to 720 nm) to quantificate these color changes. Intact bovine articular cartilage samples (n=26) are degraded both enzymatically using the collagenase and mechanically using the emery paper (P60 grit, 269 ?m particle size). Spectral images are analyzed by using standard CIELAB color coordinates and the principal component analysis (PCA). After collagenase digestion, changes in the CIELAB coordinates and projection of the spectra to PCA eigenvector are statistically significant (p<0.05). After mechanical degradation, the grinding tracks could not be visualized in the RGB presentation, i.e., in the visual appearance of the sample to the naked eye under the D65 illumination. However, after projecting to the chosen eigenvector, the grinding tracks are revealed. The tracks are also seen by using only one wavelength, i.e., 469 nm, however, the contrast in the projection image is 1.6 to 2.5 times higher. Our results support the idea that the spectral imaging can be used for evaluation of the integrity of the cartilage surface.

  7. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thibault, Lemaire; Salah, Naili; Vittorio, Sansalone.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido [...] a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson) e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados. Abstract in english In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the [...] tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.

  8. Strong reducing of the laser focal volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many applications of lasers seek nowadays for focal spots whose corresponding volume is getting smaller and smaller in order to ensure high spatial resolution. This problem, studied by many research groups around the world, is the core of this research work which deals with controlling the focal volume of a focused laser beam. Indeed, our objective is to develop a new method based on spatial treatment of laser beams, allowing to solve, in an original and efficient manner, two fundamental issues that have not been treated satisfactorily yet, i.e.: (i) The generation of a special laser beam, which has the ability to produce a focal volume smaller than the one resulting from a more common Gaussian beam, when focused by an ordinary lens. The expected reduction factor of the focal volume is in the order of several hundreds, when the existing methods do not exceed few tenths. (ii) The decoupling between transversal and longitudinal resolutions within the focal volume, contrary to Gaussian beams whose depth of field is proportional to the square of its beam-waist radius. The method that it is developed is based on two steps: First, the laser is forced to oscillate on a high-order but single transversal mode TEMp0, which is secondly spatially beam-shaped thanks a proper Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) that allocates the super-resolution feature A2. (authors)

  9. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  10. O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas / Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio de Oliveira, Carneiro; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; José, Barbieri Neto.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados [...] vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125); em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313). CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp). METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp a [...] nd the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125), and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313). CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

  11. O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Oliveira Carneiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125; em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313. CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental.OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp. METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp and the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125, and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313. CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

  12. Size and Location of Defects at the Coupling Interface Affect Lithotripter Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyan; Williams, James C.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Liu, Ziyue; McAteer, James A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine how the size and location of coupling defects caught between the therapy head of a lithotripter and the skin of a surrogate patient (acoustic window of a test chamber) affect the features of shock waves responsible for stone breakage. METHODS Model defects were placed in the coupling gel between the therapy head of a Dornier Compact-S electromagnetic lithotripter and the Mylar window of a water-filled coupling test system. A fiber-optic hydrophone was used to measure acoustic pressures and map the lateral dimensions of the focal zone of the lithotripter. The effect of coupling conditions on stone breakage was assessed using Gypsum model stones. RESULTS Stone breakage decreased in proportion to the area of the coupling defect; a centrally located defect blocking only 18% of the transmission area reduced stone breakage by an average of almost 30%. The effect on stone breakage was greater for defects located on-axis and decreased as the defect was moved laterally; an 18% defect located near the periphery of the coupling window (2.0 cm off-axis) reduced stone breakage by only ~15% compared to when coupling was completely unobstructed. Defects centered within the coupling window acted to narrow the focal width of the lithotripter; an 8.2% defect reduced the focal width ~30% compared to no obstruction (4.4 mm versus 6.5 mm). Coupling defects located slightly off center disrupted the symmetry of the acoustic field; an 18% defect positioned 1.0 cm off-axis shifted the focus of maximum positive pressure ~1.0 mm laterally. Defects on and off-axis imposed a significant reduction in the energy density of shock waves across the focal zone. CONCLUSIONS In addition to blocking the transmission of shock wave energy, coupling defects also disrupt the properties of shock waves that play a role in stone breakage, including the focal width of the lithotripter and the symmetry of the acoustic field; the effect is dependent on the size and location of defects, with defects near the center of the coupling window having the greatest effect. These data emphasize the importance of eliminating air pockets from the coupling interface, particularly defects located near the center of the coupling window. PMID:22938566

  13. Extended defects in Germanium

    CERN Document Server

    Osgood, R M

    2008-01-01

    Intends to provide a fundamental understanding of the extended-defect formation during Ge materials and device processing, providing ways to distinguish harmful from less detrimental defects and should point out ways for defect engineering and control.

  14. Ventricular septal defect (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventricular septal defect is a congenital defect of the heart, that occurs as an abnormal opening in the wall that separates the right and left ventricles. Ventricular septal defect may also be associated with other heart ...

  15. Atrial Septal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done about it? What Is an Atrial Septal Defect? Atrial septal defect (say: AY-tree-ul SEP-tul DEE- ... red blood. In a person with an atrial septal defect, there's an opening in that wall. This ...

  16. Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata / Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Miguel, Montero Parrilla; Zuilén, Jiménez Quintana.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observar [...] on facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función. Abstract in english This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wea [...] r facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

  17. Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Montero Parrilla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observaron facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función.This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wear facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

  18. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  19. Effect of chondral defect size, shape, and location on MRI diagnostic performance in the porcine knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, David C; Harris, Joshua D; Jia, Guang; Choi, Seongjin; Siston, Robert A; Randazzo, John L; Knopp, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and positive predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in the porcine knee. Seventy-two full-thickness chondral defects (small or large; circular, oval, or triangular) were created in 12 porcine knees. The authors used 3.0-T MRI with 3-dimensional gradient echo water-selective/fluid (WATSf) sequences acquired in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. Sensitivity and positive predictive value parameters were calculated for 2 readers. Magnetic resonance imaging was highly sensitive for detection of full-thickness defects in the knee (85%). The highest sensitivity was observed at the medial femoral condyle (93%), while the lowest was observed at the medial patella (71%). The sensitivities for detecting different shapes were unique to each shape, with oval lesions identified with greatest sensitivity (93%). Small lesions (86%) were detected at a similar sensitivity as large lesions (83%). The positive predictive values for accurate true-positive reads were low for all lesion shapes (18%-57%) and moderate for small (69%) and large (59%) sizes, with significant differences observed between the 2 readers. Magnetic resonance imaging has a high sensitivity in the detection of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in the porcine knee. Variability in defect shape and intra-articular location affects MRI sensitivity, while size does not. Magnetic resonance imaging was not effective in describing lesion shape or size. Further, there was subjectivity in reading defect shape and size between 2 radiologists. PMID:24762834

  20. Controling the number of focal elements

    OpenAIRE

    Osswald, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    A basic belief assignment can have up to 2^n focal elements, and combining them with a simple conjunctive operator will need O(2^2n) operations. This article proposes some techniques to limit the size of the focal sets of the bbas to be combined while preserving a large part of the information they carry. The first section revisits some well-known definitions with an algorithmic point of vue. The second section proposes a matrix way of building the least committed isopignist...

  1. Focal splenic masses of the extramedullary hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Extramedullary hematopoiesis arises from pleuripotential stem cells distributed throughout the body. It is most common in patients with congenital hemolytic anemia, such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and hereditary spherocytosis as a response to ineffective red blood cell formation. Although microscopic foci of Extramedullary hematopoiesis are commonly seen in the spleen and liver parenchyma, focal mass-like lesion of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and spleen are rare. We report a case of intrasplenic focal extramedullary hematopoiesis lesions and the imaging features of extramedullary hematopoiesis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should always be considered as a diagnosis in a patient with a known hematological disorder

  2. Natural course of symptomatic focal choroidal excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Introini, Ugo; Gagliardi, Marco; Sergenti, Jessica; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old man was referred to the authors' department for nonspecified macular dystrophy with persistent metamorphopsia in the right eye diagnosed 10 years before and followed using optical coherence tomography. The patient underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, including multimodal imaging evaluation and electrofunctional testing. The diagnosis was consistent with nonconforming focal choroid excavation. Over 10 years, no complications occurred, visual acuity was stable, and optical coherence tomography showed no progression of the lesion during follow-up. In this case, nonconforming symptomatic focal choroid excavation was a nonprogressive condition with good long-term visual outcome. PMID:25559525

  3. Focal plane array for the GERB instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Nick; Butcher, Gillian I.; Blake, Oliver; Cole, Richard; Whitford, Christopher; Holland, Andrew D.

    2004-02-01

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument is an Earth observing scientific payload launched on-board the European Space Agency Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite in September 2002. The instrument measures reflected and emitted radiation in two wavebands, 0.3 4 ?m and 4 30 ?m. The focal plane consists of a 256-element thermoelectric linear array operating at ~300 K and four application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) providing parallel amplification, filtering and digitisation. This paper describes in detail the design, operation and performance of the GERB focal plane array.

  4. Lavado articular por punción en pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla / Articular washout by puncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Álvarez López; Yenima, García Lorenzo; Maruldis, García Lorenzo.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la osteoartritis de la rodilla constituye una de las causas más frecuente de dolor de esta articulación, en la actualidad para su alivio uno de los métodos empleados es el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de [...] esta modalidad de tratamiento para el alivio del dolor y la disminución en el consumo de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 75 pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla y tratados mediante lavado articular por punción más el uso de esteroides intra-articulares en el Centro Médico de Diagnóstico Integral, Caracas, República Bolivariana de Venezuela desde diciembre de 2008 hasta mayo 2009.El universo de estudio coincidió con la muestra Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino en más del 60% de los pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 56,9 años. El 48% de los enfermos mantuvo alivio del dolor a los tres meses de realizado el proceder. El uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo disminuyó considerablemente después de realizado el proceder. Un 17,3% de los pacientes requirió de un segundo lavado articular especialmente a partir del primer mes de haber hecho el primer lavado. El 76% de los enfermos a los tres meses se mantuvieron con resultados de excelente o bueno. Los factores de mal pronóstico que más influyeron en el resultado fueron el dolor al reposo, largo periodo de evolución de los síntomas y cambios radiográficos marcados. Conclusiones: el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares es un método útil en el alivio del dolor en la mayoría de los enfermos con Osteoartritis de la Rodilla hasta los tres meses de realizado, además de disminuir de forma significativa el uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Abstract in english Background:osteoarthritis of the knee constitutes one of the most frequent causes of pain of this joint, nowadays for its relief, one of the used methods is the articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of this treatmen [...] t modality for pain relief and the decrease of non-steroid anti-inflammatory consumption. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 75 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and treated them by means of articular washout by puncture, besides the use of intra-articular steroids in the Integral Diagnostic Medical Center from Caracas, Venezuela from December 2008 to May 2009; the universe coincided with the sample. Results: the female sex in more than 60% of patients prevailed. The mean age was about 56,9 years. The 48% of sick persons kept relief of pain to the three months of carrying out proceeding. The use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories diminished considerably after proceeding. The 17,3% of patients required a second articular washout especially starting from the first month of the first washout. The 76% of sick persons to the three months stayed with excellent or good results. Factors of bad prognostic that most influenced in the result was the pain to the rest, long period of evolution of the symptoms and marked radiographic changes. Conclusions: articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids is a useful method of pain relief in the majority of sick persons with osteoarthritis of the knee until the three months of carrying out the procedure, besides diminishing in a significant way the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories.

  5. Status of very long infrared-wave focal plane array development at DEFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravrand, O.; Chorier, Ph.

    2009-05-01

    The very long infrared wavelength (>14?m) is a very challenging range for the design of large HgCdTe focal plane arrays. As the wavelength gets longer (ie the semiconductor gap gets smaller), the physic of photodiodes asks for numerous technological improvements to keep a high level of detection performance. DEFIR (LETI-Sofradir common research team) has been highly active in this field during the last few years. The need (mainly expressed by the space industry ESA and CNES) of very long wave focal plane arrays appears very demanding in terms of dark current, defect density and of course quantum efficiency. This paper aims at presenting a status of long and very long wave focal plane array development at DEFIR for three different ion implanted technologies: n on p mercury vacancies doped technology, n on p extrinsic doped technology, and p on n arsenic on indium technology. Special focus is done to 15?m cut off n/p focal plane array fabricated in our laboratory demonstrating high uniformity, diffusion and shot noise limited photodiodes at 50K.

  6. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular sn and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  7. Precise spatial restriction of BMP signaling is essential for articular cartilage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ayan; Singh, Pratik Narendra Pratap; Sohaskey, Michael L; Harland, Richard M; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-03-15

    The articular cartilage, which lines the joints of the limb skeleton, is distinct from the adjoining transient cartilage, and yet, it differentiates as a unique population within a contiguous cartilage element. Current literature suggests that articular cartilage and transient cartilage originate from different cell populations. Using a combination of lineage tracing and pulse-chase of actively proliferating chondrocytes, we here demonstrate that, similar to transient cartilage, embryonic articular cartilage cells also originate from the proliferating chondrocytes situated near the distal ends of skeletal anlagen. We show that nascent cartilage cells are capable of differentiating as articular or transient cartilage, depending on exposure to Wnt or BMP signaling, respectively. The spatial organization of the articular cartilage results from a band of Nog-expressing cells, which insulates these proliferating chondrocytes from BMP signaling and allows them to differentiate as articular cartilage under the influence of Wnt signaling emanating from the interzone. Through experiments conducted in both chick and mouse embryos we have developed a model explaining simultaneous growth and differentiation of transient and articular cartilage in juxtaposed domains. PMID:25758226

  8. Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ap Gwynn, I; Wade, S; Ito, K; Richards, R G

    2002-12-10

    Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3 mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly repeating patterns. This organization existed in the regions surrounding the columns of chondrocytes, known as chondrons. The load bearing property of the tissue was explained by the directed flow and containment of the interstitial fluid, modulated by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, along these collagen bounded tubular structures. The reason why such a structure has not been described previously may be that it is not retained by aldehyde fixation followed by dehydration, the method commonly used for tissue preparation for electron microscopy. PMID:14562249

  9. Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ap Gwynn I.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly repeating patterns. This organization existed in the regions surrounding the columns of chondrocytes, known as chondrons. The load bearing property of the tissue was explained by the directed flow and containment of the interstitial fluid, modulated by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, along these collagen bounded tubular structures. The reason why such a structure has not been described previously may be that it is not retained by aldehyde fixation followed by dehydration, the method commonly used for tissue preparation for electron microscopy.

  10. Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

  11. Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskin, Cree M.; Anderson, Mark W.; Choudhri, Asim [UVA Health System, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Diduch, David R. [UVA Health System, Department of Orthopedics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

  12. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, A. S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammi, M. J.; Töyräs, J.

    2007-02-01

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n = 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p vitro. As high resolution imaging of e.g. the knee joint is possible with pQCT, the present technique may be further developed for in vivo quantification of PG depletion in osteoarthritic cartilage. However, careful in vitro and in vivo characterization of diffusion mechanics and optimal contrast agent concentrations are needed before diagnostic applications are feasible.

  13. Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jezabel Haye Salinas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA, relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987 mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM, which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint damage and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987 with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p < 0.01 and rheumatoid factor (108 vs. 34.5, p < 0.01. Independent association with current smoking habit (p = 0.02, OR = 3.78, 95%: 1.17-12.2, RF positive (p = 0.04, OR 3.23, CI 95%: 1.04 to 11.8 and ACCP antibody positive (p = 0.04, OR 3.23, 95% CI: 1.04-10 was found. The patients with xerostomia (109 vs. 34, p = 0.04, xerophthalmia (150 vs. 34, p < 0.01, subcutaneous nodules (141 vs. 34, p < 0.01 and pulmonary fibrosis (158 vs. 34, p = 0.04 had a higher degree of the ACCP antibody, than controls. In conclusion, ACCP antibody positive, RF positive and smoking were independent risk factors for the development of MEXA.

  14. Large Format Multicolor QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soibel, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) multicolor focal plane array (FPA) cameras are essential for many DoD and NASA applications including Earth and planetary remote sensing. In this paper we summarize our recent development of large format multicolor QWIP FPA that cover MWIR and LWIR bands.

  15. Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

  16. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Moura Lima

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de impedir o aparecimento de larvas de Aëdes aegypti e de outros insetos, em pneus pintados, na face externa, com Sumition e com Malation.In four districts of the city of Rio dc Janeiro focal treatment essays with granulated Abate at 1 ppm and perifocal treatment essays with wettable powder of Sumithion at 2,5% were performed. These were made either alone or in combination as well as associated to insecticides applied at ultra low volume. The premise indices obtained one month after the treatments indicates that the focal treatment alone is effective, no other addicional methods being necessary. The perifocal treatment is not effective and did not prevent the development of Aedes aegypti larvae and other insects in tires which had their external surface painted with Sumithion and Malathion.

  17. Progress in focal plane array technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Antoni

    2012-03-01

    Development of focal plane arrays started in seventies last century and has revolutionized imaging systems in the next decades. This paper presents progress in optical detector technology of focal plane arrays during the past twenty years. At the beginning of paper, emphasises are given on integrated detector assembly and cooling requirements of different types of detectors. Next, the classification of two types of detectors (photon detectors and thermal detectors) is done on the basis of their principle of operation. This topic is followed by general overview of focal plane array architectures. The main subject of paper is concentrated on describing of material systems and detectors operated in different spectral ranges. Special attention is given on recent progress in their detector technologies. Discussion is focused mainly on current and the most rapidly developing focal plane arrays including: CdZnTe detectors, AlGaN photodiodes, visible CCD and CMOS imaging systems, HgCdTe heterostructure photodiodes, quantum well AlGaAs/GaAs photoresistors, and thermal detectors. Emphasis is also given on far-infrared and sub-millimetre wave detector arrays. Finally, the outlook for near-future trends in optical detector technologies is presented.

  18. [Subtle focal diffusion abnormality in the hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, S; Hellen, F; Wenzel, D; Turowski, B

    2012-07-01

    A 53-year-old female patient presented with sudden onset confusion and disorientation. Further neurological examination was unremarkable and the patient showed a complete recovery after several hours. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination performed 2 days later revealed a tiny focal lesion in the lateral hippocampus in the diffusion weighted images consistent with transient global amnesia. PMID:22710991

  19. Florid periosteal reaction and focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FFCD) is a rare condition causing tibia vara in childhood. It is characterized by progressive tibia vara in young children with a characteristic radiographic lesion. This paper is thought to be the first to describe FFCD exhibiting florid periosteal reaction at the time of presentation with a subtle faint osteolytic lesion in the diametaphysis of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

  20. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  1. Prevalência de hipermobilidade articular em crianças pré-escolares / Prevalence of joint hypermobility in preschool children / Prevalencia de hipermovilidad articular en niños pre-escolares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jessica Caroliny de Jesus, Neves; Fabíola Unbehaun, Cibinello; Leonardo George Vitorio, Vitor; Débora, Beckner; Claudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins, Siqueira; Dirce Shizuko, Fujisawa.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A hipermobilidade articular é a capacidade de realizar movimentos em amplitudes maiores que a normal. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a prevalência de hipermobilidade articular em crianças pré-escolares da Rede Municipal de Educação de Londrina/PR. O estudo foi do tipo transversal c [...] om amostra constituída de 366 crianças, de 5 e 6 anos de idade. Verificou-se que, das crianças pré-escolares avaliadas, 198 (54,1%) apresentaram hipermobilidade articular, sendo 96 (59,6%) do sexo feminino e 102 (49,8%) do masculino. A hipermobilidade articular foi encontrada com maior frequência nas articulações de cotovelo e joelho, onde ocorreu a hiperextensão. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos masculino e feminino em relação à hipermobilidade articular (?²=3,539, p=0,072). Pode-se concluir que a hipermobilidade articular nas crianças pré-escolares foi achado comum, compatível com a faixa etária da população avaliada no estudo. Abstract in spanish La hipermovilidad articular es la capacidad de realizar movimientos en amplitudes mayores que lo normal. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la prevalencia de hipermovilidad articular en niños pre-escolares de la Red Municipal de Educación de Londrina/PR. El estudio fue de tipo transve [...] rsal con una muestra constituida de 366 niños, de 5 a 6 años de edad. Se verificó que los niños pre-escolares evaluados, 198 (54,1%) presentaron hipermovilidad articular, siendo 96 (59,6%) de sexo femenino y 102 (49,8%) de sexo masculino. La hipermovilidad articular fue encontrada con mayor frecuencia en las articulaciones del tobillo y rodilla, donde ocurre la hiperextensión. No hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos masculino y femenino en relación a la hipermovilidad articular (?²=3,539, p=0,072). Se puede concluir que la hipermovilidad articular en los niños pre-escolares fue encontrada normal, compatible con la línea etaria de la población evaluada en el estudio. Abstract in english Joint hypermobility is the ability to perform movements with a range of motion that is wider than normal. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of joint hypermobility in junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten children from the Municipal Education System of Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Th [...] e study was cross-­sectional, with a sample of 366 children aged between 5 and 6 years. The detection of joint hypermobility was based on the criteria proposed in literature. It was found that 198 (54.1%) of the children evaluated had joint hypermobility, 96 (59.6%) were girls and 102 (49.8%) were boys. Joint hypermobility was found more frequently in the elbow and knee joints, where hyperextension occurred. There was no statistically significant difference between the male and female groups in relation to joint hypermobility (?²=3.539, p=0.072). We can conclude that joint hypermobility found in the junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten children evaluated was common and compatible with the age of the population evaluated in this study.

  2. Microtubule-Actin Cross-talk at Focal Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander F. Palazzo (Columbia University; Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology REV)

    2002-07-02

    Focal adhesions are dynamic structures in which traction forces are exerted against the substratum during cell migration and are sites for the organization of signaling complexes. Palazzo and Gundersen discuss how focal adhesions may also be the site of cross-talk between the actin-based and microtubule-based cytoskeletons. Microtubules appear to deliver factors that can regulate the formation and dissolution of focal adhesions, whereas focal adhesions contribute to microtubule localization and stability.

  3. Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

  4. Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulhall, K J

    2002-10-01

    We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

  5. Condylar osteochondroma treated with total condylectomy and preservation of the articular disc: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Manuel Fernandez; Castillo, Jose Luis Del; Guerra, Mario Muñoz; Sanchez, Ruth Sanchez; La Plata, Maria Mancha De

    2015-06-01

    Osteochondroma is frequently found in the general skeleton but is rare in the condylar region of the mandible. We report a case of an osteochondroma of large size and rapid growth in the mandibular condyle, which was treated with total condylectomy and condylar replacement with a costochondral graft and preservation of the articular disc. In cases with a healthy and well-positioned articular disc, it may be preserved with no need of disc repositioning. PMID:26000086

  6. Changes in Proton Dynamics in Articular Cartilage Caused by Phosphate Salts and Fixation Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, ShaoKuan; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of phosphate salts and fixation solutions on the proton dynamics in articular cartilage in vitro. Microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (?MRI) T2 anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) double quantum–filtered (DQF) spectroscopy were used to study the full-thickness articular cartilage from several canine humeral heads. The in-plane pixel size across the depth of the cartilage tissue was 13 ?m. The acid phosphate salt was an effective exchang...

  7. The Variations in Calcaneal Articular Facets In North Indian Population and its Clinical Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Deepinder Kaur Gandhi; Maninder Singh; Anupama Mahajan; Seema,

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Objectives- To know the most common type of calcanei in North Indian population and itsclinical importance. There are three articular facets on superior surface of calcaneus- anterior, middle andposterior. Three types of calcanei are noted according to number and arrangement of the articular facets-type A, B and C. Methodology - The present studywas done on 300 dry adult human calcanei of unknownsex taken from Department of Anatomy Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and R...

  8. Arthroscopic treatment of calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder: deposit removal and intra-articular lavage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Rawoot; J, de Beer.

    Full Text Available The optimal treatment of calcifying tendonitis is still controversial and several techniques exist. In this article we describe the arthroscopic operative technique for removal of calcific deposits as well intra-articular lavage. We hypothesised that the removal of these calcium particles from the i [...] ntra-articular space, usually seen arthroscopically as a 'snowstorm' appearance, would result in a reduction in the incidence of post-procedure frozen shoulder. A retrospective analysis of 93 patients confirmed this.

  9. Multiple extra-articular synovial cyst formation: case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S; Kamatani, N; Kashiwazaki, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the clinical manifestations and the treatment strategy of a very rare entity of disease manifesting as multiple extra-articular cystic synovitis with recurrent polyarthralgia.?METHODS—A 47 year old male patient with multiple extra-articular synovial cysts was followed up prospectively for 13 years. The clinical manifestations and response to various treatments were recorded. Comparisons are made among the five reported cases (including the present case).?RES...

  10. Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine articular and epiphyseal cartilage: light ane electron microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatnagar, R.; Christian, R. G.; Nakano, T.; Aherne, F. X.; Thompson, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine were studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in articular cartilage and light microscopy and epiphyseal cartilage of swine from three days to 30 weeks of age. Thickness, cellularity and vascularity of both the epiphyseal and articular cartilage, decreased as the swine aged. Osteochondrotic changes included formation of "plugs" of cartilage indicating localized failure of ossification and separation and space formation in epiphyse...

  11. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose regulates dedifferentiation through ?-catenin pathway in rabbit articular chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seon-mi; Kim, Hyun Ah; Kim, Song-ja

    2010-01-01

    2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) is known as a synthetic inhibitor of glucose. 2DG regulates various cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation by regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. However, the effects of 2DG in normal cells, including chondrocytes, are not clear yet. We examined the effects of 2DG on dedifferentiation with a focus on the ?-catenin pathway in rabbit articular chondrocytes. The rabbit articular chondrocytes were treated with 5 mM 2DG for ...

  12. Redundancy of conventional articular response variables used in juvenile chronic arthritis clinical trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruperto, N.; Giannini, E H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the degree of redundancy among articular response variables used routinely in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) clinical trials. METHODS--We obtained data from a large, computerised databank holding information from multiple clinical trials in children with JCA to determine Pearson correlation coefficients for changes from baseline values in articular response variables. All 508 JCA patients who entered the analysis of efficacy of the original trials were included in the...

  13. Mineralization of Articular Cartilage in the Sprague-Dawley Rat: Characterization and Mechanical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemhildt, M. L.; Beynnon, B. D.; Gardner-Morse, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The formation of mineralized deposits in human articular cartilage is a common occurrence [1–4]; however, the relationship between mineral deposition and material properties of the articular cartilage is not well understood nor the relationship between mineral deposition and the development of degenerative joint disease. Several different crystalline structures have been identified in articular cartilage and synovial fluid including monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), and basic calcium phosphates (BCPs). These distinct mineral phases are associated with specific pathologies and mechanisms of crystal formation such as the development of monosodium urate in gout and CPPD in pseudogout. Less is known regarding the deposition of BCPs, a class of compounds including carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (cHA), tricalcium phosphates (TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), and whitlockite, in articular cartilage. The presence of BCP calcification of articular cartilage in humans has been associated with decreased joint function [1, 3], aging [2] and severity of osteoarthritis [1, 3]. Commonly used methods of crystal detection such as polarized light microscopy of synovial fluid and conventional radiography of the joint can be insensitive to the detection of BCP crystals and more sensitive techniques such as microradiography or electron microscopy of articular cartilage sections are required to detect areas of BCP mineralization [3, 5, 6]. It is not yet known how regions of mineralization may influence the tribological properties (friction, wear, and lubrication) of the articulating surfaces and the material and structural properties of articular cartilage. Animal models with which to study the mechanisms of mineralization of articular cartilage are limited. PMID:22531460

  14. Extra-articular cartilage affected in collagen-induced, but not pristane-induced, arthritis models.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Ann-sofie; Lu, Shemin; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting cartilaginous joints but also extra-articular tissues such as the nose and upper respiratory tract. We have investigated extra-articular cartilage involvement in two commonly used animal models for RA, collagen-induced and pristane-induced arthritis, by immunizing rats with different susceptibility to disease (LEW.1 A, LEW.1F and DA rats). We found that nasal and tracheolaryngeal cartilage is affected in LEW.1 A a...

  15. Para-articular chondroma and osteochondroma of the infrapatellar fat pad: a report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, H.; Tamai, K.; Iwamoto, A.; Saotome, K.

    1999-01-01

    We report three cases of para-articular chondroma and osteochondroma in the region of infrapatellar fat pad. All three lesions were resected and examined histologically. Two of them were primarily cartilaginous with a lobular pattern internally, and one uniformly osseous with peripheral cartilage. We conclude that these lesions are not the same. The former should be designated para-articular chondroma after Jaffe and the latter, osteochondroma.

  16. Lead Induces an Osteoarthritis-like Phenotype in Articular Chondrocytes through Disruption of TGF-? Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Holz, Jonathan D.; Beier, Eric; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Ubayawardena, Resika; Wang, Meina; Sampson, Erik R.; Rosier, Randy N.; Zuscik, Michael; Puzas, J. Edward

    2012-01-01

    Lead remains a significant environmental toxin, and we believe we may have identified a novel target of lead toxicity in articular chondrocytes. These cells are responsible for the maintenance of joint matrix, and do so under the regulation of TGF-? signaling. As lead is concentrated in articular cartilage, we hypothesize that it can disrupt normal chondrocyte phenotype through suppression of TGF-? signaling. These experiments examine the effects of lead exposure in vivo and in vitro at bio...

  17. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jung-hee; Kim, Ji-yeon

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesi...

  18. Cartilage constructs engineered from chondrocytes overexpressing IGF-I improve the repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Madry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy is a promising approach for promoting articular cartilage repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that engineered cartilage with chondrocytes overexpressing a human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I gene can enhance the repair of osteochondral defects, in a manner dependent on the duration of cultivation. Genetically modified chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds in dynamic flow rotating bioreactors for either 10 or 28 d. The resulting cartilaginous constructs were implanted into osteochondral defects in rabbit knee joints. After 28 weeks of in vivo implantation, immunoreactivity to ß-gal was detectable in the repair tissue of defects that received lacZ constructs. Engineered cartilaginous constructs based on IGF-I-overexpressing chondrocytes markedly improved osteochondral repair compared with control (lacZ constructs. Moreover, IGF-I constructs cultivated for 28 d in vitro significantly promoted osteochondral repair vis-à-vis similar constructs cultivated for 10 d, leading to significantly decreased osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defects. Hence, the combination of spatially defined overexpression of human IGF-I within a tissue-engineered construct and prolonged bioreactor cultivation resulted in most enhanced articular cartilage repair and reduction of osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defect. Such genetically enhanced tissue engineering provides a versatile tool to evaluate potential therapeutic genes in vivo and to improve our comprehension of the development of the repair tissue within articular cartilage defects. Insights gained with additional exploration using this model may lead to more effective treatment options for acute cartilage defects.

  19. Acercamiento a la mecanobiología del cartílago articular a través de un modelo computacional / Approach to mechanobiology of articular cartilage through a computation model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy Stella, Landínez Parra; Diego Alexander, Garzón Alvarado; Juan Carlos, Vanegas Acosta.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El cartílago articular es un complejo tejido biológico que recubre los extremos de las articulaciones diartrodiales y proporciona resistencia a la compresión y excelentes propiedades de fricción durante el movimiento articular. La presencia de cargas mecánicas influye en el comportamiento y condició [...] n fisiológica del cartílago. Es así como, mediante el mecanismo de mecanotrasducción, los condrocitos perciben la magnitud de la carga y a partir de éste estímulo mecánico expresan genes como el Sox9 o el Runx2, los cuales generan cambios bioquímicos en las células y por tanto en el cartílago mismo. Diferentes trabajos experimentales se reportan acerca del efecto de las cargas impuestas al cartílago relacionadas con la expresión morfogénica del condrocito, sin embargo, no se cuenta con un modelo matemático y/o computacional que pueda explicar el comportamiento antagónico del Sox9 y el Runx2. El objetivo de este trabajo es introducir un modelo matemático que permita predecir el comportamiento mecano-biológico del cartílago articular a partir de las cargas mecánicas cíclicas, la presión hidrostática y la expresión génica y/o de proteínas que facilitan el proceso de síntesis o destrucción del tejido. El modelo se implementó numéricamente con el uso del método de los elementos finitos y los resultados obtenidos permitieron predecir diversos comportamientos mecano-biológicos del cartílago articular. Abstract in english Articular cartilage is a biological tissue complex coating the extremes of diarthric joints and provides resistance to compression and excellent friction properties during the articular movement. Presence of mechanical stress influenced on the behavior and physiologic condition of cartilage. That is [...] how by means of the mechanotransduction, the chondrocytes may to perceive the stress magnitude and from this mechanical stimulus, they express gens like the Sox9 or the Runx2, which generate biochemical changes in cells and thus in the cartilage. Different experimental papers reporting on the effect of the stress imposed on the cartilage related to chondrocytes morphogenetic expression, however, there are not a mathematical model and/or computation to explain the antagonist behavior of Sox9 and the Runx2. The aim of present paper is to introduce a mathematical model allows predicting the mechano-biological behavior of articular cartilage from the cyclic mechanic stress, the hydrostatic pressure and the genic expression and or proteins providing the tissue synthesis or destruction. Model was numerically implemented using the finite elements method and the results obtained allowed to predict different mechano-biological behaviors of articular cartilage.

  20. Acercamiento a la mecanobiología del cartílago articular a través de un modelo computacional Approach to mechanobiology of articular cartilage through a computation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Stella Landínez Parra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El cartílago articular es un complejo tejido biológico que recubre los extremos de las articulaciones diartrodiales y proporciona resistencia a la compresión y excelentes propiedades de fricción durante el movimiento articular. La presencia de cargas mecánicas influye en el comportamiento y condición fisiológica del cartílago. Es así como, mediante el mecanismo de mecanotrasducción, los condrocitos perciben la magnitud de la carga y a partir de éste estímulo mecánico expresan genes como el Sox9 o el Runx2, los cuales generan cambios bioquímicos en las células y por tanto en el cartílago mismo. Diferentes trabajos experimentales se reportan acerca del efecto de las cargas impuestas al cartílago relacionadas con la expresión morfogénica del condrocito, sin embargo, no se cuenta con un modelo matemático y/o computacional que pueda explicar el comportamiento antagónico del Sox9 y el Runx2. El objetivo de este trabajo es introducir un modelo matemático que permita predecir el comportamiento mecano-biológico del cartílago articular a partir de las cargas mecánicas cíclicas, la presión hidrostática y la expresión génica y/o de proteínas que facilitan el proceso de síntesis o destrucción del tejido. El modelo se implementó numéricamente con el uso del método de los elementos finitos y los resultados obtenidos permitieron predecir diversos comportamientos mecano-biológicos del cartílago articular.Articular cartilage is a biological tissue complex coating the extremes of diarthric joints and provides resistance to compression and excellent friction properties during the articular movement. Presence of mechanical stress influenced on the behavior and physiologic condition of cartilage. That is how by means of the mechanotransduction, the chondrocytes may to perceive the stress magnitude and from this mechanical stimulus, they express gens like the Sox9 or the Runx2, which generate biochemical changes in cells and thus in the cartilage. Different experimental papers reporting on the effect of the stress imposed on the cartilage related to chondrocytes morphogenetic expression, however, there are not a mathematical model and/or computation to explain the antagonist behavior of Sox9 and the Runx2. The aim of present paper is to introduce a mathematical model allows predicting the mechano-biological behavior of articular cartilage from the cyclic mechanic stress, the hydrostatic pressure and the genic expression and or proteins providing the tissue synthesis or destruction. Model was numerically implemented using the finite elements method and the results obtained allowed to predict different mechano-biological behaviors of articular cartilage.

  1. Techniques and applications of in vivo diffusion imaging of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, José G

    2015-06-01

    Early in the process of osteoarthritis (OA) the composition (water, proteoglycan [PG], and collagen) and structure of articular cartilage is altered leading to changes in its mechanical properties. A technique that can assess the composition and structure of the cartilage in vivo can provide insight in the mechanical integrity of articular cartilage and become a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of OA. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been proposed as a biomarker for cartilage composition and structure. DTI is sensitive to the PG content through the mean diffusivity and to the collagen architecture through the fractional anisotropy. However, the acquisition of DTI of articular cartilage in vivo is challenging due to the short T2 of articular cartilage (?40 ms at 3 Tesla) and the high resolution needed (0.5-0.7 mm in plane) to depict the cartilage anatomy. We describe the pulse sequences used for in vivo DTI of articular cartilage and discus general strategies for protocol optimization. We provide a comprehensive review of measurements of DTI of articular cartilage from ex vivo validation experiments to its recent clinical applications. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1487-1504. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25989137

  2. The isolation and characterization of magnesium whitlockite crystals from human articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchford, C A; Vickers, M; Ali, S Y

    1995-06-01

    A number of basic calcium phosphate crystals have been demonstrated in human articular tissues. The exact relationship between crystal deposition and disease remains obscure, although there is evidence supporting a rapid degenerative arthropathy within a specific set of patients. Limited reports of 'cuboid' calcium phosphate microcrystals in articular cartilage have been made over the last 10 years. In this study the occurrence of such crystals, not apparent by light microscopy, in human articular cartilage has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis of tissue prepared by aqueous and anhydrous processing techniques. A crystal isolation technique involving collagenase digestion, centrifugation and sodium hypochlorite treatment was developed enabling crystal characterization by electron and X-ray diffraction. Crystals were identified as magnesium whitlockite; the first report of this mineral in articular cartilage. The presence of this mineral phase in normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage is discussed with consideration given to physical conditions known to favor whitlockite formation and those extant in articular cartilage. PMID:7584321

  3. Defects in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to the study of defects in metals has led to increased knowledge on lattice-defect properties during the past decade in two areas: the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation and post-quench annealing. The study of defects in metals by PAS is reviewed within the context of the other available techniques for defect studies. The strengths and weaknesses of PAS as a method for the characterization of defect microstructures are considered. The additional possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the atomic and electronic structures of atomic defects are discussed, based upon theoretical calculations of the annihilation characteristics of defect-trapped positrons and experimental observations. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals is considered. 71 references, 9 figures

  4. Radiopneumographic characteristics of focal pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonal ventilation and blood flow were studied by the radiopneumography method in 50 children of school age with lower-lobe-of-the lung focal pneumonia (26 with left-side and 24 with right-side). It is established that during right-side localization of pneumonic focus preserved was the predomination of ventilation of right lung relative to left. Complete normalization of common and regional indexes of ventilation and blood flow was established by the 21st day from the beginning of treatment during right-side focal pneumonias. In case of left-side localization of pneumonic focus only partial reduction of external respiration and perfusion comes. Therefore, compensatory and reducing capabilities of right lung are preferrable

  5. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random. For double-couple source orientation the random probability distribution function is not uniform, which complicates the calculation of the likelihood value. To better understand the resulting complexities we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two rota...

  6. Essential role for focal adhesion kinase in regulating stress hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sasidhar; Ramdas, Baskar; Hanneman, Philip; Martin, Joseph; Beggs, Hilary E; Kapur, Reuben

    2010-11-18

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that has been extensively studied in fibroblasts; however its function in hematopoiesis remains an enigma. FAK is thought to be expressed in myeloid and erythroid progenitors, and its expression is enhanced in response to cytokines such as granu-locyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, bone marrow cells cultured in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor show active migration and chemoattractant-induced polarization, which correlates with FAK induction. While loss of FAK in mice results in embryonic lethality, we have deleted FAK in the adult bone marrow. We show an essential role for FAK in regulating hemolytic, myelotoxic, as well as acute inflammatory stress responses in vivo. In vitro, loss of FAK in erythroid and myeloid progenitor's results in impaired cytokine induced growth and survival, as well as defects in the activation and expression of antiapoptotic proteins caspase 3 and Bcl-x(L). Additionally, reduced migration and adhesion of myeloid cells on extracellular matrix proteins, as well as impaired activation of Rac GTPase is also observed in the absence of FAK. Our studies reveal an essential role for FAK in integrating growth/survival and adhesion based functions in myeloid and erythroid cells predominantly under conditions of stress. PMID:20664055

  7. Surgery for drug-resistant focal epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Malla Bhaskara; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Sinha, Sanjib; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Mahadevan, Anita; Bhat, Maya; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy

    2014-01-01

    During the colloquium on drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore on August 16-18, 2013, a number of presentations were made on the surgically remediable lesional epilepsy syndromes, presurgical evaluation, surgical techniques, neuropathology of drug resistance focal epilepsy and surgical outcome. This pictorial essay with the illustrative case examples provides an overview of the various surgical techniques for the management...

  8. Epilepsy, Acquired Aphasia with Focal Cortical Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Girija A.S; Somanath V

    1999-01-01

    A six year old boy having complex partial seizures with secondary generalization of four months duration developing isolated expressive dysphasia, later progressing to global aphasia is being reported. His awake EEG showed a left temporal spike wave discharge and sleep EEG showed continuous spike and ware discharges. MR imaging demonstrated focal cortical dysplasia in the left frontal and opercular region, a combination that has not been reported earlier.

  9. Epilepsy, Acquired Aphasia with Focal Cortical Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija A.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A six year old boy having complex partial seizures with secondary generalization of four months duration developing isolated expressive dysphasia, later progressing to global aphasia is being reported. His awake EEG showed a left temporal spike wave discharge and sleep EEG showed continuous spike and ware discharges. MR imaging demonstrated focal cortical dysplasia in the left frontal and opercular region, a combination that has not been reported earlier.

  10. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2015-06-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. We apply a conventional likelihood method to measure the skill of earthquake focal mechanism orientation forecasts. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. We measure the difference between two double-couple sources as the minimum rotation angle that transforms one into the other. We measure the uncertainty of a focal mechanism forecast (the variability), and the difference between observed and forecasted orientations (the prediction error), in terms of these minimum rotation angles. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random (or equally probable). For 3-D rotation the random rotation angle distribution is not uniform. To better understand the resulting complexities, we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two theoretical rotational distributions (Cauchy and von Mises-Fisher), which are used to approximate earthquake source orientation pattern. We then calculate the likelihood score for earthquake source forecasts and for their validation by future seismicity data. Several issues need to be explored when analyzing observational results: their dependence on forecast and data resolution, internal dependence of scores on forecasted angle and random variability of likelihood scores. Here, we propose a simple tentative solution but extensive theoretical and statistical analysis is needed.

  11. Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Beller, Daniel A.; Gharbi, Mohamed A.; Honglawan, Apiradee; Stebe, Kathleen J.; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.

    2013-01-01

    Focal conic domains (FCDs) in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micro- and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we ma...

  12. Correlation of laminated MR apperance of articular cartilage with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the correlation of laminae of different signal intensities (SI) of articular cartilage, as seen on magnetic resonance(MR) imaging with histologic layers, using artificially constructed landmarks. For a landmark that can exactly correlate the cartilage specimen with the MR image, five 'V'-shaped markings of different depths were made on the surface of bovine patella. Both T1-weighted (TR/TE : 300/14) and FSE T2-weighted images (TR/TE : 2000/53) were obtained on a 1.5T system with high gradient echo strength (25mT/m) and a voxel size of 78X78X2000?m. Images were obtained with 1) changed frequency-encoding directions on T1-weighted study, and 2) changed readout gradient strength ( X2, X1/2) on T2-weighted sequence. Raw image data were transferred to a workstation and signal intensity profile was generated for each image. 1 : 1 correlation of histologic specimens and MR images was performed. Line profile through the cartilage showed few peaks, suggesting changes in signal intensity profile in the cartilage. On the basis of artificial landmarks, the histologic zone was accurately identified. The histologic tangential and transitional zones correlated with superficial high SI on T1WI, as well as high and low SI on T2WI. On T1WI, the radial zone correlated with a lamina of intermediate SI, and on T2WI, with a lamina for which SI gradually decreased from high to low. Additional well-defined low and intermediate SI bands were noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radere noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radial zone. In both T1 and T2 studies, calcified cartilage layers were of low SI. On T1-weighted study, changes in the direction of frequency gradient did not lead to changes in the laminae. The alteration of readout gradient strengths did not result in an inversely proportional difference in the thickness of the laminae. These became more distinct thus ruling out chemical shift and susceptibility artifacts. The laminated appearance of articular cartilage, as seen on spin echo and fast spin-echo MR images, correlated with histologic layers rather than susceptibility or chemical shift artifacts

  13. [Focal therapy for prostate cancer: German version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasivisvanathan, V; Shah, T T; Donaldson, I; Kanthabalan, A; Moore, C M; Emberton, M; Ahmed, H U

    2015-02-01

    Focal therapy is a treatment strategy for men with localized prostate cancer that may serve as an alternative option to radical therapy. A number of minimally invasive ablative technologies are available to deliver treatment, and the energies most commonly used include high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy. The benefit of a tissue-preserving approach is the limitation of damage to key structures such as the neurovascular bundles, external urinary sphincter, rectal mucosa and bladder neck. This in turn minimizes side effects typically associated with radical therapies whilst also aiming to maintain oncological control. Over 30 single-centre studies of focal therapy have been published to date reporting excellent continence rates, good potency rates and acceptable short-term oncological outcomes. However, there are a number of controversial aspects associated with focal therapy including the index lesion hypothesis, patient selection criteria, assessment of treatment effect and the lack of medium- and long-term oncological outcomes. In the process of the adoption of new technology, there is a limited window of opportunity to provide this evidence in well-designed prospective trials. Men should be allowed to benefit from the potential advantages of this novel treatment whilst under close surveillance. An English version of this article is available under dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00120-014-3734-7. PMID:25690574

  14. Large Focal Plane Arrays for Future Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Hoenk, Michael; Gontijo, Ivair; Shapiro, Andrew; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd; Seshadri, Suresh; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Lisman, Doug; Dickie, Matthew; Blacksberg, Jordana

    2009-01-01

    We outline the challenges associated with the development and construction of large focal plane arrays for use both on the ground and in space. Using lessons learned from existing JPL-led and ASU/JPL partnership efforts to develop technology for, and design such arrays and imagers for large focal planes, we enumerate here the remaining problems that need to be solved to make such a venture viable. Technologies we consider vital for further development include: (1) architectures, processes, circuits, and readout solutions for production and integration of four-side buttable, low-cost, high-fidelity, high-performance, and high-reliability CCD and CMOS imagers; (2) modular, four-side buttable packaging of CCD/CMOS imagers; (3) techniques and hardware to test and characterize the large number of chips required to produce the hundreds of flight-grade detectors needed for large focal-plane missions being conceived at this time; (4) ground based testbed needs, such as a large format camera mounted on a ground-based ...

  15. The influence of some factors on carcass defects during fattening period in broilers / Incidencia de algunos factores sobre defectos de la canal de pollos durante el engorde

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z., Kun; A.N., Uluocak; M., Karaman.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la edad de sacrificio, densidad de población, sexo, tipo de yacija, tipo de alimentador y tipo de gallinero sobre posibles defectos de la canal tales como huesos rotos, defectos articulares, erosiones en la pechuga, sangre y hematomas de la pe [...] chuga, muslo o alas, hematomas de la pechuga. La incidencia de estos problemas decreció al aumentar la edad del ave. La incidencia de huesos rotos, defectos articulares y hematomas en la pechuga aumentó con la densidad de población. Los defectos articulares y sangre o hematomas del muslo en las hembras fueron más frecuentes que en los machos. No se encontraron diferencias entre tipos de yacija, tipos de alimentador o tipo de gallinero. Huesos rotos, hematomas u otros defectos indican ausencia de bienestar y pérdidas económicas. Se determinó la contribución al total de la naturaleza e incidencia de defectos. Abstract in english The aim of present study was to determine the effect of slaughtering age, stocking density, gender, litter type, feeder type and poultry house type on the possible carcass defects such as broken bones, joint defects, breast blister, blood and bruise on breast, thigh and wing, breast bruise. The inci [...] dence of these carcass defects decreased with increasing age of broiler. The incidence of broken bones, joint defects and breast bruise increased with increasing stocking density. The incidence of joint defects and blood and bruise on thigh for female were significantly higher than those for male broiler. There are no significant differences among litter type in terms of the carcass defects of broilers. There are no significant differences among type of feeder and of house in terms of incidence of carcass defects measured in this experiment. Broken bones, bruising and other defects with carcass indicate adverse animal welfare and loss in product yield. This experiment determined the nature and incidence of defects contributing to the total.

  16. MR diffusion weighted imaging experimental study on early stages of articular cartilage degeneration of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the appearance of MR diffusion weighted imaging in early stages of cartilage degeneration and to detect its values. Methods: In 20 goat left knees, intra- articular injection of 5 units of papain was performed causing a loss of cartilage proteoglycan. Twenty right knees were used as control group. MR diffusion weighted imaging was performed at 24 hours after intra-articular injection of papain. ADC of each part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. The proteoglycan content was measured biochemically and histochemically. Routine MRI and DWI were performed in 100 patients with osteoarthritis and 20 healthy people. The ADC of each interested part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. Results: In experimental control group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (14.2±2.3) x 10-4 mm2/s. In early stages of cartilage degeneration group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (17.5±4.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. The ADCav of the control group was lower than that of the early stages of cartilage degeneration group (t=2.709; P=0.016). The proteloglycan content of articular cartilage was 4.22 x 106 ?g/kg in control group, and 0.82 x 106 ?g/kg in experimental group at 24 hours after injection of papain. The difference between control group and experimental group was significant (t=2.705, P=0.018). In healthy people, the ADCav of articular cartilage wae, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (7.6±2.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. In osteoarthritis group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (10.3±4.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. The ADCav in the healthy group was significantly lower than that in the osteoarthritis group (t=2.609,P=0.014). Conclusion: DWI is an useful method in detecting early stages of cartilage degeneration which can not be showed on routine sequences. (authors)

  17. A CMOS image sensor method of focal spot size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchyna, T; Paix, D

    2004-06-01

    A phosphor opto-coupled monochrome CMOS image sensor with a slit diaphragm was used to investigate focal spot characteristics. Images were captured during x-ray exposure with a triggered frame grabber and subsequently enhanced. Dimensions of the focal spot width (1.39mm) and length (1.92mm) were determined from the focal spot intensity profiles and their corresponding Full Width at Half Maxima (FWHM) in two orthogonal orientations. The CMOS image sensor measurements demonstrated differences in the measured width and length dimensions when compared to film measurements. The obtained nominal focal spot values however showed that image-sensor determined focal spot dimensions agreed with the direct film and film-screen methods when based on the AS/NZS defined nominal focal spot values. The CMOS image sensor tested appears to lack the measurement accuracy required for the measurement of small focal spot sizes due in part to its limited camera sensitivity. PMID:15462588

  18. Intra-articular loose body removal during hip arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Filippo; Randelli, Pietro; Banci, Lorenzo; Arrigoni, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    Loose bodies are common findings in hip arthroscopy. Loose body removal can be challenging because of the inner position of the acetabulum in which the loose bodies tend to accumulate. Moreover, the standard removal procedure of a considerable number of loose bodies may need a long time under limb traction, thereby increasing the risk of complications. This article describes a new easy method for intra-articular loose body removal. A flexible endotracheal catheter, connected with suction system, is inserted via the anterior or midanterior portal. The catheter can easily be directed toward the inner parts of the joint in proximity of loose bodies. The suction system allows the loose body to be captured in contact with the tip of the catheter, which is then retrieved carrying the loose body outside the cannula. We performed this technique on 4 consecutive patients with synovial chondromatosis. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively by completing self-administered questionnaires. The technique effectiveness was evaluated in terms of overall surgery time, traction time, radiographic appearance of loose bodies left in situ, and postoperative complications. Mean overall surgery time and central time was 175 and 78 minutes, respectively. All patients showed improvement in the operated hip. All radiographs showed hip joint space free of osteochondral loose bodies. No patients reported paraesthesia, nerve palsy, or other postoperative complications. This technique allows for retrieval of a greater amount of loose bodies in a short time, reducing the possibility of undesirable complications. PMID:20608628

  19. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chll provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications

  20. MRI demonstration of hypertrophic articular cartilage repair in osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog produces changes in the unstable joint typical of osteoarthritis, although full-thickness catilage ulceration is rare. Information concerning the late fate of the cartilage after transection is meager. In the present study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate cartilage abnormalities 3 years after transection. Plain radiographs of the osteoarthritic and contralateral knees were obtained serially. MRI was performed 3 years after anterior cruciate ligament transection, at which time all three animals exhibited knee instability. Radiographs of the osteoarthritic knees showed osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis with progression between 2 and 3 years. On MRI, articular cartilage margins in the knee were indistinct, and the cartilage was thicker than that in the contralateral knee (maximum difference = 2.7 mm). This increase in thickness is consistent with biochemical data from dogs killed up to 64 weeks after creation of knee instability, which showed marked increases in cartilage bulk and in proteoglycan synthesis and concentration. The findings emphasize that increased matrix synthesis after anterior cruciate ligament transection leads to functional cartilage repair sustained even in the presence of persistent alteration of joint mechanics. (orig.)

  1. Automated classification of articular cartilage surfaces based on surface texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, G P; Stachowiak, G W; Podsiadlo, P

    2006-11-01

    In this study the automated classification system previously developed by the authors was used to classify articular cartilage surfaces with different degrees of wear. This automated system classifies surfaces based on their texture. Plug samples of sheep cartilage (pins) were run on stainless steel discs under various conditions using a pin-on-disc tribometer. Testing conditions were specifically designed to produce different severities of cartilage damage due to wear. Environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) (ESEM) images of cartilage surfaces, that formed a database for pattern recognition analysis, were acquired. The ESEM images of cartilage were divided into five groups (classes), each class representing different wear conditions or wear severity. Each class was first examined and assessed visually. Next, the automated classification system (pattern recognition) was applied to all classes. The results of the automated surface texture classification were compared to those based on visual assessment of surface morphology. It was shown that the texture-based automated classification system was an efficient and accurate method of distinguishing between various cartilage surfaces generated under different wear conditions. It appears that the texture-based classification method has potential to become a useful tool in medical diagnostics. PMID:17236517

  2. Early failure of articular surface replacement XL total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Garen D; Fehring, Thomas K; Odum, Susan M; Dennos, Anne C; Nadaud, Matthew C

    2011-09-01

    The ASR (articular surface replacement) XL (DePuy, Warsaw, Ind) metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty offers the advantage of stability and increased motion. However, an alarming number of early failures prompted the evaluation of patients treated with this system. A prospective study of patients who underwent arthroplasty with the ASR XL system was performed. Patients with 2-year follow-up or any revision were included. Failure rates, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, and radiographs were evaluated. Ninety-five patients (105 hips) were included. There were 16 revisions. Thirteen (12%) were aseptic acetabular failures. Eight were revised for aseptic loosening; 4, for metallosis; 1, for malposition; 2, for infection; and 1, for periprosthetic fracture. Mean time to revision was 1.6 years (0.18-3.4 years). The ASR XL with a revision rate of 12% is the second reported 1 piece metal-on-metal system with a significant failure rate at early follow-up. This particular class of implants has inherent design flaws that lead to early failure. PMID:21550764

  3. Proteoglycon synthesis by articular chondrocytes in agarose culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Articular chondrocytes were isolated from knee joints of full-term bovine foetuses and grown in long-term agarose cultures. At intervals, cultures were labelled with 35S-[sulphate] or D[6-3H] glucosamine. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were extracted with 4 M guanidine HCl and purified by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation or on DEAE cellulose in the presence of 8 M urea. Characterization of the proteoglycans revealed them to be identical in size to those present in the tissue and to be similarly capable of aggregation with hyaluronate. Newly synthesized chondroitin sulphate chains were identical in size, but newly synthesized keratan sulphate chains were somewhat larger than those present in the tissue. The newly synthesized proteoglycans were shown to contain the same range of O-linked oligosaccharides identified in proteoglycans of the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma. Cartilage-specific proteoglycan continued to be synthesized by the chondrocytes for up to 60 days; however, with time, proportionately more of a small non-aggregating proteoglycan appeared

  4. Fisiopatología celular de la osteoartritis: el condrocito articular como protagonista / Osteoarthritis cellular pathophysiology: The articular chondrocyte as a central player

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Sánchez Naranjo; Diego Fernando, López Zapata.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La osteoartritis es una de las enfermedades más prevalentes y que más discapacidad produce en todo el mundo, lo que ocasiona costos altos para el paciente y la sociedad. En años recientes se ha venido obteniendo información importante sobre el funcionamiento normal del condrocito, la única célula pr [...] esente en el cartílago articular y responsable de la síntesis de matriz extracelular. El condrocito responde a las condiciones fluctuantes del medio, generadas por los cambios de presión, modificando su composición iónica y alterando el transporte de solutos y agua en su membrana. Esta capacidad de respuesta es clave para el mantenimiento de la matriz extracelular y, por ende, de un cartílago funcional. Diversos factores relacionados con enfermedades crónicas metabólicas inician una cascada de eventos que termina con una respuesta inadecuada del condrocito ante la carga mecánica, lo cual lleva a un predominio del catabolismo de la matriz y a un cartílago defectuoso que es la base del desarrollo de la osteoartritis. En este proceso están implicadas diversas citocinas y hormonas que afectan la homeostasis del cartílago y que pueden constituirse en blancos terapéuticos prometedores. Abstract in english Worldwide, osteoarthritis is one of the most prevalent diseases. It causes high disability rates and represents a heavy burden to patients and society. In recent years, important findings about the normal function of the chondrocyte, the only cell in articular cartilage and responsible for matrix me [...] tabolism, have been made. Chondrocytes respond to the fluctuant conditions of their environment, generated by mechanical pressure changes, by modifying their ionic composition and altering solute and water membrane transport. This characteristic is a key factor to extracellular matrix maintenance, necessary for a functional cartilage. A number of factors related to chronic metabolic diseases initiate a cascade of events that lead to an inadequate response of chondrocytes to mechanical load; this ends in a preponderance of matrix catabolism and impairement of the cartilage, which is the basis for the development of osteoarthritis. Several cytokines and hormones are involved in this process and they may become promising therapeutic targets.

  5. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platelet storage pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that cause ... function, even though there are normal platelet counts. ...

  6. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FOIA Accessibility Privacy No FEAR Act Inspector General USA.gov Contact Us National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Mail-Stop ...

  7. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defect in the baby. Second Trimester Screening Second trimester screening tests are completed between weeks 15 and 20 of ... look for certain birth defects in the baby. Second trimester screening tests include a maternal serum screen and a comprehensive ...

  8. Dorsal defect of the patella: Concept of its origin and relationship with bipartite and multipartite patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of 2286 single radiographic examinations of the knee in 1985, 6 dorsal defects of the patella (DDP) were detected. The diagnosis was made if a round lucent lesion of the dorsal superolateral surface of the patella was found abutting against articular cartilage. In four of our patients, an association with a multipartite patella (MP) was found. Biopsy of one lesion showed dense connective tissue and areas of bone necrosis. In one patient, the pattern of reossification of the lesion could be demonstrated. Our observations provide further evidence that the DDP is a stress-induced anomaly of ossification rather than a post-traumatic subarticular cyst of the patella, a diagnosis sometimes suggested by the clinical context. The initial lesion is probably a traction lesion at the insertion of the vastus lateralis muscle rather than ulceration of articular cartilage. We suggest a possible relationship between dysfunction of the quadriceps mechanism, patellar subluxation, and the genesis of the DDP. (orig.)

  9. Duralumin - Defects and Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, WM

    1927-01-01

    It is proposed in this paper to identify some of the defects and failures in duralumin most frequently encountered by the aircraft industry with a view to indicate their importance. The defects and failures in duralumin may be classified into the following groups: 1) defects produced during manufacture; 2) defects produced during fabrication; 3) corrosion and erosion; and 4) fatigue failures. Only the first two will be covered in this report.

  10. Combined effect of subchondral drilling and hyaluronic acid with/without diacerein in full-thickness articular cartilage lesion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai

    2012-01-01

    The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 and group 3). Starting at the first IA injection, rabbits were also gavaged daily for 9 weeks with NSS (group 1 and group 2) or with diacerein (group 3). The animals were then sacrificed for evaluation. The newly formed tissue in SCD lesions showed significantly better histological grading scale and had higher content of type II collagen in HA-treated group compared to NSS control. In addition, adding oral diacerein to HA injection enhanced healing potential of HA. PMID:22666105

  11. Análise termogravimétrica da cartilagem articular de ratos exercitados após imobilização / Thermogravimetric analysis of articular cartilage of exercised rats after immobilization / Análisis termogravimétrico del cartílago articular de ratones ejercitados después de inmovilización

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Akio Tamura, Ozaki; Fábio Yoshikazu, Kodama; Regina Celi Trindade, Camargo; Aldo Eloizo, Job; Tatiana Emy, Koike; Adriana Yukie, Watanabe; José Carlos Silva, Camargo Filho.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A imobilização articular é uma técnica de tratamento frequentemente utilizada na ortopedia e, associada ao processo de senescência, promove alterações tanto na estrutura quanto na síntese e biomecânica do tecido cartilaginoso. OBJETIVO: Descrever os efeitos da imobilização, da remobiliz [...] ação livre e por meio de exercício físico sobre a cartilagem articular de ratos situados em duas faixas etárias. MÉTODOS: Trinta e nove ratos Wistar divididos em dois grupos etários, um grupo adulto (cinco meses de idade) e um idoso (15 meses de idade), subdivididos em: controle, imobilizado, remobilizado livre e remobilizado por meio de exercício físico. Os membros posteriores dos ratos foram imobilizados por sete dias. O protocolo de exercícios foi composto por cinco sessões diárias de natação, de 25 minutos cada. A cartilagem articular do quadril foi submetida à análise termogravimétrica, tendo sido avaliado seu conteúdo de água. RESULTADOS: Nos animais adultos a imobilização reduziu a quantidade de água presente no tecido cartilaginoso, e os protocolos de remobilização foram eficazes para restabelecer a condição inicial do tecido. Nos animais idosos não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos, porém o grupo idoso controle obteve resultado significantemente menor que o grupo adulto controle (X: 13,10 ± 5,24 vs 10,70 ± 1,95). CONCLUSÕES: A imobilização e o processo de senescência induzem a diminuição do conteúdo de água da cartilagem articular e os protocolos de remobilização foram eficientes para restabelecer esta propriedade apenas nos animais adultos. Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: La inmovilización articular es una técnica de tratamiento frecuentemente utilizada en ortopedia y asociada al proceso de senescencia, que promueve alteraciones tanto en la estructura como en la síntesis y la biomecánica del tejido cartilaginoso. OBJETIVO: Describir los efectos de la i [...] nmovilización, de la removilización libre y mediante el ejercicio físico sobre el cartílago articular de ratones de dos grupos de edad. MÉTODOS: Treinta y nueve ratones Wistar divididos en dos grupos de edad, un grupo adulto (cinco meses) y un grupo anciano (15 meses), y subdividos en control, inmovilizado, removilizado libre y removilizado a través de ejercicio físico. Los miembros posteriores de los ratones fueron inmovilizados durante un período de siete días. El protocolo de ejercicios fue compuesto por cinco sesiones diarias de natación, de 25 minutos cada una. El cartílago articular de la cadera fue sometido a análisis termogravimétrico, siendo evaluado su contenido de agua. RESULTADOS: En los animales adultos la inmovilización redujo la cantidad de agua presente en el tejido cartilaginoso, y los protocolos de removilización fueron eficaces para restablecer la condición inicial del tejido. En los animales ancianos no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos, aunque el grupo anciano control obtuvo resultado significativamente menor que el grupo adulto control (X: 13,10 ± 5,24 vs 10,70 ± 1,95). CONCLUSIONES: La inmovilización y el proceso de senescencia inducen la disminución en el contenido de agua de cartílago articular y los protocolos de removilización fueron eficientes para restablecer esta propiedad sólo en los animales adultos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Joint immobilization is a technique often used in orthopedic treatment and, associated with the aging process, promotes changes in both the structure and synthesis and biomechanics of cartilage tissue. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of immobilization, free remobilization and remob [...] ilization by physical exercise over articular cartilage of rats of two age groups. METHODS: Thirty nine Wistar rats divided into two groups according to age, an adult group (five months old) and an elderly group (15 months old), and subdivided into: control, immobilized, free remobilized and remobilized by physical exercise. The pelvic limb of rats was immobilized for seven days. The

  12. Intra-articular gouty tophi of the knee: CT and MR imaging in 12 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To define the imaging characteristics of intra-articular tophi of the knee. Design and patients. Twelve patients with intra-articular tophi in the knee were studied with routine MR imaging, gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MR imaging, and CT over a 4-year period. There were 11 men and one woman, 25-82 years of age (mean age 48 years). Four patients did not have a documented history of gout at the time of the MR examination. The diagnosis of intra-articular tophi was provided by arthroscopy and histological examination (5 patients), by microscopic study of joint fluid (5 patients), or by characteristic clinical, laboratory and imaging findings (2 patients). Results. In 15 MR examinations the tophi were located purely intra-articularly in 10 knees. In the remaining five MR studies, periarticular soft tissues or bone, or both, were involved. All the intra-articular tophi manifested low to intermediate signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. All five Gd-enhanced MR examinations demonstrated a heterogeneous peripheral enhancement. All 10 CT scans showed varying degrees of stippled calcifications within the tophi. The nature of the calcifications was confirmed on histological examination in three patients. Conclusion. Presenting clinical manifestations of gout may relate to intra-articular tophaceous deposits. Such deposits present as masses on MR images with low to intermediate signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images and a characteristic enhanceighted images and a characteristic enhancement pattern following intravenous Gd administration. These features relate primarily to internal calcifications, which are most evident on CT images. MR evaluation (including Gd administration) supplemented, in some cases, with CT scanning allows accurate diagnosis of intra-articular tophaceous deposits. (orig.)

  13. Identification of latexin by a proteomic analysis in rat normal articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouri Juan B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Animal models of OA induced are a widely used tool in the study of the pathogenesis of disease. Several proteomic techniques for selective extraction of proteins have provided protein profiles of chondrocytes and secretory patterns in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage, including the discovery of new and promising biomarkers. In this proteomic analysis to study several proteins from rat normal articular cartilage, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS were used. Interestingly, latexin (LXN was found. Using an immunohistochemical technique, it was possible to determine its localization within the chondrocytes from normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Results In this study, 147 proteins were visualized, and 47 proteins were identified by MS. A significant proportion of proteins are involved in metabolic processes and energy (32%, as well as participating in different biological functions including structural organization (19%, signal transduction and molecular signaling (11%, redox homeostasis (9%, transcription and protein synthesis (6%, and transport (6%. The identified proteins were assigned to one or more subcellular compartments. Among the identified proteins, we found some proteins already recognized in other studies such as OA-associated proteins. Interestingly, we identified LXN, an inhibitor of mammalian carboxypeptidases, which had not been described in articular cartilage. Immunolabeling assays for LXN showed a granular distribution pattern in the cytoplasm of most chondrocytes of the middle, deep and calcified zones of normal articular cartilage as well as in subchondral bone. In osteoarthritic cartilage, LXN was observed in superficial and deep zones. Conclusions This study provides the first proteomic analysis of normal articular cartilage of rat. We identified LXN, whose location was demonstrated by immunolabeling in the chondrocytes from the middle, deep and calcified zones of normal articular cartilage, and superficial and deep zones of osteoarthritic cartilage.

  14. Lavado articular por punción versus artroscopia en el tratamiento de la osteoartritis de rodilla Articular lavage by puncture versus arthroscopy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Chico Capote

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe que el lavado articular y el debridamiento son opciones en el tratamiento de la osteoartritis de rodilla. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, abierto y aleatorizado que incluyó 100 pacientes con OA de rodilla (criterio ACR en estadios II y III de Kellgren y Lawrence para evaluar la utilidad y la eficacia del lavado articular por punción en comparación con el lavado y debridamiento artroscópico. Se distribuyeron en: grupo A (lavado por punción y grupo B (lavado y debridamiento artroscópico. Se consideraron variables relacionadas con el dolor y la función articular que fueron analizadas al inicio del tratamiento y 90 d después; se realizó un análisis estadístico con el empleo del test de Chi cuadrado y el de t-Student, significación estadística pIt is known that the articular lavage and débridement are options for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A prospective, open and randomized study that included 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis (criterion of the American College of Rheumatology at stages II and III of Kellgren and Lawrence was conducted to evaluate the usefulness and efficiency of the articular lavage by puncture compared with lavage and arthroscopic débridement. They were distributed into: group A (lavage by puncture and group B (lavage and arthroscopic débridement. Variables related to pain and articular function that were analyzed at the beginning of the treatment and 90 days later, were considered. A statistical analysis was made by using Chi square test and Student's t test with a statistical significance of p<0.05. It was observed that both groups of patients improved in all the variables analyzed with the treatment variants.There were no statistically significant differences between one group and the other. Approximately 90 % of the cases felt satisfied with the procedure. No complications were reported. It was concluded that the articular lavage by puncture and the lavage and arthroscopic débridement proved to be useful for the relief of symptoms in patients with mild and moderate osteoarthritis after 3 months.

  15. Morphological Characteristics of the Temporomandibular Joint Articular Surfaces in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders / Características Morfológicas de las Superficies Articulares de la Articulación Temporomandibular de Pacientes con Trastornos Temporomandibulares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Alves; A, Schilling Quezada; A, Gonzalez Villalobos; J, Schilling Lara; N. F, Deana; C, Pastenes Riveros.

    1317-13-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las características anatómicas de las superficies articulares de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) es fundamental para que clínicos y odontólogos reconozcan las alteraciones morfológicas que ocurren en la articulación de pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares (TTM). Di [...] versos investigadores asocian los TTMs con alteraciones en las superficies articulares de la ATM. La identificación de los cambios óseos relacionados con la ATM es crítica, ya que estos se asocian a signos y síntomas de TTM, y el conocimiento de estos es fundamental para el correcto diagnóstico y adecuada planificación de tratamiento. El objetivo fue analizar las características morfológicas de las superficies articulares de la ATM en pacientes con diagnóstico de TTM, diagnosticado de acuerdo a los Criterios Diagnósticos para Investigación de los Trastornos Temporomandibulares (CDI/TTM), junto con analizar la relación existente entre incremento de edad-osteoartrosis. Fueron seleccionados 19 pacientes, 17 mujeres y 2 hombres, de la Unidad de Trastornos Cráneo Cérvico Mandibulares (UCRACEM) - Universidad de Talca, Chile. La evaluación imagenológica se realizó mediante el examen de Tomografía Computarizada Cone-Beam (TCCB). En el análisis de las superficies articulares, 11 (28,94%) presentaron morfología normal. Los cambios óseos encontrados fueron: esclerosis, aplanamiento de la cabeza de la mandíbula, erosión, osteoartrosis, osteofitos y quiste subcondral. Hubo relación estadística significativa entre incremento de edad-osteoartrosis (p=0,00). Nuestros hallazgos nos permiten concluir que los cambios óseos en las caras articulares de la ATM en pacientes con TTM son frecuentes, y la esclerosis el hallazgo más común. También se encontró asociación entre incremento de edad y osteoartrosis. Abstract in english The knowledge of the anatomical characteristics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular surfaces is essentital to enable physicians and dentists to recognize the morphological changes that occur in this articulation in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Several researchers assoc [...] iate the TMD with changes of TMJ articular surfaces. The careful identification of bone changes related to TMJ is critical, since these abnormalities are associated with signs and symptoms of TMD and the knowledge of TMD signs and symptoms is fundamental for correctly diagnosing and for adequate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the TMJ articular surfaces in patients with TMD diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). In addition, therelationship between increasing age-osteoarthrosis was evaluated. For the sample we selected 19 patients, 17 female and 2 male, referred to the "Unidad de Trastornos Cráneo Cérvico Mandibulares (UCRACEM) - Universidad de Talca, Chile". The imaging assessment was carried out by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). In the imaging analysis of the articular surfaces 11 joints (28.94%) showed normal morphology. The bone changes found were: sclerosis, flattening, erosion, osteoarthrosis, osteophytes, subcondral cysts. We found statistically significant difference between increasing age-osteoarthrosis (p=0.00). Considering our results we concluded that bone changes of the TMJ articular surfaces in patients with TMD are very common, with sclerosis as the most frequent finding. It was also possible to conclude that there was a significant association between increasing age-osteoarthrosis.

  16. Oral focal mucinosis: report of two cases / Mucinose oral focal: relato de dois casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AS, Madhusudhan; Das, Nagarajappa; BS, Manjunatha; Saawarn, Swati; HS, Charan Babu.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mucinose oral focal (MOF), uma lesão equivalente à mucinose cutânea focal, é uma doença rara de etiologia desconhecida. Sua patogênese pode ser devido a superprodução de ácido hialurônico pelo fibroblasto às expensas de produção de colágeno, resultando em degeneração mixoide focal de tecid [...] o conjuntivo primariamente afetando a mucosa sobre o osso. Não tem características clínicas distintas e o diagnóstico é baseado somente em características histopatológicas. Este artigo relata dois casos e discute as características clinico-patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas, bem como o diagnóstico diferencial de lesões mixomatosas da cavidade bucal. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: Os dois casos de lesões de MOF estavam presentes no palato duro de um paciente do sexo masculino, de 50 anos de idade, e na mandíbula de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 26 anos. Estes parecem ser os primeiros casos relatados na população da India. CONCLUSÃO: A análise histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica de Vimentin e proteína S-100 podem ter um papel importante no correto diagnóstico de MOF. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to overproduction of hyaluronic acid by fibroblast at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of connective tis [...] sue primarily affecting the mucosa overlying bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, since the diagnosis is solely based on histopathological features. This paper reports two cases and discusses clinicopathological, immunohistochemical features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. CASE DESCRIPTION: The two cases of OFM lesions were present in a 50 year-old patient on the hard palate and in a 26 year-old female patient in the mandible, which seem to be the first report in the Indian population. CONCLUSION: The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of Vimentin and S-100 protein may play a vital role in the correct diagnosis of OFM.

  17. 99mTc-RBC Hepatic Scintiscan in focal Hepatic Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    39 patients with focal hepatic lesions were evaluated by 99mTc-RBC liver scan. The diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions were made by percutaneous needle biopsy, angiography, surgery, or clinical courses. These diagnoses included 24 cases of hemangioma, 7 hepatomas, 6 metastatic disease, 1 abscess, and 1 cyst. 19 hemangiomas showed focal hot activity on delayed static planar images. 3 small deep seated hemangiomas were diagnosed by SPECT that would have been missed by planar images alone. 2 large hemangiomas had no radioisotope uptake within the lesions on delayed images and at surgery cavernous hemangioma with thrombosis, calcification, and fibrosis were found. For hepatic hemangiomas in our series, the sensitivity was 91.7% and the specificity was 100%. The remaining 15 patients including hepatomas, metastatic lesions, cyst and abscess showed cold defect on delayed blood pool images. It is concluded that99mTc-RBC liver scan should be the choice of primary diagnostic procedure for clinically suspected hepatic hemangioma since its inexpensive, non-invasive, and readily available.

  18. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant from MRL/MpJ Super-Healer Mice Does Not Improve Articular Cartilage Repair in the C57Bl/6 Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Catherine A.; Lee, Woo-Yong; Tailor, Pankaj; Salo, Paul T.; Kubes, Paul; Krawetz, Roman J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage has been the focus of multiple strategies to improve its regenerative/ repair capacity. The Murphy Roths Large (MRL/MpJ) “super-healer” mouse demonstrates an unusual enhanced regenerative capacity in many tissues and provides an opportunity to further study endogenous cartilage repair. The objective of this study was to test whether the super-healer phenotype could be transferred from MRL/MpJ to non-healer C57Bl/6 mice by allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Methodology The healing of 2mm ear punches and full thickness cartilage defects was measured 4 and 8 weeks after injury in control C57Bl/6 and MRL/MpJ “super-healer” mice, and in radiation chimeras reconstituted with bone marrow from the other mouse strain. Healing was assessed using ear hole diameter measurement, a 14 point histological scoring scale for the cartilage defect and an adapted version of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scale for assessment of osteoarthritis in mouse knee joints. Principal Findings Normal and chimeric MRL mice showed significantly better healing of articular cartilage and ear wounds along with less severe signs of osteoarthritis after cartilage injury than the control strain. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, bone marrow transplant from MRL mice did not confer improved healing on the C57Bl/6 chimeras, either in regards to ear wound healing or cartilage repair. Conclusion and Significance The elusive cellular basis for the MRL regenerative phenotype still requires additional study and may possibly be dependent on additional cell types external to the bone marrow. PMID:26120841

  19. Fisiopatología celular de la osteoartritis: el condrocito articular como protagonista = Osteoarthritis cellular pathophysiology: The articular chondrocyte as a central player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Naranjo, Julio César

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La osteoartritis es una de las enfermedades más prevalentes y que más discapacidad produce en todo el mundo, lo que ocasiona costos altos para el paciente y la sociedad. En años recientes se ha venido obteniendo información importante sobre el funcionamiento normal del condrocito, la única célula presente en el cartílago articular y responsable de la síntesis de matriz extracelular. El condrocito responde a las condiciones fluctuantes del medio, generadas por los cambios de presión, modificando su composición iónica y alterando el transporte de solutos y agua en su membrana. Esta capacidad de respuesta es clave para el mantenimiento de la matriz extracelular y, por ende, de un cartílago funcional. Diversos factores relacionados con enfermedades crónicas metabólicas inician una cascada de eventos que termina con una respuesta inadecuada del condrocito ante la carga mecánica, lo cual lleva a un predominio del catabolismo de la matriz y a un cartílago defectuoso que es la base del desarrollo de la osteoartritis. En este proceso están implicadas diversas citocinas y hormonas que afectan la homeostasis del cartílago y que pueden constituirse en blancos terapéuticos prometedores.

  20. Types of Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Congenital Heart Defects With congenital heart defects, some part of the ... how the heart develops. Examples of Simple Congenital Heart Defects Holes in the Heart (Septal Defects) The septum ...

  1. Enhancing the stiffness of collagen hydrogels for delivery of encapsulated chondrocytes to articular lesions for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omobono, Mark A; Zhao, Xing; Furlong, Michael A; Kwon, Chi-Heon; Gill, Thomas J; Randolph, Mark A; Redmond, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated a dual crosslinking paradigm, consisting of (a) photocrosslinking with Rose Bengal (RB) and green light followed by (b) chemical crosslinking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) to enhance collagen gel stiffness. In group 1, 50 ?L collagen constructs of 2% (w/v) type I collagen containing 10 ?M RB were allowed to gel spontaneously at 37 °C. In group 2, the spontaneous gels were exposed to green light (532 nm). In group 3, the photochemically crosslinked gels were subsequently treated with a 1-h exposure to 33 mM EDC/6 mM NHS. Samples (n = 18) were subjected to 0.08% (w/v) collagenase digestion, and the storage modulus of samples was measured by rheometry. Viability of encapsulated chondrocytes was measured by live/dead assay. Chondrocytes were ? 95% viable in all constructs at 10 days in vitro. Resistance to collagenase digestion increased as; spontaneous gels (2 h)?24 h). The storage modulus of dual-crosslinked constructs was increased 5-fold over both photocrosslinked and spontaneous gels. As the dual crosslinking paradigm did not reduce encapsulated chondrocyte viability, these crosslinked collagen hydrogels could be a useful tool for the practical delivery of encapsulated chondrocytes to articular defects. PMID:25044419

  2. Wave statistics in a coastal focal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, T. T.; Herbers, T. H. C.; Pearman, D. W.; Van Ettinger, E.; Smit, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-current dynamics in wave focal zones in exposed coastal inlets and river mouths are still poorly understood. This is in part due to lack of observations, which are complicated due to the presence of energetic waves, strong (tidal) currents, dynamic seabed morphology, and often busy ship traffic. Conventional (fixed) instruments, such as buoys and bottom-mounted current or pressure sensors, are difficult to maintain in such areas, and the spatial variability of the wave field is difficult to capture with single point measurements, or even arrays of fixed measurements. In addition to the observational difficulties, the effects of e.g. current shear, wave blocking, statistical inhomogeneity [see Smit & Janssen, 2013, J. Phys. Ocean., 43, pp 1741-1758], and nonlinearity [see Janssen & Herbers, 2009, J. Phys Ocean., 39, pp 1948-1964] on wave statistics are not fully understood, not accounted for in operational stochastic wave models, and - as a consequence - often ignored. In this paper, we consider new observational data of waves approaching the Mouth of the Columbia River undergoing bottom refraction and strong wave-current interaction. The data were collected during the 2013 ONR RIVET experiment using an array of free drifting wave-current buoys. The Lagrangian instruments capture the spatial variability of the wave field in the inlet and, by deploying them in large ensembles, resolve the (inhomogeneous and nonlinear) wave statistics in the focal zone. We discuss the use of free-drifting instruments to measure wave statistics in a coastal wave focal zone, consider the observed effects of wave inhomogeneity, and show that non-Gaussian effects are important and affect extreme wave occurrences in the Mouth of the Columbia River.

  3. Altered development of the brain after focal herpesvirus infection of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Thad; Bralic, Marina; Tomac, Jelena; Pernjak-Pugel, Ester; Bantug, Glen; Jonjic, Stipan; Britt, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus infection of the developing central nervous system (CNS) is a major cause of neurological damage in newborn infants and children. To investigate the pathogenesis of this human infection, we developed a mouse model of infection in the developing CNS. Intraperitoneal inoculation of newborn animals with murine cytomegalovirus resulted in virus replication in the liver followed by virus spread to the brain. Virus infection of the CNS was associated with the induction of inflammatory responses, including the induction of a large number of interferon-stimulated genes and histological evidence of focal encephalitis with recruitment of mononuclear cells to foci containing virus-infected cells. The morphogenesis of the cerebellum was delayed in infected animals. The defects in cerebellar development in infected animals were generalized and, although correlated temporally with virus replication and CNS inflammation, spatially unrelated to foci of virus-infected cells. Specific defects included decreased granular neuron proliferation and migration, expression of differentiation markers, and activation of neurotrophin receptors. These findings suggested that in the developing CNS, focal virus infection and induction of inflammatory responses in resident and infiltrating mononuclear cells resulted in delayed cerebellar morphogenesis. PMID:18268036

  4. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  5. Point defect energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D J

    2015-01-01

    The point defect is just one of the menagerie of defects (comprising dislocations, disvections, discommensurations, stacking-faults, antiphase boundaries, etc.) which affect the mechanical and other properties of all materials. The class of point defect can be further divided into interstitial, substitutional and antisite. Various combinations of these defects lead to pairings such as those of Frenkel and Shottky type. The present volume comprises a compilation of selected data concerning point defects in metals, semiconductors, carbon and carbides, nitrides, halides, oxides and miscellaneous

  6. Defect production in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AlN and Si3N4), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. Intermittent applied mechanical loading induces subchondral bone thickening that may be intensified locally by contiguous articular cartilage lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, B.; de Souza, R.; Kent, A.V.; Saxon, L.; Barker, O.; Wilson, A.; Chang, Y.-M.; Cake, M.; Pitsillides, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Changes in subchondral bone (SCB) and cross-talk with articular cartilage (AC) have been linked to osteoarthritis (OA). Using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) this study: (1) examines changes in SCB architecture in a non-invasive loading mouse model in which focal AC lesions are induced selectively in the lateral femur, and (2) determines any modifications in the contralateral knee, linked to changes in gait, which might complicate use of this limb as an internal control. Methods Right knee joints of CBA mice were loaded: once with 2weeks of habitual use (n = 7), for 2weeks (n = 8) or for 5weeks (n = 5). Both left (contralateral) and right (loaded) knees were micro-CT scanned and the SCB and trabecular bone analysed. Gait analysis was also performed. Results These analyses showed a significant increase in SCB thickness in the lateral compartments in joints loaded for 5weeks, which was most marked in the lateral femur; the contralateral non-loaded knee also showed transient SCB thickening (loaded once and repetitively). Epiphyseal trabecular bone BV/TV and trabecular thickness were also increased in the lateral compartments after 5 weeks of loading, and in all joint compartments in the contralateral knee. Gait analysis showed that applied loading only affected gait in the contralateral himd-limb in all groups of mice from the second week after the first loading episode. Conclusions These data indicate a spatial link between SCB thickening and AC lesions following mechanical trauma, and the clear limitations associated with the use of contralateral joints as controls in such OA models, and perhaps in OA diagnosis. PMID:25655679

  8. Technology of the LSST focal plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, now in the research and development phase, will undertake a wide angle, deep survey of the entire southern sky starting in 2014. The survey database will support a wide variety of astrophysical investigations, with particular emphasis on elucidating the nature of dark energy. To achieve its science goals, LSST will incorporate a silicon-based focal plane with unprecedented size (3 Gpixel), speed (2 s readout), and sensitivity (high QE over 350-1000 nm wavelength). The technologies to be used in the LSST camera are described, with an emphasis on the silicon sensors and readout electronics

  9. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  10. Focal hepatic infarction with bile lake formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives is a well recognized phenomenon. Arterial thrombosis, while less common, is also a known risk, as evidenced by the increased incidence of cerebral vascular accidents and myocardial ischemia or infarction. The liver is relatively protected from the usual consequences of arterial thrombosis because of its dual blood supply. The authors present an unusual case of a young woman with a history of oral contraceptive and cigarette use who developed hepatic artery thrombosis and had focal liver lesions on computed tomography (CT) due to hepatic infarction and bile lake formation despite an intact portal venous system

  11. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  12. Focal hematopoietic hyperplasia of the rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyi Beom [Department of Pathology, Ajou University Hospital, Suwon City (Korea); Kim, Byoung-Suck [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ajou University Hospital, Suwon (Korea); Cho, Jae Hyun [Department of Radiology, Ajou University Hospital, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    We report a case of focal hematopoietic hyperplasia in the rib of a 24-year-old woman. This is only the fourth case to be reported in the English literature, all of which have involved the rib. Radiologically they all manifested as an expansive and radiolucent lesion and contained ill-defined areas of increased density or calcification. Histologically, all have been characterized by mixed areas of hypercellular marrow and fatty marrow. The lesion is considered a form of pseudotumor. Treatment in our case was by wide marginal excision of the rib. (orig.)

  13. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Gerbase-DeLima; A., Pereira-Santos; R., Sesso; J., Temin; E.S., Aragão; H., Ajzen.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin) with [...] biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P

  14. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbase-DeLima M.; Pereira-Santos A.; Sesso R.; Temin J.; Aragão E.S.; Ajzen H.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin) with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%,...

  15. Focal-plane sensor-processor chips

    CERN Document Server

    Zarandy, Kos

    2011-01-01

    Focal-plane sensor-processor imager devices are sensor arrays and processor arrays embedded in each other on the same silicon chip. This close coupling enables ultra-fast processing even on tiny, low power devices, because the slow and energetically expensive transfer of the large amount of sensory data is eliminated. This technology also makes it possible to produce locally adaptive sensor arrays, which can (similarly to the human retina) adapt to the large dynamics of the illumination in a single scene This book focuses on the implementation and application of state-of-the-art vision chips.

  16. Atomic structure of defects in GaN:Mg grown with Ga polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscope phase images, produced by direct reconstruction of the scattered electron wave from a focal series of high-resolution images, were used to determine the nature of defects formed in GaN:Mg crystals. We studied bulk crystals grown from dilute solutions of atomic nitrogen in liquid gallium at high pressure and thin films grown by the MOCVD method. All the crystals were grown with Ga-polarity. In both types of samples the majority of defects were three dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids with bases on the (0001) plane and six walls on {11(und 2)3} planes seen in cross-section as triangulars. Some other defects appear in cross-section as trapezoidal (rectangular) defects as a result of presence of truncated pyramids. Both type of defects have hollow centers. They are decorated by Mg on all six side walls and a base. The GaN which grows inside on the defect walls shows polarity inversion. It is shown that change of polarity starts from the defect tip and propagates to the base, and that the stacking sequence changes from ab in the matrix to bc inside the defect. Exchange of the Ga sublattice with the N sublattice within the defect leads to 0.6 ± 0.2(angstrom) displacement between Ga sublattices outside and inside the defects. It is proposed that lateral overgrowth of the cavities formed within the defect takes place to restore matrix polarity on the defect base

  17. Pregnane X Receptor Knockout Mice Display Aging-Dependent Wearing of Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C.; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR), are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a) as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging. PMID:25749104

  18. Intra-articular bupivacaine as treatment for postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the wrist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Inge Agergaard

    2008-01-01

    Intra-articular injection of local anaesthetic is a confirmed method of treatment of postoperative pain, particularly after arthroscopy of the knee. The wrist however, has a limited capacity for intra-articular instillation of local anaesthetic, and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intra-articular bupivacaine on postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the wrist. We did a prospective, non-randomised study with two comparable, consecutive series of patients undergoing diagnostic/therapeutic wrist joint arthroscopy 20 of whom were given intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine 5 ml at the end of the arthroscopic procedure and 20 of whom were not. Postoperative pain and use of analgesics (morphine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and paracetamol) were recorded in all patients during the following five postoperative days using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a pain diary. The bupivacaine group reported less pain and less use of analgesics in the first postoperative hours, but for the remaining five postoperative day's pain and the use of analgesics were similar in the two groups. We conclude that intra-articular injection of 0.5% bupivacaine 5 ml after wrist joint arthroscopy reduces pain and use of analgesics during the first postoperative hours, but has no effect during the following five days.

  19. Evaluation on Cartilage Morphology after Intra-Articular Injection of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano scale wear particles would generate from orthopedic implants with nano scale surface topography because of residual stress. In this study, the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on articular cartilage was investigated by intra-articular injection in rats. Using contrast-enhanced high-resolution micro computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, the decreased thickness of articular cartilage in distal femur was determined at 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after nanoparticle exposure. A strong linear correlation (r=0.928, P2 nanoparticles, cartilage thickness showed time-dependent decrease, and cartilage volume was decreased too. Further, the histopathological examination showed the edema chondrocyte and shrinked nucleus in the radial and calcified zone of cartilage. The ultrastructure of articular cartilage implied that the chondrocytes was degenerated, expressing as the condensed chromatin, the dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and the rich mitochondria. Even, the fragments of ruptured endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes at postexposure day 30. Results indicate that potential damage of articular cartilage was induced by particles existed in knee joint and imply that the bio monitoring should be strengthened in patients with prostheses replacement.

  20. Ozonoterapia sistémica e intra-articular en la artritis de la articulación temporomandibular por artritis reumatoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne M\\u00E9ndez-P\\u00E9rez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia intra-articular combinada con la vía sistémica (vía rectal y se comparó con la sola aplicación por vía intra-articular en pacientes con artritis de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM por artritis reumatoide (AR mediante la evaluación clínica del dolor a la masticación, chasquido y trismo. Fueron estudiados veinte pacientes, divididos en dos grupos de diez cada uno, el primero recibió ozonoterapia intra-articular (concentración de ozono 10 mg/L y volumen de 3 mL, a razón de dos aplicaciones por semana, durante cinco semanas, y el segundo, terapia combinada (igual al primer grupo más ozono administrado por insuflación rectal, a una concentración de 30 hasta 40 mg/L y un volumen de 100 hasta 200 mL, veinte aplicaciones. Se evaluó el grosor del cartílago articular (por ultrasonido, al inicio y al final del tratamiento al igual que los síntomas clínicos: dolor a la masticación, chasquido y trismo. Como resultado, se obtuvo una disminución significativa de todos los síntomas estudiados, así como del grosor del cartílago articular diagnosticado en el estudio ultrasonográfico, teniendo una respuesta más rápida en el grupo de la terapia combinada. Se concluyó que ambas formas de tratamiento demuestran efectos beneficiosos en la artritis de la articulación temporomandibular de pacientes con artritis reumatoide, aunque la terapia combinada resulta la más eficiente, resultado que no ha sido reportado con anterioridad.

  1. On Holographic Defect Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Estes, John; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-01-01

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  2. Cartilage tissue engineering using pre-aggregated human articular chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we first aimed at determining whether human articular chondrocytes (HAC proliferate in aggregates in the presence of strong chondrocyte mitogens. We then investigated if the aggregated cells have an enhanced chondrogenic capacity as compared to cells cultured in monolayer. HAC from four donors were cultured in tissue culture dishes either untreated or coated with 1% agarose in the presence of TGFb-1, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Proliferation and stage of differentiation were assessed by measuring respectively DNA contents and type II collagen mRNA. Expanded cells were induced to differentiate in pellets or in Hyaff®-11 meshes and the formed tissues were analysed biochemically for glycosaminoglycans (GAG and DNA, and histologically by Safranin O staining. The amount of DNA in aggregate cultures increased significantly from day 2 to day 6 (by 3.2-fold, but did not further increase with additional culture time. Expression of type II collagen mRNA was about two orders of magnitude higher in aggregated HAC as compared to monolayer expanded cells. Pellets generated by aggregated HAC were generally more intensely stained for GAG than those generated by monolayer-expanded cells. Scaffolds seeded with aggregates accumulated more GAG (1.3-fold than scaffolds seeded with monolayer expanded HAC. In conclusion, this study showed that HAC culture in aggregates does not support a relevant degree of expansion. However, aggregation of expanded HAC prior to loading into a porous scaffold enhances the quality of the resulting tissues and could thus be introduced as an intermediate culture phase in the manufacture of engineered cartilage grafts.

  3. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico: tratamento do acometimento cutâneo/articular

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EI, Sato; ED, Bonfá; LTL, Costallat; NA, Silva; JCT, Brenol; MB, Santiago; JCM, Szajubok; A, Rachid-Filho; RT, Barros; M, Vasconcelos.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIÇÃO DO MÉTODO DE COLETA DE EVIDÊNCIAS: Oito reumatologistas que trabalham em serviços que atendem grande número de pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, alguns dos quais têm pesquisa e publicações científicas nesta área, foram convidados a participar do grupo de trabalho. Também foram con [...] vidados um nefrologista e uma dermatologista que atuam em grandes centros universitários, com grande experiência no atendimento destes pacientes. Todos se reuniram para discutir o tratamento das diferentes manifestações da doença, subdivididos em quatro grupos de trabalho, cada qual ficando responsável por buscar a melhor evidência para o tratamento de um ou mais comprometimentos da doença. a última edição de Dubois's lupus erythematosus, editado por Wallace D e Hahn B, em 2001, foi utilizada como base da discussão. Trabalhos publicados nos últimos cinco anos foram pesquisados no banco de dados do Medline. Devido à freqüência e à heterogeneidade de manifestações da doença, a maioria dos trabalhos terapêuticos não contempla grande casuística, e nem são randômicos e controlados. Como as manifestações e a gravidade da doença variam em diferentes grupos populacionais, devemos avaliar com cuidado os estudos realizados em grupos populacionais distintos. GRAU DE RECOMENDAÇÃO E FORÇA DE EVIDÊNCIA: A: Estudos experimentais e observacionais de melhor consistência. B: Estudos experimentais e observacionais de menor consistência. C: Relatos de casos (estudos não controlados). D: Opinião desprovida de avaliação crítica, baseada em consensos, estudos fisiológicos ou modelos animais. OBJETIVOS: Elaborar recomendação baseada na melhor evidência científica para o tratamento das manifestações cutâneo-articulares do lúpus eritematoso sistêmico. CONFLITO DE INTERESSE: Nenhum conflito de interesse declarado.

  4. Isolation, propagation, and cryopreservation of equine articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, A J; Lust, G; Vernier-Singer, M

    1992-12-01

    Equine articular chondrocytes were isolated from explant cartilage cultures by digestion in a 0.075% collagenase solution for 15 to 19 hours. Cartilage from late-term fetal and neonatal foals resulted in mean chondrocyte yield of 51.99 x 10(6) cells/g of cartilage (wet weight), compared with a yield of 17.83 x 10(6) cells/g for foals 3 to 12 months old. Propagation of chondrocytes in monolayer and 3-dimensional culture was accomplished, using Ham's F-12 as the basal medium, with supplements of fetal bovine serum (10%), ascorbic acid, alpha-ketoglutarate, and L-glutamine. The medium was buffered with HEPES, and penicillin and streptomycin were added for microorganism control. In primary monolayer cultures of freshly isolated chondrocytes, the population doubling time was approximately 6 days. Dedifferentiation of chondrocytes toward a more fibroblastic-appearing cell was observed after the fifth passage (subculture), but was hastened by lower cell-plating density. Chondrocytes were frozen for periods of up to 9 months, using 10% dimethyl sulfoxide as the cryoprotectant. Cell viability of late-term fetal and neonatal foal chondrocytes after storage at -196 C decreased from 86% at 3 weeks to 31% at 12 weeks. Viability of cells derived from older foals and young adult horses was considerably better than that of cells from neonatal foals. Frozen chondrocytes can be stored for extended periods and thawed for immediate implantation or can be sustained in vitro in monolayer or 3-dimensional culture. Such cultures would be suitable for cartilage resurfacing experiments or in vitro assessment of various pharmaceuticals. PMID:1476323

  5. Lubrication mode analysis of articular cartilage using Stribeck surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Jason P; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    Lubrication of articular cartilage occurs in distinct modes with various structural and biomolecular mechanisms contributing to the low-friction properties of natural joints. In order to elucidate relative contributions of these factors in normal and diseased tissues, determination and control of lubrication mode must occur. The objectives of these studies were (1) to develop an in vitro cartilage on glass test system to measure friction coefficient, mu; (2) to implement and extend a framework for the determination of cartilage lubrication modes; and (3) to determine the effects of synovial fluid on mu and lubrication mode transitions. Patellofemoral groove cartilage was linearly oscillated against glass under varying magnitudes of compressive strain utilizing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and equine and bovine synovial fluid as lubricants. The time-dependent frictional properties were measured to determine the lubricant type and strain magnitude dependence for the initial friction coefficient (mu(0)=mu(t-->0)) and equilibrium friction coefficient (mu(eq)=mu(t-->infinity)). Parameters including tissue-glass co-planarity, normal strain, and surface speed were altered to determine the effect of the parameters on lubrication mode via a 'Stribeck surface'. Using this testing apparatus, cartilage exhibited biphasic lubrication with significant influence of strain magnitude on mu(0) and minimal influence on mu(eq), consistent with hydrostatic pressurization as reported by others. Lubrication analysis using 'Stribeck surfaces' demonstrated clear regions of boundary and mixed modes, but hydrodynamic or full film lubrication was not observed even at the highest speed (50mm/s) and lowest strain (5%). PMID:18502429

  6. Extra-articular manifestations in psoriatic arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Rosario; Iervolino, Salvatore; Vitiello, Maria; Bruner, Vincenzo; Lupoli, Gelsy; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario

    2015-04-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disorder, associated with skin and/or nail psoriasis. It has been included in the spondyloarthropathies (SpA) group, with which it shares clinical, radiologic, and serologic features and familial and genetic relationship. Inclusion of disease among SpA is also based on their striking points of similarity for extra-articular manifestations (EAMs). The aim of study was to describe the EAMs in patients with PsA, evaluating the prevalence and clinical features associated with established and early PsA. The study was a retrospective analysis of case records of 387 PsA patients. Data recorded were demographic data, disease properties, laboratory tests, drug use, and presence of EAMs. Of 387 PsA patients, 190 have shown EAMs: 33.16 % had bowel involvement, 32.63 % ocular, 28.42 % cardiovascular, 25.79 % urogenital, 8.42 % skin (excluding psoriasis), 1.05 % pulmonary, and 0.53 % renal. A higher prevalence of EAMs was found in axial subset (p?

  7. Nfat1 regulates adult articular chondrocyte function through its age-dependent expression mediated by epigenetic histone methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodova, Marianna; Lu, Qinghua; Li, Ye; Woodbury, Brent G; Crist, Jamie D; Gardner, Brian M; Yost, John G; Zhong, Xiao-Bo; Anderson, H Clarke; Wang, Jinxi

    2011-08-01

    The development of disease-modifying pharmacologic therapy for osteoarthritis (OA) currently faces major obstacles largely because the regulatory mechanisms for the function of adult articular chondrocytes remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that lack of Nfat1, one of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factors, causes OA-like changes in adult mice. This study aimed to identify whether Nfat1 specifically regulates adult articular chondrocyte function and its age-dependent regulatory mechanism using both Nfat1-deficient and wild-type mice. Deletion of Nfat1 did not induce OA-like articular chondrocyte dysfunction (e.g., overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading proteinases) until the adult stage. RNAi-mediated Nfat1 knockdown caused dysfunction of wild-type adult articular chondrocytes. Nfat1 expression in wild-type articular chondrocytes was low in the embryonic but high in the adult stage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that an increase in Nfat1 expression in articular chondrocytes was associated with increased H3K4me2 (a histone modification linked to transcriptional activation), whereas a decrease in Nfat1 expression in articular chondrocytes was correlated with increased H3K9me2 (a histone modification linked to transcriptional repression). Knockdown of lysine-specific demethylase-1 (Lsd1) in embryonic articular chondrocytes upregulated Nfat1 expression concomitant with increased H3K4me2 at the Nfat1 promoter. Knockdown of Jmjc-containing histone demethylase-2a (Jhdm2a) in 6-month articular chondrocytes downregulated Nfat1 expression concomitant with increased H3K9me2 at the Nfat1 promoter. These results suggest that Nfat1 is an essential transcriptional regulator of chondrocyte homeostasis in adult articular cartilage. Age-dependent Nfat1 expression in articular chondrocytes is regulated by dynamic histone methylation, one of the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene transcription. PMID:21452283

  8. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

  9. Focal Therapy, Differential Therapy, and Radiation Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anudh K.; Ronald D. Ennis

    2012-01-01

    Focal and differential therapy represent an approach to improve the therapeutic ratio of prostate cancer treatments. This concept is a shift from treating the whole gland to intensely treating the portion of the gland that contains significant tumor. However, there are many challenges in the move towards focal approaches. Defining which patients are suitable candidates for focal therapy approaches is an area of significant controversy, and it is likely that additional data from imaging or det...

  10. Multiple focal nodular hyperplasias induced by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Donadon, Matteo Davide; Di Tommaso, Luca; Roncalli, Massimo; Torzilli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign condition that affects normal liver with low prevalence. Recently, the extensive use of oxaliplatin to treat patients with colorectal cancer has been reported to be associated with the development of different liver injuries, as well as focal liver lesions. The present work describes two patients with multiple bilateral focal liver lesions misdiagnosed as colorectal liver metastases, and treated with liver resection. The first patient had up to 15 s...

  11. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Illowsky Karp

    2012-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities an...

  12. Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estudo comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade.OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II, 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%; and in group III, bupivacaine 0.25% associated with 1 mg of morphine. The groups were assessed for degree of pain by the Visual Analog Scale at 6, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Group III had less pain at all times, but the pain was not as intense in all groups to the point of needing extra medications beyond the established protocol. CONCLUSION: The intra-articular application of these medications after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft when performed under spinal anesthesia is not useful enough to use regularly. Level of Evidence II, Lesser quality RCT.

  13. Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA / Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus Vinicius, Danieli; Antonio, Cavazzani Neto; Paulo Adilson, Herrera.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estu [...] do comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine [...] with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II, 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%; and in group III, bupivacaine 0.25% associated with 1 mg of morphine. The groups were assessed for degree of pain by the Visual Analog Scale at 6, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Group III had less pain at all times, but the pain was not as intense in all groups to the point of needing extra medications beyond the established protocol. CONCLUSION: The intra-articular application of these medications after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft when performed under spinal anesthesia is not useful enough to use regularly. Level of Evidence II, Lesser quality RCT.

  14. Combined intra-articular glucocorticoid, bupivacaine and morphine reduces pain and convalescence after diagnostic knee arthroscopy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sten; Lorentzen, Jan S

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effect of intra-articullar saline vs. bupivacaine + morphine or bupivacaine morphine + methylprednisolone after diagnostic knee arthroscopy. In a double-blind randomized study, 60 patients undergoing diagnostic knee arthroscopy without a therapeutic procedure were allocated to groups receiving intra-articular saline, intra-articular bupivacaine 150 mg + morphine 4 mg or the same dose of bupivacaine + morphine + intra-articular methylprednisolone 40 mg at the end of arthroscopy during general anesthesia. All patients were instructed to resume normal activities immediately after the procedure. Pain during movement and walking, leg muscle force and joint effusion, use of crutches and duration of sick leave were assessed. A combination of bupivacaine and morphine reduced pain, duration of immobilization and of convalescence. The addition of methylprednisolone further reduced pain, use of more analgesics, joint swelling and convalescence.

  15. Quantitative characterization of articular cartilage using Mueller matrix imaging and multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Pa?L. Gunnar; Lilledahl, Magnus Borstad; Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Davies, Catharina De Lange; Kildemo, Morten

    2011-11-01

    The collagen meshwork in articular cartilage of chicken knee is characterized using Mueller matrix imaging and multiphoton microscopy. Direction and degree of dispersion of the collagen fibers in the superficial layer are found using a Fourier transform image-analysis technique of the second-harmonic generated image. Mueller matrix images are used to acquire structural data from the intermediate layer of articular cartilage where the collagen fibers are too small to be resolved by optical microscopy, providing a powerful multimodal measurement technique. Furthermore, we show that Mueller matrix imaging provides more information about the tissue compared to standard polarization microscopy. The combination of these techniques can find use in improved diagnosis of diseases in articular cartilage, improved histopathology, and additional information for accurate biomechanical modeling of cartilage.

  16. The Variations in Calcaneal Articular Facets In North Indian Population and its Clinical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepinder Kaur Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives- To know the most common type of calcanei in North Indian population and itsclinical importance. There are three articular facets on superior surface of calcaneus- anterior, middle andposterior. Three types of calcanei are noted according to number and arrangement of the articular facets-type A, B and C. Methodology - The present studywas done on 300 dry adult human calcanei of unknownsex taken from Department of Anatomy Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchVallah (Amritsar. Results- In our study Type B was found as the most common type. Type A is the nextmost common. Interpretation- The talocalcaneal joint is important in arthritis and coalition, flat foot, valgus deformity, congenital anomalies and intra articular fractures.

  17. Couple Control Model Implementation on Antagonistic Mono- and Bi-Articular Actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Prattico, Flavio; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh

    2014-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, a couple control model for lower-limb orthosis of a body weight support gait training system is proposed. The developed leg orthosis implements the use of pneumatic artificial muscle as an actuation system. The pneumatic muscle was arranged antagonistically to form two pair of mono-articular muscles (i.e., hip and knee joints), and a pair of bi-articular actuators (i.e., rectus femoris and hamstring). The results of the proposed couple control model showed that, it was able to simultaneously control the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators and sufficiently performed walking motion of the leg orthosis.

  18. Intra articular synovial lipoma of the right tarsometatarsal joint- a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Pavithra; S, Arundhathi; Kodandaswamy, C R

    2014-07-01

    Intra articular synovial lipomas are very rare and only few cases have been reported till now. We are reporting a rare case of intra articular synovial lipoma of the tarsometatarsal joint in the right foot in a 38-year-old male who presented with dull aching pain in the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. The lesion was resected and subjected to histopathological examination, which showed well defined lobules of mature adipocytes separated by thin fibrous septa and covered by synovial lining. Immunohistochemistry with S100 antigen showed membrane positivity. A diagnosis of intra articular synovial lipoma of the tarsometatarsal joint of the right foot was made. Our English literature search failed to yield any information regarding the occurrence of synovial lipoma in small joints and our case may be the first of its kind. PMID:25177569

  19. Validating Phasing and Geometry of Large Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Shaun P.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Rabbette, Maura

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-sized and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The Kepler photometer is an array of 42 CCDs (charge-coupled devices) in the focal plane of a 95-cm Schmidt camera onboard the Kepler spacecraft. Each 50x25-mm CCD has 2,200 x 1,024 pixels. The CCDs accumulate photons and are read out every six seconds to prevent saturation. The data is integrated for 30 minutes, and then the pixel data is transferred to onboard storage. The data is subsequently encoded and transmitted to the ground. During End-to-End Information System (EEIS) testing of the Kepler Mission System (KMS), there was a need to verify that the pixels requested by the science team operationally were correctly collected, encoded, compressed, stored, and transmitted by the FS, and subsequently received, decoded, uncompressed, and displayed by the Ground Segment (GS) without the outputs of any CCD modules being flipped, mirrored, or otherwise corrupted during the extensive FS and GS processing. This would normally be done by projecting an image on the focal plane array (FPA), collecting the data in a flight-like way, and making a comparison between the original data and the data reconstructed by the science data system. Projecting a focused image onto the FPA through the telescope would normally involve using a collimator suspended over the telescope opening. There were several problems with this approach: the collimation equipment is elaborate and expensive; as conceived, it could only illuminate a limited section of the FPA (.25 percent) during a given test; the telescope cover would have to be deployed during testing to allow the image to be projected into the telescope; the equipment was bulky and difficult to situate in temperature-controlled environments; and given all the above, test setup, execution, and repeatability were significant concerns. Instead of using this complicated approach of projecting an optical image on the FPA, the Kepler project developed a method using known defect features in the CCDs to verify proper collection and reassembly of the pixels, thereby avoiding the costs and risks of the optical projection approach. The CCDs composing the Kepler FPA, as all CCDs, had minor defects. At ambient temperature, some pixels look far brighter than they should. These ghot h pixels have a higher rate of charge leakage than the others due to manufacturing variations. They are usually stable over time, and appear at temperatures above 5 oC. The hot pixels on the Kepler FPA were mapped before photometer assembly during module testing. Selected hot pixels were used as target gstars h for the purposes of EEIS testing. gDead h pixels are permanently off, producing a permanently black pixel. These can also be used if there is some illumination of the FPA. During EEIS testing, Dark Current Full Frame Images (FFIs) taken at room temperature were used to create the hot pixel maps for all 84 Kepler photometer CCD channels. Data from two separate nights were used to create two hot pixel maps per channel, which were cross-correlated to remove cosmic ray events which appear to be hot pixels. These hot pixel maps obtained during EEIS testing were compared to the maps made during module testing to verify that the end-to-end data flow was correct.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Task-specific focal dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding task-specific focal dystonia? anxiety ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; disability ; dystonia ; family history ; graphospasm ; ...

  1. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  2. Dual effect of nitric oxide in articular inflammatory pain in zymosan-induced arthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, José C da S; Peixoto, Magno E B; Jancar, Sônia; Cunha, Fernando de Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de A; Rocha, Francisco A C da

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to articular pain in arthritis induced by zymosan (1?mg, intra articular) in rats was assessed by measuring articular incapacitation (AI).Systemic treatment with the non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME (10–100?mg?kg?1?i.p.) or with the selective iNOS inhibitors aminoguanidine (AG; 10–100?mg?kg?1?i.p.) or 1400W (0.5–1?mg?kg?1?s.c.) inhibited the AI induced by injection of zymosan 30?min later.Local (intra articular) treatment with the NOS inhibitors (L-NAME or AG, 0.1–1??mol; 1400W, 0.01 (?mol) 30?min before zymosan also inhibited the AI.Systemic or local treatment with the NOS inhibibitors (L-NAME; AG, 100?mg?kg?1?i.p. or 0.1??mol joint?1; 1400W, 1?mg?kg?1?s.c. or 0.01??mol joint?1), 2?h after zymosan did not affect the subsequent AI.Local treatment with the NO donors SNP or SIN-1, 2?h after zymosan did inhibit AI.L-NAME and AG, given i.p. inhibited nitrite but not prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the joints. L-NAME (100?mg?kg?1) but not AG (100?mg?kg?1) increased mean arterial blood pressure. Neither L-NAME, AG nor the NO donor SIN-1 altered articular oedema induced by zymosan.In conclusion, inhibitors of iNOS decrease pain in zymosan arthritis only when given before the zymosan. This was not due to inhibition of articular PGE2 release or oedema. NO donors also promoted antinociception in zymosan arthritis without affecting oedema. PMID:12055137

  3. Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anderson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Anderson1,2, Hollis Krug1,2, Christopher Dorman1, Pari McGarraugh1, Sandra Frizelle1, Maren Mahowald1,21Rheumatology Section, Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Division of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAObjective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain.Methods and materials: Chronic arthritis was produced in adult C57Bl6 mice by intra-articular injection of Type IV collagenase into the left knee. Following induction of arthritis, the treatment group received intra-articular BoNT/B. Arthritic control groups were treated with intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Pain behavior testing was performed prior to arthritis, after induction of arthritis, and following treatments. Pain behavior measures included analysis of gait impairment (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness evaluation (evoked pain response. Strength was measured as ability to grasp and cling.Results: Visual gait analysis showed significant impairment of gait in arthritic mice that improved 43% after intra-articular BoNT/B, demonstrating a substantial articular analgesic effect. Joint tenderness, measured with evoked pain response scores, increased with arthritis induction and decreased 49.5% after intra-articular BoNT/B treatment. No improvement in visual gait scores or decrease in evoked pain response scores were found in the control groups receiving intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Intra-articular BoNT/B was safe, and no systemic effects or limb weakness was noted.Conclusions: This study is the first report of intra-articular BoNT/B for analgesia in a murine model of arthritis pain. The results of this study validate prior work using intra-articular neurotoxins in murine models. Our findings show chronic degenerative arthritis pain can be quantitated in a murine model by measuring gait impairment using visual gait analysis scores (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness scores (evoked pain responses. Reduction of joint pain seen in this study is consistent with our hypothesis of inhibition of release of pain mediators by intra-articular BoNT/B, supporting further investigation of this novel approach to treatment of arthritis pain with intra-articular neurotoxins.Keywords: intra-articular BoNT/B, osteoarthritis

  4. MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features differentiating three paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions that contain blood products, from post-traumatic or haemorrhagic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of MRI findings of 22 paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions, including venous malformation (VM) (n = 12), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; n = 8), and synovial sarcoma (SS; n = 2). These MRI features were compared with 22 paediatric post-traumatic or inflammatory intra-articular processes containing blood products and producing mass effect. The following imaging features were assessed: presence of a discrete mass, extension, extra-articular oedema, susceptibility, joint effusion, and size. Fisher's exact test was used and results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: The three intra-articular synovial lesions, compared with controls, were more likely to directly invade osseous structures when a discrete mass was present (13/16, 81.3% versus 1/9, 11.1%; p < 0.002) and extend into extra-articular soft tissues (13/21, 61.9% versus 2/17, 11.8%; p < 0.003), but were less likely to show extra-articular oedema (3/22, 13.6% versus 13/22, 59.1%; p < 0.004), a joint effusion (10/22,45.5% versus 19/22, 86.4%, p < 0.01), susceptibility within a joint effusion (0/22, 0% versus 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema ( 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema (3/16, 18.8% versus 7/9, 77.8%; p < 0.009), and synovial enhancement (8/21, 38.1% versus 14/16, 87.5%; p < 0.003). VMs had characteristic tubular vessels with internal fluid-fluid levels (11/12) that extended into bone (10/12) and extracapsular soft tissues (11/12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, despite the overlapping presence of haemorrhagic products, intra-articular VM, PVNS, and SS show MRI features that permit distinction from acquired post-traumatic and haemorrhagic inflammatory lesions

  5. MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States)], E-mail: herman.kan@vanderbilt.edu; Hernanz-Schulman, M. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States); Damon, B.M.; Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Connolly, S.A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, IL (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Aim: To determine reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features differentiating three paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions that contain blood products, from post-traumatic or haemorrhagic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of MRI findings of 22 paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions, including venous malformation (VM) (n = 12), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; n = 8), and synovial sarcoma (SS; n = 2). These MRI features were compared with 22 paediatric post-traumatic or inflammatory intra-articular processes containing blood products and producing mass effect. The following imaging features were assessed: presence of a discrete mass, extension, extra-articular oedema, susceptibility, joint effusion, and size. Fisher's exact test was used and results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: The three intra-articular synovial lesions, compared with controls, were more likely to directly invade osseous structures when a discrete mass was present (13/16, 81.3% versus 1/9, 11.1%; p < 0.002) and extend into extra-articular soft tissues (13/21, 61.9% versus 2/17, 11.8%; p < 0.003), but were less likely to show extra-articular oedema (3/22, 13.6% versus 13/22, 59.1%; p < 0.004), a joint effusion (10/22,45.5% versus 19/22, 86.4%, p < 0.01), susceptibility within a joint effusion (0/22, 0% versus 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema (3/16, 18.8% versus 7/9, 77.8%; p < 0.009), and synovial enhancement (8/21, 38.1% versus 14/16, 87.5%; p < 0.003). VMs had characteristic tubular vessels with internal fluid-fluid levels (11/12) that extended into bone (10/12) and extracapsular soft tissues (11/12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, despite the overlapping presence of haemorrhagic products, intra-articular VM, PVNS, and SS show MRI features that permit distinction from acquired post-traumatic and haemorrhagic inflammatory lesions.

  6. Evaluation of X-ray dark-field imaging in visualization of nearly clinical articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular dependence of visibility at articular cartilage of an intact human finger and knee by X-ray dark-field imaging (DFI) and bright-field imaging (BFI) was tested. These specimens were fixed by formalin. Good contrast of the articular cartilage has been obtained, as a preliminary result, not only by DFI but also by pseudo-DFI and BFI around the just Bragg angle of the angular analyzing crystal. This may indicate that it is useful for clinical purpose to use both DFI and BFI not only at just Bragg angle but also around it

  7. [Structural adaptations of the articular cartilage in fur-bearing animals under conditions of mobility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesarenko, N A

    1986-07-01

    Adaptive properties of the articular cartilage and plasticity of its structures under various conditions of static-dynamic loading on joints have been studied when the data obtained in sables and minks, living in natural biocenosis and in cages, are compared. By means of optic, raster electron microscopy and microroentgenological analysis, peculiarities of structural formation of the articular cartilage have been revealed in ontogenesis, as well as succession in formation of its zonal architectonics. Conditions of prolonged hypodynamia are manifected as a number of anomalies in distribution of the cartilagenous integument of the joints affecting cellular and tissue levels of adaptation. PMID:3753231

  8. Computed tomography demonstration of distal femoral (trochlear) articular groove: A normal variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In computed tomography of the skeleton, as in other radiologic modalities, recognition of normal skeletal variants is essential for defining the extent and type of injury or neoplasm. Computed tomography findings, because of the unique use of cross-sectional anatomy, must be carefully studied to avoid labeling a normal variant as an abnormal entity. We describe here an observation of a normal variant - distal femoral, anterior articular (trochlear) groove - found in a patient with an osteochondral fracture and loose intra-articular bony fragment. (orig.)

  9. Effects of methotrexate on normal articular cartilage in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Neidel, J.; SOVA, L.; Schroers, B.; Sintermann, F.; Manzke, O.; Bohlen, H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Methotrexate (MTX) has become the disease modifying drug of choice for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Direct effects of MTX on articular cartilage in vivo and in vitro were studied to determine possible adverse effects of the drug.?METHODS—For in vitro experiments, adult bovine articular cartilage explants were cultured in the presence of MTX (0 to 100 µM), and effects on DNA and matrix metabolism were studied. For in vivo studies, 48 adult female rabbits were treated w...

  10. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  11. Imaging defects and dopants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Philipp Ebert

    2003-06-01

    With the invention of the transistor, a revolution in the development of semiconductor-based electronic devices began. However, even in the very early stages, the importance of defects and dopant atoms became obvious. In fact, if one incorporates the right defects and dopant atoms into semiconductor materials, one can tune their electrical properties such that optimal device characteristics are achieved. Unfortunately, counteractive defects are often also formed unintentionally during semiconductor processing, leading to unfavorable electronic properties. Considerable research efforts have, therefore, focused on understanding the nanoscale physics that governs the formation of point defects, the incorporation behavior of impurities, and their respective electronic properties.

  12. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  13. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase-DeLima M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

  14. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbase-DeLima, M; Pereira-Santos, A; Sesso, R; Temin, J; Aragão, E S; Ajzen, H

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin) with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P < 0.05). In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease. PMID:9698788

  15. Marco de trabajo fenomenológico para el daño del cartílago articular / Cadre de travail phénoménologique pour le dommage du cartilage articulaire / Phenomenology work setting for articular cartilage damage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy Stella, Landínez Parra; Diego Alexander, Garzón-Alvarado; Juan Carlos, Vanegas Acosta.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se supone la falla del cartílago articular por muerte de los condrocitos, lo cual conlleva una pérdida de la matriz extracelular. Dado que el cartílago articular es avascular, la viabilidad de los condrocitos puede ser uno de los factores críticos que limitan la respuesta de r [...] eparación. En este artículo se propone un modelo de daño por fatiga del tejido cartilaginoso, análogo al modelo utilizado en los metales, donde se considera que cualquier carga que varíe con el tiempo puede causar una falla por fatiga, a causa de la acumulación de daño por esfuerzos repetidos. De forma similar, en el caso del cartílago, el daño del tejido se produce por la muerte celular ante la presencia de cargas repetidas en el tiempo. Se realizaron simulaciones computacionales que están en concordancia con los resultados clínicos y experimentales hallados sobre el daño de cartílago. Abstract in english In present paper it is supposed the lack of articular cartilage by chondrocytes death leading to a loss of extracellular matrix. Given that the articular cartilage is avascular, chondrocytes viability may be one of the critical factors limiting the repair response. In present article is exposed a da [...] mage model due to cartilaginous tissue fatigue, similar to that used in metals, where it is considered that any load varying in time may provokes a fatigue failure caused by damage accumulation by repetitive efforts. Likewise, in the case of cartilage, tissue damage is produced by cellular death in presence of repeated loads in time. Computation simulations were performed in agreement with clinical and experimental results obtained on cartilage damage.

  16. Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal: ¿por qué Enfermedad de Heck? / Focal epithelial hyperplasia: why Heck's disease?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LN, Rosa; L, Gedoz; LC, Hildebrand; A, Carvalho; MG, Chevarría.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia focal del epitelio se caracteriza por la presencia de elevaciones papulares o nodulares, sésiles, de aspecto liso o rugoso, múltiples, de la misma coloración de la mucosa (Neville et al., 1998). Estrada (1956) describió la presencia de verrugas intraorales y lesiones papilomatosas en [...] indios Caramantas en Colombia en 1956. El mismo autor verificó la presencia de esas mismas lesiones en indios Kátios, también colombianos, en el año de 1960. Reyes (1962) notó esa misma condición clínica en Guatemala. Soneira y Fonseca (1964) describieron la lesión con sus variaciones clínicas, desde una pápula a múltiples lesiones papilomatosas en la mucosa oral, labios, entre otras regiones de la mucosa bucal. Estos autores estudiaron 160 niñas indias en Venezuela y observaron la enfermedad en 54 de ellas (33,75%). Ellos también sugieren que la enfermedad tenga una etiología viral. A pesar de que esta entidad haya sido descrita por otros autores latinoamericanos antes de 1965, a ella se la reconoció internacionalmente ese año a través de Archard, Heck y Stanley. Estos autores relataron casos aislados en 15 indios norteamericanos del estado de Nuevo México; un Xavante, del estado de Mato Grosso (Brasil) y un caso en un niño esquimal de Alaska y pasaron a denominar la entidad Hiperplasia Focal del Epitelio. El epónimo "Enfermedad de Heck" se deriva del Dr. Heck, que identificó a un paciente con esta enfermedad en Gallup, en Nuevo México, en 1961. Practorius-Clausen y Willis (1971) fueron los primeros a demostrar partículas del HPV en la hiperplasia focal del epitelio. Con referencia a las publicaciones anteriores a aquella de Archard, Heck y Stanley (1965), los autores sugieren que el epónimo Enfermedad de Heck sea abandonado, pues esa denominación además de no dar crédito a los autores que la describieron anteriormente a la comunicación de 1965, no suministra ninguna idea con relación a la naturaleza y característica de la entidad. Los autores también relatan un caso de hiperplasia focal del epitelio en paciente del sexo masculino, 13 años, leucodemia. Abstract in english The focal epithelial hyperplasia is characterized by the presence of papular and nodular elevations, flat or rough multiple sessiles, with the same color of the mucous membrane (Neville et al., 1998). Estrada (1956) described the presence of intra-oral warts and papillary lesions in Caramantas nativ [...] es in Colombia, in 1956. IN 1960, the same author identified the presence of the same lesions in Kátios natives, from Colombia. Reyes (1962) noticed the same clinical conditions in Guatemala. Soneira and Fonseca (1964) have described the lesion with its clinical variations, from a single papula to multiple papillary lesions in the oral mucosa, lips, and other oral regions. These authors studied 160 native girls in Venezuela and noticed the disease in 54 of them (33.75%). They also suggest that the disease has a viral etiology. In spite of the fact the disease was described by other Latin American authors before 1965, it was worldwide recognized only in this year, due to Aechard, Heck and Stanley. These authors have reported isolated cases in 15 North American natives in the State of New Mexico; one Xavante in the state of Mato Grosso (Brazil) and a Eskimo boy in Alaska, and named the disease as Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia. The eponym "Heck Disease" is derived from Dr. Heck, who identified one patient with this disease in Gallup, New Mexico in 1961. Praetorius-Clausen and WiIlis (1971) were the first to show HPV particles in the focal epithelial hyperplasia. Concerning the publishing prior to Archard, Heck and Stanley (1965), the authors suggest to discard that the eponym "Heck Disease", since this denomination does not add any relation to the nature and characteristics of the disease, and also does not recognize the authors who had described it before 1965. The authors also report a focal epithelial hyperplasia in a male 13 year old patient, leukoderma.

  17. Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal: ¿por qué Enfermedad de Heck? Focal epithelial hyperplasia: why Heck's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LN Rosa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia focal del epitelio se caracteriza por la presencia de elevaciones papulares o nodulares, sésiles, de aspecto liso o rugoso, múltiples, de la misma coloración de la mucosa (Neville et al., 1998. Estrada (1956 describió la presencia de verrugas intraorales y lesiones papilomatosas en indios Caramantas en Colombia en 1956. El mismo autor verificó la presencia de esas mismas lesiones en indios Kátios, también colombianos, en el año de 1960. Reyes (1962 notó esa misma condición clínica en Guatemala. Soneira y Fonseca (1964 describieron la lesión con sus variaciones clínicas, desde una pápula a múltiples lesiones papilomatosas en la mucosa oral, labios, entre otras regiones de la mucosa bucal. Estos autores estudiaron 160 niñas indias en Venezuela y observaron la enfermedad en 54 de ellas (33,75%. Ellos también sugieren que la enfermedad tenga una etiología viral. A pesar de que esta entidad haya sido descrita por otros autores latinoamericanos antes de 1965, a ella se la reconoció internacionalmente ese año a través de Archard, Heck y Stanley. Estos autores relataron casos aislados en 15 indios norteamericanos del estado de Nuevo México; un Xavante, del estado de Mato Grosso (Brasil y un caso en un niño esquimal de Alaska y pasaron a denominar la entidad Hiperplasia Focal del Epitelio. El epónimo "Enfermedad de Heck" se deriva del Dr. Heck, que identificó a un paciente con esta enfermedad en Gallup, en Nuevo México, en 1961. Practorius-Clausen y Willis (1971 fueron los primeros a demostrar partículas del HPV en la hiperplasia focal del epitelio. Con referencia a las publicaciones anteriores a aquella de Archard, Heck y Stanley (1965, los autores sugieren que el epónimo Enfermedad de Heck sea abandonado, pues esa denominación además de no dar crédito a los autores que la describieron anteriormente a la comunicación de 1965, no suministra ninguna idea con relación a la naturaleza y característica de la entidad. Los autores también relatan un caso de hiperplasia focal del epitelio en paciente del sexo masculino, 13 años, leucodemia.The focal epithelial hyperplasia is characterized by the presence of papular and nodular elevations, flat or rough multiple sessiles, with the same color of the mucous membrane (Neville et al., 1998. Estrada (1956 described the presence of intra-oral warts and papillary lesions in Caramantas natives in Colombia, in 1956. IN 1960, the same author identified the presence of the same lesions in Kátios natives, from Colombia. Reyes (1962 noticed the same clinical conditions in Guatemala. Soneira and Fonseca (1964 have described the lesion with its clinical variations, from a single papula to multiple papillary lesions in the oral mucosa, lips, and other oral regions. These authors studied 160 native girls in Venezuela and noticed the disease in 54 of them (33.75%. They also suggest that the disease has a viral etiology. In spite of the fact the disease was described by other Latin American authors before 1965, it was worldwide recognized only in this year, due to Aechard, Heck and Stanley. These authors have reported isolated cases in 15 North American natives in the State of New Mexico; one Xavante in the state of Mato Grosso (Brazil and a Eskimo boy in Alaska, and named the disease as Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia. The eponym "Heck Disease" is derived from Dr. Heck, who identified one patient with this disease in Gallup, New Mexico in 1961. Praetorius-Clausen and WiIlis (1971 were the first to show HPV particles in the focal epithelial hyperplasia. Concerning the publishing prior to Archard, Heck and Stanley (1965, the authors suggest to discard that the eponym "Heck Disease", since this denomination does not add any relation to the nature and characteristics of the disease, and also does not recognize the authors who had described it before 1965. The authors also report a focal epithelial hyperplasia in a male 13 year old patient, leukoderma.

  18. Outcomes after knee microfracture of chondral defects in alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, J Richard; Hanson, Chad M; Briggs, Karen K; Matheny, Lauren M; James, Evan W; Guillet, Alyson

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage defects of the knee have been shown to cause pain, swelling, decreased function, and suboptimal athletic performance. Treatment of elite-level athletes presenting with full-thickness chondral defects of the knee continues to be a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. The purpose of this study was to document outcomes in elite professional alpine ski racers after microfracture surgery. This study was approved by an institutional review board. All patients who competed in professional ski races recognized by International Ski Federation and had a full-thickness knee articular cartilage defect, treated with microfracture, by a single surgeon, were included in the study. All data were collected prospectively. At minimum 2 years following microfracture, all patients completed a questionnaire, including Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction with outcome. Minimum 2-year follow-up was available for 18 of 20 skiers (90%) at an average follow-up of 77 months (range, 24-255 months). Size of knee articular cartilage defect was larger in males (195 mm(2)) compared with females (155 mm(2)); however, this difference was not statistically significant (p?>?0.05). Median postoperative Tegner activity scale was 10 (range, 4-10). Mean postoperative Lysholm score was 86 (range, 41-100). Median postoperative patient satisfaction score was 10 (range, 9-10). Out of the 20 skiers, 19 (95%) returned to competitive skiing. The age of the skier who did not return was 28 years. The average time from surgery to return to competition was 13.4 months (range, 0.5-25.3 months). Average end-of-season overall World Cup ranking was calculated for the nine skiers before and after surgery. Of these nine skiers, six had an improved average overall World Cup ranking after microfracture. In this study, patient satisfaction with outcome and function were high following microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of the knee. Nearly all skiers returned to full competition. Microfracture is an acceptable treatment option for elite skiers who have full thickness articular cartilage lesions of the knee. PMID:24854291

  19. Thermal conductivity of defective graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter, the thermal conductivity of defective graphene is investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that various defects including single vacancy, double vacancy and Stone–Wales defects can greatly reduce the thermal conductivity of graphene. The amount of reduction depends strongly on the density and type of defects at small density level. However, at higher defect density level, the thermal conductivity of defective graphene decreases slowly with increasing defect density and shows marginal dependence on the defect type. The thermal conductivity is found to become less sensitive to temperature with increasing defect density.

  20. Is focal cortical dysplasia sporadic? Family evidence for genetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventer, Richard J; Jansen, Floor E; Mandelstam, Simone A; Ho, Alice; Mohamed, Ismail; Sarnat, Harvey B; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Fukasawa, Tatsuya; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Itoh, Masayuki; Kalnins, Renate M; Chow, Chung W; Harvey, A Simon; Jackson, Graeme D; Crino, Peter B; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2014-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cortical malformation and an important cause of epilepsy. There is evidence for shared molecular mechanisms underlying cortical dysplasia, ganglioglioma, hemimegalencephaly, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. However, there are no familial reports of typical cortical dysplasia or co-occurrence of cortical dysplasia and related lesions within the same pedigree. We report the clinical, imaging, and histologic features of six pedigrees with familial cortical dysplasia and related lesions. Twelve patients from six pedigrees were ascertained from pediatric and adult epilepsy centers, eleven of whom underwent epilepsy surgery. Pedigree data, clinical information, neuroimaging findings, and histopathologic features are presented. The families comprise brothers with focal cortical dysplasia, a male and his sister with focal cortical dysplasia, a female with focal cortical dysplasia and her brother with hemimegalencephaly, a female with focal cortical dysplasia and her female first cousin with ganglioglioma, a female with focal cortical dysplasia and her male cousin with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, and a female and her nephew with focal cortical dysplasia. This series shows that focal cortical dysplasia can be familial and provides clinical evidence suggesting that cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaly, ganglioglioma, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors may share common genetic determinants. PMID:24502525

  1. SINOVITIS VILLONODULAR PIGMENTADA FOCAL: REPORTE DE UN CASO / FOCAL PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: A CASE REPORT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Schröter G; Claudio, Silva F; Gonzalo, Delgado P; Enrique, Bosch 0; Nicolás, Zilleruelo V.

    Full Text Available La sinovitis villonodular pigmentada (SVNP) es una proliferación sinovial benigna asociada a depósitos de hemosiderina, que se origina en articulaciones, bursas o vainas tendíneas. La articulación más comprometida es la rodilla (80% de los casos), seguida por la cadera. Normalmente, esta patología e [...] s de presentación difusa y en un menor porcentaje se da en forma focal. La SVNP posee características imaginológicas muy particulares, lo que permite una buena aproximación diagnóstica de la mano de los diferentes métodos radiológicos, en particular la resonancia magnética. En este reporte se describe un caso poco frecuente de SVNP focal en la cadera, que se presentó en la Clínica Alemana de Santiago. Abstract in english Pigmented villonodular synovitis represents a benign synovial proliferation associated to hemosiderin deposits, which originates in bone joints, bursae or tendinous sheaths. The knee articulation is the most commonly involved joint (80%of the cases), followed by the hip joint. Normally, this patholo [...] gy has a diffuse presentation, and a small percentage shows a localized form. PVNS displays very specific imaging features, which allows a good diagnostic approach when aided by different radiological techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this report we describe an infrequent case of focal PVNS localized in the hip, which was treated at "Clínica Alemana", Santiago, Chile.

  2. SINOVITIS VILLONODULAR PIGMENTADA FOCAL: REPORTE DE UN CASO FOCAL PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Schröter G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La sinovitis villonodular pigmentada (SVNP es una proliferación sinovial benigna asociada a depósitos de hemosiderina, que se origina en articulaciones, bursas o vainas tendíneas. La articulación más comprometida es la rodilla (80% de los casos, seguida por la cadera. Normalmente, esta patología es de presentación difusa y en un menor porcentaje se da en forma focal. La SVNP posee características imaginológicas muy particulares, lo que permite una buena aproximación diagnóstica de la mano de los diferentes métodos radiológicos, en particular la resonancia magnética. En este reporte se describe un caso poco frecuente de SVNP focal en la cadera, que se presentó en la Clínica Alemana de Santiago.Pigmented villonodular synovitis represents a benign synovial proliferation associated to hemosiderin deposits, which originates in bone joints, bursae or tendinous sheaths. The knee articulation is the most commonly involved joint (80%of the cases, followed by the hip joint. Normally, this pathology has a diffuse presentation, and a small percentage shows a localized form. PVNS displays very specific imaging features, which allows a good diagnostic approach when aided by different radiological techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In this report we describe an infrequent case of focal PVNS localized in the hip, which was treated at "Clínica Alemana", Santiago, Chile.

  3. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  4. Defects in amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigate several amorphous alloys using positrons. Intrinsic defects with a vacancy-like local structure have been identified. Lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements have been carried out simultaneously on the same specimen. Some specimens were irradiated by electrons and radiation induced defects have been observed. (Auth.)

  5. Cycloolefin-Copolymer/Polyethylene (COC/PE) Blend Assists with the Creation of New Articular Cartilage.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Bastl, Zden?k; Kruliš, Zden?k; Hulejová, H.; Polanská, M.; Lísal, J.; Danešová, J.; ?erný, P.

    294-I, - (2010), s. 120-132. ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : articular cartilage * biomaterials * cycloolefin-copolymer blend Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  6. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis of the knee: A case report of MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, O Hyun; Cho, Kil Ho; Suh, Jang Ho; Choi, Joon Hyuk [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Nodular fasciitis, a benign soft tissue tumor consisting of myofibroblastic proliferation, is commonly located in the subcutaneous or inter- or intra-muscular layer of extremites. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis is extremely rare. We report a case of MRI findings of a nodular fasciitis in the knee of a 13-year-old boy which was removed by arthroscopic surgery and pathologically confirmed.

  7. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis of the knee: A case report of MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodular fasciitis, a benign soft tissue tumor consisting of myofibroblastic proliferation, is commonly located in the subcutaneous or inter- or intra-muscular layer of extremites. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis is extremely rare. We report a case of MRI findings of a nodular fasciitis in the knee of a 13-year-old boy which was removed by arthroscopic surgery and pathologically confirmed.

  8. A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author) (author)

  9. Condrometaplasia tenosinovial extraarticular / Chondrométaplasie ténosynoviale extraarticulaire / Extra-articular tenosynovitis chondrometaplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando Manuel, Pérez Rivera; Mario, Sarmiento de la Guardia; Tomas, Ortiz Rivera; Ricardo Mauro, Pérez Rivera; Elisabeth, Ortiz Estanque.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La condromatosis tenosinovial es una metaplasia idiopática benigna de la membrana sinovial. Se caracteriza por la formación de nódulos cartilaginosos en la membrana sinovial y en la cavidad articular. La localización extraarticular es un hallazgo poco frecuente. Los síntomas predominantes son dolor, [...] inflamación y limitación de los movimientos. Los métodos diagnósticos más efectivos comprenden la radiología, la tomografía computarizada, la resonancia magnética y la ecografía. Se presenta un nuevo caso de condromatosis tenosinovial extraarticular, se incluyen imágenes diagnósticas, se exponen el tratamiento realizado y los resultados histológicos. Además se ofrece una revisión de la literatura médica sobre el tema. Abstract in english Tenosynovitis chondromatosis is a benign idiopathic metaplasia os sinovial membrane. It is characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules in synovial membrane and in the articular cavity. Extra-articular location is an infrequent finding. Predominant symptoms are: pain, inflammation and movemen [...] ts limitation. The more effective diagnostic methods include radiology, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and echography. This is a new case of extra-articular tensosynovial chondromatosis where diagnostic images are included, as well as the treatment applied and histological results. Also, a review of medical literature on this subject is offered.

  10. THE FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF A CELL-ENGINEERED CONSTRUCT FOR THE REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sevastianov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is an analysis of the functional effectiveness of a biomedical cell product consisting of a biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADMSCs, and chondrogenic induction medium in the regeneration of articular cartilage. Materials and methods. The test model of the adjuvant arthritis was used (female Soviet Chinchilla rabbits with the further development into osteoarthrosis (OA combined with the clinical, biochemical, radiological, and histochemical trials. Results. On Day 92 of the OA model it has been found that the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH with hADMSCs into the left knee joint (n = 3 30 days after the OA modeling, as opposed to the right joint (negative control, n = 3, stimulates the regenerative processes of the cartilaginous tissue structure characterized by the formation of chondrocyte «columns», the emergence of isogenic groups in the intracellular matrix and the regeneration of its structure. Upon the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH (n = 3 such effects are markedly less pronounced. Conclusions. A significant regenerative potential of a cell-engineered construct of human articular tissue (CEC ATh has been proven. It is possible to presume that biostimulating properties of CEC ATh are due to the activating effect of a biomedical cell product on the stem cell migration processes from the surrounding tissue into the injured area with their subsequent differentiation. 

  11. Frictional response of bovine articular cartilage under creep loading following proteoglycan digestion with chondroitinase ABC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Ines M; Chen, Faye Hui; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2006-02-01

    The specific aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage against glass, under creep loading. The hypothesis is that chondroitinase ABC treatment increases the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage under creep. Articular cartilage samples (n = 12) harvested from two bovine knee joints (1-3 months old) were divided into a control group (intact specimens) and a treated group (chondroitinase ABC digestion), and tested in unconfined compression with simultaneous continuous sliding (+/- 4 mm at 1 mm/s) under a constant applied stress of 0.5 MPa, for 2500 s. The time-dependent response of the friction coefficient was measured. With increasing duration of loading, treated samples exhibited a significantly higher friction coefficient than control samples as assessed by the equilibrium value (treated: micro(eq) = 0.19 +/- 0.02; control: micro(eq) = 0.12 +/- 0.03; p = 0.002), though the coefficient achieved immediately upon loading did not increase significantly (treated: micro(min) = 0.0053 +/- 0.0025; control: micro(min) = 0.037 +/- 0.0013; p = 0.19). Our results demonstrate that removal of the cartilage glycosaminoglycans using chondroitinase ABC significantly increases the overall time-dependent friction coefficient of articular cartilage. These findings strengthen the motivation for developing chondroprotective strategies by increasing cartilage chondroitin sulfate content in osteoarthritic joints. PMID:16532626

  12. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  13. Decontamination by electron beams of liposomes used in the treatment of human articular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation under 100 Krad allows decontamination of liposomes carrying gold salts, prepared in the condition of a usual research laboratory. Such liposomes can be injected in the intra-articular space with no risks of infection. Electron beams from a linear accelerator were used. Experimental details are given. The results are presented and discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Evaluation of influence of proteoglycans on hydration of articular cartilage with the use of ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-yi YANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To monitor the changes in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage induced by degradation of proteoglycans, and to explore the effect of proteoglycans on hydration behaviour of articular cartilage by using high-frequency ultrasound. Methods?Twelve porcine patellae with smooth cartilage surface were prepared and equally divided into two groups: normal group without any enzyme treatment, and trypsin group they were treated with 0.25% trypsin for 8h to digest proteoglycan in the cartilage. The hydration behaviour of the cartilage tissue was scanned by high-frequency ultrasound system with a central frequency of 25MHz. Parameters including cartilage hydration strain and cartilage thickness were measured. The histopathological changes in the articular cartilage were observed under a light microscope. Results?It took approximately 20min to reach equilibrium during the hydration process in the normal cartilages, while proteoglycan-degraded cartilage took only about 5min to achieve equilibrium. The equilibrium strain of normal cartilage was 3.5%±0.5%. The degradation of proteoglycans induced a significant decrease in equilibrium strain (1.8%±0.2%, P0.05. Conclusion?Proteoglycans play an important role in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage. The degradation of proteoglycans could induce degeneration of cartilage structure and decrease in hydration behaviour after dehydration. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.03

  15. An ultrasonic measurement for in vitro depth-dependent equilibrium strains of articular cartilage in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y. P.; Mak, A. F. T.; Lau, K. P.; Qin, L.

    2002-09-01

    The equilibrium depth-dependent biomechanical properties of articular cartilage were measured using an ultrasound-compression method. Ten cylindrical bovine patella cartilage-bone specimens were tested in compression followed by a period of force-relaxation. A 50 MHz focused ultrasound beam was transmitted into the cartilage specimen through a remaining bone layer and a small hole at the centre of a specimen platform. The ultrasound echoes reflected or scattered within the articular cartilage were collected using the same transducer. The displacements of the tissues at different depths of the articular cartilage were derived from the ultrasound echo signals recorded during the compression and the subsequent force-relaxation. For two steps of 0.1 mm compression, the average strain at the superficial 0.2 mm thick layer (0.35 +/- 0.09) was significantly (p < 0.05) larger than that at the subsequent 0.2 mm thick layer (0.05 +/- 0.07) and that at deeper layers (0.01 +/- 0.02). It was demonstrated that the compressive biomechanical properties of cartilage were highly depth-dependent. The results suggested that the ultrasound-compression method could be a useful tool for the study of the depth-dependent biomechanical properties of articular cartilage.

  16. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University Hospital, and College of Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  17. The effects of joint immobilization on articular cartilage of the knee in previously exercised rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Diogo Correa; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Neto, Semaan El-Razi; Souza, Mônica Rodrigues; Souza, Romeu Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Studies have determined the effects of joint immobilization on the articular cartilage of sedentary animals, but we are not aware of any studies reporting the effects of joint immobilization in previously trained animals. The objective of the present study was to determine whether exercise could prevent degeneration of the articular cartilage that accompanies joint immobilization. We used light microscopy to study the thickness, cell density, nuclear size, and collagen density of articular cartilage of the femoral condyle of Wistar rats subjected to aerobic physical activity on an adapted treadmill five times per week. Four groups of Wistar rats were used: a control group (C), an immobilized group (I), an exercised group (E), and an exercised and then immobilized group (EI). The right knee joints from rats in groups I and EI were immobilized at 90 °C of flexion using a plastic cast for 8 weeks. Cartilage thickness decreased significantly in group I (mean, 120.14 ± 15.6 ?m, P exercise can prevent degenerative changes in femoral articular cartilage caused by immobilization of the knee joint. PMID:23480127

  18. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  19. ?-XRF and ?-XANES at calcification fronts of human articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the main threats to human health from heavy metals is associated with exposure to lead (Pb), which is associated with chronic diseases in the nervous, hematopoietic, skeletal, renal and endocrine system. Although much progress has been made to limit Pb exposure in industrialized countries, primarily through the elimination of leaded gasoline, workplace exposures and leaded pipes, most adults have already accumulated a substantial body burden of Pb. Most of the affiliated Pb is deposited in human bones, where it is stored up to 20 years and accounts for 90.95 of the total lead body burden. Pb is able to displace Ca2+ by cation exchange processes in the hydroxyapatite crystal (the main constituent of bone) and is liberated from it in cases of increased bone turnover such as osteoporosis, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism. Besides these phenomenological studies on the release of Pb from human calcified tissue analytical studies are essential to gain insight on storage sites and storage mechanisms on a microscopic scale. Therefore detailed synchrotron radiation induced micro x-ray fluorescence analyses (SR ? - XRF) have been carried out to study the distribution of Pb in bones from human joints (femoral heads and patellas). As a very recent result we found a highly specific accumulation of Pb in the tidemark, which is a metabolically active mineralization front (thickness about 5 - 10 ?m) between calcified and non-calcified ?m) between calcified and non-calcified articular cartilage and plays an important role in developing osteoarthritis. From the results obtained for single tidemark bones one would expect an accumulation of Pb in both tidemarks of bones showing tidemark duplication. However, Pb shows a strong accumulation at the older of the two tidemarks, while it is not present at the younger one. A comparison of the Pb distribution with the one of other tidemark-seekers (e.g. Zn) exhibits a time difference in the accumulation of different metals at the calcification fronts of human calcified tissue. The finding of elevated Pb levels in cartilage compared to the subchondral region of the bone (about 10 times higher) motivated a study on the chemical speciation of Pb in both compartments of calcified human tissue. Comparing results from micro x-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (?XANES) measurements in the tidemark with the ones from adequate standard materials gives information on the chemical bond of Pb in human cartilage. Results from a first ?-XANES experiment carried out at HASYLAB beamline L will be presented in this paper. ?-XANES scans at the tidemark of a femoral head and patella, and on a set of standard materials namely Pb-hydroxyapatite, PbO, PbS, PbCO3, and PbSO4 have been compared and will be presented. Although suffering from weak counting statistics one could estimate from the results, that most of the accumulated Pb in the tidemark is bound to hydroxyapatite. (author)

  20. Effect of JJYMD-C, a novel synthetic derivative of gallic acid, on proliferation and phenotype maintenance in rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.J., Xu; Z.H., Lu; X., Lin; C.W., Lin; L., Zheng; J.M., Zhao.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering encapsulated cells such as chondrocytes in the carrier matrix have been widely used to repair cartilage defects. However, chondrocyte phenotype is easily lost when chondrocytes are expanded in vitro by a process defined as “dedifferentiation”. To ensure successful therapy, an effe [...] ctive pro-chondrogenic agent is necessary to overcome the obstacle of limited cell numbers in the restoration process, and dedifferentiation is a prerequisite. Gallic acid (GA) has been used in the treatment of arthritis, but its biocompatibility is inferior to that of other compounds. In this study, we modified GA by incorporating sulfamonomethoxine sodium and synthesized a sulfonamido-based gallate, JJYMD-C, and evaluated its effect on chondrocyte metabolism. Our results showed that JJYMD-C could effectively increase the levels of the collagen II, Sox9, and aggrecan genes, promote chondrocyte growth, and enhance secretion and synthesis of cartilage extracellular matrix. On the other hand, expression of the collagen I gene was effectively down-regulated, demonstrating inhibition of chondrocyte dedifferentiation by JJYMD-C. Hypertrophy, as a characteristic of chondrocyte ossification, was undetectable in the JJYMD-C groups. We used JJYMD-C at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 µg/mL, and the strongest response was observed with 0.25 µg/mL. This study provides a basis for further studies on a novel agent in the treatment of articular cartilage defects.

  1. Displasia cortical focal, aspectos neurofisiológicos, imaginológicos e histológicos Focal cortical dysplasia, aspects of neurophysiologic, imaginological and histological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Piccolotto Carvalho Camargo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Displasia cortical focal é uma das formas mais frequentes de malformações do desenvolvimento cortical, estando intimamente relacionada com epilepsia de difícil controle em crianças e adultos. Caracterizam-se por alterações histológicas, imaginológicas e eletrofisiológicas peculiares. OBJETIVO: Fazer uma revisão sucinta dos principais aspectos imaginológicos, histológicos e neurofisiológicos das displasias corticais focais. MÉTODOS: Revisão bibliografia. CONCLUSÃO: As displasias corticais focais têm características clínicas peculiares, A prevalência de epilepsia refrataria entre pacientes com displasia cortical focal é bastante elevada. A RM de crânio apresenta alterações distintas a doença, podendo em muitos casos ser normal e se correlaciona com os achados histológicos. Descargas contínuas e surtos paroxísticos de alta frequência são altamente sugestivos de epilepsia devido à displasia cortical focal.INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common ways of malformation of the cortical development where they are intimate related among hard control epilepsy on children and adults. It's characterized by peculiar histological, imaginological and electrophysiological amendment. PURPOSE: To make a succinct review of the main aspects of imaginological, histological and neurophysiologic focal cortical dysplasias. METHOD: Bibliographic review. CONCLUSION: The focal cortical dysplasias have peculiar clinical features. The prevalence of refractory epilepsy among focal cortical dysplasia patients is highly elevated. The skull magnetic resonance image (MRI presents specific amendments to the disease that could be normal in many cases and correlates with histological results. Continuous discharges and high frequency paroxistic bursts are highly pointed as epilepsy due the Focal cortical dysplasia.

  2. Displasia cortical focal, aspectos neurofisiológicos, imaginológicos e histológicos / Focal cortical dysplasia, aspects of neurophysiologic, imaginological and histological

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daiane Piccolotto Carvalho, Camargo; André, Palmini; Eliseu, Paglioli; Carolina, Torres; Wiliam, Alves; Lucas, Schilling; Vinícios Duval da, Silva; Albert, Becker; Rosany Piccolotto, Carvalho; Jaderson Costa da, Costa.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Displasia cortical focal é uma das formas mais frequentes de malformações do desenvolvimento cortical, estando intimamente relacionada com epilepsia de difícil controle em crianças e adultos. Caracterizam-se por alterações histológicas, imaginológicas e eletrofisiológicas peculiares. OBJ [...] ETIVO: Fazer uma revisão sucinta dos principais aspectos imaginológicos, histológicos e neurofisiológicos das displasias corticais focais. MÉTODOS: Revisão bibliografia. CONCLUSÃO: As displasias corticais focais têm características clínicas peculiares, A prevalência de epilepsia refrataria entre pacientes com displasia cortical focal é bastante elevada. A RM de crânio apresenta alterações distintas a doença, podendo em muitos casos ser normal e se correlaciona com os achados histológicos. Descargas contínuas e surtos paroxísticos de alta frequência são altamente sugestivos de epilepsia devido à displasia cortical focal. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common ways of malformation of the cortical development where they are intimate related among hard control epilepsy on children and adults. It's characterized by peculiar histological, imaginological and electrophysiological amendment. PURPOS [...] E: To make a succinct review of the main aspects of imaginological, histological and neurophysiologic focal cortical dysplasias. METHOD: Bibliographic review. CONCLUSION: The focal cortical dysplasias have peculiar clinical features. The prevalence of refractory epilepsy among focal cortical dysplasia patients is highly elevated. The skull magnetic resonance image (MRI) presents specific amendments to the disease that could be normal in many cases and correlates with histological results. Continuous discharges and high frequency paroxistic bursts are highly pointed as epilepsy due the Focal cortical dysplasia.

  3. Evaluation of Articular Eminence Morphology and Inclination in TMJ Internal Derangement Patients with MRI / Evaluación de la Morfología e Inclinación de la Eminencia Articular en Pacientes con Trastorno Interno de ATM con MRI

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aydin, Ozkan; Hasan Ayberk, Altug; Metin, Sencimen; Bugra, Senel.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La morfología e inclinación de la eminencia articular son reportados como dos factores predisponentes para el trastorno interno (TI). El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la inclinación y la morfología de la eminencia articular y el TI. El estudio incluyó a 70 articulaciones [...] temporomandibulares, con TI en 35 pacientes: 51 articulaciones con desplazamiento discal con reducción (DDCR) y 19 de las articulaciones tuvieron desplazamiento discal sin reducción (DDSR). Todos los sujetos fueron sometidos a imágenes de resonancia magnética bilaterales de alta resolución que se realizaron en los planos sagital y coronal con la boca cerrada y abierta. La morfología articular la eminencia se caracterizó como una caja, sigmoide, aplanada, o deforme. La inclinación de la eminencia articular se midió en tres posiciones: empinada (de 60 ° a 90 °), moderada (entre 30 ° a 60 °) y poco profunda (entre 15 ° y 30 °). Las imágenes fueron divididos en dos; DDCR y DDSOR, y estos criterios fueron comparados. Al comparar las imágenes de ambos grupos, la forma aplanada se observó con mayor incidencia en el grupo de DDSR, la forma sigmoide fue la más frecuente en el grupo de DDCR y la inclinación de la eminencia articular se encontró más pronunciada que en el grupo DDSR. La inclinación de la eminencia articular puede no tener un efecto predisponente en el desarrollo de los desplazamientos de disco. Abstract in english Articular eminence morphology and inclination are reported to be two predisposing factors for the internal derangement (ID). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the inclination and morphology of the articular eminence and ID. The study included 70 temporomandibular j [...] oints with ID in 35 patients: 51 joints had disc displacements with reduction (DDWR) and 19 joints had disc displacements without reduction (DDWOR). All subjects underwent bilateral high resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans which were performed in the sagittal and coronal planes with mouths closed and opened. Articular eminence morphology was characterized as box, sigmoid, flattened, or deformed. Articular eminence inclination was measured at three positions: steep (from 60° to 90°), moderate (from 30° to 60°) and shallow (from 15° to 30°). The images were divided into two; DDWR and DDWOR, and these two criteria were compared. The images of the two groups were compared; while flattened form was occurred with the highest incidence in the DDWOR group, sigmoid form was the most frequent in the DDWR group and articular eminence inclination was found steeper than it was for the DDWOR group. The steepness of the articular eminence may not have a predisposing effect on the development of disc displacements.

  4. Densidade mineral óssea em crianças: associação com dor músculo-esquelética e/ou hipermobilidade articular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Adriana Madureira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: a hipermobilidade articular pode estar associada à dor músculo-esquelética. A relação da hipermobilidade com a redução da densidade mineral óssea ainda é desconhecida. Existem relatos de osteoporose em associação com doenças genéticas que cursam com hipermobilidade articular. O nosso objetivo foi detectar a possível associação entre hipermobilidade articular e alterações na densidade mineral óssea (DMO em crianças com e sem dor músculo-esquelética. Casuística e métodos: foram avaliadas 93 crianças, com idade entre 5 e 10 anos, quanto à presença de hipermobilidade articular e quanto à presença de dor músculo-esquelética, através de questionário dirigido aos pais. Todas as crianças realizaram densitometria óssea de coluna lombar ao nível das vértebras L2-L4. Resultados: as crianças foram distribuídas de acordo com a presença ou não de hipermobilidade articular associada ou não à dor músculo-esquelética: 29 (31,2% com hipermobilidade e com dor músculo-esquelética, 20 (21,5% com hipermobilidade e sem dor, 22 (23,6% sem hipermobilidade e com dor e 22 (23,6% sem hipermobilidade e sem dor (grupo controle. Vinte e quatro (25,8% crianças apresentaram perda de DMO maior que 10% com relação à DMO adequada para a idade e sexo. A DMO mostrou-se significantemente menor em relação ao grupo controle nos grupos: com hipermobilidade (independente da presença de dor, com dor (independente da presença de hipermobilidade, com hipermobilidade e sem dor e sem hipermobilidade e com dor. Conclusão: a DMO pode estar diminuída em crianças com hipermobilidade (independente da presença de dor músculo-esquelética e em crianças com dor (independente da presença de hipermobilidade em relação aos controles.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, Abbas; Noruzi-Gangachin, Marruf [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Maryam; Mortazavi, Hamed [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  6. Evaluation of articular cartilage degeneration with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration is important in the clinical diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration. Glycosaminoglycan provides a large number of fixed negative charges. When manganese ion (Mn2+) is administered to the cartilage matrix, this cation diffuses into the matrix and accumulates in accordance with the distribution of fixed negative charges owing to the electrostatic interaction. The accumulation of Mn2+ causes a shortening of the relaxation times, resulting in high signal intensity in the MR image, when a T1-weighted image is obtained. The present study applied this new method to the articular cartilage to evaluate the degree of the cartilage degeneration. Small pieces of articular cartilage were dissected from the knee joints of young chickens. Experimentally degenerated articular cartilage was obtained by treating the specimen with various concentrations of papain solution. Then specimens were soaked in manganese solution until they obtained equilibrium and served for MR microimaging. The fixed charge density (FCD), the concentration of Mn2+ and Na+, T1 and T2 relaxation times were also measured. In degenerated cartilage, lower accumulation of Mn2+ due to lower GAG density caused a lower than normal signal intensity. Thus, administration of Mn2+ enhances the biochemical change in the cartilage matrix in terms of differences in ttilage matrix in terms of differences in the relaxation time. The actual signal intensity on MRI of each specimen corresponded to the theoretical signal intensity, which was calculated from the FCD. It was concluded that MR images taken with contrast enhancement by Mn2+ give direct visual information about the GAG density in the articular cartilage. MRI with cationic contrast agent could develop into a new method for early non-invasive diagnosis of cartilage dysfunction and degeneration. (author)

  7. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Ryan S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Results Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted porcine articular cartilage. The genes evaluated were: beta actin, beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A, ribosomal protein L4, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit A, TATA box binding protein, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein—zeta polypeptide. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder software. The four most stable genes measured via geNorm were (most to least stable succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin; the four most stable genes measured via BestKeeper were glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, beta actin, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A; and the four most stable genes measured via NormFinder were peptidylprolyl isomerase A, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin. Conclusions BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder all generated similar results for the most stable genes in porcine articular cartilage. The use of these appropriate reference genes will facilitate accurate gene expression studies of porcine articular cartilage and suggest appropriate housekeeping genes for articular cartilage studies in other species.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  9. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  10. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis of the knee in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Itai; Morrison, Martin J; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R; Wells, Lawrence

    2014-03-01

    The differential diagnosis for an intra-articular lesion in the knee of a pediatric patient is broad. Diagnostic considerations include pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)-the most common intra-articular tumor-and a variety of both benign and malignant tumors, including lipomas, hemangiopericytomas, nodular fasciitis, parosteal osteosarcomas, and fibromyxoid sarcomas. If there is concern over possible malignant lesions, a tumor surgeon should be consulted. Precise pathologic diagnosis is ideal for identifying these enigmatic lesions and for determining the appropriate treatment plan. This article presents the case of a 13-year-old boy who presented with 1-month duration of knee pain and no history of trauma to the extremity. Physical examination revealed pain along the medial and lateral joint lines, pain with range of motion, and limited range of motion of the affected knee. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 3×1×3-cm lesion in the posterolateral corner that was believed to be localized PVNS. Arthroscopically, there was no evidence of PVNS, but a posterolateral soft tissue mass was found and removed, which was pathologically diagnosed as a rare, benign, intra-articular nodular fasciitis. When working with intra-articular masses, it is important to assess the likelihood of malignancy and to both consult a tumor surgeon and use the appropriate surgical tumor principles when malignancy is a concern. Additionally, the pathology team should be consulted prior to surgery and be on standby during arthroscopic evaluation of the knee to help with precise diagnosis of the intra-articular mass. Discussing the case with the pathologist with imaging studies present is helpful and often aids in the diagnosis of the lesion. PMID:24762162

  11. MRI evaluation of the patellar articular cartilage in patients with subluxation of the patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with subluxation of the patella, injury of the patellar articular cartilage is frequently observed and correct evaluation is important to manage these patients. We examined 11 patients with subluxation of the patella and five normal volunteers. In 12 patellofemoral joints of seven patients with subluxation of the patella, the abnormalities observed on MRI were compared with those on arthroscopy and/or at operation. MRI was performed with a Magnetom 1.5 T (Siemens) using the round surface coil. Pulse sequences were SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms), FLASH(TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg and 40deg), and SE (TR 2000 ms/TE 26, 70 ms). We analysed MR findings of the 12 abnormal joints and 10 normal joints according to the following classification of abnormalities observed on arthroscopy; normal appearance (n=3 joints), softening and fibrillation (n=6), fragmentation (n=3), and erosion to bone (n=0). In only one of the six cases with softening and fibrillation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thickening of patellar articular cartilage, but in all three cases with fragmentation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thin inhomogeneous cartilage with irregular surface. The combination of SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms) and FLASH (TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg) are extremely effective pulse sequence to detect the abnormalities of patellar articular cartilage. We conclude that MRI is a useful noninvasive method of detecting advanced changes in patellar articular cg advanced changes in patellar articular cartilage. (author)

  12. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and any related health problems. How a Healthy Heart Works To understand more about congenital heart defects, ... affect its ability to function properly. Continue Common Heart Defects Common types of congenital heart defects, which ...

  13. Congenital Heart Defects and CCHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Congenital heart defects and CCHD Congenital means present at birth. ... babies and children with heart problems. How can heart defects affect your baby? Heart defects can affect ...

  14. Ventricular Septal Defect (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few or no complications. What Is a Ventricular Septal Defect? To understand this defect, it first helps ... heart disease. Continue What Causes a VSD? Ventricular septal defects occur during fetal heart development and are ...

  15. Differences between diffuse and focal autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawako Kuruma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate differences in clinical features between diffuse- and focal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP. METHODS: Based on radiological findings by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, we divided 67 AIP patients into diffuse type (D type and focal type (F type. We further divided F type into head type (H type and body and/or tail type (B/T type according to the location of enlargement. Finally, we classified the 67 AIP patients into three groups: D type, H type and B/T type. We compared the three types of AIP in terms of clinical, laboratory, radiological, functional and histological findings and clinical course. RESULTS: There were 34 patients with D-type, 19 with H-type and 14 with B/T-type AIP. Although obstructive jaundice was frequently detected in D-type patients (88% and H-type patients (68%, no B/T-type patients showed jaundice as an initial symptom (P < 0.001. There were no differences in frequency of abdominal pain, but acute pancreatitis was associated more frequently in B/T-type patients (36% than in D-type patients (3% (P = 0.017. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG4 levels were significantly higher in D-type patients (median 309 mg/dL than in B/T-type patients (133.5 mg/dL (P = 0.042. Serum amylase levels in B/T-type patients (median: 114 IU/L were significantly greater than in H-type patients (72 IU/L (P = 0.049. Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP was histologically confirmed in 6 D-type, 7 H-type and 4 B/T-type patients; idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis was observed in no patients. Marked fibrosis and abundant infiltration of CD20-positive B lymphocytes with few IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in 2 B/T-type patients. Steroid therapy was effective in all 50 patients (31 D type, 13 H type and 6 B/T type. Although AIP relapsed during tapering or after stopping steroids in 3 D-type and 3 H-type patients, no patients relapsed in B/T type. During follow-up, radiological features of 6 B/T-type patients were not changed and 1 B/T-type patient improved naturally. CONCLUSION: Clinical features of H-type AIP were similar to those of D-type, but B/T-type differed from D and H types. B/T-type may involve diseases other than LPSP.

  16. Pupillary anomaly masquerading as a glaucomatous visual field defect: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Adrian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients are often referred to ophthalmologists with focal visual field defects on routine testing, possibly related to a potential diagnosis of glaucoma. However, examination of the individual patient's ocular characteristics as well as facial characteristics may often reveal a cause of the visual field defect. Case presentation We describe a patient who was found to have a superior visual field defect on routine testing by the optician. Repeat perimetry with pharmacological dilatation of the pupil revealed that the cause of the field defect was related to an eccentric inferiorly displaced pupil, secondary to trauma some years previously. Discussion Individual patient characteristics, including both ocular, as well as facial, need to be considered, when interpreting any visual field defect.

  17. Ultrasonic beam focusing on a defect in anisotropic inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong

    2013-01-01

    In ultrasonic testing of dissimilar metal welds, application of phased array technique in terms of incident beam focusing is not easy because of complicated material structures formed during the multi-pass welding process. Time reversal (TR) techniques can overcome some limitations of phased array since they are self-focusing that does not depend on the geometrical and physical properties of testing components. In this paper, we test the possibility of TR focusing on a defect within anisotropic, heterogeneous austenitic welds. A commercial simulation software is employed for TR focusing and imaging of a side-drilled hole. The performance of time reversed adaptive focal law is compared with those of calculated focal laws for both anisotropic and isotropic welds.

  18. Micromass co-culture of human articular chondrocytes and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to investigate stable neocartilage tissue formation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Giovannini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies for articular cartilage defects rely on expanded chondrocytes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC represent an alternative cell source should their hypertrophic differentiation pathway be prevented. Possible cellular instruction between human articular chondrocytes (HAC and human bone marrow MSC was investigated in micromass pellets. HAC and MSC were mixed in different percentages or incubated individually in pellets for 3 or 6 weeks with and without TGF-beta1 and dexamethasone (±T±D as chondrogenic factors. Collagen II, collagen X and S100 protein expression were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Proteoglycan synthesis was evaluated applying the Bern score and quantified using dimethylmethylene blue dye binding assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP was detected on cryosections and soluble ALP measured in pellet supernatants. HAC alone generated hyaline-like discs, while MSC formed spheroid pellets in ±T±D. Co-cultured pellets changed from disc to spheroid shape with decreasing number of HAC, and displayed random cell distribution. In -T-D, HAC expressed S100, produced GAG and collagen II, and formed lacunae, while MSC did not produce any cartilage-specific proteins. Based on GAG, collagen type II and S100 expression chondrogenic differentiation occurred in -T-D MSC co-cultures. However, quantitative experimental GAG and DNA values did not differ from predicted values, suggesting only HAC contribution to GAG production. MSC produced cartilage-specific matrix only in +T+D but underwent hypertrophy in all pellet cultures. In summary, influence of HAC on MSC was restricted to early signs of neochondrogenesis. However, MSC did not contribute to the proteoglycan deposition, and HAC could not prevent hypertrophy of MSC induced by chondrogenic stimuli.

  19. TAK1 regulates SOX9 expression in chondrocytes and is essential for postnatal development of the growth plate and articular cartilages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Dong, Yufeng; Hoak, Donna M; Zuscik, Michael J; Schwarz, Edward M; Hilton, Matthew J; O'Keefe, Regis J; Jonason, Jennifer H

    2013-12-15

    TAK1 is a MAP3K that mediates non-canonical TGF-? and BMP signaling. During the embryonic period, TAK1 is essential for cartilage and joint development as deletion of Tak1 in chondro-osteo progenitor cells leads to severe chondrodysplasia with defects in both chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. We have investigated the role of TAK1 in committed chondrocytes during early postnatal development. Using the Col2a1-CreER(T2); Tak1(f/f) mouse model, we induced deletion of Tak1 at postnatal day 7 and characterized the skeletal phenotypes of these mice at 1 and 3 months of age. Mice with chondrocyte-specific Tak1 deletion exhibited severe growth retardation and reduced proteoglycan and type II collagen content in the extracellular matrix of the articular cartilage. We found reduced Col2a1 and Acan expression, but increased Mmp13 and Adamts5 expression, in Tak1-deficient chondrocytes along with reduced expression of the SOX trio of transcription factors, SOX9, SOX5 and SOX6. In vitro, BMP2 stimulated Sox9 gene expression and Sox9 promoter activity. These effects were reduced; however, following Tak1 deletion or treatment with a TAK1 kinase inhibitor. TAK1 affects both canonical and non-canonical BMP signal transduction and we found that both of these pathways contribute to BMP2-mediated Sox9 promoter activation. Additionally, we found that ATF2 directly binds the Sox9 promoter in response to BMP signaling and that this effect is dependent upon TAK1 kinase activity. These novel findings establish that TAK1 contributes to BMP2-mediated Sox9 gene expression and is essential for the postnatal development of normal growth plate and articular cartilages. PMID:24144697

  20. Defect Chemistry of Nanocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang

    2015-03-01

    Defects can rule the properties of a crystal. This effect is particularly intriguing in atom-thick materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene, where electrons, excitons, phonons, and spin may strongly couple at the defect sites due to reduced dimensionality. In this talk, we will discuss our recent progress in fundamental understanding and molecular control of sp3 defects in sp2 carbon lattices, and their applications. An sp3 defect (tetrahedral bonding, diamond-like) is created by covalently attaching a functional group to the sp2 carbon lattice (trigonal planar, honeycomb-like) of a carbon nanotube or graphene. The beauty of this type of defect is its well-defined structure and chemical tunability at the molecular level. Our experimental results have unraveled a series of intriguing and surprising roles of defects. Specific examples will be given to illustrate how defects may be used to drive reaction propagation on sp2 carbon lattices, brighten carbon nanotube photoluminescence, and create selective chemical sensors.

  1. Wavelength dependent mask defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Karen; Butt, Shahid; Burnham, Jay; Faure, Tom; Hibbs, Michael; Rankin, Jed; Thibault, David; Watts, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    For years there has been a mismatch between the photomask inspection wavelength and the usage conditions. While the non-actinic inspection has been a source for concern, there has been essentially no evidence that a defect "escaped" the mask production process due to the inspection mismatch. This paper will describe the discovery of one such defect, as well as the diagnostic and inspection techniques used to identify the location, analyze the composition, and determine the source of the printed wafer defect. Conventional mask inspection techniques revealed no defects, however an actinic Aerial Image Metrology System (AIMS) revealed a 1.5 mm region on the mask with up to 59% transmission reduction at 193 nm. Further diagnostics demonstrated a strong wavelength dependence which accounted for the near invisibility of the defect at I line (365 nm) or even DUV (248 nm) wavelengths, which had 0% and 5% respective transmission reductions. Using some creative imaging techniques via AIMS tool and modeling, the defect was deduced to have a three dimensional Gaussian absorption character, with total width approximately 1.5 mm. Several non-destructive diagnostic techniques were developed to determine the composition and location of the defect within the substrate. These results will be described in addition to identifying methods for ensuring product quality in the absence of actinic inspection.

  2. Articular cartilage depicted at optimized angular position of Laue angular analyzer by X-ray dark-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 36.0 keV X-ray from synchrotron radiation, we examined the optimized angular position of Laue analyzer for depicting articular cartilage of an intact human finger by X-ray dark-field imaging. The surface of articular cartilage was depicted clearly by adopting the offset angle of 0.04 arcsec to lower angular side to the analyzer whilst the contour of articular cartilage was delineated clearly at the other angular positions of the analyzer within the width of the rocking curve

  3. A Case Report of Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture for Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Kwangho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case was to report a case of Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. Methods: The patient was treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. The Effect of Treatment was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale(VAS and Modified Mayo Wrist Score(Wrist Score. Results & Conclusions: After Treatment, Patient's VAS decreased and Wrist Score increased. For this results, Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture may be effective for Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex.

  4. Micro- and Nano-Carrier Mediated Intra-Articular Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide readers with current developments of intra-articular drug delivery systems. In recent years, although the search for a clinically successful ideal carrier is ongoing, sustained-release systems, such as polymeric micro- and nanoparticles, liposomes, and hydrogels, are being extensively studied for intra-articular drug delivery purposes. The advantages associated with long-acting preparations include a longer effect of the drug in the action site and a reduced risk of infection due to numerous injections consequently. This paper discusses the recent developments in the field of intra-articular sustained-release delivery systems for the treatment of osteoarthritis

  5. Secondary knee instability caused by fracture of the stabilizing insert in a dual-articular total knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Morten P; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard

    2004-01-01

    A case of a fractured polyethylene stabilizing insert causing secondary knee instability in a Dual-articular total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is presented. A 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery with a Dual-articular TKA 4 years earlier had a well-functioning prosthesis until a fall, after which she began complaining of an intermittent, audible clicking; pain; and instability. At surgery, a fractured polyethylene peg was discovered, and the tibial insert was replaced. At follow-up, she remains asymptomatic. This is the first description of a fractured stabilizing insert in a Dual-articular knee.

  6. Secondary knee instability caused by fracture of the stabilizing insert in a dual-articular total knee.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Morten P; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard

    2004-01-01

    A case of a fractured polyethylene stabilizing insert causing secondary knee instability in a Dual-articular total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is presented. A 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery with a Dual-articular TKA 4 years earlier had a well-functioning prosthesis until a fall, after which she began complaining of an intermittent, audible clicking; pain; and instability. At surgery, a fractured polyethylene peg was discovered, and the tibial insert was replaced. At follow-up, she remains asymptomatic. This is the first description of a fractured stabilizing insert in a Dual-articular knee.

  7. Degeneration of osteoarthritis cartilage : Focal or global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Dan Richter

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread, chronic joint disease for which there are currently no effective treatments beyond symptom relief. The lack of any approved disease modifying osteoarthritic drugs may partly be explained by insufficient disease understanding, but may also be tied to the absence of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring disease progression. This thesis investigates how subregional measures of cartilage thickness can be used to improve upon current imaging biomarkers. The first part of this investigation aims to discover discriminative areas in the cartilage using machine-learning techniques specifically developed to take advantage of the spatial nature of the problem. The methods were evaluated on data from a longitudinal study where detailed cartilage thickness maps were quantified from magnetic resonance images. The results showed that focal differences in cartilage thickness may be relevant for both OA diagnosis and for prediction of future cartilage loss. The second part of the thesis investigates spatial patterns of longitudinal cartilage thickness changes in healthy and OA knees. Based on our findings, we propose a new, conceptually simple biomarker that embraces the heterogeneous spatial cartilage changes that were observed in our study and in recent literature. The cartilage “Activity” marker is shown to have a state-of-the-art performance in separating healthy knees from OA knees and is also shown to predict knee replacement which is a clinically relevant endpoint for OA.

  8. Causes and pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogo, Agnes B

    2015-02-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) describes both a common lesion in progressive kidney disease, and a disease characterized by marked proteinuria and podocyte injury. The initial injuries vary widely. Monogenetic forms of FSGS are largely due to alterations in structural genes of the podocyte, many of which result in early onset of disease. Genetic risk alleles in apolipoprotein L1 are especially prevalent in African Americans, and are linked not only to adult-onset FSGS but also to progression of some other kidney diseases. The recurrence of FSGS in some transplant recipients whose end-stage renal disease was caused by FSGS points to circulating factors in disease pathogenesis, which remain incompletely understood. In addition, infection, drug use, and secondary maladaptive responses after loss of nephrons from any cause may also cause FSGS. Varying phenotypes of the sclerosis are also manifest, with varying prognosis. The so-called tip lesion has the best prognosis, whereas the collapsing type of FSGS has the worst prognosis. New insights into glomerular cell injury response and repair may pave the way for possible therapeutic strategies. PMID:25447132

  9. Defect Prevention Based on 5 Dimensions of Defect Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthi Kumaresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available “Discovering the unexpected is more important than confirming the known [7]. In software development,the “unexpected” one relates to defects. These defects when unattended would cause failure to the productand risk to the users. The increasing dependency of society on software and the crucial consequences that afailure can cause requires the need to find out the defects at the origin itself. Based on the lessons learntfrom the earlier set of projects, a defect framework highlighting the 5 Dimensions (Ds of defect origin isproposed in this work. The defect framework is based on analyzing the defects that had emerged fromvarious stages of software development like Requirements, Design, Coding, Testing and Timeline (defectsdue to lack of time during development. This study is not limited to just identifying the origin of defects atvarious phases of software development but also finds out the reasons for such defects, and defectpreventive (DP measures are proposed for each type of defect. This work can help practitioners chooseeffective defect avoidance measures.In addition to arriving at defect framework, this work also proposes a defect injection metric based onseverity of the defect rather than just defect count, which gives the number of adjusted defects produced bya project at various phases. The defect injection metric value, once calculated, serves as a yardstick tomake a comparison in the improvements made in the software process development between similar set ofprojects

  10. Surface defects and symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jürgen; Schweigert, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    In quantum field theory, defects of various codimensions are natural ingredients and carry a lot of interesting information. In this contribution we concentrate on topological quantum field theories in three dimensions, with a particular focus on Dijkgraaf-Witten theories with abelian gauge group. Surface defects in Dijkgraaf-Witten theories have applications in solid state physics, topological quantum computing and conformal field theory. We explain that symmetries in these topological field theories are naturally defined in terms of invertible topological surface defects and are thus Brauer-Picard groups.

  11. The Characteristics of Broad and Narrow Focal Zone Lithotripters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; VonDerHaar, R. Jason; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.

    2008-09-01

    The focal width of a lithotripter is a measure of the diameter of its focal zone, the region where acoustic pressures are at least half the maximum positive pressure generated at a given power level. Different lithotripters have different focal widths. The Dornier HM3, for example, has a focal width of ˜10-12 mm and for many years this was the widest focal zone among clinical machines. Electromagnetic lithotripters tend to have narrower focal zones, in the range of ˜4-6 mm. Recent studies suggesting that focal width plays an important role in stone breakage prompted this assessment of two electromagnetic lithotripters. Acoustical mapping using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH-500) and breakage of U-30 gypsum model stones were used to compare a conventional lithotripter (Dornier DoLi-50) and a broad focal zone device (XiXin XX-ES). FOPH mapping characterized the focal width of the DoLi to be about 5mm and that of the XX-ES to be much wider (˜18 mm). For stone breakage experiments the DoLi was fired at power level 3 (mid-range) and the XX-ES was operated at the recommended clinical setting of 9.3 kV. Both lithotripters were fired at 60 SW/min. U-30 model stones held in a 2mm mesh basket were positioned at the clinical target point on the acoustic axis and at 5mm steps laterally, and the number of SW's to complete fragmentation was counted. Breakage on-axis was similar for the two machines (DoLi 676±105 SW's versus XX-ES 644±123 SW's, p>0.6), but at 15mm the DoLi required nearly twice the number of SW's as the XX-ES (DoLi 3006±780 SW's versus 1726±972 SW's, p<0.006). This demonstrates that a broad focal zone lithotripter is more effective in breaking stones off axis and supports the idea that focal width is an important feature, likely to be relevant in the clinical setting where respiratory motion may limit the effectiveness of narrow focal zone machines.

  12. Hiperhidrosis focal primaria asociada a eritromelalgia primaria / Primary focal hyperhidrosis associated to primary erythromelalgia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MB, Leroux; CR, Lashak.

    2014-03-30

    Full Text Available Paciente femenina de 30 años de edad que consulta por un cuadro de hiperhidrosis, asociado a sensación de calor desde su niñez. Sufre crisis de calor en cara, cuello, parte superior del tronco y los cuatro miembros, que la inducen a transpirar. Durante estos episodios nota sensación de calor, dolor [...] y con aparición de rubor en manos y pies. Los síntomas ceden con aplicación de frío. Estos síntomas que presenta desde su adolescencia, dificultan el sueño, sus tareas habituales y el trato social. Sus antecedentes familiares respecto del mismo cuadro son floridos. Los estudios hematológicos, inmunológicos, la electromiografía y el ecodoppler de miembros superiores, resultaron dentro de límites normales. En el video sobre capilaroscopía periungueal de manos, se constata cambios micro vasculares inespecíficos. En la prueba de provocación mediante aumento de la temperatura, se obtiene resultado positivo a 39°C para miembros superiores. La paciente presenta signo-sintomatología compatible con hiperhidrosis focal primaria. Los episodios de calor, rubor y dolor de los cuatro miembros, que ceden a la exposición al frío fueron interpretados como eritromelalgia, en base a la clínica y los antecedentes familiares. Para la hiperhidrosis se indica solución de cloruro de aluminio hexa-hidratado al 20%, de aplicación tópica y para la eritromelalgia citrato de magnesio en grageas 528 mg, de dos a cuatro por día. Según la bibliografía por nosotros revisada, la asociación de hiperhidrosis focal primaria y eritromelalgia primaria familiar, no se ha registrado en la literatura. Abstract in english Female patient, aged 30 years-old, attending a medical consultation with hyperhidrosis associated with episodes of warmth and sweating since childhood, located in face, neck, upper thorax and extremities. These episodes are accompanied by heat, pain and reddening in hands and feet. The symptoms disa [...] ppear to cold exposure. These symptoms altered sleep, daily activities and social life. A positive family history with similar clinical characteristics was obtained. Hematological and immunological studies, as well as upper limbs electromyography and ecodoppler are within normal parameters. Unspecific microvascular alterations were observed with finger-periungueal video capillaroscopy. A provoking test yielded positive results when rising temperature to 39°C in upper limbs. The patient symptoms are compatible with focal primary hyperhidrosis. Heat, reddening and pain in the upper and low extremities responding to cold exposure and the positive family history led us to diagnose erythromelalgia. The hyperhidrosis treatment consisted of a topical application of 20% hexhydrate aluminum chloride. For erythromelalgia treatment 528 mg magnesium citrate pills, 2-4 daily were administered. Literature review to find out association of primary focal hyperhidrosis with primary familiar erythromelalgia was negative.

  13. Incidental brane defects

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, T

    2003-01-01

    In the models of brane construction, the isometry of a compactified space might be broken by branes. In four-dimensional effective Lagrangian, the breaking of the isometry is seen as the spontaneous breaking of the corresponding effective symmetry. Then it seems natural to expect that there are various kinds of defects that will be implemented by the spontaneous symmetry breaking. These defects are parametrized by the brane positions. In this paper we consider two kinds of such ``brane defects'', which are formed by the local fluctuations of the locations of branes along their transversal directions. The fluctuation of a brane position might leads to winding (or wraping) around a non-contractible circle of the compactified space. These ``primary'' brane defects are already discussed by several authors. On the other hand, if there are multiple branes in the compactified space and their configuration in a compactified space is determined by the potential that depends only on their relative positions, one might ...

  14. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  15. Quantum computing with defects

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, J. R.; Koehl, W. F.; Varley, J. B.; Janotti, A.; Buckley, B. B.; Walle, C. G.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center stands out for its robustness - its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defect...

  16. Defect scattering in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian-Hao; Cullen, W. G.; Jang, C.; Fuhrer, M. S.; Williams, E D

    2009-01-01

    Irradiation of graphene on SiO2 by 500 eV Ne and He ions creates defects that cause intervalley scattering as evident from a significant Raman D band intensity. The defect scattering gives a conductivity proportional to charge carrier density, with mobility decreasing as the inverse of the ion dose. The mobility decrease is four times larger than for a similar concentration of singly charged impurities. The minimum conductivity decreases proportional to the mobility to value...

  17. Management of Intrathoracic Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-chi; Lo, Steven John; Kim, Joo Hyoung

    2011-01-01

    Intrathoracic defects continue to provide one of the most challenging problems faced by the reconstructive surgeon, particularly in the presence of bronchopleural fistula. We review the principles of management of bronchopleural fistulae and empyema, with an emphasis on the Clagett principle, pedicled and free muscle flaps, and the concept of a “designed air fistula” in bronchopleural fistula management. Although the importance of muscle flap closure in intrathoracic defects is undisputed...

  18. Artificial periodontal defects

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Jan

    1982-01-01

    Artificial periodontal defects in experimental animals have been widely used in the past to study the effects of periodontal treatment procedures. Since the ultimate goal of animal experiments is the extrapolation of the results to t he human situation, the artificially created periodontal defects should resemble the naturally occurring periodontal lesions found in a man, as closely as possible. First, the features of naturally occuring periodontitis are described. Next, results of the histol...

  19. Far-Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.; Sivananthan, S.; Zhou, Y. D.

    The development of focal plane arrays has dramatically increased the sensitivity and efficiency of optical and infrared telescopes. The versatility of HgCdTe alloy technology has been demonstrated by detector arrays with cutoff wavelengths tailored between ?c = 1-10 ?m. Although the cutoff wavelength can theoretically be extended to infinity (zero gap) by increasing the HgTe mole fraction, the required accuracy of the alloy composition is difficult to achieve with conventional liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE). The more recent technique of molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE), on the other hand, provides the necessary precision, and detector arrays appear feasible out to ?c = 100 ?m. Although the alloy approach should work, an alternate device structure may prove superior. Rather than alloying HgTe and CdTe, one can deposit alternating layers of the two materials in a composite structure called a superlattice (SL). Because layer thickness (rather than alloy composition) determines the cutoff wavelength in a SL, this approach should prove easier for fabricating an Eg = 0.01 eV semiconductor. Photodiodes made from SL material should also have lower tunneling currents, which are the dominant source of noise in low gap devices. This talk will describe a NASA-funded project to develop HgCdTe detectors for FIR wavelengths. Work is now in progress on the fabrication of discrete detectors, with emphasis on the superlattice approach. Within 3 years we hope to have a 32 x 32 element array for ? = 50-60 ?m. The ultimate goal is a 128 x 128 element array for ? = 50-100 ?m that could be used on a SOFIA instrument.

  20. Mucinosis bucal focal: Reporte de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Dávila Barrios; Susana, Arteaga Altuve; Belkis, Quiñónez Márquez; Manuel, Molina Barreto; Leonel, Castillo Cáceres.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las mucinosis son dermatosis caracterizadas por el depósito de mucina en la dermis. La mucinosis en la cavidad bucal es poco frecuente y hasta la fecha se han reportado en la literatura 38 casos. Clínicamente se presenta como una elevación asintomática, de consistencia firme, localizada con mayor fr [...] ecuencia en la encía y en la mucosa alveolar. Se reporta el caso de una paciente de 19 años de edad que presentaba una masa voluminosa de aspecto edematoso, superficie lisa, localizada en la encía vestibular entre 23 y 24, de consistencia firma, indolora y de tres años de evolución, con diagnóstico presuntivo de granuloma piógeno o hiperplasia gingival. El estudio de la biopsia reveló procesos fibrilares de aspecto mixoide y acúmulos de células inflamatorias consistentes en neutrófilos, linfocitos, plasmocitos y leucocitos polimorfonucleares. Se estableció el diagnóstico definitivo de mucinosis bucal focal y gingivitis. No se ha observado recurrencia un año después de su remoción Abstract in english Mucinosis are dermatosis characterised by mucin deposit on the dermis. Mucinosis in the oral cavity are not frequent and until this date 38 cases have been reported in literature. Clinically it is presented as an asymptomatic elevation, of firm consistency, more frequently localized in the gum or al [...] veolar mucous. A 19 year old patient case was reported. He had a voluminous mass with an edema aspect, a smooth surface, localized on the vestibular gum between 23 and 24, firm consistency, painless and with three years evolution, with a pyogenic granuloma or gingival hyperplasia alleged diagnose. After the biopsy sample was taken, the hystopatological study revealed fibrillar processes of a mixoid aspect and inflammatory cell accumulations consisting of neutrophiles, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes. A focused oral mucinosis and gingivitis was definitively diagnosed. No recurrence was observed after it was removed

  1. Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) are liver lesions of hepatocellular origin. The FNH is a commonly occurring hepatic lesion whereas HCA is very rare. Non-invasive differentiation between HCA subtypes and atypical FNH may pose a diagnostic challenge as both entities predominantly occur in middle-aged female patients. The conventional imaging modalities include ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Distinguishing FNH from HCA is of great importance clinically as FNH is considered to be a benign lesion and needs no further management. In contrast HCA is considered to be a borderline tumor due to the risk of hemorrhage, growth and even malignant transformation and requires individualized management. The abovementioned radiological procedures usually enable an accurate and certain diagnosis of a typical FNH to be achieved. In cases of atypical FNH, particularly in patients with a clinical history of malignancy, these imaging modalities are insufficient to establish a clear diagnosis. In this scenario, the use of modern hepatobiliary contrast-enhanced MRI will enable a differentiation between FNH and metastasis with a high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it allows a differentiation of FNH from 90 % of adenoma subtypes. This article describes the histopathological and radiological features of these lesions and explains the advantages and limitations of various imaging modalities used for the diagnosis and differentiation of these entities. The new classification of HCAs according to phenotype and genotype and their imaging features, as well as different enhancement patterns, are described. The correlation between HCA subtypes and their individual management are also discussed. (orig.)

  2. Focal splenic disease demonstrated by ultrasound and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with focal splenic disease were analyzed retrospectively to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) in the detection and analysis of focal splenic lesions. Lesions were detected in all 25 patients by ultrsonography and in 22 of 25 patients by CT. Ultrasonography appears to be more sensitive in the detection of focal lymphoma within the spleen and may be slightly more sensitive in the detection of microabscesses. CT may offer more specific information regarding the nature of certain lesions, including the detection of cyst wall calcification, gas within an abscess, and the specific site of origin of tumor invading the spleen. Ultrasonography may at times be more specific in the diagnosis of cystic lesions. We recommend ultrasonography as the first method for splenic imaging with CT used when necessary for further characterization of focal lesions

  3. Oral focal mucinosis: a rare case with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, G V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Nahar, Prashant; Aggarwal, Hersheal

    2015-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is an unusual disease that affects diverse localised areas of the mouth, where the connective tissue undergoes focal degeneration. It was described for the first time by Tomich in 1974. It presents as an asymptomatic pedunculated or sessile growth, commonly on the gingiva, with most cases being in women. Its pathogenesis is linked to overproduction of hyaluronic acid by fibroblasts during collagen production, ensuing in focal myxoid degeneration. It has no characteristic features and diagnosis depends on histological scrutiny. We report a rare case of oral focal mucinosis affecting a 54-year-old man who presented with a sessile gingival growth mimicking a common tumour-like lesion. PMID:25759271

  4. A practical approach to management of focal hand dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia can be focal, segmental, multifocal, generalized, or hemidystonia. Focal dystonia is localized to a specific part of the body. Overall upper limb is more commonly involved in focal dystonia than lower limb and since it starts from hand, focal hand dystonia (FHD) is a more accepted terminology. Writer's cramp and musician dystonia are commonest types of FHD. Typically this dystonia is task specific, but in some patients this specificity may be lost over a period of time. Segmental or generalized dystonia may also start as FHD, so a detailed clinical assessment is required, which should be supplemented by relevant investigations. Treatment includes oral medications, injection botulinum toxin, neurosurgery including neurostimulation, and rehabilitation. Role of injection botulinum toxin has been extensively studied in writer's cramp patients and found to be effective; however, selection of muscles and techniques of injection are crucial in getting best results. PMID:26019409

  5. Mechanical design and analysis of focal plate for gravity deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Hongzhuan; Li, Kexuan; Zhou, Zengxiang

    2014-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. To conduct accurate deformation measurement for focal plate in different status, a 6-DOF hexapod platform was used for attitude adjustment. For the small adjustment range of a classic 6-DOF hexapod platform, an improved structural arrangement method was proposed in the paper to achieve ultimate adjustment of the focal plate in horizontal and vertical direction. To validate the feasibility of this method, an angle change model which used ball hinge was set up for the movement and base plate. Simulation results in MATLAB suggested that the ball hinge angle change of movement and base plate is within the range of the limiting angle in the process of the platform plate adjusting to ultimate attitude. The proposed method has some guiding significance for accurate surface measurement of focal plate.

  6. Hiperplasia epitelial focal. Tratamiento conservador con ácido tricloroacético: Conservative treatment with trichloroacetic acid / Focal epithelial hyperplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan, Harris Ricardo; Katherine, Vásquez Sanjuán; Natalia, Fortich Mesa.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia epitelial focal conocida también como enfermedad de Heck es una patología benigna que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples pápulas en la mucosa de la cavidad bucal, producida por el virus del papiloma humano afectando principalmente niños y adolescentes. Se reporta caso clínic [...] o de paciente femenina de 7 años de edad, remitida por odontopediatría al servicio de estomatología y cirugía oral, por presentar múltiples pápulas en mucosa bucal, de tamaño variable, asintomáticas y de 8 meses de evolución, se realizó biopsia excisional en una de las lesiones y el estudio anatomopatológico reportó hiperplasia epitelial sin atipias; como terapéutica se aplicó ácido tricloroacético al 80%, observándose resolución de las lesiones con seis topicaciones. Abstract in english Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia also known as Heck's disease is a benign pathology characterized by the presence of multiple papules in the mucosa of the oral cavity, produced by the human papilloma virus affecting mainly children and adolescents. A clinical case of a 7 year old female patient was repo [...] rted who was referred by Pediatric Dentistry to the Stomatology and Oral surgery Service due to the presence of multiple papules in the oral mucosa which were variable in size, asymptomatic and had a history of 8 months; an excisional biopsy was performed in one of the lesions and the anatomic pathological study reported epithelial hyperplasia without atypia. Trichloroacetic acid at 80% was applied as treatment and resolution of the lesions was observed with six topical applications.

  7. Hiperceratose focal acral associada à hipocromia de dermatóglifos / Focal acral hyperkeratosis with hypochromic dermatoglyphics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Rheingantz da, Cunha Filho; Hiram Larangeira de, Almeida Jr.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiperceratose focal acral é dermatose rara caracterizada por pápulas ceratóticas acrais que afetam preferencialmente as superfícies marginais das mãos e dos pés, pertencendo ao grupo das hiperceratoses marginais. Apresentamos variante inédita de mulher de 45 anos de idade, branca, dona-de-casa, sem [...] história familiar, com lesões ceratóticas papulosas localizadas nos pés e hipocromia de dermatóglifos na região afetada. Histologicamente apresentou hiperortoceratose, desnível da epiderme (degrau), acantose e hipergranulose. Os tratamentos com ceratolíticos tópicos foram ineficientes, de forma semelhante aos casos descritos na literatura atual. Abstract in english Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare condition, characterized by acral keratotic papules that preferably affect hand and foot surfaces, and are included in the spectrum of marginal papular keratodermas. We report an unpublished variant of this condition, the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman wit [...] h acral keratotic papular lesions and hypochromic dermatoglyphics in the feet. Histological examination revealed orthohyperkeratosis, depression of the epidermis, acanthosis and hypergranulosis. Topical treatments with keratolytics were ineffective, similarly to previously described cases.

  8. Hiperceratose focal acral associada à hipocromia de dermatóglifos Focal acral hyperkeratosis with hypochromic dermatoglyphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiperceratose focal acral é dermatose rara caracterizada por pápulas ceratóticas acrais que afetam preferencialmente as superfícies marginais das mãos e dos pés, pertencendo ao grupo das hiperceratoses marginais. Apresentamos variante inédita de mulher de 45 anos de idade, branca, dona-de-casa, sem história familiar, com lesões ceratóticas papulosas localizadas nos pés e hipocromia de dermatóglifos na região afetada. Histologicamente apresentou hiperortoceratose, desnível da epiderme (degrau, acantose e hipergranulose. Os tratamentos com ceratolíticos tópicos foram ineficientes, de forma semelhante aos casos descritos na literatura atual.Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare condition, characterized by acral keratotic papules that preferably affect hand and foot surfaces, and are included in the spectrum of marginal papular keratodermas. We report an unpublished variant of this condition, the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with acral keratotic papular lesions and hypochromic dermatoglyphics in the feet. Histological examination revealed orthohyperkeratosis, depression of the epidermis, acanthosis and hypergranulosis. Topical treatments with keratolytics were ineffective, similarly to previously described cases.

  9. Delivering rhFGF-18 via a bilayer collagen membrane to enhance microfracture treatment of chondral defects in a large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Daniel; Wardale, John; Guehring, Hans; Henson, Frances

    2015-08-01

    Augmented microfracture techniques use growth factors, cells, and/or scaffolds to enhance the healing of microfracture-treated cartilage defects. This study investigates the effect of delivering recombinant human fibroblastic growth factor 18 (rhFHF18, Sprifermin) via a collagen membrane on the healing of a chondral defect treated with microfracture in an ovine model. Eight millimeter diameter chondral defects were created in the medial femoral condyle of 40 sheep (n?=?5/treatment group). Defects were treated with microfracture alone, microfracture?+?intra-articular rhFGF-18 or microfracture?+?rhFGF-18 delivered on a membrane. Outcome measures included mechanical testing, weight bearing, International Cartilage Repair Society repair score, modified O'Driscoll score, qualitative histology, and immunohistochemistry for types I and II collagen. In animals treated with 32??g rhFGF-18?+?membrane and intra-articularly, there was a statistically significant improvement in weight bearing at 2 and 4 weeks post surgery and in the modified O'Driscoll score compared to controls. In addition, repair tissue stained was more strongly stained for type II collagen than for type I collagen. rhFGF-18 delivered via a collagen membrane at the point of surgery potentiates the healing of a microfracture treated cartilage defect. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1120-1127, 2015. PMID:25721940

  10. Flexiteste: proposição de cinco índices de variabilidade da mobilidade articular Flexitest: proposal of five variability indices for joint mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    A flexibilidade pode ser definida como a máxima amplitude fisiológica passiva em um dado movimento articular. A flexibilidade é específica para a articulação e para o movimento. O Flexiteste, originalmente descrito em 1980, permite a medida da flexibilidade de 20 movimentos articulares, em uma escala crescente de números inteiros entre 0 e 4, e a obtenção de um resultado global denominado de Flexíndice. Considerando que o mesmo Flexíndice pode ser obtido por diferentes combinaçõe...

  11. Early articular cartilage degeneration in a developmental dislocation of the hip model results from activation of ?-catenin

    OpenAIRE

    NING, BO; Sun, Jun; Yuan, Yi; YAO, JIE; Wang, Peng; Ruixue MA

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dislocation or dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is one of the most common deformities in children. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent long-term complication. The molecular mechanism of early articular cartilage degeneration in DDH is still unclear. It is well known that ?-catenin plays a crucial role in articular cartilage degeneration. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between ?-catenin and DDH cartilage degeneration. We used a DDH model that was establ...

  12. Expression and significance of transient receptor potential cation channel V5 in articular cartilage cells under exercise loads

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, XIAONAN; Wang, Wei; MIAO, JIANING; BAI, LUNHAO

    2014-01-01

    The expression of transient receptor potential cation channel V5 (TRPV5) in articular cartilage cells under normal and exercise loading conditions was measured, and the clinical significance, in order to define its role in the formation of articular cartilage tissues was analyzed. In normal and osteoarthritis (OA) Sprague Dawley rats the severity of injury was observed, TRPV5 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry following exercise loading, and its association with clinical patholog...

  13. Modeling of Neutral Solute Transport in a Dynamically Loaded Porous Permeable Gel: Implications for Articular Cartilage Biosynthesis and Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mauck, Robert L; Hung, Clark T.; ATESHIAN, GERARD A.

    2003-01-01

    A primary mechanism of solute transport in articular cartilage is believed to occur through passive diffusion across the articular surface, but cyclical loading has been shown experimentally to enhance the transport of large solutes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dynamic loading within a theoretical context, and to investigate the circumstances under which convective transport induced by dynamic loading might supplement diffusive transport. The theory of incompressi...

  14. Sulfato de condroitina e hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da doença articular degenerativa experimental em cães: aspectos clínicos e radiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Melo E.G.; Rezende C.M.F.; Gomes M.G.; Freitas P.M.; Arias S. S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Avaliaram-se clínica e radiograficamente os efeitos do sulfato de condroitina e do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da articulação femorotibiopatelar de cães com doença articular degenerativa (DAD) induzida experimentalmente. Foram utilizados 15 cães, sem raça definida, de ambos os sexos, pesando entre 18 e 25 kg, submetidos à secção artroscópica do ligamento cruzado cranial (LCCr) para desestabilização articular e indução da DAD. Após três semanas de instabilidade articul...

  15. Nfat1 Regulates Adult Articular Chondrocyte Function through Its Age-Dependent Expression Mediated by Epigenetic Histone Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodova, Marianna; Lu, Qinghua; Li, Ye; Woodbury, Brent G.; Crist, Jamie D.; Gardner, Brian M.; Yost, John G.; Zhong, Xiao-bo; Anderson, H. Clarke; Wang, Jinxi

    2011-01-01

    The development of disease-modifying pharmacologic therapy for osteoarthritis (OA) currently faces major obstacles, largely because the regulatory mechanisms for the function of adult articular chondrocytes remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that lack of Nfat1, one of the NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) transcription factors, causes OA-like changes in adult mice. This study aimed to identify whether Nfat1 specifically regulates adult articular chondrocyte function and its a...

  16. Myosin II-Mediated Focal Adhesion Maturation Is Tension Insensitive

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Jonathan; Beckham, Yvonne; Davidson, Michael W.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II motors drive changes in focal adhesion morphology and composition in a “maturation process” that is crucial for regulating adhesion dynamics and signaling guiding cell adhesion, migration and fate. The underlying mechanisms of maturation, however, have been obscured by the intermingled effects of myosin II on lamellar actin architecture, dynamics and force transmission. Here, we show that focal adhesion growth rate stays constant even when cellular tension is reduced by 75%. Foc...

  17. Myosin II-mediated focal adhesion maturation is tension insensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Jonathan; Beckham, Yvonne; Davidson, Michael W; Gardel, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II motors drive changes in focal adhesion morphology and composition in a "maturation process" that is crucial for regulating adhesion dynamics and signaling guiding cell adhesion, migration and fate. The underlying mechanisms of maturation, however, have been obscured by the intermingled effects of myosin II on lamellar actin architecture, dynamics and force transmission. Here, we show that focal adhesion growth rate stays constant even when cellular tension is reduced by 75%. Focal adhesion growth halts only when myosin stresses are sufficiently low to impair actin retrograde flow. Focal adhesion lifetime is reduced at low levels of cellular tension, but adhesion stability can be rescued at low levels of force by over-expression of ?-actinin or constitutively active Dia1. Our work identifies a minimal myosin activity threshold that is necessary to drive lamellar actin retrograde flow is sufficient to permit focal adhesion elongation. Above this nominal threshold, myosin-mediated actin organization and dynamics regulate focal adhesion growth and stability in a force-insensitive fashion. PMID:23923013

  18. Focal osteolysis in total hip replacement: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the CT findings of focal osteolysis following total hip replacement (THR). CT imaging features of 30 THRs with focal osteolysis visualized on follow-up radiographs and undertaken revision surgery were reviewed. On CT scans, the shape and anatomic location of osteolytic lesions was recorded, as well as their size and number. The presence of cortical disruption or expansion, liner wear, metallosis, and heterotopic ossification was also noted. In each case, surgical and histologic findings were correlated with imaging features. Focal osteolysis was common in the superior part of acetabular and femoral components. CT features of focal osteolysis were multiple, expansile, oval, or round radiolucencies, which were conglomerated into multilobular shape. The cortex adjacent to the osteolytic lesions revealed irregular thinning and discontinuity (29/30, 97%) accompanied by a few tiny fragments. Liner wear was common (27/30, 90%), and metallosis was frequent (8/30, 26.7%). Pathologic results were foreign body reaction in 20 patients, chronic inflammation in eight, and fibrosis in two. CT appearances of focal osteolysis following THR are multilobulated lucent areas with expansile periosteal reaction and cortical abnormalities, mimicking infection or tumor. We consider that CT is useful for the prediction and assessment of the nature and extent of focal osteolysis. (orig.)

  19. Thermomechanical architecture of the VIS focal plane for Euclid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignac, Jérôme; Carty, Michaël.; Tourette, Thierry; Bachet, Damien; Berthé, Michel; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Amiaux, Jérôme; Fontignie, Jean; Horeau, Benoît; Renaud, Diana; Pottinger, Sabrina; Denniston, James; Winter, Berend; Guttridge, Phillip; Cole, Richard; Cropper, Mark; Niemi, Sami; Coker, John; Hunt, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    One of the main challenges for current and near future space experiments is the increase of focal plane complexity in terms of amount of pixels. In the frame work of the ESA Euclid mission to be launched in 2020, the Euclid Consortium is developing an extremely large and stable focal plane for the VIS instrument. CEA has developed the thermomechanical architecture of that Focal Plane taking into account all the very stringent performance and mission related requirements. The VIS Focal Plane Assembly integrates 36 CCDs (operated at 150K) connected to their front end electronics (operated at 280K) as to obtain one of the largest focal plane (˜0.6 billion pixels) ever built for space application after the GAIA one. The CCDs are CCD273 type specially designed and provided by the e2v company under ESA contract, front end electronics is studied and provided by MSSL. In this paper we first recall the specific requirements that have driven the overall architecture of the VIS-FPA and especially the solutions proposed to cope with the scientific needs of an extremely stable focal plane, both mechanically and thermally. The mechanical structure based on SiC material used for the cold sub assembly supporting the CCDs is detailed. We describe also the modular architecture concept that we have selected taking into account AIT-AIV and programmatic constraints.

  20. Reliability and validity of ICARS in focal cerebellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Beate; Regel, Jens Peter; Frings, Markus; Gerwig, Marcus; Maschke, Matthias; Neuhäuser, Markus; Timmann, Dagmar

    2007-11-15

    To evaluate the therapies for cerebellar diseases appropriate neurological assessment methods to measure severity of ataxia are required. Reliability and validity of the semiquantitative International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) has recently been examined in patients with degenerative ataxias. We evaluated reliability (internal consistency), criterion-related validity and internal construct validity of ICARS for the first time in patients with focal cerebellar lesions (68 patients with surgical lesions and 68 patients with ischemic lesions). For comparison 45 patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia were included. We found an excellent Cronbach's alpha as a measurement for internal consistency which was independent from underlying disease. Criterion-related validity was high. Total ICARS score mirrored clearly the immediate postsurgical worsening and the improvement during the first 3 months after focal surgical and ischemic lesions, whereas in chronic state of focal and degenerative cerebellar disorders ICARS score remained nearly unchanged. Principal component analysis in patients with focal lesions revealed five distinct and clinically meaningful factors which corresponded to the four ICARS subscores and reflected the laterality of kinetic functions. In degenerative disorders, however, the items for the subscore "kinetic function" loaded to more than one factor. Total ICARS score seems to be a useful and valid measurement to describe the time course of ataxia in patients with focal and degenerative disorders affecting primarily the cerebellum. Validity of subscores however is good in focal, but not in degenerative disorders. PMID:17712842

  1. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes d 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation. (orig.)

  2. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna; Stanton, Paul; De Smet, Arthur [University of Wisconsin Hospital Clinical Science Center-E3/311, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Fine, Jason [University of Wisconsin Clinical Science Center-K6/4675, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation. (orig.)

  3. In situ measurements of human articular cartilage stiffness by means of a scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoarthritis is a painful and disabling progressive joint disease, characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. In order to study this disease at early stages, we have miniaturized and integrated a complete scanning force microscope into a standard arthroscopic device fitting through a standard orthopedic canula. This instrument will allow orthopedic surgeons to measure the mechanical properties of articular cartilage at the nanometer and micrometer scale in-vivo during a standard arthroscopy. An orthopedic surgeon assessed the handling of the instrument. First measurements of the elasticity-modulus of human cartilage were recorded in a cadaver knee non minimal invasive. Second, minimally invasive experiments were performed using arthroscopic instruments. Load-displacement curves were successfully recorded

  4. Transosseous arthroscopic repair of partial articular-surface supraspinatus tendon tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Mark; Koller, Heiko; Resch, Herbert

    2008-06-01

    Partial articular-surface tendon avulsion (PASTA) lesions of the supraspinatus muscle represent a common cause for shoulder impairment and a preceding pathology for full-thickness tendon tears. Arthroscopic tendon repair is a possible surgical method of treatment. The purposes of cuff repair are anatomical tendon healing, prevention of tear size progression to completion and reduction of shoulder pain. In this report, we describe a transtendon arthroscopic technique of transosseous refixation of articular-side partial tears leaving the bursal layer of the supraspinatus tendon intact. A curved hollow needle is used to perform an all arthroscopic transosseous mattress suture. Thus, anatomical tendon-to-bone contact of the rotator cuff to the footprint is restored. Preliminary clinical results of 16 patients are convincing with significant pain relief and functional improvement. PMID:18418574

  5. In situ measurements of human articular cartilage stiffness by means of a scanning force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imer, Raphael [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Akiyama, Terunobu [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Rooij, Nico F de [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Stolz, Martin [Maurice E. Mueller Institute, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Aebi, Ueli [Maurice E. Mueller Institute, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Kilger, Robert [Clinics for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Kantonsspital, 4101 Bruderholz (Switzerland); Friederich, Niklaus F [Clinics for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Kantonsspital, 4101 Bruderholz (Switzerland); Wirz, Dieter [Lab. for Orthopaedic Biomechanics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 50-70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Daniels, A U [Lab. for Orthopaedic Biomechanics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 50-70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Staufer, Urs [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    Osteoarthritis is a painful and disabling progressive joint disease, characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. In order to study this disease at early stages, we have miniaturized and integrated a complete scanning force microscope into a standard arthroscopic device fitting through a standard orthopedic canula. This instrument will allow orthopedic surgeons to measure the mechanical properties of articular cartilage at the nanometer and micrometer scale in-vivo during a standard arthroscopy. An orthopedic surgeon assessed the handling of the instrument. First measurements of the elasticity-modulus of human cartilage were recorded in a cadaver knee non minimal invasive. Second, minimally invasive experiments were performed using arthroscopic instruments. Load-displacement curves were successfully recorded.

  6. [Alteration of the mechanical properties of cartilage after intra-articular administration of drugs in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weh, L; Ebens, B; Binzus, G; Benckendorff, P

    1983-01-01

    In this study the biomechanical effect of intra-articularly applicable drugs on the articular cartilage was analyzed in vitro. Arthrotic cartilage cylinders from tibia plateaus were used, which were removed during endoprosthetic joint replacement. The elasticity of these specimens were measured before and after a 12-day incubation in a medium containing Hank's solution and serum. Five successive loading and unloading cycles from 0 to 10 N were applied, using an indenter with a diameter of 3 mm. The indentation velocity was 0.2 mm/s. Drugs with different postulated influence on the cartilage metabolism were added in various concentrations. A change in the mechanical behavior of the cartilage in relation to drug concentration could be seen in most of the medications; the change could be described using a 3rd-degree polynoma. The possible influence of this biomechanical alteration on arthrotic pain and arthrotic progression is discussed. PMID:6229019

  7. On the problem of knee joint articular space in the X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the width of the intraarticular space were performed in X-ray films of 64 human knee joints (32 patients), taken laterally, and in standing position after 24 hours of rest in bed or after exposure to load for one hour. In more than half of the knee joints, the width of the intraarticular space increased after load. However, the distance between the articular surfaces rarely changed in the same patient in the same sense in the right and left knee joint, respectively medially and laterally. Hence, this method of indirect measurement of the cartilaginous layer is unsuitable, and the question raised in literature regarding the cartilaginous changes under load can be explained as being due to influx of fluid or as an expression of the viso-elastic properties of the articular cartilage. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

  8. Intra-articular morphine and bupivacaine analgesia after arthroscopic knee surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, T K; Appadurai, I R; Power, I; Rosen, M; Grant, A

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of intra-articular solutions of morphine, bupivacaine with adrenaline and a combination of both, compared with placebo in facilitating mobilisation and reducing postoperative pain and analgesic requirements for 24 h after operation. Forty patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery were studied in a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. All treatments proved more effective than placebo in facilitating earlier mobilisation and in decreasing postoperative pain as measured by visual analogue scale. Morphine alone provided the best analgesia and significantly decreased analgesic consumption for 24 h after surgery. We conclude that 1 mg of intra-articular morphine provides effective pain relief following arthroscopic knee surgery and that the addition of bupivacaine is of no benefit. PMID:8311214

  9. The classifying algebra for defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Juergen, E-mail: jfuchs@fuchs.tekn.kau.s [Teoretisk fysik, Karlstads Universitet, Universitetsgatan 21, S-65188 Karlstad (Sweden); Schweigert, Christoph [Organisationseinheit Mathematik, Universitaet Hamburg, Bereich Algebra und Zahlentheorie, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Stigner, Carl [Teoretisk fysik, Karlstads Universitet, Universitetsgatan 21, S-65188 Karlstad (Sweden)

    2011-02-21

    We demonstrate that topological defects in a rational conformal field theory can be described by a classifying algebra for defects - a finite-dimensional semisimple unital commutative associative algebra whose irreducible representations give the defect transmission coefficients. We show in particular that the structure constants of the classifying algebra are traces of operators on spaces of conformal blocks and that the defect transmission coefficients determine the defect partition functions.

  10. The classifying algebra for defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that topological defects in a rational conformal field theory can be described by a classifying algebra for defects - a finite-dimensional semisimple unital commutative associative algebra whose irreducible representations give the defect transmission coefficients. We show in particular that the structure constants of the classifying algebra are traces of operators on spaces of conformal blocks and that the defect transmission coefficients determine the defect partition functions.

  11. Osteochondral defect repair using a polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid (PVA-PAAc) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichara, David A; Bodugoz-Sentruk, Hatice; Ling, Doris; Malchau, Erik; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-08-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels can be candidates for articular cartilage repair due to their high water content. We synthesized a PVA-poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel formulation and determined its ability to function as a treatment option for condylar osteochondral (OC) defects in a New Zealand white rabbit (NZWR) model for 12 weeks and 24 weeks. In addition to hydrogel OC implants, tensile bar-shaped hydrogels were also implanted subcutaneously to evaluate changes in mechanical properties as a function of in vivo duration. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the water content measured in the OC hydrogel implant that was harvested after 12 weeks and 24 weeks, and non-implanted controls. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the break stress, strain at break or modulus of the tensile bars either between groups. Histological analysis of the OC defect, synovial capsule and fibrous tissue around the tensile bars determined hydrogel biocompatibility. Twelve-week hydrogels were found to be in situ flush with the articular cartilage; meniscal tissue demonstrated an intact surface. Twenty-four week hydrogels protruded from the defect site due to lack of integration with subchondral tissue, causing fibrillation to the meniscal surface. Condylar micro-CT scans ruled out osteolysis and bone cysts of the subchondral bone, and no PVA-PAAc hydrogel contents were found in the synovial fluid. The PVA-PAAc hydrogel was determined to be fully biocompatible, maintained its properties over time, and performed well at the 12 week time point. Physical fixation of the PVA-PAAc hydrogel to the subchondral bone is required to ensure long-term performance of hydrogel plugs for OC defect repair. PMID:25050611

  12. Synovial fluid filtration by articular cartilage in the human synovial joints.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavá?ek, Miroslav

    Svratka : Ústav termomechaniky AV?R, 2005 - (Fuis, V.; Návrat, T.), s. 113-114 ISBN 80-85918-93-5. [Inženýrská mechanika 2005. Svratka (CZ), 09.05.2005-12.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA103/04/0150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : synovial fluid filtration * articular cartilage * synovial joint Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  13. Acute arthritis after intra-articular hyaluronate injection: onset of effusions without crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardeau, C; Bucki, B; Liote, F

    2001-01-01

    Side effects of intra-articular hyaluronate injection include aseptic acute arthritis, which develops within hours after injection. Based on standard crystal analysis, calcium crystal shedding has been postulated to explain this complication. However, it is not known whether apatite crystals or low amounts of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are also involved as to determine this requires a complete synovial fluid (SF) analysis. Two cases of such an acute arthritis are reported...

  14. Role of sox9 in growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Wang, Congrong; Acton, Anthony J; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2015-07-01

    Chondrogenic polypeptide growth factors influence articular chondrocyte functions that are required for articular cartilage repair. Sox9 is a transcription factor that regulates chondrogenesis, but its role in the growth factor regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis is poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that selected chondrogenic growth factors regulate sox9 gene expression and protein production by adult articular chondrocytes and that sox9 modulates the actions of these growth factors. To test these hypotheses, we delivered insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and/or bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), or their respective transgenes to adult bovine articular chondrocytes, and measured changes in sox9 gene expression and protein production. We then knocked down sox9 gene expression with sox9 siRNA, and measured changes in the expression of the genes encoding aggrecan and types I and II collagen, and in the production of glycosaminoglycan, collagen and DNA. We found that FGF-2 or the combination of IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 increased sox9 gene expression and protein production and that sox9 knockdown modulated growth factor actions in a complex fashion that differed both with growth factors and with chondrocyte function. The data suggest that sox9 mediates the stimulation of matrix production by the combined growth factors and the stimulation of chondrocyte proliferation by FGF-2. The mitogenic effect of the combined growth factors and the catabolic effect of FGF-2 appear to involve sox9-independent mechanisms. Control of these molecular mechanisms may contribute to the treatment of cartilage damage. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1391-1400, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25708223

  15. Accuracy of ultrasound-guided injections of thoracolumbar articular process joints in horses : a cadaveric study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglbjerg, Vibeke; Nielsen, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: Arthrosis of the articular process joints (APJs) in the caudal thoracolumbar region of horses may cause back pain and subsequent reduced performance or lameness. Ultrasound-guided injections of the APJs of the equine back have been described only briefly in the literature. Objectives: To evaluate factors of affecting the accuracy of intra-articular injections of the APJs in the caudal thoracolumbar region. Method: One-hundred-and-fifty-four injections with blue dye were performed on APJs including the T14-L6 region in 12 horses subjected to euthanasia for reasons unrelated to back problems. The backs were subsequently dissected to verify the location of the injectate in relation to the APJs. Results: Twenty-seven percent of the injections were found to be intra-articular and a total of 77% found to be within 2 mm of the joint capsule including the intra-articular deposits. Application of a medial approach and 18 gauge needle were significantly associated with an intra-articulrinjection or deposition close to the joint capsule. Operator, APJ (location) and back number (chronological) did not significantly affect the accuracy of injection. Conclusions and potential relevance: Injection of the vertebral APJ in the thoracolumbar region using ultrasound guidance is a reliable method, as most of the injections were either in or within 2 mm of the joint. Based on the findings of this cadaver study, the medial approach is expected to be the most accurate in live horses. Further investigations are required to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of this method in clinical practice.

  16. Intra-articular corticosteroids are effective in osteoarthritis but there are no clinical predictors of response.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.; Doherty, M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To show whether intra-articular steroid injections are effective in osteoarthritis; to determine factors that predict response; and to determine whether injection has a beneficial effect on muscle strength. METHODS: Double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study in 59 patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Outcome measure-Primary outcome measure: change in visual analogue score for pain at three weeks. Predictors of response analysed using logistic regression wit...

  17. Behavioral Trait of Morningness-Eveningness in Association with Articular and Spinal Diseases in a Population

    OpenAIRE

    Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Seitsalo, Seppo; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed that the more the preference to schedule daily activities towards the evening hours is, the higher the odds for a range of health hazards are. Therefore, we wanted to analyze, whether the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness is associated with articular and spinal diseases or those with musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n?=?6089), as part of the National FINRISK 2007 Study, were derived from the general population, aged 25 to 74 years, living in...

  18. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor in leprosy patients with articular involvement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.L.E., Ribeiro; H.L.A., Pereira; N.P., Silva; R.M.S., Neves; E.I., Sato.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to evaluate the usefulness of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and the IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF) test for the differential diagnosis of leprosy with articular involvement and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Anti-CCP antibodies and IgM [...] RF were measured in the sera of 158 leprosy patients (76 with and 82 without articular involvement), 69 RA patients and 89 healthy controls. Leprosy diagnosis was performed according to Ridley and Jopling classification criteria and clinical and demographic characteristics of leprosy patients were collected by a standard questionnaire. Leprosy patients with any concomitant rheumatic disease were excluded. Serum samples were obtained from all participants and frozen at _20°C. Measurement of anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were performed by ELISA, using a commercial second-generation kit, and the latex agglutination test, respectively. Anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were detected in low frequencies (2.6 and 1.3%, respectively) in leprosy patients and were not associated with articular involvement. Among healthy individuals both anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF were each detected in 3.4% of the subjects. In contrast, in the RA group, anti-CCP antibodies were present in 81.2% and IgM RF in 62.3%. In the present study, both anti-CCP antibodies and IgM RF showed good positive predictive value for RA, helping to discriminate between RA and leprosy patients with articular involvement. However, anti-CCP antibodies were more specific for RA diagnosis in the population under study.

  19. Viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage attached to subchondral bone at high frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Duncan ET

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is a viscoelastic material, but its exact behaviour under the full range of physiological loading frequencies is unknown. The objective of this study was to measure the viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage at loading frequencies of up to 92 Hz. Methods Intact tibial plateau cartilage, attached to subchondral bone, was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. A sinusoidally varying compressive force of between 16 N and 36 N, at frequencies from 1 Hz to 92 Hz, was applied to the cartilage surface by a flat indenter. The storage modulus, loss modulus and phase angle (between the applied force and the deformation induced were determined. Results The storage modulus, E', increased with increasing frequency, but at higher frequencies it tended towards a constant value. Its dependence on frequency, f, could be represented by, E' = Aloge (f + B where A = 2.5 ± 0.6 MPa and B = 50.1 ± 12.5 MPa (mean ± standard error. The values of the loss modulus (4.8 ± 1.0 MPa mean ± standard deviation were much less than the values of storage modulus and showed no dependence on frequency. The phase angle was found to be non-zero for all frequencies tested (4.9 ± 0.6°. Conclusion Articular cartilage is viscoelastic throughout the full range of frequencies investigated. The behaviour has implications for mechanical damage to articular cartilage and the onset of osteoarthritis. Storage modulus increases with frequency, until the plateau region is reached, and has a higher value than loss modulus. Furthermore, loss modulus does not increase with loading frequency. This means that more energy is stored by the tissue than is dissipated and that this effect is greater at higher frequencies. The main mechanism for this excess energy to be dissipated is by the formation of cracks.

  20. Radiolabeled anti granulocyte antibodies in the detection of osteo-articular prosthesis infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled anti-granulocyte antibodies (immunoscintigraphy) are of demonstrated effectiveness in the diagnosis of infection. The osteo-articular prosthesis infection, instead of its low prevalence, needs an accurate and fast diagnosis. The immunoscintigraphy in this group of patients is a debated subject as the results seem to be related to the experience, interpretation criteria and patients clinical features. In general, immunoscintigraphy is an useful technique with an easy, safe and fast preparation. (author)

  1. The sinus tarsi approach in displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Although open reduction and internal fixation is currently considered the gold standard in surgical treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures, various different approaches exist including the limited lateral approach. The aim of this systematic review was to combine the results of studies using the sinus tarsi approach, which is the most frequently applied limited lateral approach. Method: A literature search in the electronic databases of the Cochrane Library and Pu...

  2. More intrinsic parameters should be used in assessing degeneration of articular cartilage with quantitative ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yan-Ping

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, the quantitative ultrasound technique has been widely employed as a versatile modality to investigate a thin but crucial tissue layer – the articular cartilage. Previous studies provide information about the morphology and mechanical and acoustic properties of the tissue derived from ultrasound measurements and correlate them with cartilage degeneration. In a previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Kuroki and colleagues presented a study about the relationshi...

  3. Altered osmotic swelling behavior of proteoglycan-depleted bovine articular cartilage using high frequency ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swelling behavior is an electrochemical mechanical property of articular cartilage. It plays an important role in weight bearing and joint lubrication. In this study, the altered transient and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of the degenerated articular cartilage was observed and quantified in situ using ultrasound. Three groups of bovine patellar articular cartilage samples (n = 10 x 3) were obtained and digested by trypsin for 10, 20 and 30 min respectively to mimic different levels of degeneration. The osmotic-free shrinkage and swelling behavior induced by changing the concentration of the bathing saline solution from 0.15 M to 2 M and then back to 0.15 M were characterized using high-frequency ultrasound (central frequency = 35 MHz) before and after digestion. It was found that the degenerated cartilage specimens showed a weaker shrinkage-swelling behavior compared with the normal cartilage samples. However, no significant differences in the peak shrinkage or swelling strains were observed between different groups. The absolute values of the peak shrinkage strain significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 45.4%, 42.1% and 50.6% respectively after the trypsin digestion for 10, 20 and 30 min, but such significance was not demonstrated for the peak swelling strains. Due to the potential alterations in the collagen-PG matrix during trypsin digestion, the correlation between the swelling strain and the shrinkage strain of the degenerated samples changed slightly in comparierated samples changed slightly in comparison with the normal samples. The proposed ultrasound method has been successfully used to measure the transient and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of the degenerated articular cartilage and has the potential for the characterization of osteoarthritis

  4. The effects of osmotic stress on the viscoelastic and physical properties of articular chondrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Guilak, Farshid; Erickson, Geoffrey R; Ting-Beall, H Ping

    2002-01-01

    The metabolic activity of chondrocytes in articular cartilage is influenced by alterations in the osmotic environment of the tissue, which occur secondary to mechanical compression. The mechanism by which osmotic stress modulates cell physiology is not fully understood and may involve changes in the physical properties of the membrane or the cytoskeleton. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the osmotic environment on the mechanical and physical properties of chondrocytes. In...

  5. Microscale Frictional Response of Bovine Articular Cartilage from Atomic Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seonghun; Costa, Kevin D.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare micro- and macroscale friction coefficients of bovine articular cartilage. Microscale measurements were performed using standard atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, using a 5 ?m spherical probe tip. Twenty four cylindrical osteochondral plugs were harvested in pairs from adjacent positions in six fresh bovine humeral heads (4-6 months old), and divided into two groups for AFM and macroscopic friction measurements. AFM measurements of friction ...

  6. Analgesic effect of intra-articular magnesium sulphate compared with bupivacaine after knee arthroscopic menisectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Radwan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular injection of magnesium sulphate (4% compared with equivalent volume of bupivacaine (0.5% after outpatient knee arthroscopic meniscectomy. Forty patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group M (n = 20 received intra-articular magnesium sulphate 4%, group B (n = 20 received bupivacaine (0.5%. Analgesic effect was evaluated by analgesic duration, and by measuring pain intensity at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h both at rest and on knee movement to 90°. The primary outcome variable was pain intensity on the VAS at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h post arthroscopy at rest and on movement (flexion of knee to 90°, although the magnesium group had lower time weighted averages (TWAs at rest and on movement, these TWAs were not statistically significant. The median duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly longer in the patients treated with magnesium sulphate (528 min than in the bupivacaine group (317 min (p < 0.0001, with less number of patients needing supplementary analgesia in magnesium group (8/20 than those of the bupivacaine group (16/20 (p < 0.022. Also analgesic consumption was significantly lower in the magnesium sulphate group (p < 0.002. We concluded that the use of magnesium sulphate is rational and effective in reducing pain, and is more physiological and shortens convalescence after outpatient arthroscopic meniscectomy, however our hypotheses that analgesic efficacy of intra-articular isotonic magnesium sulphate would be superior to intra-articular local anaesthetic cannot be supported with this study.

  7. Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Mark R.; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Though remarkably robust, articular cartilage becomes susceptible to damage at high loading rates, particularly under shear. While several studies have measured the local static and steady-state shear properties of cartilage, it is the local viscoelastic properties that determine the tissue's ability to withstand physiological loading regimens. However, measuring local viscoelastic properties requires overcoming technical challenges that include resolving strain fields in both space and time ...

  8. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch Ryan S; Ashwell Melissa S; O’Nan Audrey T; Mente Peter L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Results Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted por...

  9. Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muldrew Ken

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a relatively non-regenerative tissue, articular cartilage has been targeted for cryopreservation as a method of mitigating a lack of donor tissue availability for transplant surgeries. In addition, subzero storage of articular cartilage has long been used in biomedical studies using various storage temperatures. The current investigation studies the potential for freeze-thaw to affect the mechanical properties of articular cartilage through direct comparison of various subzero storage temperatures. Methods Both subzero storage temperature as well as freezing rate were compared using control samples (4°C and samples stored at either -20°C or -80°C as well as samples first snap frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C prior to storage at -80°C. All samples were thawed at 37.5°C to testing temperature (22°C. Complex stiffness and hysteresis characterized load resistance and damping properties using a non-destructive, low force magnitude, dynamic indentation protocol spanning a broad loading rate range to identify the dynamic viscoelastic properties of cartilage. Results Stiffness levels remained unchanged with exposure to the various subzero temperatures. Hysteresis increased in samples snap frozen at -196°C and stored at -80°C, though remained unchanged with exposure to the other storage temperatures. Conclusions Mechanical changes shown are likely due to ice lens creation, where frost heave effects may have caused collagen damage. That storage to -20°C and -80°C did not alter the mechanical properties of articular cartilage shows that when combined with a rapid thawing protocol to 37.5°C, the tissue may successfully be stored at subzero temperatures.

  10. Development of an experimental apparatus to determine impact response of articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Janete; Correia, Pedro Miguel Cerqueira; Peixinho, Nuno; Flores, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    The articulations are subject to static and dynamic loads during daily living. Small impact forces can cause damage on articular surfaces as a result of repetitive impact stress. This paper describes a project for a drop tower to allow dynamic impact test in cartilage tissue aiming to understand the mechanics of the cartilage response to impact and seeking to obtain dynamic properties of cartilage, that are relevant for the description of contact-impact events. An instrumented drop tower was ...

  11. Alteraciones Biomecánicas Articulares en la Obesidad / Biomédical joint disorders in obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Freddy, González Jemio; Omar, Mustafá Milán; Alex, Antezana Arzabe.

    Full Text Available La osteoartrosis en el obeso a nivel de las articulaciones que soportan el peso del cuerpo, es frecuente, por alterarse su biomecánica y tener que soportar grandes tensiones por encima de la resistencia normal de los tejidos. Patologías previas y/o asociadas a la obesidad, producen mala estructuraci [...] ón de las articulaciones estudiadas, lo que provocaría una acelerada evolución de la destrucción del cartílago articular, con el consiguiente agravamiento de la artrosis, limitando la funcionalidad del segmento corporal afectado. El tratamiento del sobrepeso disminuye las fuerzas de tensión a nivel del cartílago articular y por consiguiente mejora la sintomatología clínica, lo que permite inferir que debe siempre tratarse inicialmente la obesidad, para después planificar el tratamiento quirúrgico que corresponda. Debemos considerar que el manejo adecuado de éste tipo de pacientes debe ser siempre multidisciplinario. En la presente revisión pretendemos demostrar el efecto nocivo del sobrepeso en las articulaciones que soportan el peso corporal: columna lumbo-sacra, caderas, rodillas y tobillos. Abstract in english Osteoarthrosis of joints that support body weight in the obese are very common, having altered biomechanics and having to withstand high weights above the normal resistance of the tissues. Previous pathologies and/or associated with obesity, produce structural joint alterations, causing a rapid evol [...] ution to articular cartilage destruction, leading to aggravation of osteoarthritis, limiting the functionality of the affected body segment. Treatment of overweight decreases the tensional forces at the articular cartilage and therefore improves the clinical symptoms, which can be inferred that should always be treated initially the problem of obesity, and the plan the appropriate surgical treatment. We consider that proper management of these patients should always be multidisciplinary. In this review we aim to prove the harmful effects of excess weight-bearing joints in the body weight: lumbosacral spine, hips, knees and ankles.

  12. Foetal and postnatal equine articular cartilage development: magnetic resonance imaging and polarised light microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cluzel, C.; Blond, L.; Fontaine, P.; Olive, J.; Laverty, S.

    2013-01-01

    Adult articular cartilage (AC) has a well described multizonal collagen structure. Knowledge of foetal AC organisation and development may provide a prototype for cartilage repair strategies, and improve understanding of structural changes in developmental diseases such as osteochondrosis (OC). The objective of this study was to describe normal development of the spatial architecture of the collagen network of equine AC using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and polarised light microsco...

  13. Lead induces an osteoarthritis-like phenotype in articular chondrocytes through disruption of TGF-? signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Jonathan D; Beier, Eric; Sheu, Tzong-Jen; Ubayawardena, Resika; Wang, Meina; Sampson, Erik R; Rosier, Randy N; Zuscik, Michael; Puzas, J Edward

    2012-11-01

    Lead remains a significant environmental toxin, and we believe we may have identified a novel target of lead toxicity in articular chondrocytes. These cells are responsible for the maintenance of joint matrix, and do so under the regulation of TGF-? signaling. As lead is concentrated in articular cartilage, we hypothesize that it can disrupt normal chondrocyte phenotype through suppression of TGF-? signaling. These experiments examine the effects of lead exposure in vivo and in vitro at biologically relevant levels, from 1 nM to 10 µM on viability, collagen levels, matrix degrading enzyme activity, TGF-? signaling, and articular surface morphology. Our results indicate that viability was unchanged at levels ?100 µM Pb, but low and high level lead in vivo exposure resulted in fibrillation and degeneration of the articular surface. Lead treatment also decreased levels of type II collagen and increased type X collagen, in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, MMP13 activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Active caspase 3 and 8 were dose-dependently elevated, and treatment with 10 µM Pb resulted in increases of 30% and 500%, respectively. Increasing lead treatment resulted in a corresponding reduction in TGF-? reporter activity, with a 95% reduction at 10µM. Levels of phosphoSmad2 and 3 were suppressed in vitro and in vivo and lead dose-dependently increased Smurf2. These changes closely parallel those seen in osteoarthritis. Over time this phenotypic shift could compromise maintenance of the joint matrix. PMID:22517267

  14. The effect of oxygen tension on calcium homeostasis in bovine articular chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson John S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular chondrocytes normally experience a lower O2 tension compared to that seen by many other tissues. This level may fall further in joint disease. Ionic homeostasis is essential for chondrocyte function but, at least in the case of H+ ions, it is sensitive to changes in O2 levels. Ca2+ homeostasis is also critical but the effect of changes in O2 tension has not been investigated on this parameter. Here we define the effect of hypoxia on Ca2+ homeostasis in bovine articular chondrocytes. Methods Chondrocytes from articular cartilage slices were isolated enzymatically using collagenase. Cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i were followed fluorimetrically using Fura-2 to determine the effect of changes in O2 tension. The effects of ion substitution (replacing extracellular Na+ with NMDG+ and chelating Ca2+ with EGTA were tested. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the mitochondrial membrane potential were measured and correlated with [Ca2+]i. Results A reduction in O2 tension from 20% to 1% for 16-18 h caused [Ca2+]i to approximately double, reaching 105 ± 23 nM (p +/Ca2+ exchange activity was not inhibited at low O2 levels. At 1% O2, ROS levels fell and mitochondria depolarised. Restoring ROS levels (with an oxidant H2O2, a non-specific ROS generator Co2+ or the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor antimycin A concomitantly reduced [Ca2+]i. Conclusions O2 tension exerts a significant effect on [Ca2+]i. The proposed mechanism involves ROS from mitochondria. Findings emphasise the importance of using realistic O2 tensions when studying the physiology and pathology of articular cartilage and the potential interactions between O2, ROS and Ca2+.

  15. Association of magnesium whitlockite crystals with lipid components of the extracellular matrix in human articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchford, C A; Ali, S Y

    1997-03-01

    Several basic calcium phosphate mineral phases have been reported to be associated with osteoarthritis joint disease. Magnesium whitlockite crystal deposition has been reported in both osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage. Existing data suggest that likely prevailing conditions within cartilage would not support de novo whitlockite formation. It would appear, therefore, that additional factors must be extant at sites of crystal deposition. In this study normal articular cartilage specimens were examined for the presence and distribution of lipids relative to crystal deposition within the extracellular matrix. Specimens were examined using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with standard processing protocols plus a malachite green-glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide (MGO) method, used to retain lipids normally removed from tissues during preparation for electron microscopy. Elemental maps of sections produced using this method were also made using X-ray microanalysis. Positive oil red O staining for lipid was clearly apparent immediately below and parallel to the articular surface of cartilage specimens using light microscopy. The extent and distribution of staining correlated well with the distribution of crystals, observed by TEM, in sections of tissue from adjacent sites of the same specimens. Using standard TEM, crystals were frequently observed scattered amongst intramatrical lipidic debris, particularly pericellularly, in areas of cell necrosis and amongst close packed tangential fibers between the articular surface and initial superficial zone chondrocytes. Cartilage specimens processed using the MGO method demonstrated electron dense features, not apparent using standard techniques, identified as lipid. Such extracellular lipid deposition varied with depth, with 100 nm globular bodies present in the superficial region, where colocalization of crystals and lipid were observed in about 10% of crystal observations. The association of lipid and crystal deposition is discussed in the context of phospholipid associated mineral formation and the potential role of such magnesium whitlockite deposition assessed. PMID:9135822

  16. Effects of Low Dose X-Ray Irradiation on Porcine Articular Cartilage Explants

    OpenAIRE

    Lindburg, C. Alexander; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation therapy is a crucial treatment for cancer, but can damage surrounding normal tissues. Damage to articular cartilage leading to arthropathy can occur at irradiated sites. It is unclear whether this response is due to damaging surrounding skeletal structures or direct effects on cartilage. In this study, we showed that irradiation with 2 Gy of X-rays causes a significant reduction in the stiffness of porcine explants 1 week post-irradiation. By using both microindentation and...

  17. Reference genes for normalization of gene expression studies in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Reino Juan J; Calaza Manuel; Pombo-Suarez Manuel; Gonzalez Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessment of gene expression is an important component of osteoarthritis (OA) research, greatly improved by the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This technique requires normalization for precise results, yet no suitable reference genes have been identified in human articular cartilage. We have examined ten well-known reference genes to determine the most adequate for this application. Results Analyses of expression stability in cartilage from 10 patients ...

  18. Quantitative analysis of water distribution in human articular cartilage using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Euna; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Lim, Meehyun; Kang, Hyeona; Park, Hongkyu; Han, Haewook; Min, Byung-hyun; Kim, Sangin; Park, Ikmo; Lim, Hanjo

    2012-01-01

    The water distribution in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage has been quantitatively characterized using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz TDS). We measured the refractive index and absorption coefficient of cartilage tissue in the THz frequency range. Based on our measurements, the estimated water content was observed to decrease with increasing depth cartilage tissue, showing good agreement with a previous report based on destructive biochemical methods.

  19. Intra-articular etanercept treatment for severe diffuse pigmented villonodular knee synovitis

    OpenAIRE

    Giacometti, C.; Rubaltelli, L.; Di Maggio, A.; Nardacchione, R.; Botsios, C.; Cozzi, L.; Vezzu?, M.; Pagnin, E.; Scagliori, E.; Sovran, F.; Oliviero, F.; Sfriso, P.; Fiocco, U.; Calabrese, F.; Todesco, S.

    2011-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare pre-malignant disease that require aggressive treatment as surgical synovectomy, eventually followed by radiosynovectomy. Nevertheless, the disease often reoccurs after these treatments. To determine the safety and efficacy of intra-articular (IA) TNF-a blockade with etanercept (ETN), before extended arthroscopic synovectomy, in severe PVNS of the knee, two patients, (a 26-year-old man with B27+ undifferentiated spondylarthropathy and a 32-yea...

  20. A Novel Method for Calculating the Frictional Properties of Articular Cartilage Using a Material Testing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease which causes chronic pain, joint destruction, disability, depression, and social in patients. Many researchers have studied the coefficient of friction of articular cartilage (AC) using a variety of methods, especially with the tribology method. Functional biotribology is a useful way to better understand how and why cartilage becomes osteoarthritis. In this study, a novel biomechanical measurement system was built to determine the fr...

  1. Tadalafil analgesia in experimental arthritis involves suppression of intra-articular TNF release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, FAC; Silva, FS; Leite, ACRM; Leite, AKRM; Girão, VCC; Castro, RR; Cunha, FQ

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We investigated the effect of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, tadalafil, on the acute hypernociception in rat models of arthritis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats were treated with either an intra-articular injection of zymosan (1 mg) or surgical transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (as an osteoarthritis model). Controls received saline intra-articular or sham operation respectively. Joint pain was evaluated using the articular incapacitation test measured over 6 h following zymosan or between 4 and 7 days after anterior cruciate ligament transection. Cell counts, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and the chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) were measured in joint exudates 6 h after zymosan. Groups received tadalafil (0.02–0.5 mg·kg?1per os) or saline 2 h after intra-articular zymosan. Other groups received the µ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or the cGMP inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) before tadalafil. KEY RESULTS Tadalafil dose-dependently inhibited hypernociception in zymosan and osteoarthritis models. In zymosan-induced arthritis, tadalafil significantly decreased cell influx and TNF-? release but did not alter IL-1 or CINC-1 levels. Pretreatment with ODQ but not with naloxone prevented the anti-inflammatory effects of tadalafil. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Therapeutic oral administration of tadalafil provided analgesia mediated by guanylyl cyclase and was independent of the release of endogenous opioids. This effect of tadalafil was associated with a decrease in neutrophil influx and TNF-? release in inflamed joints. PMID:21557731

  2. Identification of latexin by a proteomic analysis in rat normal articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Kouri Juan B; Velasquillo María C; Cázares Febe E; Luna José C; Calderón Karla G; Cortés Leticia; Gallegos José L; Pérez Elizabeth; Hernández Fidel C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Animal models of OA induced are a widely used tool in the study of the pathogenesis of disease. Several proteomic techniques for selective extraction of proteins have provided protein profiles of chondrocytes and secretory patterns in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage, including the discovery of new and promising biomarkers. In this proteomic analysis to study several proteins from rat normal ar...

  3. Sulfato de condroitina e hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da doença articular degenerativa em cães: estudo histológico da cartilagem articular e membrana sinovial Chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of the degenerative joint disease in dogs: histological features of articular cartilage and synovium

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, E. G.; Nunes, V. A.; Rezende, C. M. F.; Gomes, M. G.; Malm, C.; Gheller, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    Quinze cães, sem raça definida, de ambos os sexos, de peso entre 18 e 25kg, foram submetidos à secção artroscópica do ligamento cruzado cranial (LCCr) para indução da doença articular degenerativa (DAD). Após três semanas de instabilidade articular, o LCCr foi substituído pela fáscia lata segundo a técnica de Schwalder (1989) e os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos de cinco. Os animais do grupo I, controle, não receberam tratamento medicamentoso; os do grupo II, 24mg/a...

  4. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles. These detectors consist of 30-layer thermopiles deposited in series upon a silicon nitride membrane. At 300 K, the thermopile arrays are highly linear over many orders of magnitude of incident IR power, and have a reported specific detectivity that exceeds the requirements imposed on future mission concepts. The bandpass filter array board is integrated with a thermopile array board by mounting both boards on a machined aluminum jig.

  5. Manifestações articulares em pacientes com doença de Crohn e retocolite ulcerativa / Articular manifestations in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Costa Duarte, Lanna; Maria de Lourdes Abreu, Ferrari; Marco Antônio Parreiras de, Carvalho; Aloísio Sales da, Cunha.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sintomas articulares constituem a manifestação extra-intestinal mais comum em pacientes com doença de Crohn e com retocolite ulcerativa. Reconhecida como artrite colítica, e mais recentemente, artrite enteropática, está classificada como uma das doenças do grupo das espondiloartropatias. Reconhec [...] idamente, há dois padrões de acometimento articular: 1) periférico, habitualmente, associado aos períodos de atividade da doença intestinal e sem associação com o antígeno HLA B27, e 2) axial, caracterizado por espondilite e sacroiliíte, com curso clínico e radiográfico independente da doença intestinal e associado ao HLA B27. Abstract in english Joint involvement is the most commom extraintestinal manifestation in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The colitic arthritis, lately called enteropathic arthritis, is classified as one of the diseases of the spondyloarthropathies group. There are two patterns of joint involvemen [...] t: 1) peripheral arthritis, usually coincides with exacerbations of the inflammatory bowel disease and is not associated with the HLA B27 antigen; and 2) axial involvement, characterized by spondylitis and sacroiliitis, which the clinical course is independent of the intestinal disease, and has an association with HLA B27.

  6. Manifestações articulares em pacientes com doença de Crohn e retocolite ulcerativa Articular manifestations in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa Duarte Lanna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sintomas articulares constituem a manifestação extra-intestinal mais comum em pacientes com doença de Crohn e com retocolite ulcerativa. Reconhecida como artrite colítica, e mais recentemente, artrite enteropática, está classificada como uma das doenças do grupo das espondiloartropatias. Reconhecidamente, há dois padrões de acometimento articular: 1 periférico, habitualmente, associado aos períodos de atividade da doença intestinal e sem associação com o antígeno HLA B27, e 2 axial, caracterizado por espondilite e sacroiliíte, com curso clínico e radiográfico independente da doença intestinal e associado ao HLA B27.Joint involvement is the most commom extraintestinal manifestation in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The colitic arthritis, lately called enteropathic arthritis, is classified as one of the diseases of the spondyloarthropathies group. There are two patterns of joint involvement: 1 peripheral arthritis, usually coincides with exacerbations of the inflammatory bowel disease and is not associated with the HLA B27 antigen; and 2 axial involvement, characterized by spondylitis and sacroiliitis, which the clinical course is independent of the intestinal disease, and has an association with HLA B27.

  7. Low-field one-dimensional and direction-dependent relaxation imaging of bovine articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Erik; Mattea, Carlos; Mollova, Ayret; Stapf, Siegfried

    2011-12-01

    The structure of articular cartilage is separated into three layers of differently oriented collagen fibers, which is accompanied by a gradient of increasing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and decreasing water concentration from the top layer towards the bone interface. The combined effect of these structural variations results in a change of the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times as a function of the distance from the cartilage surface. In this paper, this dependence is investigated at a magnetic field strength of 0.27 T with a one-dimensional depth resolution of 50 ?m on bovine hip and stifle joint articular cartilage. By employing this method, advantage is taken of the increasing contrast of the longitudinal relaxation rate found at lower magnetic field strengths. Furthermore, evidence for an orientational dependence of relaxation times with respect to an axis normal to the surface plane is given, an observation that has recently been reported using high-field MRI and that was explained by preferential orientations of collagen bundles in each of the three cartilage zones. In order to quantify the extent of a further contrast mechanism and to estimate spatially dependent glycosaminoglycan concentrations, the data are supplemented by proton relaxation times that were acquired in bovine articular cartilage that was soaked in a 0.8 mM aqueous Gd ++ solution.

  8. Nitrous Oxide sedation for intra-articular injection in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harel Liora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-articular corticosteroid injection in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is often associated with anxiety and pain. Recent reports advocate the use of nitrous oxide (NO, a volatile gas with analgesic, anxiolytic and sedative properties. Objective To prospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of NO analgesia for intra-articular corticosteroid injection in JIA, and to assess patients and staff satisfaction with the treatment. Methods NO was administered to JIA patients scheduled for joint injection. The patient, parent, physician and nurse completed visual-analog scores (VAS (0–10 for pain, and a 5-point satisfaction scale. Change in heart rate (HR during the procedure was recorded in order to examine physiologic response to pain and stress. Patient's behavior and adverse reactions were recorded. Results 54 procedures (72 joints were performed, 41 females, 13 males; 39 Jewish, 13 Arab; mean age was 12.2 ± 4.7 year. The median VAS pain score for patients, parents, physicians and nurses was 3. The HR increased ? 15% in 10 patients. They had higher VAS scores as evaluated by the staff. The median satisfaction level of the parents and staff was 3.0 and 5.0 respectively. Adverse reactions were mild. Conclusion NO provides effective and safe sedation for JIA children undergoing intra-articular injections.

  9. Viscoelastic modeling and quantitative experimental characterization of normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage using indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, F; Villars, M; Thibaud, S

    2013-08-01

    The viscoelastic behavior of articular cartilage changes with progression of osteoarthritis. The objective of this study is to quantify this progression and to propose a viscoelastic model of articular cartilage taking into account the degree of osteoarthritis that which be easily used in predictive numerical simulations of the hip joint behavior. To quantify the effects of osteoarthritis (OA) on the viscoelastic behavior of human articular cartilage, samples were obtained from the hip arthroplasty due to femoral neck fracture (normal cartilage) or advanced coxarthrosis (OA cartilage). Experimental data were obtained from instrumented indentation tests on unfrozen femoral cartilage collected and studied in the day following the prosthetic hip surgery pose. By using an inverse method coupled with a numerical modeling (FEM) of all experimental data of the indentation tests, the viscoelastic properties of the two states were quantified. Mean values of viscoelastic parameters were significantly lower for OA cartilage than normal (instantaneous and relaxed tension moduli, viscosity coefficient). Based on the results and in the thermodynamic framework, a constitutive viscoelastic model taking into account the degree of osteoarthritis as an internal variable of damage is proposed. The isotropic phenomenological viscoelastic model including degradation provides an accurate prediction of the mechanical response of the normal human cartilage and OA cartilage with advanced coxarthrosis but should be further validated for intermediate degrees of osteoarthritis. PMID:23684353

  10. Arthroscopic study of injuries in articular fractures of distal radius extremity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Araf; Rames, Mattar Junior.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of wrist ligament and cartilage associated fractures of the distal radius, through arthroscopy, correlating with AO/ASIF classification. METHODS: Thirty patients aged between 20 and 50 years old, with closed fracture from groups B and C according to AO/ASIF [...] classification were selected. All of them were submitted to wrist arthroscopy to address intra-articular injuries and reduction and osteosynthesis of the fracture. RESULTS: A high incidence of intra-articular injuries was noticed, and 76.6% of them presented injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, 36.6% of the intrinsic scapholunate ligament, 6.6% of the intrinsic triquetrolunate ligament, and 33% articular cartilage injury larger than three millimeters. Patients with fractures from type C according to AO/ASIF classification presented a higher incidence of ligament injuries. CONCLUSION: There is no relationship between the presence of chondral injury and the AO/ASIF classification of the fractures in the cases reported in this study. Level of Evidence III, Non Randomized Controlled Trial.

  11. Tribological altruism: A sacrificial layer mechanism of synovial joint lubrication in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S M T; Neu, C P; DuRaine, G; Komvopoulos, K; Reddi, A H

    2012-09-21

    Boundary lubrication is characterized by sliding surfaces separated by a molecularly thin film that reduces friction and wear of the underlying substrate when fluid lubrication cannot be established. In this study, the wear and replenishment rates of articular cartilage were examined in the context of friction coefficient changes, protein loss, and direct imaging of the surface ultrastructure, to determine the efficiency of the boundary lubricant (BL) layer. Depletion of cartilage lubricity occurred with the concomitant loss of surface proteoglycans. Restoration of lubrication by incubation with synovial fluid was much faster than incubation with culture media and isolated superficial zone protein. The replenishment action of the BL layer in articular cartilage was rapid, with the rate of formation exceeding the rate of depletion of the BL layer to effectively protect the tissue from mechanical wear. The obtained results indicate that boundary lubrication in articular cartilage depends in part on a sacrificial layer mechanism. The present study provides insight into the natural mechanisms that minimize wear and resist tissue degeneration over the lifetime of an organism. PMID:22867761

  12. Articular contact kinematics of the knee before and after a cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunbao; Hosseini, Ali; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Kwon, Young-Min; Li, Guoan

    2015-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of tibiofemoral articular contact kinematics of the knee after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is important for understanding the intrinsic knee biomechanics and improving the longevity of the components. The objective of this study was to compare the in vivo articular contact kinematics of the knees with end-stage medial osteoarthritis (OA) during a weight-bearing, single leg lunge activity before and after a posterior cruciate retaining TKA (CR-TKA) using a dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. We found that the CR-TKA resulted in more posterior contact positions on the tibial surface and a reduced range of motion in the medial and lateral compartments. The distances between medial and lateral contact locations in the CR-TKA knees were statistically larger than the OA knees. The articular contact centers have shifted from medial side of the tibial plateau pre-operatively to the lateral side after operation. This study indicated that the CR-TKA resulted in significant changes in contact kinematics of the knees in both anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Further studies are needed to determine the influence of the altered in vivo contact kinematics on the longevity of polyethylene liner and long term clinical outcomes of the TKA. PMID:25469483

  13. Efficacy of Intra-articular Local Anesthetics in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Liu, Zhenfeng; Alijiang, Asila; Jia, Heng; Deng, Yingjie; Song, Yucheng; Meng, Qingcai

    2015-07-01

    Pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains among the most important challenges for patients with TKA. Intra-articular local anesthetic has been shown to reduce postoperative pain following TKA. However, studies report conflicting results. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-dose intra-articular local anesthetics for pain control after TKA. Databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Databases) were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials comparing local anesthetic with placebo in patients undergoing TKA. Data were extracted independently by 2 researchers using a standardized form. Risk of bias was assessed with the use of the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias by 2 observers. Relative risk, standardized mean difference, and corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated. Seventeen trials met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 1338 participants. The results showed that, compared with the placebo group, the single local anesthetic group had a significant lower pain score with rest at 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours; less opioid consumption at 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperatively; and greater range of motion at 24, 48, and 72 hours. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in length of hospital stay, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, or deep venous thrombosis. The study findings showed that pain relief after TKA was significantly better with intra-articular local anesthetic than with placebo. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(7):e573-e581.]. PMID:26186318

  14. Regeneration of articular cartilage in healer and non-healer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Sandell, Linda J

    2014-10-01

    Mammals rarely regenerate their lost or injured tissues into adulthood. MRL/MpJ mouse strain initially identified to heal full-thickness ear wounds now represents a classical example of mammalian wound regeneration since it can heal a spectrum of injuries such as skin and cardiac wounds, nerve injuries and knee articular cartilage lesions. In addition to MRL/MpJ, a few other mouse strains such as LG/J (a parent of MRL/MpJ) and LGXSM-6 (arising from an intercross between LG/J and SM/J mouse strains) have now been recognized to possess regenerative/healing abilities for articular cartilage and ear wound injuries that are similar, if not superior, to MRL/MpJ mice. While some mechanisms underlying regenerative potential have been begun to emerge, a complete set of biological processes and pathways still needs to be elucidated. Using a panel of healer and non-healer mouse strains, our recent work has provided some insights into the genes that could potentially be associated with healing potential. Future mechanistic studies can help seek the Holy Grail of regenerative medicine. This review highlights the regenerative capacity of selected mouse strains for articular cartilage, in particular, and lessons from other body tissues, in general. PMID:25173437

  15. Surface Defects and Resolvents

    CERN Document Server

    Gaiotto, Davide; Seiberg, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We study a large class of BPS surface defects in 4d N=2 gauge theories. They are defined by coupling a 2d N=(2,2) gauged linear sigma model to the 4d bulk degrees of freedom. Our main result is an efficient computation of the effective twisted superpotential for all these models in terms of a basic object closely related to the resolvent of the 4d gauge theory, which encodes the curve describing the 4d low energy dynamics. We reproduce and extend the results of brane constructions and compute the effective twisted superpotential for general monodromy surface defects. We encounter novel, puzzling field theory phenomena in the low energy dynamics of the simplest surface defects and we propose some local models to explain them. We also study in some detail the behavior of surface defects near monopole points of the bulk theory's Coulomb branch. Finally, we explore the effect on the defect of breaking the bulk supersymmetry from N=2 to N=1 and show that certain quantities are independent of this breaking.

  16. CAMBIOS ESTRUCTURALES DEL COMPLEJO ARTICULAR TEMPOROMANDIBULAR (CATM) EN DISTINTAS EDADES GESTACIONALES / HUMAN TEMPOROMANDIBULAR ARTICULAR COMPLEX STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN DEFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. E., Ferraris; M., Carranza; A., Actis; A., Simbrón.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se analizaron los cambios estructurales de los distintos componentes del CATM en fetos humanos de 16, 18, 24 y 37 semanas de gestación, con el propósito de identificar el grado de maduración tisular y asociarlo con su posible capacidad funcional para efectuar los movimientos mandibulares. S [...] e emplearon técnicas histoquímicas de rutina y de inmunomarcación. Los anticuerpos utilizados fueron proteína de neurofilamentos (NE14), vimentina y mioglobina mediante el sistema avidina-biotina, DAB. Las variaciones observadas en las distintas edades gestacionales se encontraron principalmente, a nivel del disco articular y cóndilo mandibular. Entre las 16 y 18 semanas, el disco mostró fibrillas PAS positivas y abundantes fibras argirófilas dispuestas en plexos. Las fibras elásticas fueron escasas y muy delgadas en la zona bilaminar póstero-superior. A las 24 semanas, el CATM mostró un aumento notable en las dimensiones de todos sus componentes. El disco de mayor espesor exibió una proporción más elevada de fibras colágenas y elásticas, mientras que las fibrillas argirófilas organizadas en haces adquirieron una disposición específica. Se identificaron nervios inmunorreactivos con NE14 en la zona anterior y en el espacio laminar póstero-inferior próximo al cóndilo. En los especímenes de mayor edad, los cortes sagitales del disco aislado, mostraron diferentes regiones según el espesor y la disposición de las fibras colágenas. Algunos haces musculares del pterigoideo dispuestos en zig-zag y con apariencia de un estado de semicontracción, no expresaron la mioglobina. A las 24 semanas, los componentes del CATM presentaron, en general, características similares a las observadas en los fetos de término. La maduración de los músculos asociados y de los tejidos articulares, en especial del disco, permite sugerir que los componentes del CATM estarían capacitados para desarrollar actividades de apertura y cierre mandibular a partir de esta etapa prenatal Abstract in english SUMMARY:Structural changes in temporomandibular articular complexe of 16, 18, 24 and 37 week-old human fetuses were studied with the aim to establishing the possible relationship between the tissular maturity level and its capacity for mandibular movements. Histochemical and immunostaining technique [...] s were used. The antibodies employed were: neurofilament proteins (NE14), vimentin and myoglobin, avidin-biotin system, DAB. The variations between the different ages mainly occurred at the level of the articular disk and mandibular condyle. Between the sixteenth and eighteenth week, the disk showed Schiff-periodic acid (PAS) positive fibrils and abundant argyrophile fibres in plexus arrangement. Elastic fibres were scarce and thin in the bilaminar postero-superior area. In the twenty-fourth week, the disk showed a high proportion of collagen and elastic fibres, whereas the argyrophile fibres had a laxer arrangement. Nerves immunoreactive with NE14 were observed both in the anterior and postero-inferior areas next to the condyle. In thirty seven old specimens, the sagittal sections of the isolated disk showed different areas according to the collagen fibres thickness and arrangement. Some bundles of pterigoid muscles displayed a zig-zag pattern, thus having an appearance of semicontraction, though the expression of myoglobin was negative. In the twenty-fourth week, the components of the articulation had similar characteristics to those of a newborn child. This suggests that the articular and muscular tissues are capable of performing mandibular opening and closing activities from this prenatal stage

  17. CAMBIOS ESTRUCTURALES DEL COMPLEJO ARTICULAR TEMPOROMANDIBULAR (CATM EN DISTINTAS EDADES GESTACIONALES HUMAN TEMPOROMANDIBULAR ARTICULAR COMPLEX STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN DEFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ferraris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se analizaron los cambios estructurales de los distintos componentes del CATM en fetos humanos de 16, 18, 24 y 37 semanas de gestación, con el propósito de identificar el grado de maduración tisular y asociarlo con su posible capacidad funcional para efectuar los movimientos mandibulares. Se emplearon técnicas histoquímicas de rutina y de inmunomarcación. Los anticuerpos utilizados fueron proteína de neurofilamentos (NE14, vimentina y mioglobina mediante el sistema avidina-biotina, DAB. Las variaciones observadas en las distintas edades gestacionales se encontraron principalmente, a nivel del disco articular y cóndilo mandibular. Entre las 16 y 18 semanas, el disco mostró fibrillas PAS positivas y abundantes fibras argirófilas dispuestas en plexos. Las fibras elásticas fueron escasas y muy delgadas en la zona bilaminar póstero-superior. A las 2