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Focal full thickness articular cartilage lesions treated with an articular resurfacing prosthesis in the middle-aged  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Localised full thickness articular defects of the knee are common and disabling in the middle-aged. There are numerous treatment options for articular defects, the results of which are unpredictable in this age group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a focal articular resurfac [...] ing prosthesis used in the treatment of these defects. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients treated between 2005 and 2010 with a HemiCAP® resurfacing procedure were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up scores of the KOOS, IKDC, SF-36 and patient satisfaction were obtained. Radiographic evaluation was also obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen patients were followed-up 4.7 ± 5.9 years after surgery. Three patients had revision surgery and were not followed up. The patients were 44.7 ± 5.9 years old. The follow-up KOOS scores demonstrated comparable scores on the pain and activities of daily living sub-scales when compared to normative data; however, the sports (P

Hobbs, H; Ketse-Matiwane, N; van der Merwe, W; Posthumus, M.

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Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair  

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Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

Fergal J. O'Brien

2013-02-01

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Effects of manipulation therapy in repairing rabbit articular cartilage defects  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of manipulation therapy in repairing thin-layer and thick-layer articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Methods: Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into manipulation group and control group. Chondral defects in the center of condylus medialis femoris (punch diameter 2.0 mm, thin-layer defect, without damaging the subchondral bone and the center of facies patellaris femoris (punch diameter 3.0 mm, thick-layer defect, without damaging the subchondral bone were made in both side knee joints of the rabbits. Four weeks after chondral defect, the rabbits in the manipulation group were treated with manipulation therapy, while the rabbits in the control group didn’t take any therapeutic measure. The rabbits were sacrificed after 4-, 8- and 12-week manipulation treatment to obtain the distal femur. The appearance of the chondral defect was first assessed, and then regenerated tissues were stained respectively with hematoxylin and eosin (HE, safranin O and immunohistochemical methods to observe the changes in pathology. The regenerated tissue O’Driscoll score system was also used to evaluate the efficacy of manipulation therapy.Results: After manipulation treatment, although the thin-layer articular cartilage defects of the control group were partly repaired, a sharp gap between the regenerated tissue and the normal cartilage was visible. The range of the thick-layer articular cartilage defect in the control group became smaller, and the regenerated tissue only consisted of fiber tissue. On the contrary, both the thin-layer defects and the thick-layer defects in the manipulation group were well repaired. The appearance of the regenerated tissues was close to the normal cartilage. The gap between regenerated tissue and normal tissue was disappeared and the regenerated tissue was well integrated with around tissues. HE staining showed that the regenerated tissues in the manipulation group were similar to hyaline cartilage. Safranin O staining showed that matrix stain of the regenerated tissues in the manipulation group was similar to the normal cartilage, but no stain was observed in the control group. The type ? collagen immunohistochemical staining showed that the color of the regenerated tissues was a little darker than that of the normal cartilage in the two kinds of defects in the manipulation group, and the two kinds of defects in the control group were little stained. The O’Driscoll cartilage scores of the two kinds of defects in the manipulation group were higher than those in the control group at different time points (P?0.01, but there were no differences in O’Driscoll scores in the manipulation group among the different time points.Conclusion: Manipulation therapy is effective in repairing the thick-layer and thin-layer articular cartilage defects. The regenerated tissue is constructed with hyaline cartilage.

Ling-hui DAI

2009-04-01

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Transplantation of free tibial periosteal grafts for the repair of articular cartilage defect: An experimental study  

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Background: Articular chondrocytes have got a long lifespan but rarely divides after maturity. Thus, an articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. Periosteal grafts have chondrogenic potential and have been used to repair defects in the articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differentiation of free periosteal grafts in the patellofemoral joint where the cambium layer faces the subchondral bone and to investigate the applicability of per...

Singh Ravijot; Chauhan Vijendra; Chauhan Neena; Sharma Sansar

2009-01-01

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Effects of intramuscular polysulfated glycosaminoglycan on chemical and physical defects in equine articular cartilage.  

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The effect of intramuscular polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSG) on repair of cartilage injury was evaluated in eight horses. In each horse, one middle carpal joint had both a partial-thickness and a full-thickness articular cartilage defect created. In the contralateral middle carpal joint, chemical articular cartilage injury was created by intra-articular injection of 50 mg sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA). Horses were divided into two groups for treatment. Group 1 horses (control) received an ...

Trotter, G. W.; Yovich, J. V.; Mcilwraith, C. W.; Norrdin, R. W.

1989-01-01

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A cell-free collagen type I device for the treatment of focal cartilage defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential value of a cell-free collagen type I gel plug for the treatment of focal cartilage defects. Cellular migration and proliferation was addressed in vitro, and the formation of repair tissue in a nude mouse-based defect model. A cell-free plug made of collagen type I was placed in the center of an incubation plate. Surrounding space was filled with a collagen type I gel (Arthro Kinetics, Esslingen, Germany) seeded with 2 x 10(5) human articular chondrocytes/mL gel. After cultivation for up to 6 weeks in vitro, samples were subject to histological and immunohistochemical staining and gene expression analysis. Subsequently, chondral defects of human osteochondral blocks were treated with the plug, and specimens were cultivated subcutaneously in nude mice for 6 weeks. The repair tissue was evaluated macroscopically, and collagen type II production was investigated immunohistochemically. In vitro, morphology of immigrated cells did not show any differences, as did collagen type II gene expression. After 4 weeks, the plug was homogeneously inhabited. After 6 weeks of cultivation in nude mice, collagen gel plug treatment led to a macroscopically excellent repair tissue. Histological staining revealed a tight bonding, and the collagen gel plug started to be remodeled. We conclude that the novel collagen gel plug device offers an environment favorable for the migration of articular chondrocytes and leads to a good-quality repair tissue in the nude mouse model. The arthroscopic transplantation of a collagen gel plug may be one option in the treatment of focal cartilage defects. PMID:20432519

Gavenis, Karsten; Schmidt-Rohlfing, Bernhard; Andereya, Stefan; Mumme, Torsten; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller-Rath, Ralf

2010-01-01

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Transplantation of free tibial periosteal grafts for the repair of articular cartilage defect: An experimental study  

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Full Text Available Background: Articular chondrocytes have got a long lifespan but rarely divides after maturity. Thus, an articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. Periosteal grafts have chondrogenic potential and have been used to repair defects in the articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differentiation of free periosteal grafts in the patellofemoral joint where the cambium layer faces the subchondral bone and to investigate the applicability of periosteal grafts in the reconstruction of articular surfaces. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of 1 year on 25 adult, male Indian rabbits after obtaining permission from the institutional animal ethical committee. A full-thickness osteochondral defect was created by shaving off the whole articular cartilage of the patella of the left knee. The defect thus created was grafted with free periosteal graft. The patella of the right knee was taken as a control where no grafting was done after shaving off the articular cartilage. The first animal was used to study the normal histology of the patellar articular cartilage and periosteum obtained from the medial surface of tibial condyle. Rest 24 animals were subjected to patellectomy, 4 each at serial intervals of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 weeks and the patellar articular surfaces were examined macroscopically and histologically. Results: The grafts got adherent to the underlying patellar articular surface at the end of 4 weeks. Microscopically, graft incorporation could be appreciated at 4 weeks. Mesenchymal cells of the cambium layer were seen differentiating into chondrocytes by the end of 4 weeks in four grafts (100% and they were arranged in a haphazard manner. Till the end of 8 weeks, the cellular arrangement was mostly wooly. At 16 weeks, one graft (25% had wooly arrangement of chondrocytes and three grafts (75% had columnar formation of cells. Same percentage was maintained at 32 weeks. Four grafts (100% at 48 weeks showed columnar orientation. The control side showed no changes over the shaved off articular surface in all the rabbits. One rabbit at 4 weeks had a dislocation of the patella on the control side. None of the rabbits developed any infection or wound dehiscence. Conclusion: Autologous periosteal graft transplantation can be a promising substitute for articular cartilaginous defects.

Singh Ravijot

2009-01-01

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Management of articular cartilage defects of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage injuries of the knee present a difficult clinical dilemma and their treatment is controversial. Hyaline articular cartilage is an avascular, low-friction, and wear-resistant weightbearing surface that has limited capacity for self-repair. The optimal treatment for cartilage lesions has yet to be established. Various treatment methods are employed to reestablish a stable cartilage surface, including microfracture, autologous and allograft osteochondral transplantation, autologous chondrocyte implantation, matrix-associated chondrocyte implantation, and scaffold-assisted methods. Treatment algorithms help to guide physicians' decision making in the care of these injuries. In this article, results from outcomes studies as well as prospective randomized clinical trials comparing treatment methods are reviewed, and current practice guidelines are summarized. PMID:22508248

Redler, Lauren H; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Schulz, Brian M; Levine, William N

2012-02-01

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A Semi-Degradable Composite Scaffold for Articular Cartilage Defects  

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Few options exist to replace or repair damaged articular cartilage. The optimal solution that has been suggested is a scaffold that can carry load and integrate with surrounding tissues; but such a construct has thus far been elusive. The objectives of this study were to manufacture and characterize a non-degradable hydrated scaffold. Our hypothesis was that the polymer content of the scaffold can be used to control its mechanical properties, while an internal porous network augmented with bi...

Scholten, Paul M.; Ng, Kenneth W.; Joh, Kiwon; Serino, Lorenzo P.; Warren, Russell F.; Torzilli, Peter A.; Maher, Suzanne A.

2011-01-01

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Modeling of constrained articular cartilage growth in an intact knee with focal knee resurfacing metal implant.  

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The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to simulate the articular cartilage growth in an intact knee model with a metal implant replacing a degenerated portion of the femoral cartilage. The human knee joint was approximated with a simplified axisymmetric shape of the femoral condyle along with the cartilage, meniscus and bones. Two individually growing constituents (proteoglycans and collagen) bound to solid matrix were considered in the solid phase of the cartilage. The cartilage behavior was modeled with a nonlinear biphasic porohyperelastic material model, and meniscus with a transversely isotropic linear biphasic poroelastic material model. Two criteria (permeation and shear), both driven by mechanical loading, were considered to trigger the growth in the solid constituents. Mechanical loading with sixty heavy cycles was considered to represent daily walking activity. The growth algorithm was implemented for 90 days after implantation. The results from simulations show that both cartilage layers were more stimulated near the implant which lead to more growth of the cartilage near the defect. The method developed in the present work could be a powerful technique if more accurate material data and growth laws were available. PMID:23955432

Manda, Krishnagoud; Eriksson, Anders

2014-06-01

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Surgical Treatment of Articular Cartilage Defects in the Knee: Are We Winning?  

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Articular cartilage (AC) injury is a common disorder. Numerous techniques have been employed to repair or regenerate the cartilage defects with varying degrees of success. Three commonly performed techniques include bone marrow stimulation, cartilage repair, and cartilage regeneration. This paper focuses on current level of evidence paying particular attention to cartilage regeneration techniques.

Memon, A. R.; Quinlan, J. F.

2012-01-01

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Focal porta hepatis scintiscan defects: what is their significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 537 consecutive liver /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintiscans were retrospectively reviewed and 80 of them revealed suspicious focal decreased activity in the region of the porta hepatis. Postmortem, surgical, or biopsy correlation was obtained in 40 of these cases: 14 were pathologically negative; 9, cirrhosis or fibrosis; 10, metastases; 3, dilated bile ducts; 1, viral hepatitis; 1, hepatic laceration; 1, falciform ligament cyst; and 1, ruptured gallbladder with abscessed head of the pancreas. Thus, only 42 percent represented significant disease. Sixty-eight percent of the defects were seen only on the anterior scintiscan. Appearance of the majority of defects was nonspecific. Subjective grading of defects according to size and comparative decrease in density was not beneficial. Elevations of serum alkaline phosphatase, total serum bilirubin, and serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase were nonspecific

1975-01-01

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Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

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PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I ...

Amir Sotoudeh; Amirali Jahanshahi; Mohammad Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi; Ali Bazazan; Amin Ganjali; Maryam Pourramezani Harati

2013-01-01

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Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering for Regenerative Repair of Articular Cartilage Defects  

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Full Text Available Articular cartilage defects heal very poorly and lead to degenerative arthritis. Existing medications cannot promote healing process; cartilage defects eventually require surgical replacements with autografts. As there is not enough source of articular cartilage that can be donated for autografting, materials that promote cartilage regeneration are important in both research and clinical applications. Tissue engineering involves cell growth on biomaterial scaffolds in vitro. These cells are then injected into cartilage defects for biological in vivo regeneration of the cartilage tissue. This review aims first to provide a brief introduction to the types of materials in medicine (biomaterials, to their roles in treatment of diseases, and to design factors and general requirements of biomaterials. Then, it attempts to sum up the recent advances in engineering articular cartilage; one of the most challenging area of study in biomaterials based tissue engineering, as an example to the research on regenerative solutions to musculoskeletal problems with an emphasis on the biomaterials that have been developed as scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. The definitive goal on cartilage regeneration is to develop a system using biomimetic approach to produce cartilage tissue that mimics native tissue properties, provides rapid restoration of tissue function, and is clinically translatable. This is obviously an ambitious goal; however, significant progress have been made in recent years; and further advances in materials design and technology will pave the way for creating significantly custom-made cellular environment for cartilage regeneration.

Kâz?m Tur

2009-12-01

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Surgical management of articular cartilage defects in the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of isolated cartilage lesions of the knee is based on several underlying principles, including a predictable reduction in the patient's symptoms, improvements in function and joint congruence, and prevention of progressive damage. Surgical options for cartilage restoration are described as palliative treatments, such as débridement and lavage; reparative, such as marrow stimulation techniques; or restorative, such as osteochondral grafting and autologous chondrocyte implantation. The choice of an appropriate treatment should be made on an individual basis, with consideration for the patient's specific goals (such as pain reduction or functional improvement), physical demand level, prior treatment history, lesion size and location, and a systematic evaluation of the knee that considers comorbidities, including alignment, meniscal status, and ligament integrity. It is important for the physician to be familiar with the indications, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes of the available treatment options for chondral defects of the knee. PMID:20415379

Cole, Brian J; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Grumet, Robert C

2010-01-01

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Selective water excitation for faster MR imaging of articular cartilage defects: initial clinical results.  

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Our objective was to compare a water-excitation (WE) 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR sequence for faster imaging of articular cartilage defects of the knee to a conventional fat-saturated (FS) 3D FLASH MR sequence. This prospective study included 16 knees of 16 patients with suspected cartilage lesions. The MR imaging in transverse and sagittal planes included (a) FS 3D FLASH (TR/TE: 45 ms/11 ms, scan time 8 min, flip angle 50 degrees), and (b) WE 3D FLASH (TR/TE: 28 ms/11 ms, scan time 4 min 58 s, flip angle 40 degrees). For each sequence signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were quantified. The detected cartilage lesions were evaluated using a semi-quantitative four-scale scoring system (grades 0-III). The data were compared between the sequences using the paired Student's t-test. No statistically significant differences between the sequences were found for SNR, CNR, and cartilage defect grading (p=0.14-0.8). The WE 3D FLASH MR imaging seems to be promising for fast imaging of articular cartilage lesions of the knee. PMID:12664103

Mohr, A; Priebe, M; Taouli, B; Grimm, J; Heller, M; Brossmann, J

2003-04-01

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An arthroscopic device to assess articular cartilage defects and treatment with a hydrogel.  

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The hydraulic resistance R across osteochondral tissue, especially articular cartilage, decreases with degeneration and erosion. Clinically useful measures to quantify and diagnose the extent of cartilage degeneration and efficacy of repair strategies, especially with regard to pressure maintenance, are still developing. The hypothesis of this study was that hydraulic resistance provides a quantitative measure of osteochondral tissue that could be used to evaluate the state of cartilage damage and repair. The aims were to (1) develop a device to measure R in an arthroscopic setting, (2) determine whether the device could detect differences in R for cartilage, an osteochondral defect, and cartilage treated using a hydrogel ex vivo, and (3) determine how quickly such differences could be discerned. The apparent hydraulic resistance of defect samples was ~35% less than intact cartilage controls, while the resistance of hydrogel-filled groups was not statistically different than controls, suggesting some restoration of fluid pressurization in the defect region by the hydrogel. Differences in hydraulic resistance between control and defect groups were apparent after 4 s. The results indicate that the measurement of R is feasible for rapid and quantitative functional assessment of the extent of osteochondral defects and repair. The arthroscopic compatibility of the device demonstrates the potential for this measurement to be made in a clinical setting. PMID:21107696

McCarty, William J; Luan, Anna; Sundaramurthy, Priya; Urbanczyk, Caryn; Patel, Atal; Hahr, Jacob; Sotoudeh, Mohammad; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Sah, Robert L

2011-04-01

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Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II. Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

Amir Sotoudeh

2013-05-01

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Evaluation of the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects filled with autologous exogenous fibrin clot: An experimental study in the shoulder joint of dogs  

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Full Text Available To determine whether the optimizing effect of an exogenous fibrin clot in the repair of full–thickness articular cartilage defects is valid when joint motions are restricted, standard osteochondral defects were constituted in the articular surface of the humeral head in 16 adult dogs. The defects in 8 dogs were packed with fibrin clots that had been prepared exogenously from each animal and the defects of the other animals were left empty. The operated limbs were inactivated for 2 weeks postoperatively and the healing response was then examined using routine histology at 2, 4, 8 and 12-week intervals. Although the clot-filled and control (empty defects initially healed through proliferation of fibrous connective tissue; the clot-filled defects finally modulated into fibrocartilage with completed subchondral bone formation. The clot-filled defects demonstrated a more advanced reparative tissue which was congruent with the intact articular surface from 4 weeks after the intervention.

Avki S.

2003-01-01

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Computational biomechanics of articular cartilage of human knee joint: effect of osteochondral defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage and its supporting bone functional conditions are tightly coupled as injuries of either adversely affects joint mechanical environment. The objective of this study was set to quantitatively investigate the extent of alterations in the mechanical environment of cartilage and knee joint in presence of commonly observed osteochondral defects. An existing validated finite element model of a knee joint was used to construct a refined model of the tibial lateral compartment including proximal tibial bony structures. The response was computed under compression forces up to 2000 N while simulating localized bone damage, cartilage-bone horizontal split, bone overgrowth and absence of deep vertical collagen fibrils. Localized tibial bone damage increased overall joint compliance and substantially altered pattern and magnitude of contact pressures and cartilage strains in both tibia and femur. These alterations were further exacerbated when bone damage was combined with base cartilage split and absence of deep vertical collagen fibrils. Local bone boss markedly changed contact pressures and strain patterns in neighbouring cartilage. Bone bruise/fracture and overgrowth adversely perturbed the homeostatic balance in the mechanical environment of articulate cartilage surrounding and opposing the lesion as well as the joint compliance. As such, they potentially contribute to the initiation and development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. PMID:19660759

Shirazi, R; Shirazi-Adl, A

2009-11-13

 
 
 
 
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Articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells seeded on biodegradable scaffolds for the repair of cartilage in a rat osteochondral defect model.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work investigated the ability of co-cultures of articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to repair articular cartilage in osteochondral defects. Bovine articular chondrocytes and rat MSCs were seeded in isolation or in co-culture onto electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds and implanted into an osteochondral defect in the trochlear groove of 12-week old Lewis rats. Additionally, a blank PCL scaffold and untreated defect were investigated. After 12 weeks, the extent of cartilage repair was analyzed through histological analysis, and the extent of bone healing was assessed by quantifying the total volume of mineralized bone in the defect through microcomputed tomography. Histological analysis revealed that the articular chondrocytes and co-cultures led to repair tissue that consisted of more hyaline-like cartilage tissue that was thicker and possessed more intense Safranin O staining. The MSC, blank PCL scaffold, and empty treatment groups generally led to the formation of fibrocartilage repair tissue. Microcomputed tomography revealed that while there was an equivalent amount of mineralized bone formation in the MSC, blank PCL, and empty treatment groups, the defects treated with chondrocytes or co-cultures had negligible mineralized bone formation. Overall, even with a reduced number of chondrocytes, co-cultures led to an equal level of cartilage repair compared to the chondrocyte samples, thus demonstrating the potential for the use of co-cultures of articular chondrocytes and MSCs for the in vivo repair of cartilage defects. PMID:24927682

Dahlin, Rebecca L; Kinard, Lucas A; Lam, Johnny; Needham, Clark J; Lu, Steven; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

2014-08-01

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Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.)

2004-08-01

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Osteochondral autologous transplantation versus microfracture for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint in athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this prospective randomized clinical study was to compare the outcomes of mosaic type autologous osteochondral transplantation (OAT) and microfracture (MF) procedures for the treatment of the articular cartilage defects of the knee joint in athletes. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 57 athletes with a mean age of 24.3 years and with a symptomatic lesion of the articular cartilage in the knee were randomized to undergo either OAT or MF procedure. There were 28 athletes in OAT group and 29 in MF group. Patients were evaluated using a modified Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scores, MRI and clinical assessment after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after the surgery. According to the modified HSS and ICRS scores, functional and objective assessment showed that 96% had excellent or good results after OAT compared with 52% after MF procedure (P<0.001). In 12, 24 and 36 months after the operations, the HSS and ICRS showed statistically significantly better results in the OAT group (P=0.03; P=0.006; P=0.006). Twenty-six (93%) athletes following OAT and fifteen (52%) athletes following MF returned to sports activities at the preinjury level at an average of 6.5 months (range, 4-8 months) after the operations. At an average of 37.1 months follow-up, our prospective, randomized, clinical study in athletes has shown significant superiority of the OAT over MF for the repair of articular cartilage defects in the knee. PMID:16552548

Gudas, Rimtautas; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Monastyreckiene, Egle; Pranys, Darius; Kalesinskas, Romas J

2006-09-01

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An Arthroscopic Device to Assess Articular Cartilage Defects and Treatment with a Hydrogel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hydraulic resistance R across osteochondral tissue, especially articular cartilage, decreases with degeneration and erosion. Clinically useful measures to quantify and diagnose the extent of cartilage degeneration and efficacy of repair strategies, especially with regard to pressure maintenance, are still developing. The hypothesis of this study was that hydraulic resistance provides a quantitative measure of osteochondral tissue that could be used to evaluate the state of cartilage damag...

Mccarty, William J.; Luan, Anna; Sundaramurthy, Priya; Urbanczyk, Caryn; Patel, Atal; Hahr, Jacob; Sotoudeh, Mohammad; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Sah, Robert L.

2011-01-01

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Articular cartilage changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphologic changes of articular cartilage with bone grafting to fill subchondral bone defects were studied in 23-month-old New Zealand rabbits with bilateral tibial subchondral bone defects. The defects were made approximately 5 mm below the articular surface and were covered with surrounding tissues. The right side was filled with calcium sulfate bone graft, and the left side was filled with acrylic cement as control. The articular cartilage above the fillers was harvested 12 weeks postoperatively. Gross observation, histological examination, and transmission electron microscope observation were undertaken. The results showed that cartilage above the calcium sulfate had a normal hyaline articular cartilage appearance. In contrast, cartilage above the acrylic cement showed degenerative changes in both histological and electron microscope observation. These results suggest that using calcium sulfate bone graft to fill subchondral metaphyseal bone defects has no harmful effect to overlying articular cartilage. This substitute can reduce the possibility of osteoarthritis compared to acrylic cement. PMID:19226011

Weilin, Sang; Jinzhong, Ma

2008-10-01

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A study on repair of porcine articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineered cartilage constructed in vivo by composite scaffold materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was performed to find out a promising injectable composite scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. By using a composite of allogenous cartilage microparticle acellular tissue matrix (CMACTM) and fibrin glue (Fg) as injectable scaffold materials, tissue-engineered cartilage was constructed in vivo, and the effects of which on the repair of porcine articular cartilage defects were observed. CMACTM was obtained from domestic pigs. The chondrocytes were prepared from experimental mini-type pigs and expanded in vitro. Fg was used as a scaffold material. The composite of CMACTM, second-passage chondrocytes, and Fg was replanted to the articular cartilage defective regions in autologous mini-type pig by injection. At 12 weeks after replantation, samples were collected and analyzed by general observation and histologic staining.The constructed tissue-engineered cartilage exhibited a good efficiency in the repair of articular cartilage defects. Cells in the constructed tissue-engineered cartilage grew well and were able to secrete cartilaginous matrix. The tissue-engineered cartilage showed a better biologic performance than the control. A composite of allogenous CMACTM and Fg was a promising injectable scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, which could be used to repair articular cartilage defects by a minimally invasive procedure. PMID:20798625

Lin, Pan B; Ning, Li J; Lian, Qin Z; Xia, Zhao; Xin, Yang; Sen, Bi H; Fei, Nie F

2010-10-01

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Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy results in healing of full thickness articular cartilage defect  

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This study aimed to determine the efficacy of PEMF (pulsed electromagnetic field) treatment in experimental osteochondral defect healing in a rabbit model. The study was conducted on 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits formed the study group and six rabbits the control group. The right knee joints of all 12 animals were exposed and a 3.5-mm diameter osteochondral defect was created in the trochlear groove. The defect was filled with calcium phosphate scaffold. Six animals from the study...

2011-01-01

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Indium-111 chloride for detecting suspected hepatomas in patients with focal defects on technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-three patients with hepatic cirrhosis and focal defects on Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) scintigrams were restudied with In-111 chloride to determine if indium localization in the focal defect is indicative of a hepatoma. Seven of eight patients with proven hepatomas had positive studies; however, six of 15 patients without hepatomas also had studies interpreted as positive. Thus, In-111 chloride is highly sensitive for the detection of hepatomas, and a negative indium study would militate against this diagnosis. The high false-positive rate found may be due to technical factors rather than a lack of specificity of localization; the experience of others seems to support this impression. At present, In-111 chloride scintigraphy for focal hepatic defects appears to be useful in ruling out hepatoma

1985-01-01

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Use of a Smooth, Resorbable Template for Delivery of Cultured Pellets of Autologous Chondrocytes to Articular Cartilage Defects—Preliminary Report  

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Background: Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is the most commonly used cell-based surgical procedure for repair of articular cartilage defects. The challenges of this technique include dedifferentiation of chondrocytes following several in vitro passages, invasive means of transplantation, and inadequate cell retention leading to washout of transplanted cells. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a novel technique of transplanting high-density chondrocyte pellets seeded on a ...

Pomahac, Bohdan; Zuhaili, Baraa; Kudsi, Yusef; Aflaki, Pejman; Eriksson, Elof

2009-01-01

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Tissue Engineering Based Therapy for Articular Cartilage Defects - A New Approach  

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Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue in diarthrodial joints, when damaged due to trauma could lead to osteoarthritis. At present Autologous Cartilage Implantation is an established method in which patients own chondrocytes are isolated and then implanted after in vitro expansion over the affected area with bovine or porcine collagen matrix. This procedure results in more of Collagen Type I during in vitro expansion, which eventually becomes fibrocartilage. Also it requires growth factors. We have in this study tried growing human Chondrocytes without growth factors using synthetic scaffolds to grow more Collagen Type II Materials and Methods: Human cartilage specimens were harvested through arthroscopy from the non-weight bearing area of the knee joint from 13 patients who underwent surgical procedures of the knee joint after getting their informed consent. The tissues were transported in saline taking 1 hour to laboratory and subjected to digestion with Collagenase type II for 16~18 Hrs. The chondrocyte cells obtained after dissociation were divided into two groups for culture. Gr. I were embedded in a Thermogelation polymer (TGP and Gr. II in basal culture media (DMEM + Ascorbic Acid without using any growth factors. The Group II cells were viable only for 4 weeks and then started degenerating. The TGP-Chondrocytes scaffolds were grown for 16 weeks and the specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 and 16-week intervals and their morphology and molecular characteristics were studied by H&E staining, S-100 protein analysis and RT-PCR.Results: Human chondrocytes could be cultured in both TGP (group I and Basal culture media (group II. The Gr. I cells were viable upto the 16th week while the Group II chondrocytes started degenerating after the 4 week. Both the groups were proven positive for S-100 protein, a Chondrocyte specific marker protein; Gr. II specimens after 4 weeks, and Gr. I specimens after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. RT-PCR study of the cells of group I were positive for TGF beta 3 (Proliferation, differentiation, and other functions, GR beta, GR alpha (Development, metabolism and immune Response (glucocorticoid receptor alpha, AGGF (Apoptosis, VDR (Vitamin D3 Receptor, Col II (Type II Collagen. Conclusion: We have established a methodology by which Human chondrocytes could be cultured in vitro without any growth factors for a period of 16 weeks in a polymer-hydrogel scaffold. Upon further confirmation of their characteristics, the TGP grown chondrocytes can be used for autologous implantation to repair damaged cartilage area as the Collagen Type II which grows better without growth factors in the scaffold, eventually will become Hyaline cartilage is expected to give a longer disease free duration than the present method of ACI.

Abraham S

2007-01-01

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Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor ?1 gene  

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Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-?1 that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-?1 gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA3-TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA3 gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-?1 gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-?1 gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease

2006-12-01

32

Complex articular cartilage restoration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage injury and degeneration occurs frequently in athletes and results from the significant chronic joint stress and acute traumatic injuries associated with high-impact sports. These injuries do not heal spontaneously and often lead to progressive painful impairment of joint function and limitation of sports participation. Untreated articular cartilage defects frequently lead to chronic joint degeneration and disability. Treatment of articular cartilage injury in athletes can be complex and requires effective and durable joint surface restoration that can withstand even the significant joint stresses generated during sports activity. Several established articular cartilage repair techniques have been shown to successfully return the athlete with articular cartilage injury to high-impact sports. In addition, novel treatment concepts and techniques that apply modern tissue engineering technologies promise further advancement in the treatment of these challenging injuries in the demanding athletic population. PMID:23314266

Mithoefer, Kai

2013-03-01

33

The repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Immune responses to reparative tissue formed by allogeneic growth plate chondrocyte implants  

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Growth plate cartilage cultivated in vitro was attached with a fibrin clot to a full-thickness articular cartilage defect on knee joints in allogeneic New Zealand rabbits. The healing of the defects was assessed by gross examination, light microscopy, and immunologic analysis for 24 weeks. Immunologic assessment of cell-mediated immunity, cytotoxicity of a humoral antibody by a 51 chromium release assay, and immunofluorescence studies were carried out. During the first two weeks following grafting, healing was excellent in 11 of the 17 defects. From three to 24 weeks, 11 of 42 defects examined had good results. Host lymphocytes had accumulated around the allograft at two to 12 weeks. Most of the implanted cartilage grown in vitro died and was replaced by fibrous tissue. The immunologic studies suggested that the implanted cartilage began to degenerate two to three weeks after implantation partially because of a humoral immune response but more importantly because of cell-mediated cytotoxicity

1991-01-01

34

Treatment of focal degenerative cartilage defects with polymer-based autologous chondrocyte grafts: four-year clinical results  

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INTRODUCTION: Second-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation with scaffolds stabilizing the grafts is a clinically effective procedure for cartilage repair. In this ongoing prospective observational case report study, we evaluated the effectiveness of BioSeed-C, a cell-based cartilage graft based on autologous chondrocytes embedded in fibrin and a stable resorbable polymer scaffold, for the treatment of clinical symptomatic focal degenerative defects of the knee. METHODS: Clinical outc...

Kreuz, P. C.; Mu?ller, S.; Ossendorf, C.; Kaps, C.; Erggelet, C.

2009-01-01

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Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica / PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato) - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blenda [...] s do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN) de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis. Abstract in english The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA) as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose ac [...] etate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

Sonia M, Malmonge; Cecília A. C, Zavaglia.

36

Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blendas do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis.The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose acetate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

Sonia M Malmonge

1997-06-01

37

[The structure of the hyaline cartilage in the plastic substitution of articular surface defects (an electron microscopic study)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the transplantation of the hyaline (articular) cartilage with the subchondral layer were studied in 100 mature rabbits. The transplants were treated by different methods. It was found that the hyaline cartilage of the articular transplants does not take part in reparative processes. It undergoes either partial or complete resolution. The resolution processes in auto- or allotransplantation of fresh transplants proceed longer and are characterized by gradual death of cell elements and by a destruction of the collagen structures. The demineralized osteochondrous transplants preserved in a week solution of formalin with kanamycin are closer to them in their terms and character of transformation. They are the material which should be recommended as most perspective for arthroplasty. PMID:7889157

Savel'ev, V I; Karptsov, V I; Novoselov, K A; Kravtsov, V A; Anisimova, L O

1993-01-01

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Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results; Autologe Chondrozytentransplantation zur Behandlung von Knorpeldefekten des Kniegelenks. Techniken und Ergebnisse  

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Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.) [German] Zur Behandlung umschriebener Defekte des artikulaeren Kniegelenkgelenkknorpels wird der Einsatz autologer Knorpelzellen zunehmend als neue biologische Methode empfohlen. Die Technik der autologen Chondrozytentransplantation (ACT) und deren Modifikationen als matrixassoziierte autologe Chondrozytentransplantation (MACT) werden dargestellt. Es erfolgt ein Ueberblick ueber die experimentellen und klinischen Ergebnisse mit der Darstellung der haeufigsten Komplikationen und den derzeit gueltigen Indikationsrichtlinien. Unter Verwendung qualitativ hochwertiger Zellen zeigen besonders posttraumatische Knorpeldefekte bei juengeren Patienten eine hohe Erfolgsquote mit der Ausbildung eines hyalinartigen Regeneratgewebes. Die haeufigsten Komplikationen der ACT sind Periosthypertrophie, Delamination des Transplantats, intraartikulaere Adhaesionen und Transplantatversagen. Die derzeit wichtigsten Limitierungen stellen die Osteoarthrose und ein hoeheres Patientenalter dar. Bei richtiger Indikationsstellung und operativer Technik kann die ACT als effiziente und sichere Therapieoption fuer die Behandlung grosser und tiefer Knorpeldefekte des Kniegelenks angesehen werden. (orig.)

Marlovits, S.; Kutscha-Lissberg, F.; Aldrian, S.; Resinger, C.; Singer, P.; Zeller, P.; Vecsei, V. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

2004-08-01

39

Defect density reduction in InAs/GaSb type II superlattice focal plane array infrared detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) have proven their large potential for high performance focal plane array infrared detectors. Lots of interest is focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for mono- and bispectral infrared detectors between 3 - 30 ?m. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with very high responsivity, comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also well suited for the fabrication of dual-color mid-wavelength infrared InAs/GaSb SL camera systems. These systems exhibit high quantum efficiency and offer simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels. An essential point for the performance of two-dimensional focal plane infrared detectors in camera systems is the number of defective pixel on the matrix detector. Sources for pixel outages are manifold and might be caused by the dislocation in the substrate, the epitaxial growth process or by imperfections during the focal plane array fabrication process. The goal is to grow defect-free epitaxial layers on a dislocation free large area GaSb substrate. Permanent improvement of the substrate quality and the development of techniques to monitor the substrate quality are of particular importance. To examine the crystalline quality of 3" and 4" GaSb substrates, synchrotron white beam X-ray topography (SWBXRT) was employed. In a comparative defect study of different 3" GaSb and 4" GaSb substrates, a significant reduction of the dislocation density caused by improvements in bulk crystal growth has been obtained. Optical characterization techniques for defect characterization after MBE growth are employed to correlate epitaxially grown defects with the detector performance after hybridization with the read-out integrated circuit.

Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Niemasz, Jasmin; Rutz, Frank; Wörl, Andreas; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

2011-01-01

40

Enamel matrix derivative inhibits proteoglycan production and articular cartilage repair, delays the restoration of the subchondral bone and induces changes of the synovial membrane in a lapine osteochondral defect model in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving the structural qualities of the new tissue that fills osteochondral defects is critical to enhance articular cartilage repair. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) modulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we assessed the effect of EMD on early chondrogenesis and bone repair in an osteochondral defect model in vivo. Standardized osteochondral defects were established in the trochlear groove of rabbits. EMD or the carrier substance without EMD activity was applied to the blood clot that was forming within the defect. After 3 weeks in vivo, the quality of articular cartilage repair was evaluated using a semiquantitative scoring system and biochemical assays for proteoglycan and DNA contents. The extent of formation of the subchondral bone within the original osteochondral defect was measured. Application of EMD resulted in an inferior histological articular cartilage repair. The total proteoglycan content of the repair tissue as well as the proteoglycan production standardized to the cell proliferative activities within the defects were reduced following treatment with EMD. Restoration of the subchondral bone within the osteochondral defect was delayed when EMD was applied. Significant changes of the synovial membrane were present, reflected in an increased villus thickening and changes in villus architecture. These data suggest that EMD inhibits the early repair of the osteochondral unit in vivo. PMID:22553191

Kiss, Alice; Cucchiarini, Magali; Menger, Michael D; Kohn, Dieter; Hannig, Matthias; Madry, Henning

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

In situ crosslinking elastin-like polypeptide gels for application to articular cartilage repair in a goat osteochondral defect model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate an injectable, in situ crosslinkable elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) gel for application to cartilage matrix repair in critically sized defects in goat knees. One cylindrical, osteochondral defect in each of seven animals was filled with an aqueous solution of ELP and a biocompatible, chemical crosslinker, while the contralateral defect remained unfilled and served as an internal control. Joints were sacrificed at 3 (n = 3) or 6 (n = 4) months for MRI, histological, and gross evaluation of features of biomaterial performance, including integration, cellular infiltration, surrounding matrix quality, and new matrix in the defect. At 3 months, ELP-filled defects scored significantly higher for integration by histological and gross grading compared to unfilled defects. ELP did not impede cell infiltration but appeared to be partly degraded. At 6 months, new matrix in unfilled defects outpaced that in ELP-filled defects and scored significantly better for MRI evidence of adverse changes, as well as integration and proteoglycan-containing matrix via gross and histological grading. The ELP-crosslinker solution was easily delivered and formed stable, well-integrated gels that supported cell infiltration and matrix synthesis; however, rapid degradation suggests that ELP formulation modifications should be optimized for longer-term benefits in cartilage repair applications. PMID:18433311

Nettles, Dana L; Kitaoka, Kenichi; Hanson, Neil A; Flahiff, Charlene M; Mata, Brian A; Hsu, Edward W; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Setton, Lori A

2008-07-01

42

Articular cartilage repair in athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage lesions in the athletic population commonly occur and result from the significant acute and chronic joint stress associated with high-impact sports. These lesions have poor intrinsic healing capacity, and the persistent defects in the joint surfaces cause pain, swelling, and mechanical symptoms that result in functional impairment and limitation of athletic participation. If untreated, articular cartilage lesions can lead to chronic joint degeneration and disability. Several techniques for articular cartilage repair have been recently developed with promising results. However, the significant joint stresses generated in athletes require an effective and durable cartilage surface restoration that can withstand the high mechanical demands in this population over time. PMID:17472328

Mithoefer, Kai; Scopp, Jason M; Mandelbaum, Bert R

2007-01-01

43

Autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects: postoperative MR appearance with clinical correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To describe the MR appearance following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects of the knee. Design and patients: Twenty-nine 1.5-T MR knee studies including dynamic gadolinium enhancement were performed on 21 patients following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed images to evaluate graft and donor site appearance and MR findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: MR images demonstrated graft protuberance (n=12/21; range 1-2 mm), depression (n=2/21; range 1 mm), and surface incongruity: mild (n=17/21), moderate (n=2/21), marked (n=1/21). The T2 signal of graft cartilage was similar to that of adjacent cartilage in 25 of 29 examinations, and increased in four. Graft cartilage thickness relative to adjacent cartilage was <50% in six patients, 50-100% in 15. Graft enhancement in bone was absent at 2 weeks, but present at between 4 and 6 weeks following surgery. All patients had clinical follow-up examinations and knee outcome survey scores were obtained in 15 patients with follow-up greater than 3 months after surgery. All patients demonstrated the expected short-term progressive clinical improvement. Conclusion: MR images reveal a wide range of appearances following osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Minor variations in graft orientation and surface congruity do not result in adverse clinical outcome in the short term. (orig.)

2001-10-01

44

Early Results With Osteochondral Autogenous Cartilage Transfer For Osteochondral Defects In The Knee Joint  

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We report our experience with osteochondral autogenous cartilage transfer for osteochondral defects in the knee joint in five patients. They were followed up for over a year. Suitability for this procedure was assessed by arthroscopy and knees with focal cartilage defect of 1.5cms or less were selected. Associated intra-articular pathology if any was recorded and treatable lesions like meniscal tears and lateral retinacular tightness were attended to at the same time. The osteochondral autolo...

2006-01-01

45

A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage  

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The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS) and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS) on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacoth...

2011-01-01

46

Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos.The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

A.L.M. Yamada

2012-04-01

47

Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica / Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulaçõe [...] s foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos. Abstract in english The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. [...] After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero) and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

Yamada, A.L.M.; Carvalho, A.M.; Oliveira, P.G.G.; Felisbino, S.L.; Queiroz, D.L.; Watanabe, M.J.; Hussni, C.A.; Alves, A.L.G..

48

Differentiation between grade 3 and grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the knee: Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted versus fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Fat-suppressed (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FS three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo imaging such as spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence have been established as accurate methods for detecting articular cartilage defects. Purpose: To retrospectively compare the diagnostic efficacy between FS PD-weighted and FS 3D gradient-echo MRI for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects of the knee with arthroscopy as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: Twenty-one patients who had grade 3 or 4 cartilage defects in medial femoral condyle at arthroscopy and knee MRI were included in this study: grade 3, >50% cartilage defects; grade 4, full thickness cartilage defects exposed to the bone. Sagittal FS PD-weighted MR images and FS 3D gradient-echo images with 1.5 T MR images were independently graded for the cartilage abnormalities of medial femoral condyle by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. Inter-observer agreement in grading of cartilage was assessed using ? coefficients. Results: Arthroscopy revealed grade 3 defects in 17 patients and grade 4 defects in 4 patients in medial femoral condyles. For FS 3D gradient-echo images grade 3 defects were graded as grade 3 (n=15) and grade 4 (n=2), and all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. However, for FS PD-weighted MR images all grade 3 defects were misinterpreted as grade 1 (n=1) and grade 4 (n=16), whereas all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. FS 3D gradient-echo MRI could differentiate grade 3 from grade 4 defects (P=0.003), whereas FS PD-weighted imaging could not (P=1.0). Inter-observer agreement was substantial (?=0.70) for grading of cartilage using FS PD-weighted imaging, whereas it was moderate (?=0.46) using FS 3D gradient-echo imaging. Conclusion: FS 3D gradient-echo MRI is more helpful for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects than is FS PD-weighted imaging

2010-05-01

49

Measurement of the migration of a focal knee resurfacing implant with radiostereometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and purpose Articular resurfacing metal implants have been developed to treat full-thickness localized articular cartilage defects. Evaluation of the fixation of these devices is mandatory. Standard radiostereometry (RSA) is a validated method for evaluation of prosthetic migration, but it requires that tantalum beads are inserted into the implant. For technical reasons, this is not possible for focal articular resurfacing components. In this study, we therefore modified the tip of an articular knee implant and used it as a marker for RSA, and then validated the method. Material and methods We modified the tip of a resurfacing component into a hemisphere with a radius of 3 mm, marked it with a 1.0-mm tantalum marker, and implanted it into a sawbone marked with 6 tantalum beads. Point-motion RSA of the “hemisphere bead” using standard automated RSA as the gold standard was compared to manual measurement of the tip hemisphere. 20 repeated stereograms with gradual shifts of position of the specimen between each double exposure were used for the analysis. The tip motion was compared to the point motion of the hemisphere bead to determine the accuracy and precision. Results The accuracy of the manual tip hemisphere method was 0.08–0.19 mm and the precision ranged from 0.12 mm to 0.33 mm. Interpretation The accuracy and precision for translations is acceptable when using a small hemisphere at the tip of a focal articular knee resurfacing implant instead of tantalum marker beads. Rotations of the implant cannot be evaluated. The method is accurate and precise enough to allow detection of relevant migration, and it will be used for future clinical trials with the new implant.

2014-01-01

50

TGF-?1 Improves Articular Cartilage Damage in Rabbit Knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the role of TGF-?1 in cartilage repair in an in vivo model of articular cartilage defect in rabbit. Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits of either sex, 6-7 months old (1-2 kgs were divided into two groups i.e. A (Control or B (TGF-?1. The articular cartilage defect of 3mm diameter and 2mm depth was created in the femoral groove of femoropatellar joint. Animals of both the groups were provided with collagen scaffolds at 10?g/cm2 in the articular defect. However, Group B animals were further provided with 20ng/20?l of TGF- ?1 in the defect stuffed with collagen scaffold. Articular defect grossly appeared re-surfaced completely and healed with better joint movement in group B as compared to the animals of group A. Repaired articular surface maintained the transparency and sheen as hyaline cartilage. Synthesis of proteoglycans, enhanced filapodia activity, significant increase in the collagen type II and aggrecan in the repaired tissue further supports that TGF-?1 at the tested dosage improved the articular cartilage management and repair.

N. K. Singh, S. Shiwani1, G. R. Singh2, D. K. Jeong3, P. Kinjavdekar4, Amarpal4, J. D. Lohakare and S. J. Lee*

2012-06-01

51

Autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects: postoperative MR appearance with clinical correlation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To describe the MR appearance following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects of the knee. Design and patients: Twenty-nine 1.5-T MR knee studies including dynamic gadolinium enhancement were performed on 21 patients following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed images to evaluate graft and donor site appearance and MR findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: MR images demonstrated graft protuberance (n=12/21; range 1-2 mm), depression (n=2/21; range 1 mm), and surface incongruity: mild (n=17/21), moderate (n=2/21), marked (n=1/21). The T2 signal of graft cartilage was similar to that of adjacent cartilage in 25 of 29 examinations, and increased in four. Graft cartilage thickness relative to adjacent cartilage was <50% in six patients, 50-100% in 15. Graft enhancement in bone was absent at 2 weeks, but present at between 4 and 6 weeks following surgery. All patients had clinical follow-up examinations and knee outcome survey scores were obtained in 15 patients with follow-up greater than 3 months after surgery. All patients demonstrated the expected short-term progressive clinical improvement. Conclusion: MR images reveal a wide range of appearances following osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Minor variations in graft orientation and surface congruity do not result in adverse clinical outcome in the short term. (orig.)

Sanders, T.G. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas, San Antonio (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland AFB, Texas (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Mentzer, K.D. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Miller, M.D. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States); Morrison, W.B. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Campbell, S.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Penrod, B.J. [Musculoskeletal Radiology, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2001-10-01

52

Current strategies for articular cartilage repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Defects of articular cartilage that do not penetrate to the subchondral bone fail to heal spontaneously. Defects that penetrate to the subchondral bone elicit an intrinsic repair response that yields a fibrocartilaginous repair tissue which is a poor substitute for hyaline articular cartilage. Many arthroscopic repair strategies employed utilise this intrinsic repair response to induce the formation of a repair tissue within the defect. The goal, however, is to produce a repair tissue that has the same functional and mechanical properties of hyaline articular cartilage. To this end, autologous osteochondral transfer can provide symptomatic relief. This technique involves the excision of healthy cartilage plugs from "non-load bearing" regions of the joint for implantation into the defect. Cell based transplantation methods currently involve the transplantation of expanded autologous chondrocytes to the defects to form a repair tissue. This technique again involves the excision of healthy cartilage from the joint for expansion. Current research is exploring the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells as a source for tissue engineering, as well as the combination of cells with biodegradable scaffolds. Although current repair strategies improve joint function, further research is required to prevent future degeneration of repair tissue.

Redman S. N.

2005-04-01

53

Condrocalcinose articular familiar Familial articular chondrocalcinosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite intermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica.Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical features of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

Mittermayer Barreto Santiago

2004-08-01

54

Condrocalcinose articular familiar / Familial articular chondrocalcinosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite i [...] ntermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica. Abstract in english Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical featur [...] es of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

Mittermayer Barreto, Santiago; Liliana, Galrão; Isabella, Lima; Lucas, Prado; Melba, Moura.

55

Focal myositis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.)

1998-05-01

56

Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. A...

2012-01-01

57

Emerging options for treatment of articular cartilage injury in the athlete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage injury is observed with increasing frequency in both elite and amateur athletes and results from the significant joint stress associated particularly with high-impact sports. The lack of spontaneous healing of these joint surface defects leads to progressive joint pain and mechanical symptoms with resulting functional impairment and limitation of athletic participation. Left untreated, articular cartilage defects can lead to chronic joint degeneration and athletic disability. Articular cartilage repair in athletes requires effective and durable joint surface restoration that can withstand the significant joint stresses generated during athletic activity. Several techniques for articular cartilage repair have been developed recently, which can successfully restore articular cartilage surfaces and allow for return to high-impact athletics after articular cartilage injury. Besides these existing techniques, new promising scientific concepts and techniques are emerging that incorporate modern tissue engineering technologies and promise further improvement for the treatment of these challenging injuries in the demanding athletic population. PMID:19064163

Mithoefer, Kai; McAdams, Timothy R; Scopp, Jason M; Mandelbaum, Bert R

2009-01-01

58

Restricted homotopies and focal conic textures  

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The effects of integrability conditions on the homotopic defect classification of layered systems are investigated. It is shown, that for irrotational vector fields in three dimensions point defects of any index can be realized. Continuous transitions between defects of the same index are, however, impeded. The circular defect lines of focal conic textures are a manifestation of such a restricted homotopy.

1981-01-01

59

Focal Points  

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This paper gives an overview of the literature on focal points. It starts with reviewing Schelling’s seminal book The Strategy of Conflict.I then discuss the problems that have to be faced when incorporating the notion of focal points in theory of games. Two recent approaches are discussed that deal with focal points. The eductive approach is static and concentrates on how players can use aymmetries in the descriptions of strategies. The evolutive approach is dynamic and focuses in the adap...

Janssen, M. C. W.

1997-01-01

60

Focal myositis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Sweet, D.E. [Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

New perspectives for articular cartilage repair treatment through tissue engineering: A contemporary review  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper review we describe benefits and disadvantages of the established methods of cartilage regeneration that seem to have a better long-term effectiveness. We illustrated the anatomical aspect of the knee joint cartilage, the current state of cartilage tissue engineering, through mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials, and in conclusion we provide a short overview on the rehabilitation after articular cartilage repair procedures. Adult articular cartilage has low capacity to repair itself, and thus even minor injuries may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. Numerous efforts have been made to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, and to date several researchers aim to implement clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords, examining the current literature on the well-known tissue engineering methods for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Leonardi, Rosalia; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Giunta, Angelo; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio

2014-01-01

62

MRI evaluation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the MRI manifestation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee for evaluating the extension and degree of the injury and guiding treatment. Methods: MRI of 34 patients with acute articular cartilage injury of knee within one day to fifteen days confirmed by arthroscopy and arthrotomy was reviewed and analyzed, with emphasis on articular cartilage and subchondral lesion. And every manifestation on MRI and that of arthroscopy and operation was compared. Results: The articular cartilage injury was diagnosed on MRI in 29 of 34 cases. Cartilage signal changes were found only in 4. The changes of cartilage shape were variable. Thinning of focal cartilage was showed in 3, osteochondral impaction in 3, creases of cartilage in 3, disrupted cartilage with fissuring in 13, cracks cartilage in 2, and cracks cartilage with displaced fragment in 1. Bone bruise and occult fracture were found only on MRI. Conclusion: The assessment of MRI and arthroscopy in acute articular cartilage injury are consistent. Combined with arthroscopy, MRI can succeed in assessing the extension and degree of acute articular injury and allowing treatment planning

2003-11-01

63

Focal Points  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper gives an overview of the literature on focal points. It starts with reviewing Schelling’s seminalbook The Strategy of Conflict.I then discuss the problems that have to be faced when incorporating thenotion of focal points in theory of games. Two recent approaches are discussed that deal with focalpoints. The eductive approach is static and concentrates on how players can use aymmetries in thedescriptions of strategies. The evolutive approach is dynamic and focuses in the adaptive...

Janssen, Maarten C. W.

1997-01-01

64

Structural focalization  

CERN Multimedia

Focusing, introduced by Jean-Marc Andreoli in the context of classical linear logic, defines a normal form for sequent calculus derivations that cuts down on the number of possible derivations by eagerly applying invertible rules and grouping sequences of non-invertible rules. A focused sequent calculus is defined relative to some non-focused sequent calculus; focalization is the property that every non-focused derivation can be transformed into a focused derivation. In this paper, we present a focused sequent calculus for polarized propositional intuitionistic logic and prove the focalization property relative to a standard presentation of propositional intuitionistic logic. Compared to existing approaches, the proof is quite concise, depending only on the internal soundness and completeness of the focused logic. In turn, both of these properties can be established (and mechanically verified) by structural induction in the style of Pfenning's structural cut elimination without the need for any tedious and re...

Simmons, Robert J

2011-01-01

65

Low friction hydrogel for articular cartilage repair: evaluation of mechanical and tribological properties in comparison with natural cartilage tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical and tribological properties of a novel biomaterial, a boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogel, were investigated and compared to natural cartilage tissue. This low friction hydrogel material was developed for use as a synthetic replacement for focal defects in articular cartilage. The hydrogel was made by functionalizing the biocompatible polymer polyvinyl alcohol with a carboxylic acid derivative boundary lubricant molecule. Two different gel processing techniques were used to create the hydrogels. The first method consisted of initially functionalizing the boundary lubricant to the polyvinyl alcohol and then creating hydrogels by physically crosslinking the reacted polymer. The second method consisted of creating non-functionalized polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels and then performing the functionalization reaction on the fully formed gel. Osteochondral bovine samples were collected and replicate experiments were conducted to compare the mechanical and tribological performance of the boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels to non-functionalized hydrogels and native cartilage. Friction experiments displayed a maximum decrease in friction coefficient of 70% for the functionalized hydrogels compared to neat polyvinyl alcohol. Indentation investigated the elastic modulus of the hydrogels, demonstrating that stability of the hydrogel was affected by processing method. Hydrogel performance was within the lower ranges of natural cartilage tested under the exact same conditions, showing the potential of the boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels to perform as a biomimetic synthetic articular cartilage replacement. PMID:23910356

Blum, Michelle M; Ovaert, Timothy C

2013-10-01

66

First ex vivo study demonstrating that 99mTc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preclinical data pointed to 99mTc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify 99mTc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with 99mTc-NTP 15-5 and 99mTc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 ± 2.35 and 0.76 ± 0.24, respectively, for 99mTc-NTP 15-5 and 99mTc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense 99mTc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas 99mTc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of 99mTc-NTP 15-5. The tracer 99mTc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

2011-11-01

67

Articular cartilage mineralization in osteoarthritis of the hip  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of articular cartilage calcification in patients with end-stage hip OA. Further, its impact on the clinical situation and the OA severity are analyzed. Methods Eighty patients with OA of the hip who consecutively underwent total hip replacement were prospectively evaluated, and 10 controls were included. The patients' X-rays were analyzed for the presence of articular cartilage mineralization. A Harris Hip Score (HHS was preoperatively calculated for every patient. Slab specimens from the femoral head of bone and cartilage and an additional square centimeter of articular cartilage from the main chondral defect were obtained from each patient for analysis of mineralization by digital contact radiography (DCR. Histological grading was also performed. In a subset of 20 patients, minerals were characterized with an electron microscope (FE-SEM. Results Calcifications were seen in all OA cartilage and slab specimens using DCR, while preoperative X-rays revealed calcification in only 17.5%. None of the control cartilage specimens showed mineralization. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between articular cartilage calcification and preoperative HHS. Histological OA grade correlated positively with the amount of matrix calcification. FE-SEM analysis revealed basic calcium phosphate (BCP as the predominant mineral; CPPD crystals were found in only two patients. Conclusions Articular cartilage calcification is a common event in osteoarthritis of the hip. The amount of calcification correlates with clinical symptoms and histological OA grade.

Lohmann Christoph

2009-12-01

68

Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration  

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 The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a ...

Atsuyuki Inui; Takashi Iwakura; Hari Reddi, A.

2012-01-01

69

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE VESICLES CONTAIN RNA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small membrane-bound extracellular organelles known as articular cartilage matrix vesicles (ACVs) participate in pathologic mineralization in osteoarthritic articular cartilage. ACVs are also present in normal cartilage, although they have no known functions other than mineralization. Recently, RNA was identified in extracellular vesicles derived from mast cells, suggesting that such vesicles might carry coding information from cell to cell. We found that ACVs from normal porcine and human ar...

Mitton, Elizabeth; Gohr, Claudia M.; Mcnally, Mark T.; Rosenthal, Ann K.

2009-01-01

70

Extra-articular hip endoscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy.

Verhelst, L.; Guevara, V.; De Schepper, J.; Van Melkebeek, J.; Pattyn, C.; Audenaert, E. A.

2012-01-01

71

Current concepts for rehabilitation and return to sport after knee articular cartilage repair in the athlete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage injury is observed with increasing frequency in both elite and amateur athletes and results from the significant acute and chronic joint stress associated with impact sports. Left untreated, articular cartilage defects can lead to chronic joint degeneration and athletic and functional disability. Treatment of articular cartilage defects in the athletic population presents a therapeutic challenge due to the high mechanical demands of athletic activity. Several articular cartilage repair techniques have been shown to successfully restore articular cartilage surfaces and allow athletes to return to high-impact sports. Postoperative rehabilitation is a critical component of the treatment process for athletic articular cartilage injury and should take into consideration the biology of the cartilage repair technique, cartilage defect characteristics, and each athlete's sport-specific demands to optimize functional outcome. Systematic, stepwise rehabilitation with criteria-based progression is recommended for an individualized rehabilitation of each athlete not only to achieve initial return to sport at the preinjury level but also to continue sports participation and reduce risk for reinjury or joint degeneration under the high mechanical demands of athletic activity. PMID:22383103

Mithoefer, Kai; Hambly, Karen; Logerstedt, David; Ricci, Margherita; Silvers, Holly; Della Villa, Stefano

2012-03-01

72

A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

T Kamarul

2011-03-01

73

Non-Contact Evaluation for Articular Cartilage Using Ultrasound  

Science.gov (United States)

In orthopedic field, various new treatments of articular cartilage defect, for example autogenous osteochondral grafts, have been developed. With the spread of these treatments, orthopedists began to focus on the mechanical properties of recovered articular cartilage. The quantitative evaluation of articular cartilage before and after these treatments gives orthopedists the important information to improve these treatments and develop new treatments. We have been investigating the non-contact ultrasonic evaluation for articular cartilage under arthroscopy. In this paper, it was hypothesized that the ultrasonic evaluation depended on the collagen fiber in cartilage. The enzymatically degradation of collagen fiber in cartilage surface was performed. The effect of the degradation on sound velocity, attenuation coefficient and signal intensity, which is the index of cartilage stiffness calculated from the proposed method, was measured. The numerical analysis was performed to clear the relation between the cartilage character and ultrasonic parameters. Experimental and numerical results suggest that the present method can be expanded the sensitive evaluation for cartilage disease in clinical field.

Mori, Koji; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Keisuke; Ikeuchi, Ken; Mine, Takatomo; Nakamura, Takashi; Kawai, Shinya; Saito, Takashi

74

First ex vivo study demonstrating that {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preclinical data pointed to {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 {+-} 2.35 and 0.76 {+-} 0.24, respectively, for {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. The tracer {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

Cachin, Florent; Culot, Damien [Jean Perrin Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Boisgard, Stephane [Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Vidal, Aurelien; Auzeloux, Philippe; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth [Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Filaire, Marc [Universite d' Auvergne, Anatomy Laboratory, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, Serge [Cyclopharma Laboratoire, Saint-Beauzire (France)

2011-11-15

75

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase and glucose-regulated protein 78 increase the life span of articular chondrocytes and their repair potential  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Like all mammalian cells, normal adult chondrocytes have a limited replicative life span, which decreases with age. To facilitate the therapeutic use of chondrocytes from older donors, a method is needed to prolong their life span. Methods We transfected chondrocytes with hTERT or GRP78 and cultured them in a 3-dimensional atelocollagen honeycomb-shaped scaffold with a membrane seal. Then, we measured the amount of nuclear DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and the expression level of type II collagen as markers of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, respectively, in these cultures. In addition, we allografted this tissue-engineered cartilage into osteochondral defects in old rabbits to assess their repair activity in vivo. Results Our results showed different degrees of differentiation in terms of GAG content between chondrocytes from old and young rabbits. Chondrocytes that were cotransfected with hTERT and GRP78 showed higher cellular proliferation and expression of type II collagen than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of the age of the cartilage donor. In addition, the in vitro growth rates of hTERT- or GRP78-transfected chondrocytes were higher than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of donor age. In vivo, the tissue-engineered cartilage implants exhibited strong repairing activity, maintained a chondrocyte-specific phenotype, and produced extracellular matrix components. Conclusions Focal gene delivery to aged articular chondrocytes exhibited strong repairing activity and may be therapeutically useful for articular cartilage regeneration.

Sato Masato

2012-04-01

76

MR imaging of articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR imaging has evolved to the best non-invasive method for the evaluation of articular cartilage. MR imaging helps to understand the structure and physiology of cartilage, and to diagnose cartilage lesions. Numerous studies have shown high accuracy and reliability concerning detection of cartilage lesions and early changes in both structure and biochemistry. High contrast-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution are essential for analysis of articular cartilage. Fat-suppressed 3D-T1 weighted gradient echo and T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with or without fat suppression are recommended for clinical routine. In this article the anatomy and pathology of hyaline articular cartilage and the complex imaging characteristics of hyaline cartilage will be discussed. (orig.)

2001-04-01

77

Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis  

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The medical literature was reviewed from 1968–2002 using Medline and the key words "intra-articular" and "osteoarthritis" to determine the various intra-articular therapies used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most frequently used intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis. Other intra-articular substances such as orgotein, radiation synovectomy, dextrose prolotherapy, silicone, saline lavage, saline injection without lavage, analgesic agents...

Uthman, I.; Raynauld, J.; Haraoui, B.

2003-01-01

78

Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. PMID:23643659

Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

2013-07-15

79

Engineering lubrication in articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage that begins to explore and incorporate methods of lubrication. PMID:21955119

McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

2012-04-01

80

Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization  

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Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT; os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC. A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina.The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG, defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG, defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

L.S. Iamaguti

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica / Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelare [...] s. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT); os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC). A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorder [...] s were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

Iamaguti, L.S.; Brandão, C.V.S.; Mota, L.S.L.S.; Ranzani, J.J.T.; Ribeiro, L.M.; Rossetto, V.J.V.; Padovani, C.R.; Felisbino, S.L..

82

Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage  

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Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints...

Mcnary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Reddi, A. Hari

2012-01-01

83

Articular manifestations of familial hypercholesterolaemia.  

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Familial hypercholesterolaemia is characterised by a decreased removal of low density lipoproteins and premature coronary artery disease. Tendinous xanthomata are a hallmark of the disease. The affected joints may also be the sites of inflammation and pain. Arthropathy has been associated mainly with the homozygous form of familial hypercholesterolaemia, but it is also known to occur in the heterozygous form. We report on the articular manifestations in 73 patients with heterozygous familial ...

Mathon, G.; Gagne?, C.; Brun, D.; Lupien, P. J.; Moorjani, S.

1985-01-01

84

Síndromes epilépticos focales  

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Full Text Available En el año 2001 el Grupo de Trabajo para la Clasificación y Terminología de la Liga Internacional contra la Epilepsia propuso un esquema diagnóstico para las personas con crisis epilépticas y epilepsia. El propósito del trabajo fue mostrar las características principales de algunos de los síndromes epilépticos focales propuestos para ser incluidos dentro de este esquema diagnóstico, el cual ha sido concebido de una forma flexible que permitirá en un futuro la inclusión de otros síndromes epilépticos. Según este nuevo esquema diagnóstico los síndromes epilépticos focales se dividen en síndromes epilépticos focales idiopáticos, síndromes epilépticos focales familiares, síndromes epilépticos focales sintomáticos o probablemente sintomáticos.In 2001, the Working Group for the Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy proposed a diagnostic scheme for those persons with epileptic seizures or with epilepsy. The aim of this paper is to show the main characteristics of some of the focal epileptic syndromes proposed to be included in this diagnostic scheme, which has been designed in such a flexible way that will allow the inclusion of other epileptic syndromes in a future. According to this new diagnostic scheme, the focal epileptic syndromes are divided into family focal idiopathic syndromes, symptomatic focal epileptic syndromes and symptomatic or probably symptomatic focal epileptic syndromes.

Albia J. Pozo Alonso

2004-06-01

85

Transcriptional profiling differences for articular cartilage and repair tissue in equine joint surface lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Full-thickness articular cartilage lesions that reach to the subchondral bone yet are restricted to the chondral compartment usually fill with a fibrocartilage-like repair tissue which is structurally and biomechanically compromised relative to normal articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptional differences between chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage and repair tissue cells four months post-microfracture. Methods Bilateral one-cm2 full-thickness defects were made in the articular surface of both distal femurs of four adult horses followed by subchondral microfracture. Four months postoperatively, repair tissue from the lesion site and grossly normal articular cartilage from within the same femorotibial joint were collected. Total RNA was isolated from the tissue samples, linearly amplified, and applied to a 9,413-probe set equine-specific cDNA microarray. Eight paired comparisons matched by limb and horse were made with a dye-swap experimental design with validation by histological analyses and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Statistical analyses revealed 3,327 (35.3% differentially expressed probe sets. Expression of biomarkers typically associated with normal articular cartilage and fibrocartilage repair tissue corroborate earlier studies. Other changes in gene expression previously unassociated with cartilage repair were also revealed and validated by RT-qPCR. Conclusion The magnitude of divergence in transcriptional profiles between normal chondrocytes and the cells that populate repair tissue reveal substantial functional differences between these two cell populations. At the four-month postoperative time point, the relative deficiency within repair tissue of gene transcripts which typically define articular cartilage indicate that while cells occupying the lesion might be of mesenchymal origin, they have not recapitulated differentiation to the chondrogenic phenotype of normal articular chondrocytes.

Stromberg Arnold J

2009-09-01

86

Intra-articular chondroma of the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chondromas are tumours that develop in relation to the periosteum and, although they are common around the knee, most reports deal with soft tissue chondromas in para-articular locations or intracortical tumours in extra-articular regions. We report a rare case of an intra-articular chondroma in a 16-year-old boy of Asian origin developing in the region of the medial femoral condyle of the femur and extending into the femoral sulcus and the patellofemoral joint. (orig.)

2005-06-01

87

Thickness of patellofemoral articular cartilage as measured on MR imaging: sequence comparison of accuracy, reproducibility, and interobserver variation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision, and reliability of magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of articular cartilage. Fifteen cadaveric patellas were imaged in the axial plane at 1.5 T. Gradient echo and fat-suppressed FSE, T2-weighted, proton density, and T1-weighted sequences were performed. We measured each 5-mm section separately at three standardized positions, giving a total of 900 measurements. These findings were correlated with independently performed measurements of the corresponding anatomic sections. A hundred random measurements were also evaluated for reproducibility and interobserver variation. Although all sequences were highly accurate, the T1-weighted images were the most accurate, with a mean difference of 0.25 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.85. All sequences were also highly reproducible with little inter-observer variation. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of the MR measurements further, we retrospectively evaluated all measurements with discrepancies greater than 1 mm from the specimen. All these differences were attributable to focal defects causing exaggeration of the thickness on MR imaging. (orig.)

1995-08-01

88

Focal paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis  

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Three cases of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis are described in whom unilateral attacks were focally induced, together with a case in whom bilateral attacks only occured. Treatment with phenytoin was effective in all cases. The aspects of the literature relating to focal and generalised attacks in paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis are reviewed.

Plant, Gordon

1983-01-01

89

Beamlet focal plane diagnostic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

1996-12-01

90

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

2010-01-01

91

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee  

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Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

2010-01-15

92

CT features and clinical significance of lumbar articular facet syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the CT features and its clinical significance of lumbar articular facet syndrome. Methods: Based on CT findings and clinical data of lumbar articular facet, 51 cases with lumbar articular facet syndrome and 11 normal young adults were analyzed and compared retrospectively. Results: The CT findings of lumbar articular facet syndrome were: (1)hyperostosis and hypertrophy of articular process; (2)the narrowing space of inter-articular facet; (3)vacuum sign in articular facet; (4)coarse and osteosclerosis of articular facet; (5)partial dislocation of articular facet; (6)calcification in peri-articular facet; (7)complications including disc bulge, discprotrusion, vacuum sign in disc, hypertrophy and calcification of ligamentum flavum. Conclusion: CT features of lumbar articular facet syndrome are multifarious, which should be analyzed in all respects. . (authors)

2009-04-01

93

Desmoid tumor of ilio-acetabular region with articular cartilage breach: a case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Desmoid tumor of bone is a rare benign tumor. It is reported commonly in mandibular and meta-diaphyseal region of long bones. We report involvement of unusual site in ilio-acetabular region with breach in articular cartilage. Case Report: A 40 year old female presented with pain in the left hip. Radiologically, a lytic lesion at ilio-acetabular region was seen. Intra-operatively breach in acetabular roof was seen which was missed in the scan. Curettage and defect reconstruction was done. Histopathology reported as desmoid tumor. 20 months post-operatively patient was symptom free. Conclusion: Desmoid tumor is a rare bone tumor. This case report emphasizes about the rarity of the lesion in this location and the rare chances of breach in articular cartilage of the joint. The chances of recurrences are high with intralesional curettage. Keywords: Lytic lesion, Desmoid tumor, ilio-acetabular region, breach in articular margin

Himanshu Prasad

2013-10-01

94

FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENCE OF SPINOUS PROCESS, LAMINAE AND INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES. – CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available Background: The vertebral disorders are the ones which lead to disability and lot of health problems. Since the lumbar part of the vertebral column is the main weight bearing and weight transmitting region, if there is a defective development, the area for muscle attachment and the strong bony structure for the transmission of weight would be missing leading to instability at an early age. In the present case dry and processed fifth lumbar vertebra, of unknown sex which presented the features with absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes on both sides which were obtained for teaching the medical undergraduate students in M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore. There was absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes of fifth lumbar vertebra leading to a wide spina bifida with absence of laminae, inferior articular processes on both sides and spinous process of fifth lumbar vertebra which could be a developmental anomaly.

Prathap Kumar

2013-09-01

95

Alterations in periarticular bone and cross talk between subchondral bone and articular cartilage in osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The articular cartilage and the subchondral bone form a biocomposite that is uniquely adapted to the transfer of loads across the diarthrodial joint. During the evolution of the osteoarthritic process biomechanical and biological processes result in alterations in the composition, structure and functional properties of these tissues. Given the intimate contact between the cartilage and bone, alterations of either tissue will modulate the properties and function of the other joint component. The changes in periarticular bone tend to occur very early in the development of OA. Although chondrocytes also have the capacity to modulate their functional state in response to loading, the capacity of these cells to repair and modify their surrounding extracellular matrix is relatively limited in comparison to the adjacent subchondral bone. This differential adaptive capacity likely underlies the more rapid appearance of detectable skeletal changes in OA in comparison to the articular cartilage. The OA changes in periarticular bone include increases in subchondral cortical bone thickness, gradual decreases in subchondral trabeular bone mass, formation of marginal joint osteophytes, development of bone cysts and advancement of the zone of calcified cartilage between the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The expansion of the zone of calcified cartilage contributes to overall thinning of the articular cartilage. The mechanisms involved in this process include the release of soluble mediators from chondrocytes in the deep zones of the articular cartilage and/or the influences of microcracks that have initiated focal remodeling in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in an attempt to repair the microdamage. There is the need for further studies to define the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the interaction between subchondral bone and articular cartilage and for applying this information to the development of therapeutic interventions to improve the outcomes in patients with OA. PMID:22859924

Goldring, Steven R

2012-08-01

96

Influence of bone morphogenetic protein on articular cartilage regeneration following periosteal grafting  

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Full Text Available Background: Autologous periosteal grafting is used as treatment for articular cartilage defect. Objective: To study the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP on articular cartilage regeneration following periosteal grafting. Methods: 16 healthy 15 week-old New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes (32 knees were randomly divided into experimental group (group A and control group (group B. A4.0 mmdiameter full-thickness articular cartilage defect was created in the femoral intercondylar fossa in all rabbits. Following this, a4.0 mmdiameter section of the periosteum was harvested from the anteromedial part of the upper tibial bone. In group A (eight rabbits, 16 knees, the cartilage defect was covered with periosteum, into which 20 ?g BMP and 20% Pluronic were injected. In group B (eight rabbits, 16 knees, the cartilage defect was covered with periosteum, into which the same dosage of 0.9% NS (Normal saline and 20% Pluronic were injected. All rabbits were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively, the cartilage defect areas were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and the morphology of the chondrocytes and collagen fibers were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: The filling of the defects with regenerated tissue was observed in both the group. The most notable improvement was that the cartilage regeneration in group A was obviously superior to that in group B, with the total histological score in group A significantly higher. Conclusion: BMP is an effective factor that could promote regeneration of articular cartilage and lead to successful cartilaginous resurfacing following periosteal grafting

Yimin Zhang

2013-01-01

97

Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone  

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Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration.Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected.Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

A Boyde

2011-05-01

98

Focal vibration in neurorehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade, many studies have been carried out to understand the effects of focal vibratory stimuli at various levels of the central nervous system and to study pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological disorders as well as the therapeutic effects of focal vibration in neurorehabilitation. This review aimed to describe the effects of focal vibratory stimuli in neurorehabilitation including the neurological diseases or disorders like stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's' disease and dystonia. In conclusion, focal vibration stimulation is well tolerated, effective and easy to use, and it could be used to reduce spasticity, to promote motor activity and motor learning within a functional activity, even in gait training, independent from etiology of neurological pathology. Further studies are needed in the future well-designed trials with bigger sample size to determine the most effective frequency, amplitude and duration of vibration application in the neurorehabilitation. PMID:24842220

Murillo, N; Valls-Sole, J; Vidal, J; Opisso, E; Medina, J; Kumru, H

2014-04-01

99

Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

2014-01-01

100

Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

MRI of articular cartilaginous lesions. MRI findings in osteoarthritis of the knee joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for imaging of the knee joint, especially for detecting articular cartilaginous lesions associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 141 patients with osteoarthritis were examined (23 males, 118 females). Their age range was 40-93 (mean age 66.2). Using radiotherapy examinations, patients were classified according to Hokkaido University Classification Criteria; 22, 49, 46, 16, and 8 patients were classified as Type I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Articular cartilage defects were examined using MRI, and the number of such defects increased as the X-ray stage progressed. The appearance of a low signal intensity area in the bone marrow was examined using MRI, and the number of patients observed to have such areas increased as the x-ray stages progressed. JOA OA scores were significantly low for patients with meniscal tears. Patients were classified and results reviewed using MRI examinations. Classification by MRI of articular cartilage lesions correlated with the JOA OA scores. Low signal intensity areas in the bone marrow were frequently observed in advanced osteoarthritis cases, and there was correlation between FTA and MRI classifications of these areas. MRI is extremely valuable in detecting articular cartilage lesions in the knee joint, showing those lesions which cannot be detected by conventional radiography examinations. Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically useful method for diagnosis of osteoarthritis. (author)

1995-03-01

102

Structural consequences of traumatizing articular cartilage.  

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Articular cartilage-on-bone has been subjected to repeated impact loading in vitro and the associated structural changes occurring in the general matrix examined by optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study shows that repeated trauma transforms the pseudorandom arrangement of fibrils comprising the general matrix of normal articular cartilage into a structural configuration strongly aligned in the radial direction and displaying a prominent waveform or crimp. This stress-i...

1986-01-01

103

The fractal structure of equine articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The naturally occurring structure of articular cartilage has proven to be an effective means for the facilitation of motion and load support in equine and other animal joints. Cartilage has been found to be a complex and dynamic medium, which has led to an incomplete understanding of the nature and operating mechanisms acting within a joint. Although cartilage has biphasic and triphasic properties, it is believed that the performance of equine articular joints is influenced by the surface roughness of the joint cartilage (Ateshian et al., '98; Chan et al., 2011; Yao and Unsworth, '93). Various joint types with different motions and regimes of lubrication have altered demands on the articular surface that may affect cartilage surface properties. In research performed on freshly harvested samples, equine articular cartilage has been shown to possess a multiscale structure and a fractal dimension. It is thought that by determining the fractal dimension (D) of articular cartilage, a better understanding of the friction, wear, and lubrication mechanisms for biomechanic surfaces can eventually be reached. This study looks at the fractal dimensions of three different articular cartilage surfaces in the equine carpus: the radiocarpal, midcarpal, and carpometacarpal surfaces. The three surfaces provide an ideal comparison of fractal dimensions for a different range of motion, geometry, and loading. In each sample, identical treatment was performed during measurement by a stylus profilometer. PMID:22753326

Smyth, Patrick A; Rifkin, Rebecca E; Jackson, Robert L; Reid Hanson, R

2012-01-01

104

Growth Factor Transgenes Interactively Regulate Articular Chondrocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. No single growth factor gene is likely to optimize these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte functions. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2 and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate a potentially tunable approach to articular chondrocyte regulation and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair.

Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J.; Trippel, Stephen B.

2014-01-01

105

Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair. PMID:23097312

Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

2013-04-01

106

Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration  

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Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

A. Hari Reddi

2012-11-01

107

Articular cartilage repair and the evolving role of regenerative medicine  

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Full Text Available Pieter K Bos1, Marloes L van Melle1, Gerjo JVM van Osch1,21Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the NetherlandsAbstract: Among the growing applications of regenerative medicine, clinical articular cartilage repair has now been used for 2 decades and forms a successful example of translational medicine. Cartilage is characterized by a limited intrinsic repair capacity following injury. Articular cartilage defects cause symptoms, are not spontaneously repaired, and are generally believed to result in early osteoarthritis. Marrow stimulation techniques, osteochondral transplantation, and cell-based therapies, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI and use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are used for tissue regeneration, symptom relief, and prevention of further joint degeneration. The exact incidence of cartilage defects and the natural outcome of joints with these lesions are unclear. Currently available cartilage repair techniques are designed for defect treatment in otherwise healthy joints and limbs, mostly in young adults. The natural history studies presented in this review estimated that the prevalence of cartilage lesions in this patient group ranges from 5% to 11%. The background and results from currently available randomized clinical trials of the three mostly used cartilage repair techniques are outlined in this review. Osteochondral transplantation, marrow stimulation, and ACI show improvement of symptoms with an advantage for cell-based techniques, but only a suggestion that risk for joint degeneration can be reduced. MSCs, characterized by their good proliferative capacity and the potential to differentiate into different mesenchymal lineages, form an attractive alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. Moreover, MSCs provide a regenerative microenvironment by the secretion of bioactive factors. This trophic activity is believed to limit damage and stimulate intrinsic regenerative responses. Finally, important clinical issues are discussed, including techniques to study the role of implanted cells in tissue regeneration using cell labeling and cell tracking, the improvement of cartilage integration, the use of delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage for early judgment of joint degeneration/regeneration, and the influence of regulatory rules for therapeutic application development.Keywords: articular cartilage, repair, imaging, techniques

Pieter K Bos

2010-10-01

108

Porous polymers for repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and articular cartilage  

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The studies presented here were initiated to answer a variety of questions concerning firstly the repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and, secondly, the repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. AIMS OF THE STUDIES I To assess the effect of implantation of a porous polymer implant on the healing of an experimental longitudinal lesion in the avascular part of the meniscus. (Chapter 2) II To determine the histological, biochemical, and immunohistological na...

Klompmaker, Jan

1992-01-01

109

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of articular chondrocalcinosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the role of high-frequency ultrasonography in the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) calcifications, in the most commonly affected joints in CPPD disease. Sixty patients with knee effusion were included in the study. All patients underwent musculoskeletal ultrasonography (on the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and knee joints), radiological examination of the sites examined by US, and synovial fluid analysis (using polarized light microscopy). Out of 60 patients with knee effusion, ultrasonographic calcifications (knees, shoulders, and wrists) were present in 38 patients (63.3%) and out of those patients; 32 had calcification characteristic of CPPD crystals deposition (hyperechoic deposits) in the knee and wrist joints. Pattern II (punctate pattern) was the most common pattern of calcification. It was present in all patients who had wrist calcification (18 patients) and in the knee in either alone (21 patients) or in association with pattern I (hyperechoic band) and/or pattern III (hyperechoic nodular or oval deposits) (9 patients). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for the detection of calcification was 84.2% while that of plain radiography was 13.2%, the specificity of both ultrasonography and plain radiography for the detection of calcification was 100%, and ultrasonography is valuable for diagnosing articular chondrocalcinosis via the detection of calcifications within the joint cartilage and fibrocartilage. Both sensitivity and specificity are high for detecting CPPD deposits. PMID:22193232

Ellabban, Abdou S; Kamel, Shereen R; Omar, Hanaa A S Abo; El-Sherif, Ashraf M H; Abdel-Magied, Rasha A

2012-12-01

110

Focal nodular hyperplasia  

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Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign liver tumor after hemangioma and occurs predominantly in young women. Imaging techniques are crucial in the diagnosis of this lesion. In this article, we will present the imaging findings of the classic and non-classic FNHs. The role of percutaneous biopsy will also be detailed.

Vilgrain, Valerie [Department of Radiology, Hopital Beaujon, 100 Bd du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France)]. E-mail: valerie.vilgrain@bjn.aphp.fr

2006-05-15

111

Linear focal elastosis  

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A case of linear focal elastosis is reported. A 19-year old male presented with asymptomatic, palpable yellow lines over back along with striae distensae over axilla. Light microscopic examination demonstrated dermal thickening but no change in the epidermis. The elastic tissue stain revealed fragmented elastic fibres throughout the dermis.

Parsad D

1998-01-01

112

Linear focal elastosis  

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Full Text Available A case of linear focal elastosis is reported. A 19-year old male presented with asymptomatic, palpable yellow lines over back along with striae distensae over axilla. Light microscopic examination demonstrated dermal thickening but no change in the epidermis. The elastic tissue stain revealed fragmented elastic fibres throughout the dermis.

Parsad D

1998-01-01

113

Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos / Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica [...] e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%), Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13%) e Escherichia coli (12,68%) os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%). Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45%) e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%). Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69%) de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação. Abstract in english In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%), nursery (44.35%) and growing-finishing (25.22%) phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs) for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total o [...] f 57 (49.5%) samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13%) and Escherichia coli (12.68%), and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%). In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45%) and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%). Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%). Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

Ana Carolina S., Faria; João X. de, Oliveira Filho; Daphine A.J. de, Paula; Laila Natasha S., Brandão; Danny Franciele S., Dias; Luciano, Nakazato; Valéria, Dutra.

114

Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%, creche (44,35% e crescimento/terminação (25,22% de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs para avaliação microbiológica e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5% amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%, Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13% e Escherichia coli (12,68% os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%. Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%, Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45% e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%. Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69% de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação.In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%, nursery (44.35% and growing-finishing (25.22% phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total of 57 (49.5% samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%, Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13% and Escherichia coli (12.68%, and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%. In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%, Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45% and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%. Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%. Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

Ana Carolina S. Faria

2011-08-01

115

Avaliação histológica do processo de reparação da superfície articular de coelhos Histologic evaluation of the repair process in the articular surface of rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O processo de reparação da superfície articular foi avaliado microscopicamente em uma falha osteocondral produzida no sulco troclear esquerdo de 12 coelhos adultos. Observou-se preenchimento inicial com tecido de granulação, com diferenciação tecidual em cartilagem hialina e reposição parcial do osso subcondral excisado sete semanas após a cirurgia. Houve formação de fendas entre o tecido de reparação e o tecido ósseo adjacente, sempre em áreas onde não ocorreu remodelação óssea. Nos animais em que o fundo e as laterais da falha osteocondral eram constituídos por osso subcondral compacto, contendo poucos vasos sangüíneos, não foi observada remodelação óssea e o tecido de reparação que preenchia a falha não foi integrado ao tecido ósseo adjacente. Os resultados evidenciam a importância da remoção completa do osso subcondral compacto nos procedimentos cirúrgicos em superfícies articulares, possibilitando melhor afluxo sangüíneo a partir do osso esponjoso subjacente e, conseqüentemente, melhor remodelação óssea e integração do tecido de reparação ao fundo da falha.The repairing process in the articular surface was evaluated microscopically in an osteochondral gap produced in the left troclear groove of 12 adult rabbits. It was observed that the granulation tissue wich initially filled this gap had diferentiated into hyaline cartilage by 4 weeks after surgery, presenting parcial reconstitution of subchondral bone excised at seven weeks following surgery. In some animals, cleft formation was observed between the repair tissue and adjacent bone, always where bone remodeling did not occured. In animals wich the bottom and lateral edges of the defect were formed by lamelar subchondral bone with few blood vessels, bone remodeling was not observed, having no attachment of the repair tissue to the adjacent bone. The results show the importance of complete removal of the lamelar subcondral bone during the surgical procedures in the articular surface, in order to allow better blood supply from the subjacent cancellous bone, better bone remodeling, and attachment of the repair tissue to the bottom of the defect.

Tayse Domingues de Souza

2000-06-01

116

Progress in intra-articular therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diarthrodial joints are well suited to intra-articular injection, and the local delivery of therapeutics in this fashion brings several potential advantages to the treatment of a wide range of arthropathies. Possible benefits over systemic delivery include increased bioavailability, reduced systemic exposure, fewer adverse events, and lower total drug costs. Nevertheless, intra-articular therapy is challenging because of the rapid egress of injected materials from the joint space; this elimination is true of both small molecules, which exit via synovial capillaries, and of macromolecules, which are cleared by the lymphatic system. In general, soluble materials have an intra-articular dwell time measured only in hours. Corticosteroids and hyaluronate preparations constitute the mainstay of FDA-approved intra-articular therapeutics. Recombinant proteins, autologous blood products and analgesics have also found clinical use via intra-articular delivery. Several alternative approaches, such as local delivery of cell and gene therapy, as well as the use of microparticles, liposomes, and modified drugs, are in various stages of preclinical development. PMID:24189839

Evans, Christopher H; Kraus, Virginia B; Setton, Lori A

2014-01-01

117

Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of 35S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate

1989-01-01

118

Articular cartilage lesions of the knee. MRI of tibial condylar fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lesions of the articular cartilage are rarely observed in convensional radiography and CT, and may be one of the most important prognostic factors in assessing traumatic or degenerative disorders at the knee joints. To discuss the usefulness of MRI for detecting cartilage lesions, knees with tibial condylar fractures were examined with MRI. 47 patients with tibial condylar fractures were reviewed 4 months to 15 years (average of 4 years) after the fractures. Good to excellent results were obtained in 91.5% of them. It is known that anatomical reduction of conventional radiography is not consistent with the clinical outcome, because radiography can show the changes of bones only. However, the results of MRI examinations are consistent with the clinical outcome, because they can directly show the state of the articular surface, such as defects of cartilage in the joint. In my study, no abnormality of well repaired joint surfaces employing MRI were observed in the patients with excellent or good results, and various degrees of cartilage lesions were detected using MRI in the other patients. MRI is a useful method for noninvasively determining the integrity of articular cartilage, detecting cartilage lesions and degenerative disorders of tibial condyle, and also may be useful in studying and following the natural aging process in osteoarthritis following intra-articular fractures. (author) 52 refs

1995-01-01

119

Submanifolds with Parallel Focal Structure  

CERN Multimedia

We prove that a submanifold with parallel focal structure, which is a generalization of isoparametric and equifocal submanifolds, induces a singular Riemannian foliation of the ambient space by its parallel and focal manifolds.

Toeben, D

2004-01-01

120

Intra-articular Osteochondroma: A case Report.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteochondromas usually arise from the metaphyseal region of the growing skeleton. They usually develop in relation to the periosteum, and occur around the growth plate of long bones, especially the knee. The tumor usually stops to grow with closure of the growth plate. Extraskeletal cartilaginous tumors are uncommon. These tumors can arise at unusual anatomic site. Intra-articular osteochondromas are rare in older individuals. In joints with a large capsular space, such as the patellofemoral joint, osteochondromas can remain intra-articular [3]. Clinical-pathologic and radiological correlation helps to clarify the nature of the lesion. Complete local surgical excision is the management of choice. We report a patient with an intra-articular osteochondroma in the anterior portion of the knee joint. The tumor caused pain and swelling in the joint and affected knee motion.

Lt. Col.Sunil Sanga

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

[MR imaging of the articular cartilage].  

Science.gov (United States)

MR imaging has evolved to the best non-invasive method for the evaluation of articular cartilage. MR imaging helps to understand the structure and physiology of cartilage, and to diagnose cartilage lesions. Numerous studies have shown high accuracy and reliability concerning detection of cartilage lesions and early changes in both structure and biochemistry. High contrast-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution are essential for analysis of articular cartilage. Fat-suppressed 3D-T1 weighted gradient echo and T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with or without fat suppression are recommended for clinical routine. In this article the anatomy and pathology of hyaline articular cartilage and the complex imaging characteristics of hyaline cartilage will be discussed. PMID:11367834

Schäfer, F K; Muhle, C; Heller, M; Brossmann, J

2001-04-01

122

Focal nodular hyperplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thanks to ultrasonography, computed tomography, and nuclear magnetic resonance, not only symptomatic but also asymptomatic liver tumors are discovered more frequently than before. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH is one such tumor, most frequently an asymptomatic tumor of the liver, which predominantly appears in women during the generative period, who have taken oral contraceptives for several years. We present a 27-year-old woman, who has never taken either oral contraceptives or other hormones, in whom a left lobe liver tumor was unexpectedly discovered during a routine investigation performed for psychiatric complaints. The tumor, removed by left lateral bisegmentectomy (segments II and 111, was composed of two tumoral nodes: 70x58x47 mm and 20x20x20 mm, the bigger one of which had a light grey central stellate scar. Histology revealed a focal nodular hyperplasia. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient stayed symptom free for more than three years after surgery.

?olovi? Radoje

2005-01-01

123

LMJ focal spot simulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) requires an optical smoothing technique in order to avoid plasma instabilities and self-focusing. The Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD) has been chosen for LMJ because it is the best technique in view of the laser performances. We have modeled and simulated all the LMJ chain with the Miro code and we present with an optimal CPP (Continuous Phase Plate) the size and shape of quad focal spot with longitudinal smoothing. We obtain an elliptical shape of 640 x 1280 ?m2 with 98.3 % enclosed energy, the I0 being equal to ?3.1 1015 W/cm2 (where I0 is the maximum intensity at the flat top of the focal spot). (authors)

1999-09-12

124

Cartílago articular: Evaluación por resonancia magnética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo revisa la evaluación imagenologica de las lesiones del cartílago articular con énfasis en su estudio por resonancia magnética, discutiendo la utilidad de las secuencias convencionales y los estudios avanzados de RM que permiten detectar lesiones condrales incipientes intrasustan [...] cia, previo a la ulceración de su superficie. Abstract in english This article reviews the radiographic evaluation of articular cartilage lesions with emphasis on its magnetic resonance imaging study, we will discuss the usefulness of conventional sequences and advanced MRI studies which allow detection of incipient intrasubstance chondral lesions, prior to the ul [...] ceration of its surface.

Delgado P, Gonzalo.

125

Childhood Focal Epilepsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done in order to obtain a baseline profile of childhood focal epilepsies Patient and methods: Subjects included in this study were children suffering from focal epilepsy with age above 2 y. They were attending pediatric neurology clinic in Queen Rania Hospital for children in Jordan . The study included 112 children with ages ranging from 2-14 years. The following data were obtained: age, sex, detailed of seizures type, age at first unprovoked seizure, family history of seizure disorders, history and type of febrile seizures, etiological factors, socioeconomic class, history of consanguinity, additional neuro -impairment, Electroencephalography and brain imaging finding and the use of antiepileptic drugs, the results were recorded for further study. Results: A total of 112 consecutive cases of focal epilepsy were enrolled , 59 were male. The commonest partial seizure recorded was simple partial type 52 (46.4% while simple partial with secondary generalization had 17 (16.9% and complex partial seizure formed 36.8 %. , In partial onset seizures the peak age was between 11-14 years and complex partial seizures plateau was seen between ages 6-10 years. Twenty six (23.2% patients reported a family history of epilepsy, 91% of low socioeconomic class .11.5 % of cases have history of febrile seizures, idiopathic epilepsy was 53.5 % . In most of epileptic patients have accessory neurological impairment, the most common were learning difficulties Electroencephalography was normal in 20.4 %, mono-therapy was used in 68.8 % Conclusion: the pattern of focal epilepsies in our country do not differ from that of developed countries, further population ­based epidemiological research is indicated to confirm the prevalence of seizure disorders in this locality

Wael hayel khreisat

2011-04-01

126

Congenital absence of the lumbosacral articular processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absence of a lumbar or sacral articular process is rare. The congenital absence of the posterior elements of these vertebral bodies should not be confused with a destructive lesion. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is indicated, if there is any question as to the diagnosis. (orig.)

1982-01-01

127

Temporomandibular joint articular cartilage structure and function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the aims of this investigation is to obtain more insight in the pathogenesis of osteoarthrosis. The starting point for this investigation of the fibrocartilage of the mandibular condyle was the hypothesis of Freeman and Meachim (1979), which states that collagen network fragmentation initiates the articular cartilage destruction which appears in osteoarthrosis. ...

Bont, Lambertus Gijsbertus Maria

1985-01-01

128

[Chondrocalcinosis : Clinical impact of intra-articular calcium phosphate crystals].  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are known to cause acute attacks of pseudogout in joints but crystal deposition has also been reported to be associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Aside from CPPD crystals, basic calcium phosphates (BCPs), consisting of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, have been found in synovial fluid, synovium and cartilage of patients with OA. Although CPPD crystals have been found to be associated with OA and are an important factor in joint disease, this has also recently been associated with a genetic defect. However, according to the most recent findings, the association of BCP crystals, such as apatite with OA is much stronger, as their presence significantly correlates with the severity of cartilage degeneration. Identification of BCP crystals in OA joints remains problematic due to a lack of simple and reliable methods of detection. The clinical and pathological relevance of cartilage mineralization in patients with OA is not completely understood. It is well established that mineralization of articular cartilage is often found close to hypertrophic chondrocytes. A significant correlation between the expression of type X collagen, a marker for chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage mineralization was observed. In the process of endochondral ossification, the link between hypertrophy and matrix mineralization is particularly well described. Hypertrophic chondrocytes in OA cartilage and at the growth line share certain features, not only hypertrophy but also a capability to mineralize the matrix. Recent data indicate that chondrocyte hypertrophy is a key factor in articular cartilage mineralization strongly linked to OA and does not characterize a specific subset of OA patients, which has important consequences for therapeutic strategies for OA. PMID:24924727

Fuerst, M

2014-06-01

129

Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported fo...

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

2013-01-01

130

Focal rigidity of hyperbolic surfaces  

CERN Multimedia

In this note, we consider the rigidity of the focal decomposition of closed hyperbolic surfaces. We show that, generically, the focal decomposition of a closed hyperbolic surface does not allow for non-trivial topological deformations, without changing the hyperbolic structure of the surface. By classical rigidity theory this is also true in dimension $n \\geq 3$. Our current result extends a previous result that flat tori in dimension $n \\geq 2$ that are focally equivalent are isometric modulo rescaling.

Kwakkel, Ferry

2011-01-01

131

Systemic focal epileptogenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

1986-01-01

132

Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia syndromes. Here we review what is known of the collagen assembly and present new evidence that collagen type III becomes covalently added to the polymeric fabric of adult human articular cartilage, perhaps as part of a matrix repair or remodelling process.

D R Eyre

2006-11-01

133

OSTEOPONTIN PROMOTES PATHOLOGIC MINERALIZATION IN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE  

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Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritic joint tissues, where they predict severe disease. Unlike other types of calcium phosphate crystals, CPPD crystals form almost exclusively in the pericellular matrix of damaged articular cartilage, suggesting a key role for the extracellular matrix milieu in their development. Osteopontin is a matricellular protein found in increased quantities in the pericellular matrix of osteoarthritic cartilage. Osteoponti...

2007-01-01

134

Osteoarthritis and articular chondrocalcinosis in the elderly.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred consecutive admissions to an acute geriatric unit were examined for clinical and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis (OA) and articular chondrocalcinosis (ACC). Thirty-four patients had ACC. This was age related, the prevalence rising from 15% in patients aged 65-74 years to 44% in patients over 84 years. The commonly involved joints were the knee (25%), public symphysis (15%), and wrist (9%). No other aetiological factors predisposing to ACC were found. Of the 25 patients wit...

1983-01-01

135

Articular synovial chondromatosis of the finger.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract A 40-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of synovial chondromatosis of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the right ring finger, which was resected through both dorsal and volar incisions. To our knowledge there have been only 17 reported cases of articular synovial chondromatosis of the digital joint so far. We present a case affecting the metacarpophalangeal joint with a review of scattered information found in other 17 reports. PMID:23596991

Sano, Kazufumi; Hashimoto, Tomohisa; Kimura, Kazumasa; Ozeki, Satoru

2013-04-18

136

Clinical outcomes assessment for articular cartilage restoration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and perspective of the available options for clinical outcomes evaluation of articular cartilage repair in the knee. A nonsystematic literature review of reported clinical measures for functional, qualitative, and quantitative structural outcomes evaluation after knee articular cartilage repair was performed. Several outcome scores have been validated for articular cartilage repair in the knee with the International Knee Documentation Committee score, Lysholm score, and Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score being reported most frequently. Activity measures including Tegner and Marx activity scales and the rate of return to sports have direct practical relevance for athletically active patients. Macroscopic and histological assessment provides important structural information about repair cartilage quality and quantity. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome scoring and functional MRI are gaining increasing popularity and promise less invasive systematic assessment. In summary, clinical outcome evaluation after cartilage repair can be performed by various established and validated functional outcome instruments as well as several evolving outcome parameters that provide clinically relevant outcome information for researchers, clinicians, and patients. PMID:23341156

Mithoefer, Kai; Acuna, Marco

2013-02-01

137

Polarized IR microscopic imaging of articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this spectroscopic imaging study is to understand the anisotropic behavior of articular cartilage under polarized infrared radiation at 6.25 ?m pixel resolution. Paraffin embedded canine humeral cartilage-bone blocks were used to obtain 6 ?m thick tissue sections. Two wire grid polarizers were used to manipulate the polarization states of IR radiation by setting them for various polarizer/analyzer angles. The characteristics of the major chemical components (amide I, amide II, amide III and sugar) of articular cartilage were investigated using (a) a polarizer and (b) a combination of a polarizer and an analyzer. These results were compared to those obtained using only an analyzer. The infrared anisotropy (variation in infrared absorption as a function of polarization angles) of amide I, amide II and amide III bands correlates with the orientation of collagen fibrils along the tissue depth in different histological zones. An 'anisotropic flipping' region of amide profiles indicates the possibility of using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to determine the histological zones in cartilage. Cross-polarization experiment indicates the resolution of overlapping peaks of collagen triple helix and/or proteoglycan in articular cartilage

2007-08-07

138

Effect of initial cell seeding density on 3D-engineered silk fibroin scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The repair of articular cartilage defects poses a continuing challenge. Cartilage tissue engineering through the culture of chondrocytes seeded in 3D porous scaffolds has the potential for generating constructs that repair successfully. It also provides a platform to study scaffold-cell and cell-cell interactions. The scaffold affects the growth and morphology of cells growing on it, and concomitantly, cells affect the properties of the resultant tissue construct. Silk fibroin protein from An...

2011-01-01

139

Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly parallel to the articular surface near the articular surface. Recent studies into collagen fibre orientation in stillborn and juvenile animals showed that this structure is abse...

van Turnhout Mark C; Schipper Henk; Engel Bas; Buist Willem; Kranenbarg Sander; van Leeuwen Johan L

2010-01-01

140

Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA, a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE. Over the past two decades, different designs and fabrication techniques have been investigated for developing TE scaffolds suitable for the construction of transplantable artificial cartilage tissue substitutes. Advances in fabrication technologies now enable the strategic design of scaffolds with complex, biomimetic structures and properties. In particular, scaffolds with hybrid and/or biomimetic zonal designs have recently been developed for cartilage tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews critical aspects of the design of engineered scaffolds for articular cartilage repair as well as the available advanced fabrication techniques. In addition, recent studies on the design of hybrid and zonal scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue repair are highlighted.

Xiongbiao Chen

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Comparison of intra-articular fentanyl and intra-articular bupivacaine for post-operative pain relief after knee arthroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A randomized double-blinded study consisting of 107 patients was conducted to compare the effect on post-operative pain relief of intra-articular fentanyl and intra-articular bupivacaine after knee arthroscopy. The results showed that intra-articular bupivacaine produced superior analgesia in the immediate post-operative period. At 2 h post-operatively, the intra-articular bupivacaine group had a mean pain score of 2.0 (standard deviation 2.1, P < 0.05) compared with the intra-articular fentanyl group which had a mean pain score of 3.2 (standard deviation 2.3, P < 0.05). After 2 h post-operatively, intra-articular bupivacaine and intra-articular fentanyl had a similar effect on pain scores. The mean pain score 18 h post-operatively was 2.7 for the intra-articular bupivacaine group (standard deviation 2.2, P value 0.6) compared with the intra-articular fentanyl group which had a mean pain score of 2.8 (standard deviation 1.9, P value 0.6). PMID:10583355

Pooni, J S; Hickmott, K; Mercer, D; Myles, P; Khan, Z

1999-10-01

142

Avaliação histológica do processo de reparação da superfície articular de coelhos / Histologic evaluation of the repair process in the articular surface of rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processo de reparação da superfície articular foi avaliado microscopicamente em uma falha osteocondral produzida no sulco troclear esquerdo de 12 coelhos adultos. Observou-se preenchimento inicial com tecido de granulação, com diferenciação tecidual em cartilagem hialina e reposição parcial do oss [...] o subcondral excisado sete semanas após a cirurgia. Houve formação de fendas entre o tecido de reparação e o tecido ósseo adjacente, sempre em áreas onde não ocorreu remodelação óssea. Nos animais em que o fundo e as laterais da falha osteocondral eram constituídos por osso subcondral compacto, contendo poucos vasos sangüíneos, não foi observada remodelação óssea e o tecido de reparação que preenchia a falha não foi integrado ao tecido ósseo adjacente. Os resultados evidenciam a importância da remoção completa do osso subcondral compacto nos procedimentos cirúrgicos em superfícies articulares, possibilitando melhor afluxo sangüíneo a partir do osso esponjoso subjacente e, conseqüentemente, melhor remodelação óssea e integração do tecido de reparação ao fundo da falha. Abstract in english The repairing process in the articular surface was evaluated microscopically in an osteochondral gap produced in the left troclear groove of 12 adult rabbits. It was observed that the granulation tissue wich initially filled this gap had diferentiated into hyaline cartilage by 4 weeks after surgery, [...] presenting parcial reconstitution of subchondral bone excised at seven weeks following surgery. In some animals, cleft formation was observed between the repair tissue and adjacent bone, always where bone remodeling did not occured. In animals wich the bottom and lateral edges of the defect were formed by lamelar subchondral bone with few blood vessels, bone remodeling was not observed, having no attachment of the repair tissue to the adjacent bone. The results show the importance of complete removal of the lamelar subcondral bone during the surgical procedures in the articular surface, in order to allow better blood supply from the subjacent cancellous bone, better bone remodeling, and attachment of the repair tissue to the bottom of the defect.

Souza, Tayse Domingues de; Del Carlo, Ricardo Junqueira; Viloria, Marlene Isabel Vargas.

143

Genetics Home Reference: Focal palmoplantar keratoderma  

Science.gov (United States)

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Focal palmoplantar keratoderma On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2012 What is focal palmoplantar keratoderma? Focal palmoplantar keratoderma is a skin condition ...

144

Repair of osteochondral defects with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants on healing of osteochondral defects. Rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer, then seeded onto biodegradable, three-dimensional polyglycolic acid meshes. Cartilage constructs were cultured hydrodynamically to yield tissue with relatively more (mature) or less (immature) hyalinelike cartilage, as compared with adult rabbit articular cartilage. Osteochondral defects in the patellar grooves of both stifle joints either were left untreated or implanted with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage. Histologic samples from in and around the defect sites were examined 3, 6, 9, and 12, and 24 months after surgery. By 9 months after surgery, defects sites treated with cartilage implants contained significantly greater amounts of hyalinelike cartilage with high levels of proteoglycan, and had a smooth, nonfibrillated articular surface as compared to untreated defects. In contrast, the repair tissue formed in untreated defects had fibrillated articular surfaces, significant amounts of fibrocartilage, and negligible proteoglycan. These differences between treated and untreated defects persisted through 24 months after surgery. The results of this study suggest that the treatment of osteochondral lesions with allogenic tissue engineered cartilage implants may lead to superior repair tissue than that found in untreated osteochondral lesions. PMID:10546661

Schreiber, R E; Ilten-Kirby, B M; Dunkelman, N S; Symons, K T; Rekettye, L M; Willoughby, J; Ratcliffe, A

1999-10-01

145

Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão / Extra-articular synovial sarcoma in a dog  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in english One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II. [...

França, S.A.; Serakides, R.; Silva, A.E.; Rachid, M.A.; Moraes, J.R.C.; Lavalle, G.E.; Ocarino, N.M..

146

Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão Extra-articular synovial sarcoma in a dog  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II.

S.A. França

2004-10-01

147

Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

Yuan-cheng LI

2013-05-01

148

Focal mechanism of deep moonquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate the focal mechanism of deep moonquakes, S-wave polarizations of deep moonquake signals from the A(1) source region are analyzed. At station 12, where the available data are of the highest quality, the variation of polarization angle with the anomalistic phase of the moon indicates agreement with that expected from the focal mechanism model of Nakamura (1978). Focal mechanism solutions were derived for eight A(1) moonquakes assuming that moonquakes are, like earthquakes, caused by a shear fracture on a fault plane. The mechanism solutions generally indicate a nearly horizontal or almost vertical faulting. The slip directions estimated from the solutions are different from one another, again suggesting variation of focal mechanisms as a function of the tidal phase of the moon.

Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

1980-01-01

149

Focal Rigidity of Flat Tori  

CERN Document Server

Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g), there is a partition \\Sigma_i of its tangent bundle TM called the focal decomposition. The sets \\Sigma_i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g), i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that the flat n-tori are focally rigid, in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent, then the tori are isometric up to rescaling.

Kwakkel, Ferry; Peixoto, Mauricio

2011-01-01

150

Statistical Earthquake Focal Mechanism Forecasts  

Science.gov (United States)

The new whole Earth focal mechanism forecast, based on the GCMT catalog, has been created. In the present forecast, the sum of normalized seismic moment tensors within 1000 km radius is calculated and the P- and T-axes for the focal mechanism are evaluated on the basis of the sum. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms. This average angle shows tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The method was originally proposed by Kagan and Jackson (1994, JGR). Recent interest by CSEP and GEM has motivated some improvements, particularly to extend the previous forecast to polar and near-polar regions. The major problem in extending the forecast is the focal mechanism calculation on a spherical surface. In the previous forecast as our average focal mechanism was computed, it was assumed that longitude lines are approximately parallel within 1000 km radius. This is largely accurate in the equatorial and near-equatorial areas. However, when one approaches the 75 degree latitude, the longitude lines are no longer parallel: the bearing (azimuthal) difference at points separated by 1000 km reach about 35 degrees. In most situations a forecast point where we calculate an average focal mechanism is surrounded by earthquakes, so a bias should not be strong due to the difference effect cancellation. But if we move into polar regions, the bearing difference could approach 180 degrees. In a modified program focal mechanisms have been projected on a plane tangent to a sphere at a forecast point. New longitude axes which are parallel in the tangent plane are corrected for the bearing difference. A comparison with the old 75S-75N forecast shows that in equatorial regions the forecasted focal mechanisms are almost the same, and the difference in the forecasted focal mechanisms rotation angle is close to zero. However, though the forecasted focal mechanisms are similar, closer to the 75 latitude degree, the difference in the rotation angle is large (around a factor 1.5 in some places). The Gamma-index was calculated for the average focal mechanism moment. A non-zero Index indicates that earthquake focal mechanisms around the forecast point have different orientations. Thus deformation complexity displays itself in the average rotation angle and in the Index. However, sometimes the rotation angle is close to zero, whereas the Index is large, testifying to a large CLVD presence. Both new 0.5x0.5 and 0.1x0.1 degree forecasts are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/~kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

2013-12-01

151

MRI of Focal Liver Lesions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nod...

Albiin, Nils

2012-01-01

152

Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HYPERHIDROSIS, A CONDITION CHARACTERIZED by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience...

Haider, Aamir; Solish, Nowell

2005-01-01

153

Osteochondral defects : present situation and tissue engineering approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Articular cartilage is often damaged due to trauma or degenerative diseases, resulting in severe pain and disability. Most clinical approaches have been shown to have limited capacity to treat cartilage lesions. Tissue engineering (TE) has been proposed as an alternative strategy to repair cartilage. Cartilage defects often penetrate to the subchondral bone, or full-thickness defects are also produced in some therapeutic procedures. Therefore, in TE strategies one should also cons...

Mano, J. F.; Reis, R. L.

2007-01-01

154

Giant intra-articular synovial osteochondromata of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aim: Synovial chondromatosis associated, intra-articular loose bodies are usually small in size. Giant intra-articular loose bodies are rare. Case report: We present the case of a patient with synovial chondromatosis associated giant intra-articular loose bodies located under the patella and the intercondylar fossa, treated successfully with combined arthroscopic and open excision. Conclusion: Giant intra-articular loose bodies should be considered when treating patients with synovial chondromatosis. Arthroscopy confirms the diagnosis, allows the thorough examination of the knee joint, and subsequent excision of small or medium size attached synovial nodules or intra-articular loose bodies. Arthrotomy may be needed to excise giant loose bodies. PMID:24470744

Sourlas, I; Brilakis, Ev; Mavrogenis, Af; Stavropoulos, Na; Korres, Ds

2013-07-01

155

MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Juxta-articular venous malformations (VMs) are uncommon, but may cause early arthropathy of the knee in children and adolescents. We sought to describe the prevalence, extent and initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee arthropathy in children with VM adjacent to the knee joint. Thirty-five patients with VM adjacent to the knee who had MRI performed between 2000 and 2009 were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system. VM extended to the joint in 17 of the 35 patients (5.4-21.5 years, mean 11.8 years). Most of these 17 patients had joint changes (15/17, 88%), most commonly haemosiderin deposition (14/17, 82%). Other findings included the presence of subchondral bone lesions (eight, 47%), cartilage loss (six, 35%), synovial thickening (six, 35%), marrow oedema (six, 35%), joint effusion (five, 29%), subchondral cysts (five, 29%) and one loose body (6%). VM location and size did not correlate with the degree of articular involvement. Joint changes were present in focal as well as non-discrete VM. We found that the frequency of arthropathy increased with extension of VM into the joint itself. This finding stresses the importance of early MRI evaluation of all juxta-articular VM. (orig.)

2010-07-01

156

MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Juxta-articular venous malformations (VMs) are uncommon, but may cause early arthropathy of the knee in children and adolescents. We sought to describe the prevalence, extent and initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee arthropathy in children with VM adjacent to the knee joint. Thirty-five patients with VM adjacent to the knee who had MRI performed between 2000 and 2009 were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system. VM extended to the joint in 17 of the 35 patients (5.4-21.5 years, mean 11.8 years). Most of these 17 patients had joint changes (15/17, 88%), most commonly haemosiderin deposition (14/17, 82%). Other findings included the presence of subchondral bone lesions (eight, 47%), cartilage loss (six, 35%), synovial thickening (six, 35%), marrow oedema (six, 35%), joint effusion (five, 29%), subchondral cysts (five, 29%) and one loose body (6%). VM location and size did not correlate with the degree of articular involvement. Joint changes were present in focal as well as non-discrete VM. We found that the frequency of arthropathy increased with extension of VM into the joint itself. This finding stresses the importance of early MRI evaluation of all juxta-articular VM. (orig.)

Jans, L. [University of Melbourne, Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium); Ditchfield, M.; Jaremko, J.L.; Stephens, N. [University of Melbourne, Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Verstraete, K. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium)

2010-07-15

157

Articular involvement in patients with relapsing polychondritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to study joint symptoms in patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP) and their relationship to other clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. Fourteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria proposed by Michet et al. for RP were studied. Clinical symptoms were recorded and a detailed laboratory analysis with HLA-DR typing was carried out. In 2 patients arthritis was the first manifestation. During the follow-up, 10 patients developed arthritis. It was polyarticular in 6, and oligoarticular in 4 cases. The development of arthritis was unrelated to the appearance of chondritis at other sites. HLA class II typing was determined in 7 patients. Six of them were positive for HLA-DR4. Arthritis in RP is a frequent manifestation occurring in approximately 70% of patients with an asymmetric articular involvement. There is no correlation between articular involvement and any particular clinical or laboratory feature. Susceptibility to RP is significantly related to the presence of HLA-DR4. PMID:9833248

Günaydin, I; Daikeler, T; Jacki, S; Mohren, M; Kanz, L; Kötter, I

1998-01-01

158

Locating Articular Cartilage in MR Images  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accurate computation of the thickness of the articular cartilage is of great importance when diagnosing and monitoring the progress of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. A fully automated cartilage assessment method is preferable compared to methods using manual interaction in order to avoid inter- and intra-observer variability. As a first step in the cartilage assessment, we present an automatic method for locating articular cartilage in knee MRI using supervised learning. The next step will be to fit a variable shape model to the cartilage, initiated at the location found using the method presented in this paper. From the model, disease markers will be extracted for the quantitative evaluation of the cartilage. The cartilage is located using an ANN-classifier, where every voxel is classified as cartilage or non-cartilage based on prior knowledge of the cartilage structure. The classifier is tested using leave-one-out-evaluation, and we found the average sensitivity and specificity to be 91.0% and 99.4%, respectively. The center of mass calculated from voxels classified as cartilage are similar to the corresponding values calculated from manual segmentations, which confirms that this method can find a good initial position for a shape model.

Folkesson, Jenny Maria; Dam, Erik B.

2005-01-01

159

[Extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents an autoimmune disease affecting mostly joints, in particular small finger and toe joints. In addition RA can show extra-articular manifestations in many organs. Information on the frequency of extra-articular manifestations (EAMs) in RA varies greatly in different publications from 17.8% to 40.9% and EAMs tend to become higher with increasing duration and severity of the disease. The exact etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear but vasculitic alterations together with deposition of immune complexes can often be found histopathologically in affected organs. It must also be taken into consideration that EAMs can also be a result of the pharmaceutical therapy. The organ findings can vary greatly which is also reflected in the multitude of clinical symptoms. Possible target organs are the blood vessels, kidneys, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, the lungs, eyes, skin, nails as well as blood and the hemopoetic system. The prognosis for RA becomes progressively worse in the presence of EAMs. Regular and continuous control investigations are necessary in order to be able to diagnose EAMs early and to begin therapy. Therapy includes the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and especially in advanced stages cyclophosphamide or biologicals. Therapy is still very empirical due to the lack of appropriate studies. PMID:22932980

Baerwald, C; Kneitz, C; Bach, M; Licht, M

2012-12-01

160

Anisotropic fibrous scaffolds for articular cartilage regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage lesions, which can progress to osteoarthritis, are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine strategies, as cartilage function stems from its complex depth-dependent microstructural organization, mechanical properties, and biochemical composition. Fibrous scaffolds offer a template for cartilage extracellular matrix production; however, the success of homogeneous scaffolds is limited by their inability to mimic the cartilage's zone-specific organization and properties. We fabricated trilaminar scaffolds by sequential electrospinning and varying fiber size and orientation in a continuous construct, to create scaffolds that mimicked the structural organization and mechanical properties of cartilage's collagen fibrillar network. Trilaminar composite scaffolds were then compared to homogeneous aligned or randomly oriented fiber scaffolds to assess in vitro cartilage formation. Bovine chondrocytes proliferated and produced a type II collagen and a sulfated glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix on all scaffolds. Furthermore, all scaffolds promoted significant upregulation of aggrecan and type II collagen gene expression while downregulating that of type I collagen. Compressive testing at physiological strain levels further demonstrated that the mechanical properties of trilaminar composite scaffolds approached those of native cartilage. Our results demonstrate that trilaminar composite scaffolds mimic key organizational characteristics of native cartilage, support in vitro cartilage formation, and have superior mechanical properties to homogenous scaffolds. We propose that these scaffolds offer promise in regenerative medicine strategies to repair articular cartilage lesions. PMID:22655795

McCullen, Seth D; Autefage, Hélène; Callanan, Anthony; Gentleman, Eileen; Stevens, Molly M

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Lesiones focales hepáticas en niños / Focal liver lesions in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones focales del hígado comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de entidades como tumores benignos y malignos, sólidos o quistes, vasculares, masas inflamatorias y metástasis, entre otras. Objetivo: reportar lesiones focales hepáticas en niños, características clínicas, estudios por im [...] ágenes y conducta terapéutica. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en la revisión de 16 historias clínicas de niños con lesiones focales hepáticas en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2007 a enero 2012. Se excluyeron los abscesos hepáticos. Resultados: El 68,75%11 eran del sexo masculino y 31,25%5 del sexo femenino; con edad promedio de 9,5 años (rango: 10 días - 14 años). Las lesiones focales benignas fueron: hemangioma 4/16 (25%), hematoma hepático 4/16 (25%), quiste hepático 3/16 (18,75%), hiperplasia nodular focal 1/16 (6,25%) adenoma 1/16 (6,25%) y las malignas: hepatocarcinoma 2/16 (12,50%) y hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6,25%). La mayoría de los pacientes (56,25%) se encontraban asintomáticos, 3/16 (18,75%) presentaron dolor abdominal, 3/16 (18,75%) masa palpable y 2/16 (12,5%) ictericia. La lesión fue identificada por ultrasonido abdominal en todos los pacientes y sólo el 56,25% (9/16) ameritaron tomografía con contraste. Al 43,75% (7/16) se les realizó marcadores tumorales y de estos el 42,85% (3/7) reportaron neoplasias. El funcionalismo hepático reportó normal en el 75% de los casos. Conclusión: El ultrasonido abdominal es el método de elección para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las lesiones focales hepáticas, mientras el origen de las mismas, guía la conducta terapéutica. Abstract in english Introduction: focal liver lesions comprise a heterogeneous group of entities such as benign and malignant, solid or cysts, vascular, inflammatory masses and metastasis among others. Objective: To report focal liver lesions in children, clinical features, imaging and therapeutic behavior. Patients an [...] d Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study based on a review of 16 case histories of children with focal liver lesions in the period from January 2007 to January 2012. Liver abscesses were excluded. Results: 68.75%11 were male and 31.25%5 females, mean age 9.5 years (range: 10 days - 14 years). Focal lesions were benign: Hemangioma 4/16 (25%), liver hematoma 4/16 (25%), hepatic cyst 3/16 (18.75%), nodular focal hyperplasia 1/16 (6.25%) and adenomas 1/16 (6.25%) and malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma 2/16 (12.50%) and hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6.25%). Most patients (56.25%) were asymptomatic, 3/16 (18.75%) had abdominal pain, 3/16 (18.75%) and palpable mass 2/16 (12.5%) jaundice. The lesion was identified by abdominal ultrasound in all patients and only 56.25% (9/16) needed tomography with contrast. To 43.75% (7/16) underwent tumor markers and of these 42.85% (3/7) reported neoplasm. Normal hepatic function reported in 75% of cases. Conclusion: An abdominal ultrasound is the method of choice for the diagnosis and management of focal liver lesions, while the origin of them, guide therapeutic conduct.

Rossell, Adalis; Navarro, Dianora; López, Karolina; Perla, Enicar; Quintana, Betzabeth; Figueredo, Credy; Nogales, Andrea; Belandria, Katiuska.

162

Ossification defects detected in CT scans represent early osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the current study was to validate the use of CT for selection against osteochondrosis in pigs by calculating positive predictive value and comparing it to the positive predictive value of macroscopic evaluation, using histological examination as the reference standard. Eighteen male, hereditarily osteochondrosis-predisposed piglets underwent terminal examination at biweekly intervals from the ages of 82-180 days old, including CT scanning, macroscopic, and histological evaluation of the left distal femur. Areas of ischemic chondronecrosis (osteochondrosis) were confirmed in histological sections from 44/56 macroscopically suspected lesions, resulting in a positive predictive value of 79% (95% CI: 67-84%). Suspected lesions, that is; focal, radiolucent defects in the ossification front in CT scans corresponded to areas of ischemic chondronecrosis in 36/36 histologically examined lesions, resulting in a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90-100%). CT was superior to macroscopic evaluation for diagnosis of early stages of osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets. The current histologically validated observations can potentially be extrapolated to diagnostic monitoring of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans in children, or to animal models of human juvenile articular cartilage injury and repair. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:1014-1023, 2014. PMID:24740876

Olstad, Kristin; Kongsro, Jørgen; Grindflek, Eli; Dolvik, Nils Ivar

2014-08-01

163

EVALUACIÓN DEL CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR CON RESONANCIA MAGNÉTICA ASSESSMENT OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las lesiones del cartílago articular son frecuentes y su diagnóstico por imagen cada día más importante. La resonancia magnética es el método de diagnóstico por imagen de elección para la evaluación de lesiones condrales. Este artículo revisa la utilidad de este método, en relación a estudios convencionales así como también estudios avanzados, cuantitativos, que permiten evaluar alteraciones condrales iniciales antes de ser evidentes en secuencias habituales de resonancia magnética.Articular cartilage injuries is a common event and imaging technique has become increasingly important in diagnosing them. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging method of choice forthe evaluation of chondral lesions. This article reviews the usef ulness of this method compared to conventional as well as to advanced quantitative studies, thus enabling evaluation of initial cartilage alterations before being evident in normal MRI sequences.

Gonzalo Delgado P

2009-01-01

164

Modelos computacionales del comportamiento del cartílago articular / Computational models of articular cartilage behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cartílago articular suministra a las articulaciones diartrodiales baja fricción, resistencia al desgaste en las superficies de contacto y distribuye los esfuerzos en las zonas donde se presenta contacto con el hueso; adicionalmente, es un tejido alinfático y avascular, razón por la cual su regene [...] ración toma demasiado tiempo y en pacientes con avanzada edad no es posible realizarla. Con el propósito de estudiar y entender completamente el comportamiento del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones de carga y en presencia de enfermedades como la osteoartritis, se han creado diferentes modelos computacionales que incluyen características propias de la estructura del tejido cartilaginoso que permiten predecir su comportamiento en condiciones normales y anormales, disminuyendo tiempos y costos de experimentación. Este artículo de actualización expone las principales características estructurales y biológicas del cartílago articular y presenta diferentes modelos computacionales que permiten modelar el tejido cartilaginoso de acuerdo con sus principales características y de esta forma simular el deterioro del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones y enfermedades. Abstract in english The articular cartilage provides diarthrodial articulations with low friction, resistance to wear on contact surfaces, and an effective distribution of efforts in areas of contact with the bone. On the other hand, because their tissue is alymphatic and avascular, regeneration takes a long time and i [...] s not possible in elderly patients. Various computational models have been developed to study and fully understand cartilage behavior under varying load conditions and in the presence of diseases such as osteoarthritis. The models include specific features of cartilaginous tissue allowing to predict its behavior in normal and abnormal conditions, reducing experimentation time and costs. This update paper presents the main structural and biological characteristics of the articular cartilage, as well as various computational models representing cartilaginous tissue according to its main features, with a view to simulating cartilage deterioration under varying conditions and diseases.

López-Vaca, Oscar Rodrigo; Narváez-Tovar, Carlos Alberto; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego Alexander.

165

Case report 502: Intra-articular synovial chrondromatosis of shoulder with extra-articular extension  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 41-year-old man presented with an axillary mass of soft tissue attenuation on CT examination and lack of neovascularity on angiography. Imaging with magnetic resonance was the most helpful modality in defining the intra-articular origin and nature several masses because of their distinctive distribution and striking signal characteristics. These features suggested the correct preoperative diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis, which had not even been considered in the clinical differential diagnosis. (orig./GDG).

Burnstein, M.I.; Fisher, D.R.; Yandow, D.R.; De Smet, A.A.; Hafez, G.R.

1988-09-01

166

Case report 502: Intra-articular synovial chrondromatosis of shoulder with extra-articular extension  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 41-year-old man presented with an axillary mass of soft tissue attenuation on CT examination and lack of neovascularity on angiography. Imaging with magnetic resonance was the most helpful modality in defining the intra-articular origin and nature several masses because of their distinctive distribution and striking signal characteristics. These features suggested the correct preoperative diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis, which had not even been considered in the clinical differential diagnosis. (orig./GDG)

1988-01-01

167

Continuously variable focal length lens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

2013-12-17

168

Focal rigidity of flat tori  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ?i?i called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets ?i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ?i?i chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos ?i estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

Ferry Kwakkel

2011-12-01

169

Focal rigidity of flat tori  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g), i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ?i?i called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets ?i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g), i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the m...

2011-01-01

170

A focus on focal surfaces  

CERN Multimedia

We make a systematic study of the focal surface of a congruence of lines inthe projective space. Using differential techniques together with techniquesfrom intersection theory, we reobtain in particular all the invariants of thefocal surface (degree, class, class of its hyperplane section, sectional genusand degrees of the nodal and cuspidal curve). We study in particular thecongruences of chords to a smooth curve and the congruences of bitangents orflexes to a smooth surface. We find that they possess unexpected components intheir focal surface, and conjecture that they are the only ones with thisproperty.

Arrondo, E; Turrini, C

2000-01-01

171

Focal lesions of the patella  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

Hedayati, B. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

2009-08-15

172

Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Consolidation Measurement of Articular Cartilage  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation) of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP). MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer.

Wellard, Robert Mark; Ravasio, Jean-Philippe; Guesne, Samuel; Bell, Christopher; Oloyede, Adekunle; Tevelen, Greg; Pope, James M.; Momot, Konstantin I.

2014-01-01

173

Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

1982-08-01

174

Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes

1982-01-01

175

Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Consolidation Measurement of Articular Cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP. MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer.

Robert Mark Wellard

2014-05-01

176

Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future shallow (depth 0-70 km) earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress, and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5° spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75° to +75°, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalogue. In the new forecasts we have improved the spatial resolution to 0.1° and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each gridpoint. Simultaneously, we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method of Kagan & Jackson proposed in 1994. This average angle reveals the level of tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The procedure becomes problematical where longitude lines are not approximately parallel, and where shallow earthquakes are so sparse that an adequate sample spans very large distances. North or south of 75°, the azimuths of points 1000 km away may vary by about 35°. We solved this problem by calculating focal mechanisms on a plane tangent to the Earth's surface at each forecast point, correcting for the rotation of the longitude lines at the locations of earthquakes included in the averaging. The corrections are negligible between -30° and +30° latitude, but outside that band uncorrected rotations can be significantly off. Improved forecasts at 0.5° and 0.1° resolution are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

2014-04-01

177

Imaging diagnosis of the juxta-articular bone cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the imaging features of the juxta-articular bone cyst(intra- osseous ganglia). Methods: The imaging findings of 54 cases histopathologically confirmed were studied retrospectively. X-ray, CT, and MRI were performed in 46 eases, 30 cases, and 14 cases, respectively. Results: Of the 54 cases, 27 arised from the ankle (including multiple lesions), 16 from the knee joint, 7 from the hip joint, 1 from the proximate end of the humerus, ulna, trapezium bone, the first phalange in each, and 1 from the talus and the distal end of the tibia. There were 43 cases (44 lesions) in the ankle and knee joints, with 29 (65.9%) lesions located in the medial articular surface. Fifty-four cases had thinning sclerotic rim, showing a unilocular round osteolytic appearance in 44 cases and a multiloculated-cystic appearance with septa in 10 cases. Discontinuous articular surface were seen in 15 cases, reticular surface collapse in 1, gas density in 3 and fluid-fluid plane in 1. (1) On x-ray films, 46 cases (47 lesions) with well-defined sclerotic rim revealed round, arch or irregular lyric areas at the adjacent articular surface. The fissures were found at the adjacent articular surface in 6 lesions. No joint spaces were abnormal. (2)On CT, 30 cases with sclerotic rim showed round in 19 lesions, arch in 3, and irregular in 8. The fissures were seen at the adjacent articular surface in 14 lesions. The density showed homogeneous in 27 lesions, and gas existed in 3. (3) Fourteen cases (15 lesions)showed hypointense to isointense signal on MR T1WI and hyperintense signal on T2WI. Fluid-fluid plane was found in 1 case. The fissures were observed at the adjacent articular surface in 8 lesions. 7 cases showed swelling soft tissue. Conclusion: The characteristic locations combined with the typical imaging features may suggest the diagnosis of jaxta-articular bone cyst. (authors)

2008-11-01

178

Intra-articular Glucocorticoid Treatment : Efficacy and Side Effects  

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Intra-articular glucocorticoid injection therapy is frequently used to relieve symptoms of arthritis, but there is considerable variation in injection routines among physicians. One issue of debate concerns the importance of synovial fluid aspiration during the injection procedure. In the present randomised controlled study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a significantly reduced risk for arthritis relapse was observed when arthrocentesis was included in the intra-articular injecti...

Weitoft, Tomas

2005-01-01

179

Friction and wear behaviour of bacterial cellulose against articular cartilage  

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Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural and biocompatible material with unique properties, such as high water holding capacity, ultra-fine fibre network and high strength that makes it an attractive material for the repair of articular cartilage lesions. However, data on the tribological properties of BC is very scarce, particularly if natural articular cartilage is involved in the contact. In this work, unmodified BC pellicles were grown from Gluconacetobacter xylinus in order to be used as tr...

Lopes, J. L.; Machado, J. M.; Castanheira, L.; Granja, P. L.; Gama, F. M.; Dourado, Fernando; Gomes, J. R.

2011-01-01

180

High-grade intra-articular liposarcoma of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-grade pleomorphic intra-articular liposarcoma of the knee is described in a 48-year-old man, which was diagnosed histologically after arthroscopy of the knee for suspected pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). The patient proceeded to undergo an extra-articular resection with a custom-made prosthesis. This report highlights the need to remember this rare tumour in the differential diagnosis of atypical soft tissue lesions within the knee joint prior to instrumentation. PMID:21174203

Shaerf, Daniel A; Mann, Bhupinder; Alorjani, Mohammed; Aston, Will; Saifuddin, Asif

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Extra-articular hip endoscopy: A review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy. PMID:23610664

Verhelst, L; Guevara, V; De Schepper, J; Van Melkebeek, J; Pattyn, C; Audenaert, E A

2012-12-01

182

Articular cartilage mineralization in osteoarthritis of the hip  

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Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of articular cartilage calcification in patients with end-stage hip OA. Further, its impact on the clinical situation and the OA severity are analyzed. Methods Eighty patients with OA of the hip who consecutively underwent total hip replacement were prospectively evaluated, and 10 controls were included. The patients' X-rays were analyzed for the presence of articular cartilage mineralization...

Fuerst Martin; Niggemeyer Oliver; Lammers Lydia; Schäfer Fritz; Lohmann Christoph; Rüther Wolfgang

2009-01-01

183

Reparação de defeitos osteocondrais de cães com implante de cultura de condrócitos homólogos e membrana biossintética de celulose: avaliação clínica, ultrassonográfica e macroscópica The repair of osteochondral defects in dogs with homologous articular chondrocytes and biosynthetic cellulose membrane: clinical, ultrasound and macroscopic evaluation  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se o implante de condrócitos homólogos em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando a membrana biossintética à base de celulose (MBC como revestimento. Dez cães adultos e clinicamente sadios foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de quatro milímetros de diâmetro por quatro milímetros de profundidade foram induzidos na tróclea femoral de ambos os membros. A MBC foi aplicada na base e superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados e formaram o grupo tratado (GT; e os defeitos do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, formaram o grupo controle (GC. Os animais foram avaliados clínica e ultrassonograficamente aos 30 e 60 dias. A evolução pós-operatória dos cães foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de macroscopia. Não houve diferença clínica e ultrassonográfica entre os grupos. Entretanto, à macroscopia, ocorreu maior prevalência de formação de tecido cicatricial esbranquiçado no GT. O tecido neoformado apresentou melhor qualidade associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, mas não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina.The aim of the study was to evaluate the repair of deep cartilaginous defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects with four millimeters diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM was applied in the lesion's base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG, the defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG, the defects of the left limb were filled without cellular implant. The animals were evaluated by physical examination and ultrasound at 30 and 60 days. The postoperative follow up of the dogs was done by macroscopy with special interest in the healing process of the osteochondral defect. No clinical and ultrasonographic differences were observed in both groups. In the macroscopic evaluation higher prevalence of whitish scar tissue formation was noted in TG, but without statistical difference. The neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

L.S. Iamaguti

2012-12-01

184

Reparação de defeitos osteocondrais de cães com implante de cultura de condrócitos homólogos e membrana biossintética de celulose: avaliação clínica, ultrassonográfica e macroscópica / The repair of osteochondral defects in dogs with homologous articular chondrocytes and biosynthetic cellulose membrane: clinical, ultrasound and macroscopic evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o implante de condrócitos homólogos em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando a membrana biossintética à base de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães adultos e clinicamente sadios foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de quatro milímetros de diâme [...] tro por quatro milímetros de profundidade foram induzidos na tróclea femoral de ambos os membros. A MBC foi aplicada na base e superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados e formaram o grupo tratado (GT); e os defeitos do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, formaram o grupo controle (GC). Os animais foram avaliados clínica e ultrassonograficamente aos 30 e 60 dias. A evolução pós-operatória dos cães foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de macroscopia. Não houve diferença clínica e ultrassonográfica entre os grupos. Entretanto, à macroscopia, ocorreu maior prevalência de formação de tecido cicatricial esbranquiçado no GT. O tecido neoformado apresentou melhor qualidade associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, mas não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the repair of deep cartilaginous defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joi [...] nts and defects with four millimeters diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM was applied in the lesion's base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), the defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), the defects of the left limb were filled without cellular implant. The animals were evaluated by physical examination and ultrasound at 30 and 60 days. The postoperative follow up of the dogs was done by macroscopy with special interest in the healing process of the osteochondral defect. No clinical and ultrasonographic differences were observed in both groups. In the macroscopic evaluation higher prevalence of whitish scar tissue formation was noted in TG, but without statistical difference. The neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

Iamaguti, L.S.; Brandão, C.V.S.; Mota, L.S.L.S.; Sereno, M.G.; Almeida, M.F.; Padovani, C.R..

185

Differential gene expression associated with postnatal equine articular cartilage maturation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage undergoes an important maturation process from neonate to adult that is reflected by alterations in matrix protein organization and increased heterogeneity of chondrocyte morphology. In the horse, these changes are influenced by exercise during the first five months of postnatal life. Transcriptional profiling was used to evaluate changes in articular chondrocyte gene expression during postnatal growth and development. Methods Total RNA was isolated from the articular cartilage of neonatal (0–10 days and adult (4–5 years horses, subjected to one round of linear RNA amplification, and then applied to a 9,367-element equine-specific cDNA microarray. Comparisons were made with a dye-swap experimental design. Microarray results for selected genes (COL2A1, COMP, P4HA1, TGFB1, TGFBR3, TNC were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Results Fifty-six probe sets, which represent 45 gene products, were up-regulated (p Conclusion Differential expression of genes encoding matrix proteins and matrix-modifying enzymes between neonates and adults reflect a cellular maturation process in articular chondrocytes. Up-regulated transcripts in neonatal cartilage are consistent with growth and expansion of the articular surface. Expression patterns in mature articular cartilage indicate a transition from growth to homeostasis, and tissue function related to withstanding shear and weight-bearing stresses.

Stromberg Arnold J

2008-11-01

186

Convex fuzzy bodies and fuzzy focal points  

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In this paper we will define convex fuzzy bodies and will discuss the geometric properties for these bodies in terms of fuzzy focal points of their boundaries when the ambient space is of no fuzzy focal points.

El-Sayied, Hoda Kamal E-mail: eyouness1989@yahoo.com

2003-11-01

187

Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

2008-06-01

188

Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. [...] For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarosepropylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.

Tatiana Carla, Tomiosso; Laurecir, Gomes; Benedicto, de Campos Vidal; Edson Rosa, Pimentel.

189

Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage  

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Full Text Available The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarosepropylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.

Tatiana Carla Tomiosso

2005-04-01

190

Unconventional treatment of focal shift  

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We present an unconventional approach for the explanation of focal shift behind a lens. It is based on the fact that, within the approximation of Fresnel diffraction, the intensity distributions in the conjugate planes of a lens are equal to their geometrical images. We show that the focus (position of highest intensity) is always shifted towards the lens. The results for a Gaussian beam and a uniform converging spherical wave are presented.

Vokinger, Urs; Da?ndliker, Rene?; Blattner, Peter; Herzig, Hans-peter

2007-01-01

191

Animal Models of Focal Dystonia  

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Summary: Animal models indicate that the abnormal movements of focal dystonia result from disordered sensorimotor integration. Sensorimotor integration involves a comparison of sensory information resulting from a movement with the sensory information expected from the movement. Unanticipated sensory signals identified by sensorimotor processing serve as signals to modify the ongoing movement or the planning for subsequent movements. Normally, this process is an effective mechanism to modify ...

Evinger, Craig

2005-01-01

192

Comparison of MR-arthrography and MDCT-arthrography for detection of labral and articular cartilage hip pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare the diagnostic ability of MR arthrography (MRa) and MDCT arthrography (CTa) in depicting surgically proven hip labral tears and articular cartilage degradation. Labral pathology and articular cartilage were prospectively evaluated with MRa and CTa in 14 hips of 10 patients. The findings were evaluated by two independent observers (a musculoskeletal fellow and one senior musculoskeletal radiologist). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were determined using arthroscopic and open surgery findings as the standard of reference. Interobserver agreement was recorded. All images were assessed for the presence of a labral tear (according to Czerny classification) and for cartilage erosion using a 3 point scale for both methods: 1 = complete visualization-sharp edges, 2 = blurred edges fissuring-partial defects, 3 = exposed bone. The same classification was applied surgically. Disagreement between the senior observer and the fellow observer was recorded in three cases of labral tearing with MRa and six with CTa. Disagreement was also found in four cases of cartilage erosion with both MRa and CTa. The percent sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value for correctly assessing the labral tear were as follows for MRa/CTa, respectively: 100/15, 50/13, 90/14, and 90/13 (P 0.05). Interobserver reproducibility with MRa is very good for labral tearing assessment. MRa is better for assessing labral tears. CTa shows better, but not statistically significant, demonstration of the articular cartilage. (orig.)

2011-11-01

193

Luxación intra-articular de rótula Intra-articular dislocation of patella  

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Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se realizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones.The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

S. García-Mata

2006-08-01

194

Luxación intra-articular de rótula / Intra-articular dislocation of patella  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se re [...] alizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones. Abstract in english The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was [...] carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

García-Mata, S.; Hidalgo-Ovejero, A. M..

195

Focal and multifocal diabetic neuropathies Neuropatia diabética focal e multifocal  

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Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is the most common neuropathy in industrialized countries, with a remarkable range of clinical manifestations. The vast majority of the patients with clinical diabetic neuropathy have a distal symmetrical form that progress following a fiber-length dependent pattern, with predominant sensory and autonomic manifestations. This pattern of neuropathy is associated with a progressive distal axonopathy. Patients are exposed to trophic changes in the feet, pains and autonomic disturbances. Less often, diabetic patients may develop focal and multifocal neuropathy that includes cranial nerve involvement, limb and truncal neuropathies. This neuropathic pattern tends to occur after 50 years of age, mostly in patients with longstanding diabetes mellitus. The LDDP does not show any trend to improvement and either relentlessly progresses or remain relatively stable over years. Conversely the focal diabetic neuropathies, which are often associated with inflammatory vasculopathy on nerve biopsies, remain self limited, sometimes after a relapsing course.A neuropatia diabética é a mais predominante das neuropatias nos países industrializados apresentando uma gama variável de manifestações clinicas. A maioria dos pacientes com neuropatia diabética apresenta uma forma simétrica distal que progride para um padrão fibra comprimento dependente com manifestações sensitivas e autonomicas. Este tipo de neuropatia é associado com uma axonopatia distal progressiva. Os pacientes apresentam modificações tróficas nos pés, dores e distúrbios autonômicos. Menos freqüentemente os pacientes diabéticos podem desenvolver neuropatia focal e multifocal que incluem envolvimento de nervos cranianos, tronco e membros inferiores. Este padrão de neuropatia é mais freqüente em pacientes com mais de 50 anos e com longa historia de diabetes. Este tipo de neuropatia fibra-comprimento dependente não apresenta melhora, progride lentamente ou permanece estável por vários anos. As neuropatias focais que são associadas freqüentemente com vasculopatias inflamatórias nas biópsias de nervo, permanecem auto limitadas por vezes com surtos de remissão.

Gérard Said

2007-12-01

196

Focal and multifocal diabetic neuropathies / Neuropatia diabética focal e multifocal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A neuropatia diabética é a mais predominante das neuropatias nos países industrializados apresentando uma gama variável de manifestações clinicas. A maioria dos pacientes com neuropatia diabética apresenta uma forma simétrica distal que progride para um padrão fibra comprimento dependente com manife [...] stações sensitivas e autonomicas. Este tipo de neuropatia é associado com uma axonopatia distal progressiva. Os pacientes apresentam modificações tróficas nos pés, dores e distúrbios autonômicos. Menos freqüentemente os pacientes diabéticos podem desenvolver neuropatia focal e multifocal que incluem envolvimento de nervos cranianos, tronco e membros inferiores. Este padrão de neuropatia é mais freqüente em pacientes com mais de 50 anos e com longa historia de diabetes. Este tipo de neuropatia fibra-comprimento dependente não apresenta melhora, progride lentamente ou permanece estável por vários anos. As neuropatias focais que são associadas freqüentemente com vasculopatias inflamatórias nas biópsias de nervo, permanecem auto limitadas por vezes com surtos de remissão. Abstract in english Diabetic neuropathy is the most common neuropathy in industrialized countries, with a remarkable range of clinical manifestations. The vast majority of the patients with clinical diabetic neuropathy have a distal symmetrical form that progress following a fiber-length dependent pattern, with predomi [...] nant sensory and autonomic manifestations. This pattern of neuropathy is associated with a progressive distal axonopathy. Patients are exposed to trophic changes in the feet, pains and autonomic disturbances. Less often, diabetic patients may develop focal and multifocal neuropathy that includes cranial nerve involvement, limb and truncal neuropathies. This neuropathic pattern tends to occur after 50 years of age, mostly in patients with longstanding diabetes mellitus. The LDDP does not show any trend to improvement and either relentlessly progresses or remain relatively stable over years. Conversely the focal diabetic neuropathies, which are often associated with inflammatory vasculopathy on nerve biopsies, remain self limited, sometimes after a relapsing course.

Gérard, Said.

197

Sebaceous carcinoma of the nose: multi-focal presentation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sebaceous carcinoma of the nose is rare. Here the authors present a case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a mass in the right nasal vestibule. This was removed and a nasolabial flap used to reconstruct the defect. Histology revealed a sebaceous carcinoma. At follow-up, three months later, a new lesion had appeared in the opposite nostril which when removed proved to be a second sebaceous carcinoma. This multi-focal presentation in the nose has not been described in the literature before. PMID:15165315

Murphy, J; Bleach, N R; Thyveetil, M

2004-05-01

198

Targeting TGF? signaling in subchondral bone and articular cartilage homeostasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease and no disease-modifying therapy for OA is currently available. Targeting articular cartilage alone may not be sufficient to halt this disease progression. Articular cartilage and subchondral bone act as a functional unit. Increasing evidence indicates that transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of both articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Activation of extracellular matrix (ECM) latent TGF? at the appropriate time and location is a prerequisite for its function. Aberrant activation of TGF? in the subchondral bone in response to an abnormal mechanical loading environment induces formation of osteroid islets at the onset of OA. As a result, alteration of subchondral bone structure changes the stress distribution on the articular cartilage and leads to its degeneration. Thus, inhibition of TGF? activity in the subchondral bone may provide a new avenue of treatment for OA. In this review we will discuss the role of TGF? in the homeostasis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as a novel target for OA therapy. PMID:24745631

Zhen, Gehua; Cao, Xu

2014-05-01

199

Surface modified PLGA/carbon nanofiber composite enhances articular chondrocyte functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Since articular cartilage has a limited self regeneration capability, alternative methods are needed for repairing cartilage defects. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to explore the effects of material surface properties and external stimulation on chondrocyte (cartilage-synthesizing cell) functions. Based on this information, a goal of this research was to propose a scaffold composite material for enhancing articular chondrocyte function. To improve functions of chondrocytes, material (namely, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); PLGA) surfaces were modified via chemical (NaOH) etching techniques. Chondrocytes were cultured on surface-modified 2-D PLGA films and 3-D PLGA tissue engineering scaffolds, which were created by a salt-leaching method. Carbon nanofibers were imprinted on PLGA matrices in an aligned pattern for controlled electrically-active surface features. Electrical stimulation was applied to expedite and enhance chondrocyte functions. Results demonstrated that both NaOH-treated 2-D and 3-D substrates enhanced chondrocyte functions (cell numbers as well as extracellular matrix production) compared to non-treated PLGA substrates. Furthermore, chondrocytes preferred to attach along the carbon nanofiber patterns imprinted on PLGA. Electrical stimulation also enhanced chondrocyte functions on carbon nanofiber/PLGA composites. Underlying material properties that may have enhanced chondrocyte functions include a more hydrophilic surface, surface energy differences due to the presence of carbon nanofibers, increased surface area, altered porosity, and a greater degree of nanometer roughness. Moreover, these altered surface properties positively influenced select protein adsorption that controlled subsequent chondrocyte adhesion. Collectively, this study provided a scaffold model for osteochondral defects that can be synthesized using the above techniques and a layer by layer approach to accommodate the property differences in each layer of natural cartilage. Specifically, these results suggest that the superficial zone, middle zone, and deep zone of cartilage should be composed of carbon nanofibers aligned parallel to the surface in PLGA, randomly oriented carbon nanofibers in PLGA, and carbon nanofibers aligned perpendicular to the surface in PLGA, respectively. Clearly, such scaffolds may ultimately enhance the efficacy of scaffolds used for articular cartilage repair.

Park, Grace Eunseung

200

The use of a novel PLGA fiber/collagen composite web as a scaffold for engineering of articular cartilage tissue with adjustable thickness.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been a great challenge to make the thickness of engineered cartilage adjustable to cover the range of both partial-thickness and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. We developed a novel kind of composite web scaffold that could be used for tissue enginnering of articular cartilage with the thickness adjustable between 200 microm and 8 mm. The composite web showed a unique structure having web-like collagen microsponges formed in the openings of a mechanically strong knitted mesh of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). The knitted mesh served as a skeleton reinforcing the composite web, while the web-like collagen microsponges facilitated cell seeding, cell distribution, and tissue formation. Bovine chondrocytes cultured in the composite web showed a spatially even distribution, maintained their natural morphology, and produced cartilaginous extracellular matrices such as type II collagen and aggrecan. The thickness of the implant can be simply adjusted by laminating or rolling the web sheets. Not only did the histological structure of the engineered cartilage patches match the bovine native articular cartilage, but also their dynamic complex modulus, structural stiffness, and phase lag reached 37.8, 57.0, and 86.3% of those of native bovine articular cartilage, respectively. The composite web could be an important scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:14624503

Chen, Guoping; Sato, Takashi; Ushida, Takashi; Hirochika, Rei; Shirasaki, Yoshio; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Tateishi, Tetsuya

2003-12-15

 
 
 
 
201

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

2003-08-07

202

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

2003-07-07

203

Episodic depersonalization in focal epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report a patient with episodic depersonalization is described. As the depersonalization episodes had been attributed to partial seizures, this patient was treated with antiepileptic medication. However, clinical evaluation with long-term video/EEG revealed no evidence of seizure activity during the depersonalization episodes. On the other hand, further evaluation revealed findings that are frequently associated with focal epilepsy. In addition to episodic depersonalization, this patient had secondary generalized seizures. The relationship between episodic depersonalization, temporal lobe pathology, and epilepsy is discussed against the background of this case. PMID:16046278

Dietl, Thomas; Bien, Christian; Urbach, Horst; Elger, Christian; Kurthen, Martin

2005-09-01

204

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage at 3 tesla  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smooth motor function can be maintained by articular cartilage. When the cartilage is injured, edema occurs, and as degeneration progresses, the cartilage thins and the cartilage matrix decreases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows noninvasive evaluation of these changes. Fat suppression proton density- and T2-weighted imaging are useful in the morphologic evaluation of articular cartilage. High resolution, 3-tesla MR imaging provides more detailed evaluation. Biochemical information from T2 mapping, T1? mapping, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is useful for early diagnosis of cartilage injury and evaluation of cartilage repair. The role of MR imaging in evaluating articular cartilage will increase in the future aging society. (author)

2009-05-01

205

Tuberculosis extrapulmonar: Forma articular / Tuberculose extrapulmonaire: à localisation articulaire / Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Articular form  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una revisión del tema de la Tuberculosis extrapulmonar de forma articular, por haber encontrado un paciente con esta patología de presentación "pura" sin otras manifestaciones sistémicas. Se trata del primer paciente diagnosticado en el Hospital Comunitario Integral de "San Andrés", del m [...] unicipio de Caracollo, provincia Cercado, en el departamento de Oruro, Bolivia. En la revisión del tema se demuestra la infrecuencia de esta forma de presentación de la enfermedad a pesar de ser la Tuberculosis pulmonar frecuente en la región por sumarse los factores: frío, altura con poco tenor de oxígeno, desnutrición, tormentas de polvo, muchos trabajadores mineros, etc. Se realiza la presentación del paciente, se muestra su evolución satisfactoria en cuanto a la patología de base y se arriban a conclusiones dentro de las que se destacan que la Tuberculosis en su forma articular es infrecuente en apariencia y su diagnóstico se hace difícil al no existir, por la misma razón, patrones ecográficos o radiográficos definidos. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico es el único que puede definir la etiología de la Tuberculosis de una lesión proliferativa de la sinovial y que la sinovectomía es una intervención generalmente invalidante por lo que un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento médico adecuado, a tiempo, evitaría limitaciones funcionales a posteriori. Se recomienda que en todo caso portador de una sinovitis de rodilla de larga evolución, se le realice una ecografía diagnóstica, y en los pacientes en los que se observen imágenes complejas de bordes regulares, del tipo "copos de nieve", se le efectúen estudios específicos para la detección de la Tuberculosis. Abstract in english A review of the topic on extrapulmonary articular tuberculosis was made for having found a male patient with this pathology of pure presentation with no other systemic manifestations. This is the first patient diagnosed at the Community Comprehensive Hospital of San Andrés, municipality of Caracollo [...] , Cervado province, department of Oruro, Bolivia. On reviewing the topic it was proven the infrequency of this form of presentation in spite of the fact that extrapulmonary tuberculosis is common in the region due to the existence of the following factors: cold, height with little tenor of oxygen, malnutrition, dust storms, many mining workers, etc. The patient was presented and his satisfactory evolution as regards the base pathology was showed. It was concluded that tuberculosis in its articular form is rare in appearance and that its diagnosis is difficult due to the absence of echographic or radiographic patterns defined. The anatomopathological diagnosis is the only one that can determine the aetiology of the tuberculosis of a proliferative injury of the synovia. As synovectomy is a generally disabling intervention, an early diagnosis and an adequate medical treatment on time will prevent functional future limitations. It is recommended to perform a diagnostic echography in every carrier of knee synovitis of long evolution, and to conduct specific studies for the detection of tuberculosis in those patients among whom complex images of regular snowflake-like edges are observed.

Julio C., Escarpanter Buliés; Yoel, García Rodríguez; Marta A., Gutiérrez Guillén.

206

Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage (AC is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly parallel to the articular surface near the articular surface. Recent studies into collagen fibre orientation in stillborn and juvenile animals showed that this structure is absent at birth. Since the collagen structure is an important factor for AC mechanics, the absence of the adult Benninghoff structure has implications for perinatal AC mechanobiology. The current objective is to quantify the dynamics of collagen network development in a model animal from birth to maturity. We further aim to show the presence or absence of zonal differentiation at birth, and to assess differences in collagen network development between different anatomical sites of a single joint surface. We use quantitative polarised light microscopy to investigate properties of the collagen network and we use the sheep (Ovis aries as our model animal. Results Predominant collagen orientation is parallel to the articular surface throughout the tissue depth for perinatal cartilage. This remodels to the Benninghoff structure before the sheep reach sexual maturity. Remodelling of predominant collagen orientation starts at a depth just below the future transitional zone. Tissue retardance shows a minimum near the articular surface at all ages, which indicates the presence of zonal differentiation at all ages. The absolute position of this minimum does change between birth and maturity. Between different anatomical sites, we find differences in the dynamics of collagen remodelling, but no differences in adult collagen structure. Conclusions The collagen network in articular cartilage remodels between birth and sexual maturity from a network with predominant orientation parallel to the articular surface to a Benninghoff network. The retardance minimum near, but not at, the articular surface at all ages shows that a zonal differentiation is already present in the perinatal animals. In these animals, the zonal differentiation can not be correlated to the collagen network orientation. We find no difference in adult collagen structure in the nearly congruent metacarpophalangeal joint, but we do find differences in the dynamics of collagen network remodelling.

Kranenbarg Sander

2010-06-01

207

Colo-articular fistula following a Girdlestone resection arthroplasty  

Science.gov (United States)

Colo-articular fistulas are rare complications that are usually associated with inflammatory, infective or malignant bowel disease. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who was found to have a colo-articular fistula intra-operatively during the washout of a septic hip joint. The patient had no pre-existing bowel disease, but was an intravenous drug user, who had previously undergone a Girdlestone procedure for osteomyelitis of the proximal femur. The patient was managed through a multi-disciplinary team approach with subsequent debridement and formation of a transverse loop colostomy to control the faeculent fistulous discharge.

El-Daly, Ibraheim; Natarajan, Brenavan; Rajakulendran, Karthig; Symons, Sean

2014-01-01

208

Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint with articular eminence extension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of the temporomandibular joint is a rare benign lesion that can extend to the adjacent bony tissue. Most studies in the literature reported cases of SC of the temporomandibular joint with extension to the skull base, but there has been no report of intracranial extension through the articular eminence. The current study reports on the case of SC with articular eminence extension that was treated via combined trans-zygomatic tempora and preauricular approach and acquired good effect with 44 months of follow-up. PMID:22565885

Jiang, Bin; Yang, Chi; Chen, Min-Jie; Cai, Xie-Yi

2012-05-01

209

Colo-articular fistula following a Girdlestone resection arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colo-articular fistulas are rare complications that are usually associated with inflammatory, infective or malignant bowel disease. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who was found to have a colo-articular fistula intra-operatively during the washout of a septic hip joint. The patient had no pre-existing bowel disease, but was an intravenous drug user, who had previously undergone a Girdlestone procedure for osteomyelitis of the proximal femur. The patient was managed through a multi-disciplinary team approach with subsequent debridement and formation of a transverse loop colostomy to control the faeculent fistulous discharge. PMID:24876512

El-Daly, Ibraheim; Natarajan, Brenavan; Rajakulendran, Karthig; Symons, Sean

2014-01-01

210

Focal splenic lesions: US findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasound (US) imaging of the spleen was considered of little use in the past and was performed only to distinguish between cystic and solid lesions. However, in the last decade due to experience acquired and the introduction of second-generation contrast agents, this technique has been re-evaluated as contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) allows detection and characterization of most focal lesions of the spleen with a high sensitivity and a good specificity. Gray-scale US presents a low specificity in splenic infarctions with a high rate of false negative cases, whereas specificity reaches 100 %, if the examination is performed using US contrast agents. Gray-scale US can provide a correct diagnosis in simple cysts, whereas CEUS is useful when cystic lymphangioma is suspected. In the study of splenic lesions, the most important problem is to differentiate between angioma, hamartoma, lymphoma, and metastasis. CEUS reaches a good specificity in the differentiation of benign from malignant splenic lesions, as hypo-enhancement in the parenchymal phase is predictive of malignancy in 87 % of cases. In conclusion, Gray-scale US and particularly CEUS are at present widely indicated in the study of focal splenic lesions. PMID:24294345

Caremani, M; Occhini, U; Caremani, A; Tacconi, D; Lapini, L; Accorsi, A; Mazzarelli, C

2013-01-01

211

Prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in elderly subjects in a rural area of Catalonia  

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The occurrence of rheumatic disorders did not differ significantly between subjects with articular chondrocalcinosis and those without. CONCLUSIONS--Articular chondrocalcinosis is an age related disorder, which could partly explain the discrepancies in its prevalence reported in previous studies. In most subjects with articular chondrocalcinosis recruited from an unselected population the clinical manifestations are probably mild or even absent.

1993-01-01

212

Case report 333: Osteochondral fracture of the right patella without an osteochondral defect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In summary, a case is presented of a 14-year-old male who presented with pain in the right knee with a history which suggested the possibility that an injury of the knee had occurred during a summer in camp. Radiological studies showed a large defect in the articular surface of the right patella, but no loose body could be identified.

Milgram, J.W.

1985-08-01

213

RTG diagnostics of dental focal infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theory of focal infection has always been and still is a controversial issue for many dentists and scientists. Even though the focal infection does not occupy the first place in modern medicine, its understanding is imperative. The authors summarized the knowledge about dental focal infection and its relationship to systemic the diseases of the whole body in their publication and they also focused on the radiodiagnostics of this disease. (authors)

2008-06-01

214

Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause...

Alexandrova ?.?.; Lepilin A.V.; Kazimirova N.E.; Shuldyakov ?.?.

2010-01-01

215

Lens design based on instantaneous focal function  

CERN Multimedia

The formula for the lens is derived based on the information of instantaneous focal function. Focal function is an important tool in designing lenses with extended depth of focus (EDoF) because this allows EDoF lens designers to try out various mathematical curves using computers to optimize their design. Once an optimal focal function information is obtained, the corresponding physical EDoF lens can be fabricated using the lens equation formulated in this presentation.

Cho, Sung Nae

2009-01-01

216

Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

Alexandrova ?.?.

2010-12-01

217

On focal stability in dimension two  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Kupka et al. 2006 appears the Focal Stability Conjecture: the focal decomposition of the generic Riemann structure on a manifold M is stable under perturbations of the Riemann structure. In this paper, we prove the conjecture when M has dimension two, and there are no conjugate points.Em Kupka et al. 2006, consideramos a Conjectura da Estabilidade Focal: a decomposição focal da estrutura Riemaniana genérica em uma variedade M é estável por perturbações dessa estrutura. No presente trabalho demonstramos essa conjectura quando M tem dimensão dois e não existem pontos conjugados.

Mauricio M. Peixoto

2007-03-01

218

[Focalized matrix proteolysis and inflammation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The zinc metalloproteinases (MMPs or matrixins) are capable of damaging most of the constituents of the extra-cellular matrix and the basement membrane. The matrix proteolysis is the result of an imbalance both in the turnover of these constituants and in the ratio of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) versus metalloproteinases. After a brief description of the nature and structure of MMPs and TIMPs, this article reports on recent progress concerning the intra and extra-cellular activation mechanisms of proenzymes (proMMPs) which bring into play a series of proteolytic activations involving different proteinase families. Two points are stressed: 1) the main sites of focalized matrix proteolysis regulation, illustrated in the cellular interaction of inflammation, and 2) the wide phenotypic variety of MMPs and TIMPs. PMID:9853025

Gaudin, P; Trocmé, C; Monier, F; Zaoui, P; Barro, C; Polack, B; Hadjian, A; Berthier, S; Morel, F

1998-01-01

219

Stiripentol for focal refractory epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Nearly 30%of people with epilepsy do not have their seizures controlled with current treatments. Stiripentol is a new antiepileptic drug(AED) developed in France and recently approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of Dravet syndrome as an adjunctive therapy with valproate and clobazam, with a promising effect.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of stiripentol as add-on treatment for patients with focal refractory epilepsy taking any AEDs.Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (19 August 2013), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials(CENTRAL Issue 7, The Cochrane Library July 2013), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to 19 August 2013) and EMBASE (31 May 2012).(The last search in EMBASE was made on 31th May 2012. Since then we no longer have access to that database.) We also contacted Biocodex (the manufacturer of stiripentol) and epilepsy experts to identify published, unpublished and ongoing trials.Selection criteria: Randomised controlled add-on trials of stiripentol in patients with focal refractory epilepsy.Data collection and analysis: Review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. The outcomes investigated included 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, seizure freedom, adverse effects, treatment withdrawal and changes in quality of life.Main results: Using our selection criteria, one study was included (32 children with focal epilepsy). This study adopted a 'responder enriched' design.There was no clear evidence of a reduction in seizure reduction 50% seizure reduction) (RR 1.51, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.82) or in seizure freedom (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.31 to 4.43) with add on stiripentol compared with placebo. Add-on stiripentol led to a greater risk of adverse effects considered as a whole (RR 2.65, 95% CI 1.08 to 6.47) compared with placebo. When considered as specific adverse events, the confidence intervals are very wide and include the possibility of substantial increases and small reductions in the risk of neurological (RR 2.65, 95% CI 0.88 to 8.01) or gastrointestinal adverse effects (RR 11.56, 95% CI 0.71 to 189.36). There was no clear reduction in the risk of study withdrawal (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.47), which was high in both groups (35.0% in add-on placebo and 53.3% in stiripentol group). The external validity of the study was limited because only responders to stiripentol (that is patients experiencing at least a 50% decrease in seizure frequency compared with baseline) were included in the randomised add on placebo-controlled double-blind phase. Furthermore, a carry-over and a withdrawal effect probably affected the outcome related to seizure frequency. Although restricted by the very limited information derived by the only one included study, adverse effects considered as a whole seemed to occur significantly more often with add-on stiripentol compared with add-on placebo.Authors' conclusions: No conclusions can be drawn to support the use of stiripentol as add-on treatment for focal refractory epilepsy. Further large, randomised,well-conducted trials are needed. PMID:24488598

Brigo, Francesco; Storti, Monica

2014-01-01

220

Optimal focal-plane restoration  

Science.gov (United States)

Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Computational aspects in mechanical modeling of the articular cartilage tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on the modeling of articular cartilage (at the tissue level), chondrocyte mechanobiology (at the cell level) and a combination of both in a multiscale computation scheme. The primary objective is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of conventional models implemented to study the mechanics of the articular cartilage tissue and chondrocytes. From monophasic material models as the simplest form to more complicated multiscale theories, these approaches have been frequently used to model articular cartilage and have contributed significantly to modeling joint mechanics, addressing and resolving numerous issues regarding cartilage mechanics and function. It should be noted that attentiveness is important when using different modeling approaches, as the choice of the model limits the applications available. In this review, we discuss the conventional models applicable to some of the mechanical aspects of articular cartilage such as lubrication, swelling pressure and chondrocyte mechanics and address some of the issues associated with the current modeling approaches. We then suggest future pathways for a more realistic modeling strategy as applied for the simulation of the mechanics of the cartilage tissue using multiscale and parallelized finite element method. PMID:23637216

Mohammadi, Hadi; Mequanint, Kibret; Herzog, Walter

2013-04-01

222

Intra-articular lipoma causing snapping in the patellofemoral joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-articular lipoma is an exceedingly rare diagnosis. We identified a lipoma that was seated in the retropatellar are and caused snapping of the patella during flexion of the knee joint. The tumor was easily and totally excised under arthroscopic guidance after the thin pedicle was cut. (author)

2007-01-01

223

A Novel Biomaterial for Cartilage Repair Generated by Self-Assembly: Creation of a Self-Organized Articular Cartilage-Like Tissue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, attention has been drawn to tissue engineering and other novel techniques aimed at reconstruction of the joint. Regarding articular cartilage tissue engineering, three-dimensional materials created in vitro by cultivation of autologous chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells with a collagen gel have been implanted to replace defective parts of the articular cartilage in limited cases with the diseases such as trauma or arthritis. However, several passages of chondrocyte culture are required to obtain a sufficient number of cells for tissue engineering. Additionally, several other problems arise including dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during cell culture, which need to be solved from a viewpoint of cellular resources. The purpose of our study is to create a novel biomaterial possessing functions and structures comparable to native hyaline articular cartilage by utilizing the physicochemical properties of the cartilage matrix components themselves, in other words, employing a self-assembly technique instead of using chondrocytes to produce cartilage matrices eventually leading to articular cartilage tissue formation. We verified the conditions and accuracy of the self-organization process and analyzed the resulting micro structure using electron beam microscopy in order to study the technique involved in the self-organization which would be applicable to creation of cartilage-like tissue. We demonstrated that self-assembly of several cartilage components including type II collagen, proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid could construct self-assembled cartilage-like tissues characterized by nano composite structures comparable to human articular cartilage and by low friction coefficients as small as those of native cartilage.

Rie Karasawa

2012-04-01

224

Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although considered a "joint disease," rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the involvement of extra-articular manifestations. The aim of the study is the investigation and comparison of frequency and type of extra-articular manifestations in a well defined community based cohort of patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Using the ACR (1987) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, patients have been classified into the 2nd and 3rd functional class (ARA). The studied group consisted of 125 seronegative patients with titters lower than 1:64 as defined by Rose-Waaler test, whereas the control group consisted of 125 seropositive patients with titters of 1:64 or higher. All patients were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49,96), with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb=6,41). In order to present the findings of the study, the structure, prevalence, arithmetic mean (Xb), standard deviation (SB), variation quotient (QV%) and variation interval (Rmax-Rmin) have been used. Probability level has been expressed by p<0,01 and p<0,05. Correlation between the number of extra-articular manifestations and duration of the disease has been calculated by means of Pearson linear correlation. Higher presence of diffuse lung fibrosis, central and peripheral nervous system damages have been confirmed in the seropositive group, and osteoporosis in the seronegative; however, no statistical difference has been found. In extra-articular manifestations, "rheumatoid core" in the seropositive subset (chi2=4,80, p<0,05) presented significant statistical difference. Rheumatoid nodules were more frequent in seropositive subset (12%:16%), in both sexes; however, they were not of significant statistical difference. Neuropathy and lung diseases were also frequently present in seropositive group, but no statistical difference has been found regarding the statistical difference. Longer duration of the disease resulted in an increase of the number of extra-articular manifestations. Calculated linear correlation by Pearson, resulted as positive and high correlation in total (r=0,36, p<0,01), and for groups [(r=0,52, p<0,01) seronegative, (r=0,25, p<0,01) seropositive], nevertheless no significant statistical difference was found regarding the sero-status. In conclusion, extra-articular manifestations are more frequent in the seropositive patients. The longer the duration of the disease the larger the number of extra-articular manifestations. Differences with regard to sero-status and sex, with some exceptions, are not observed. PMID:20192927

Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Rexhepi, Mjellma

2010-02-01

225

Distal interphalangeal articular cartilage assessment using low-field magnetic resonance imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The suitability of low-field magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for assessment of articular cartilage has been questioned, based on insufficient image quality. The purposes of this study were to describe the MR anatomy of the normal distal interphalangeal (DIP) cartilage, and to evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of low-field MR imaging for identification of cartilage erosions that were created ex vivo. Imaging sequences included sagittal and dorsal multiple-oblique T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) and sagittal dual echo sequences. In the thickest regions, normal cartilage appeared as a trilaminar structure on high-resolution T1-weighted GRE sequences. All 8 mm large full-thickness erosions were correctly identified (100% sensitivity and accuracy) using T1-weighted GRE sequences. Sensitivity and accuracy ranged from 80% to 100% and 10% to 80%, respectively, for detecting focal full-thickness erosions and from 35% to 80% and 35% to 60%, respectively, for detecting partial thickness erosions, using T1-weighted GRE sequences. Superficial irregularities were not diagnosed using any sequence. Overall, fewer cartilage alterations were detected with sagittal dual echo sequences than with sagittal T1-weighted GRE sequences. The dorsal multiple-oblique plane was useful to detect linear dorsopalmar erosions. A combination of T1-weighted GRE sequences in two planes has potential for identification of severe DIP cartilage erosion in anesthetized horses using low-field MR imaging. PMID:20469547

Olive, Julien

2010-01-01

226

The Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Steroid Injection for Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison between the Extra-Articular and Intra-Articular Approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effectiveness of pain control using ultrasound-guided steroid injection by the extra-articular and intra-articular approaches to femoroacetabular impingement patients. From September through December 2010, 18 patients with clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided steroid and local anesthetics injection: a total of 20 cases, including 16 cases of ipsilateral and 2 cases of bilateral injection. Extra-articular or intra-articular approach was selected for each patient, randomly and alternately. Nine cases were performed by extra-articular approach and 11 cases were performed by intra-articular approach. Every patient was observed in the outpatient clinic and visual analogue scale (VAS) was taken and compared before and after the procedure in all patients. Pre-injection average VAS value of extra-articular approached cases was 5.22 ± 1.99 and post-injection average VAS value was 4.11 ± 1.96, which is statistically insignificant (p < 0.156). The average VAS value of intra-articular approached cases was decreased from 5.72 ± 2.15 to 2.91 ± 2.30 after injection, which is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Ultrasound guided intra-articular approached steroid and local anesthetics injection could be effective in controlling pain for patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

2013-03-01

227

The Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Steroid Injection for Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison between the Extra-Articular and Intra-Articular Approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the effectiveness of pain control using ultrasound-guided steroid injection by the extra-articular and intra-articular approaches to femoroacetabular impingement patients. From September through December 2010, 18 patients with clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided steroid and local anesthetics injection: a total of 20 cases, including 16 cases of ipsilateral and 2 cases of bilateral injection. Extra-articular or intra-articular approach was selected for each patient, randomly and alternately. Nine cases were performed by extra-articular approach and 11 cases were performed by intra-articular approach. Every patient was observed in the outpatient clinic and visual analogue scale (VAS) was taken and compared before and after the procedure in all patients. Pre-injection average VAS value of extra-articular approached cases was 5.22 {+-} 1.99 and post-injection average VAS value was 4.11 {+-} 1.96, which is statistically insignificant (p < 0.156). The average VAS value of intra-articular approached cases was decreased from 5.72 {+-} 2.15 to 2.91 {+-} 2.30 after injection, which is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Ultrasound guided intra-articular approached steroid and local anesthetics injection could be effective in controlling pain for patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

Jeon, Chang Ho; Lee, Joon Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-15

228

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass, and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton, que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis.

Luciano A. Pimentel

2010-05-01

229

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep / Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS) é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 7 [...] 0 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton), que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis. Abstract in english Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the [...] state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass), and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.

Pimentel, Luciano A.; Oliveira, Diego M.; Galiza, Glauco J.N.; Dantas, Antônio F.M.; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin.

230

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

2002-09-01

231

Defect Branes  

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We discuss some general properties of "defect branes", i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 2 < D < 11 as well as their higher-dimensionalstring and M-theory origin as branes and a set of "generalized" Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed...

Bergshoeff, E.; Ortin, T.; Riccioni, F.

2011-01-01

232

Fatty lesions in intra-articular loose bodies: a histopathological study of non-primary synovial chondromatosis cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intra-articular loose bodies (ILBs) are not uncommon conditions in patients with various joint diseases. Their morphological alterations have been investigated in detail, but little attention has been paid to their fatty lesions. In this study, we examined fatty bone marrow, fat cells without bone marrow structures (extramedullary fat cells), and their necrotic changes in 55 ILBs surgically removed from 42 patients, excluding primary synovial chondromatosis cases. The presence of viable re-vascularized vessels with or without enchondral ossification could discriminate 19 re-attached ILBs from 36 true free ILBs. Fatty bone marrow was found in 25 ILBs, and its necrosis was recognized in 11 (44.0%) of them. Extramedullary fat cells, characterized by single or clustered fat cells focally or multifocally distributed in fibrous or cartilaginous stroma, were identified in seven true free ILBs (7of 55, 12.7%), and all of them were focally necrotic. Unique lipomembranous changes were detected in 7 (12.7%) of 55 ILBs; they were found in 4 (36.4%) of 11 ILBs of necrotic bone marrow and were associated with 3 (42.9%) of 7 necrotic extramedullary fatty lesions. These changes were highlighted by periodic-acid Schiff and Masson's trichrome stain more clearly. We concluded that extramedullary fat cells represent lipometaplasia in ILBs with no blood supply. We considered that lipomembranous changes in ILBs can be a useful hallmark for necrotic bone marrow or necrosis of extramedullary lipometaplastic lesions. PMID:22095290

Matsukuma, Susumu; Takeo, Hiroaki; Okada, Kenji; Sato, Kimiya

2012-01-01

233

Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS  

CERN Document Server

VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

2007-01-01

234

Análise da sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular Analysis of symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo analisando a sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular. A queixa mais citada foi de dor na região pré-auricular (40,7%. Sintomatologia dolorosa articular (63,2% e ruídos articulares (83,3% foram os achados mais comuns ao exame clínico. Os ruídos articulares mais freqüentes foram os estalos (66,6%. Dor muscular ocorreu, em especial, nos músculos pterigóideo medial e lateral e na inserção do temporal. Houve decréscimo na amplitude para a protrusão dentre os movimentos mandibulares máximosThe study analyzed the symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The most frequent complaint was pain in the preauricular region (40.7%. Articular pain (63.2% and articular sounds (83.3% were the most common findings during clinical examination. Muscular pain occurred particularly in the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles and at the insertion of the temporalis muscle. The most frequent articular sound was clicking (66.6%. There was a decrease in extent of protrusion among the mandibular border positions.

Sílvio Henrique de Paula DONEGÁ

1997-01-01

235

Three-dimensional scaffold-free fusion culture: the way to enhance chondrogenesis of in vitro propagated human articular chondrocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cartilage regeneration based on isolated and culture-expanded chondrocytes has been studied in various in vitro models, but the quality varies with respect to the morphology and the physiology of the synthesized tissues. The aim of our study was to promote in vitro chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes using a novel three-dimensional (3-D cultivation system in combination with the chondrogenic differentiation factors transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-b2 and L-ascorbic acid. Articular chondrocytes isolated from six elderly patients were expanded in monolayer culture. A single-cell suspension of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes was then added to agar-coated dishes without using any scaffold material, in the presence, or absence of TGF-b2 and/or L-ascorbic acid. Three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs, called single spheroids, and microtissues consisting of several spheroids fused together, named as fusions, were formed. Generated tissues were mainly characterized using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The morphology of the in vitro tissues shared some similarities to native hyaline cartilage in regard to differentiated S100-positive chondrocytes within a cartilaginous matrix, with strong collagen type II expression and increased synthesis of proteoglycans. Finally, our innovative scaffold-free fusion culture technique supported enhanced chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. These 3-D hyaline cartilage-like microtissues will be useful for in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation and regeneration, enabling optimization of functional tissue engineering and possibly contributing to the development of new approaches to treat traumatic cartilage defects or osteoarthritis.

U. Sack

2013-10-01

236

Cartilage defect regeneration by ex vivo engineered autologous microtissue--preliminary results.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analysed the improvement of cartilage defect regeneration by the use of microspheres of autologous chondrocytes. Autologous chondrocytes from minipigs were cultured using the microsphere technology. Cartilage defects were surgically introduced to tibia-femoral joints. Tissue constructs were then implanted into defect sites. Histological, immunohistological and transmission electron microscopic analyses were performed. Histological and ultrastructural investigations of chondrospheres revealed a cartilage-like tissue formation, indicated by phenotypically differentiated chondrocyte-like cells surrounded by de novo synthesised chondrogenic extracellular matrix. Clinical inspection of defects demonstrated nearly complete cartilage regeneration in the microtissue treated defect sites, whereas controls exhibited irregular fibrous tissue formation. In vitro-expanded articular chondrocytes are able to form a microtissue capable of repairing cartilage defects in vivo, improving regeneration of cartilage defects. PMID:22351666

Meyer, Ulrich; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Libera, Jeanette; Depprich, Rita; Naujoks, Christian; Handschel, Jörg

2012-01-01

237

Focal organizing pneumonia: CT and pathologic findings.  

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The purpose of this study was to describe the CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia and to compare the findings with pathology. CT findings of histologically proven focal organizing pneumonias in 26 consecutive patients were analyzed. In 17 patients who had undergone surgical resections, the findings were correlated with pathology. Focal organizing pneumonias appeared as a nodule (n= 13) or a mass (n=13), ranging from 9 mm to 66 mm in diameter. Ground-glass opacity was seen in 6/13 (46%) ...

Yang, P. S.; Lee, K. S.; Han, J.; Kim, E. A.; Kim, T. S.; Choo, I. W.

2001-01-01

238

[Nuclear medicine diagnosis of focal liver lesions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Confirmation and exclusion of benign focal liver lesions are the main object of liver studies in nuclear medicine. Hepatobiliary sequence scintigraphy (focal nodular hyperplasia, adenoma), blood pool scintigraphy (hemangioma) and, in some cases, colloid scintigraphy are the methods most frequently employed. Receptor scintigraphy with octreopeptides, immunoscintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies, PET and gamma camera scintigraphy with 18FDG, are used to solve special diagnostic problems, particularly in oncology. A stepwise diagnostic approach needs to be used for a successful classification of focal liver lesions and an extensive knowledge of indications for additional supplementary diagnostic procedures is required. PMID:8371998

Trampert, L; Benz, P; Ruth, T; Oberhausen, E

1993-08-01

239

Design, validation, and utilization of an articular cartilage impact instrument.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the development and use of an instrument mechanically to impact bovine articular cartilage and record the event using a piezoelectric accelerometer, as well as to carry out post-impact characterization of the tissue. Two levels of impact (low: 6 cm drop height, 18.4 N tup; high: 10 cm drop height, 27.8 N tup) were chosen such that the former did not show gross damage upon inspection, while the latter showed substantial gross damage. Peak stress, time to peak stress, and impact duration were taken from data recorded by the instrument. Three cartilage biomechanical properties (aggregate modulus, Poisson's ratio, and permeability) were acquired by creep indentation, and tissue morphology rated on a standardized scale was also determined. When subjected to the high level of impact, articular cartilage showed statistically significant (p damage. PMID:17236518

Scott, C C; Athanasiou, K A

2006-11-01

240

The in vitro effects of bupivacaine on articular chondrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the effects of bupivacaine on human and bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Time-lapse confocal microscopy of human articular chondrocytes showed > 95% cellular death after exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 minutes. Human and bovine chondrocytes exposed to 0.25% bupivacaine had a time-dependent reduction in viability, with longer exposure times resulting in higher cytotoxicity. Cellular death continued even after removal of 0.25% bupivacaine. After exposure to 0.25% bupivacaine for 15 minutes, flow cytometry showed bovine chondrocyte viability to be 41% of saline control after seven days. After exposure to 0.125% bupivacaine for up to 60 minutes, the viability of both bovine and human chondrocytes was similar to that of control groups. These data show that prolonged exposure 0.5% and 0.25% bupivacaine solutions are potentially chondrotoxic. PMID:18539679

Chu, C R; Izzo, N J; Coyle, C H; Papas, N E; Logar, A

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The articular surface plays an essential role in load transfer across the joint, and conditions that produce increased load transfer or altered patterns of load distribution accelerate the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Current knowledge segregates the risk factors into two fundamental mechanisms related to the adverse effects of "abnormal" loading on normal cartilage or "normal" loading on abnormal cartilage. Although chondrocytes can modulate their functional state in response to loading, their capacity to repair and modify the surrounding extracellular matrix is limited in comparison to skeletal cells in bone. This differential adaptive capacity underlies the more rapid appearance of detectable skeletal changes, especially after acute injuries that alter joint mechanics. The imbalance in the adaptation of the cartilage and bone disrupts the physiological relationship between these tissues and further contributes to OA pathology. This review focuses on the specific articular cartilage and skeletal features of OA and the putative mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis. PMID:20392241

Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R

2010-03-01

242

3D braid scaffolds for regeneration of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regenerating articular cartilage in vivo from cultured chondrocytes requires that the cells be cultured and implanted within a biocompatible, biodegradable scaffold. Such scaffolds must be mechanically stable; otherwise chondrocytes would not be supported and patients would experience severe pain. Here we report a new 3D braid scaffold that matches the anisotropic (gradient) mechanical properties of natural articular cartilage and is permissive to cell cultivation. To design an optimal structure, the scaffold unit cell was mathematically modeled and imported into finite element analysis. Based on this analysis, a 3D braid structure with gradient axial yarn distribution was designed and manufactured using a custom-built braiding machine. The mechanical properties of the 3D braid scaffold were evaluated and compared with simulated results, demonstrating that a multi-scale approach consisting of unit cell modeling and continuum analysis facilitates design of scaffolds that meet the requirements for mechanical compatibility with tissues. PMID:24556323

Ahn, Hyunchul; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Park, Sook Young; Huh, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

2014-06-01

243

Cross-relaxation imaging of human articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, cross-relaxation imaging is applied to human ex vivo knee cartilage, and correlations of the cross-relaxation imaging parameters with macromolecular content in articular cartilage are reported. We show that, unlike the more commonly used magnetization transfer ratio, the bound pool fraction, the cross-relaxation rate (k) and the longitudinal relaxation time (T(1)) vary with depth and can therefore provide insight into the differences between the top and bottom layers of articular cartilage. Our cross-relaxation imaging model is more sensitive to macromolecular content in the top layers of cartilage, with bound pool fraction showing moderate correlations with proteoglycan content, and k and T(1) exhibiting moderate correlations with collagen. PMID:21416504

Stikov, Nikola; Keenan, Kathryn E; Pauly, John M; Smith, R Lane; Dougherty, Robert F; Gold, Garry E

2011-09-01

244

Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center.

Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Hee Soo; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Yu, Jeong Sik; Yoon, Sang Wook [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-10-15

245

Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center

1995-10-01

246

Articular facets syndrome: diagnostic grading and treatment options  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Approximately 80% of the adult population suffers from chronic lumbar pain with episodes of acute back pain. The aetiology of this disorder can be very extensive: degenerative scoliosis, spondiloarthritis, disc hernia, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis and, in the most serious cases, neoplastic or infectious diseases. For several years, the attention of surgeons was focused on the articular facets syndrome (Lilius et al. in J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 71-B:681–684, 1998), characterised clinically...

Misaggi, B.; Gallazzi, M.; Colombo, M.; Ferraro, M.

2009-01-01

247

Clinical Outcome Scoring of Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures  

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Outcome reporting of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is inconsistent. This study aimed to identify the most cited outcome scores in the literature and to analyze their reliability and validity. A systematic literature search identified 34 different outcome scores. The most cited outcome score was the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score, followed by the Maryland Foot Score (MFS) and the Creighton-Nebraska score (CN). Reliability (internal consistency) and val...

Schepers, T.; Heetveld, M. J.; Mulder, P. G. H.; Patka, P.

2008-01-01

248

Subtalar versus triple arthrodesis after intra-articular calcaneal fractures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Depending upon initial treatment, between 2 and 30% of patients with a displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture require a secondary arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subtalar versus triple arthrodesis on functional outcome. A total of 33 patients with 37 secondary arthrodeses (17 subtalar and 20 triple) with a median follow-up of 116 months were asked to complete questionnaires regarding disease-specific functional outcome (Maryland Foot Score, MFS), qua...

Schepers, Tim; Kieboom, Brenda C. T.; Bessems, Gert H. J. M.; Vogels, Lucas M. M.; Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Patka, Peter

2010-01-01

249

Changes in Knee Kinematics Reflect the Articular Geometry after Arthroplasty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We hypothesized changes in rotations and translations after TKA with a fixed-bearing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-sacrificing but posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-retaining design with equal-sized, circular femoral condyles would reflect the changes of articular geometry. Using 8 cadaveric knees, we compared the kinematics of normal knees and TKA in a standardized navigated position with defined loads. The quadriceps was tensed and moments and drawer forces applied during knee flexion-ex...

Bull, Anthony M. J.; Kessler, Oliver; Alam, Mahbub; Amis, Andrew A.

2008-01-01

250

Tribological evaluation of hydrogels for artificial articular cartilage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural and biocompatible gel with unique properties, such as high water holding capacity, ultra-fine fibre network and high strength that make it an interesting material for biotribological purposes. In this work, unmodified BC pellicles were grown from Gluconacetobacter xylinus in order to be used as tribological samples against bovine articular cartilage (BAC) in the presence of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The tribological assessment was accomplished usin...

Lopes, J. L.; Machado, J. M.; Castanheira, L.; Granja, P. L.; Gama, F. M.; Dourado, Fernando; Gomes, J. R.

2012-01-01

251

The articular manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The articular manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) were studied in 38 patients. Of these, 66% experienced joint pain and 61% had signs of joint inflammation. Limitation of joint movement was seen in 45%. Radiological abnormalities included periarticular osteoporosis (42%), joint space narrowing (34%), and erosions (40%). Erosive disease did not correlate with disease duration, presence of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, distal tuft resorption, or the extent of the...

1982-01-01

252

A vision on the future of articular cartilage repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An AO Foundation (Davos, Switzerland sponsored workshop "Cell Therapy in Cartilage Repair" from the Symposium "Where Science meets Clinics" (September 5-7, 2013, Davos gathered leaders from medicine, science, industry, and regulatory organisations to debate the vision of cell therapy in articular cartilage repair and the measures that could be taken to narrow the gap between vision and current practice. Cell-based therapy is already in clinical use to enhance the repair of cartilage lesions, with procedures such as microfracture and articular chondrocyte implantation. However, even though long term follow up is good from a clinical perspective and some of the most rigorous randomised controlled trials in the regenerative medicine/orthopaedics field show beneficial effect, none of these options have proved successful in restoring the original articular cartilage structure and functionality in patients so far. With the remarkable recent advances in experimental research in cell biology (new sources for chondrocytes, stem cells, molecular biology (growth factors, genes, biomaterials, biomechanics, and translational science, a combined effort between scientists and clinicians with broad expertise may allow development of an improved cell therapy for cartilage repair. This position paper describes the current state of the art in the field to help define a procedure adapted to the clinical situation for upcoming translation in the patient.

M Cucchiarini

2014-05-01

253

Wear of articular cartilage: the effect of crystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation of the effect of crystals in a lubricant on the wear of articular cartilage in vitro was carried out in order to examine the hypothesis that crystals present in synovial fluid could cause abrasive damage of the articular surface. Plugs of cartilage were worn against a stainless steel counterface in a pin-on-disc wear rig. The concentration of cartilage debris present in the lubricant was assessed by measuring the bound sulphate originating from the glycosaminoglycans by ion chromatography. Results indicated that the presence of crystals in the lubricant significantly increased the concentration of wear debris and that the crystal size and morphology influenced the type of damage sustained by the cartilage. Other experimental evidence suggested that cartilage scratched in vivo was no more susceptible to further in vitro damage in this experimental model than normal cartilage. These results implied that crystals present in the synovial fluid of arthritic joints have the potential to cause excessive wear of the articular surface, but that if such crystals are removed the scratched cartilage may not be susceptible to any further damage by abrasive wear. PMID:8363697

Hayes, A; Harris, B; Dieppe, P A; Clift, S E

1993-01-01

254

Blurred Focal Elements Generalization of Dempster's Rule.  

Science.gov (United States)

When propositions are poorly specified it is uncertain if two propositions of different pieces of evidence are in logical conflict, i.e., it is uncertain whether the intersection between their corresponding focal elements is empty. To distinguish between ...

J. Schubert

1993-01-01

255

In-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of microcalorimeters and bolometers based on superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) with a manageable number of readout channels. Previous to this work, TES arrays were multiplexed by extracting leads from each pixel to multiplexer filter and switching elements outside of the focal plane. As the number of pixels is increased in a close-packed array, it becomes difficult to route the leads to the multiplexer. We report on the development of an in-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer to solve this problem. In this circuit, the filter and switching elements associated with each pixel fit within the pixel area so that signals are multiplexed before being extracted from the focal plane. This in-focal-plane architecture will first be used in the SCUBA-2 instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2006.

Irwin, Kent D. E-mail: irwin@boulder.nist.gov; Audley, Michael D.; Beall, James A.; Beyer, Joern; Deiker, Steve; Doriese, William; Duncan, William; Hilton, Gene C.; Holland, Wayne; Reintsema, Carl D.; Ullom, Joel N.; Vale, Leila R.; Xu Yizi

2004-03-11

256

Seismic Discriminant Based on Focal Mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the observation that a predominant focal mechanism exists for a given hypocentral region, a seismic discriminant based on body-wave magnitude has been developed. This discriminant enables one to identify earthquakes that do not fit mechanisms expect...

A. A. Syed C. Kisslinger O. W. Nuttli

1971-01-01

257

In-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of microcalorimeters and bolometers based on superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) with a manageable number of readout channels. Previous to this work, TES arrays were multiplexed by extracting leads from each pixel to multiplexer filter and switching elements outside of the focal plane. As the number of pixels is increased in a close-packed array, it becomes difficult to route the leads to the multiplexer. We report on the development of an in-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer to solve this problem. In this circuit, the filter and switching elements associated with each pixel fit within the pixel area so that signals are multiplexed before being extracted from the focal plane. This in-focal-plane architecture will first be used in the SCUBA-2 instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2006

2004-03-11

258

Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and 12 months after the procedure. High-resolution imaging was obtained with a surface phased array coil placed over the knee compartment of interest and adapted sequences were used on a 1 T MRI scanner. The analysis of the repair tissue included the definition and rating of nine pertinent variables: the degree of filling of the defect, the integration to the border zone, the description of the surface and structure, the signal intensity, the status of the subchondral lamina and subchondral bone, the appearance of adhesions and the presence of synovitis. High-resolution MRI, using a surface phased array coil and specific sequences, can be used on every standard 1 or 1.5 T MRI scanner according to the in-house standard protocols for knee imaging in patients who have had cartilage repair procedures without substantially prolonging the total imaging time. The new classification and grading system allows a subtle description and suitable assessment of the articular cartilage repair tissue.

Marlovits, Stefan E-mail: stefan.marlovits@akh-wien.ac.at; Striessnig, Gabriele; Resinger, Christoph T.; Aldrian, Silke M.; Vecsei, Vilmos; Imhof, Herwig; Trattnig, Siegfried

2004-12-01

259

Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and 12 months after the procedure. High-resolution imaging was obtained with a surface phased array coil placed over the knee compartment of interest and adapted sequences were used on a 1 T MRI scanner. The analysis of the repair tissue included the definition and rating of nine pertinent variables: the degree of filling of the defect, the integration to the border zone, the description of the surface and structure, the signal intensity, the status of the subchondral lamina and subchondral bone, the appearance of adhesions and the presence of synovitis. High-resolution MRI, using a surface phased array coil and specific sequences, can be used on every standard 1 or 1.5 T MRI scanner according to the in-house standard protocols for knee imaging in patients who have had cartilage repair procedures without substantially prolonging the total imaging time. The new classification and grading system allows a subtle description and suitable assessment of the articular cartilage repair tissue

2004-12-01

260

Elasticity of smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the elastic properties of thermotropic smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains (FCDs). After the application of the controlled preshear at different temperatures, we independently measure the shear modulus G' and the FCD size L. We find out that these quantities are related by the scaling relation G'{approx}{gamma}{sub eff}/L, where {gamma}{sub eff} is the effective surface tension of the FCDs. The experimentally obtained value of {gamma}{sub eff} shows the same scaling as the effective surface tension of the layered systems {radical}KB, where K and B are the bending modulus and the layer compression modulus, respectively. The similarity of this scaling relation to that of the surfactant onion phase suggests an universal rheological behavior of the layered systems with defects.

Fujii, S [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Komura, S [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ishii, Y [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Lu, C-Y D, E-mail: sfujii@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-06-15

 
 
 
 
261

Focal lesions in the central nervous system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

1980-11-01

262

Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient was believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy. (orig.)

1981-01-01

263

Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient were believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy.

Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Graviss, E.R.

1981-03-01

264

MODELADO MATEMÁTICO DEL COMPORTAMIENTO MECÁNICO DE UN FRAGMENTO DE CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR / MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF AN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE PIECE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cartílago articular es un material biológico poroelástico que permite la distribución de las cargas mecánicas y el movimiento de las articulaciones. Como material bifásico, en presencia de carga, el cartílago articular deforma su matriz sólida y modifica la presión hidrostática del fluido en su i [...] nterior. El objetivo del presente trabajo es implementar numéricamente un modelo matemático que predice el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular teniendo en cuenta la dualidad entre la matriz sólida y el líquido articular, y la característica de poroelasticidad. Utilizando una metodología basada en el método de los elementos finitos, se simuló el comportamiento de un fragmento de cartílago articular en una y dos dimensiones, ante cargas mecánicas de tensión, compresión y oscilación. El análisis de los resultados permite validar cualitativamente el comportamiento poroelástico del modelo debido a la deformación de la matriz sólida y a la salida de fluido que modifica la presión del mismo de manera similar a lo reportado en trabajos experimentales. Se concluye que el modelo matemático permite realizar predicciones sobre el comportamiento biomecánico del cartílago articular, contribuyendo al proceso investigativo en áreas como la biomecánica y la ingeniería de tejidos. Abstract in english The articular cartilage is a poroelastic biological material that allows the distribution of mechanical loads and the joint movements. As a biphasic material, in presence of load, the articular cartilage deforms its solid matrix and modifies the fluid hydrostatic pressure inside. The aim of this wor [...] k is to implement numerically a mathematical model that predicts the mechanical behaviour of articular cartilage taking into account the duality between the solid matrix and articular liquid, and its poroelastic feature. Using a finite element method approach , the response of a piece of articular cartilage in one and two dimensions has been simulated, with tensile, compresive and oscillative mechanical loads. The analysis of results allows a qualitatively validation of the poroelastic behavior of the model due to the solid matrix deformation and the fluid outflow that causes variations of pressures inside the articular cartilage according with reported trials. We conclude that the mathematical model allows the prediction of the articular cartilage biomechanical behaviour. Our results contribute to the investigative processes in fields of study like biomechanics and tissue engineering

NANCY STELLA, LANDÍNEZ; JUAN CARLOS, VANEGAS; DIEGO ALEXANDER, GARZÓN.

265

Magnesium whitlockite deposition in articular cartilage: a study of 80 specimens from 70 patients.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To examine articular cartilage from a number of joint sites, using a large sample group, for the presence of magnesium whitlockite crystal deposition. METHODS--Articular cartilage specimens were taken from a total of 70 patients. The majority of specimens were taken from femoral heads, with smaller numbers from femoral condyle, tibial plateau, radius, ulna, and several small peripheral joints. Normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage specimens were obtained from patients under...

1995-01-01

266

Intra-articular injections in the management of canine osteoarthritis – a review of the literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The amount of information available on the use of intra-articular medications in the management of canine osteoarthritis is scarce. The purpose of the review was to investigate whether the scientific evidence on the use of intra-articular medications in veterinary and human medicine is strong enough to justify their use in the management of canine osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most commonly used intra-articular medications both in human and veterinary medicine...

Piirainen, Kirsi

2013-01-01

267

Cryoscanning electron microscopy of loaded articular cartilage with special reference to the surface amorphous layer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The surface layer (i.e. the surface lamina) of articular cartilage, which is devoid of a collagen fibril network or cells, was investigated in the pig and human. It overlies the collagenous main part of the articular cartilage which contains chondrocytes and is thought to be important biomechanically. In order to examine morphological changes in this layer when under load, knee articular cartilage of the pig, along with the underlying subchondral bone, was compressed with a cylindrical indent...

Kobayashi, S.; Yonekubo, S.; Kurogouchi, Y.

1996-01-01

268

Bonding of articular cartilage using a combination of biochemical degradation and surface cross-linking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After trauma, articular cartilage often does not heal due to incomplete bonding of the fractured surfaces. In this study we investigated the ability of chemical cross-linkers to facilitate bonding of articular cartilage, either alone or in combination with a pre-treatment with surface-degrading agents. Articular cartilage blocks were harvested from the femoropatellar groove of bovine calves. Two cartilage blocks, either after pre-treatment or without, were assembled in a custom-designed chamb...

Englert, Carsten; Blunk, Torsten; Mu?ller, Rainer; Von Glasser, Sabine Schulze; Baumer, Julia; Fierlbeck, Johann; Heid, Iris M.; Nerlich, Michael; Hammer, Joachim

2007-01-01

269

Bonding of articular cartilage utilising a combination of biochemical degradation and surface cross-linking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After trauma, articular cartilage often does not heal due to incomplete bonding of the fractured surfaces. Within this study we investigated the ability of chem. cross-linkers to facilitate bonding of articular cartilage, either alone or in combination with a pre-treatment with surface-degrading agents. Articular cartilage blocks were harvested from the femoropatellar groove of bovine calves. Two cartilage blocks, either after pre-treatment or without, were assembled in a custom-designed c...

Englert, Carsten; Blunk, Torsten; Mu?ller, Rainer; Schulze, S.; Baumer, Julia; Fierlbeck, J.; Heid, I.; Nerlich, Michael; Hammer, J.

2007-01-01

270

Oral focal mucinosis: report of two cases = Mucinose oral focal: relato de dois casos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetivo: Mucinose oral focal (MOF), uma lesão equivalente à mucinose cutânea focal, é uma doença rara de etiologia desconhecida. Sua patogênese pode ser devido a superprodução de ácido hialurônico pelo fibroblasto às expensas de produção de colágeno, resultando em degeneração mixoide focal de tecido conjuntivo primariamente afetando a mucosa sobre o osso. Não tem características clínicas distintas e o diagnóstico é baseado somente em características histopatológicas. E...

Bs, Manjunatha Et Al

2010-01-01

271

Dynamic bone scans in osteo-articular pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-phase radionuclide bone scanning was performed in patients with algodystrophy or osteonecrosis. This method is used to improve the specificity of ordinary bone scan. It explores vascularization and blood pool, then bone uptake in two symmetrical articulations. Non-focal hyperaemia and late diffuse uptake are in favour of algodystrophy, whereas a distinct focal hypervascularization and late uptake predominant in the femoral condyle area seem to be in favour of pre-radiological osteonecrosis

1986-06-21

272

Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

Crandall, David Lynn (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-08-01

273

The regenerative effect of platelet-rich plasma on healing in large osteochondral defects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a platelet concentrate made of autogenous blood, has been used to improve bone and soft tissue defect healing in recent years. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PRP on articular cartilage defects in a rabbit model. Forty-eight osteochondral defects created in the femoropatellar groove were (a) left untreated, (b) treated with autogenous PRP in a poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA), or (c) with PLGA alone. Platelets were enriched 5.12-fold compared to n...

Sun, Y.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, C. Q.; Chen, S. B.; Cheng, X. G.

2010-01-01

274

Analgesic effect of intra-articular ketorolac in knee arthroscopy: comparison of morphine and bupivacaine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective study assessed the postoperative analgesic effect of intra-articular ketorolac, morphine, and bupivacaine during arthroscopic outpatient partial meniscectomy. Group 1 patients (n=20) received postoperative injection of 60 mg intra-articular ketorolac, group 2 patients (n=20) 10 cc intra-articular bupivacaine 0.25%, group 3 patients (n=20) 1 mg intra-articular morphine diluted in 10 cc saline, and group 4 patients (n=20, controls) only 10 cc saline. We evaluated the postoperative analgesic effect (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), the level of postoperative pain (by visual analog scale 1, 2, 3, 12, and 24 h after surgery), and the need for additional pain medication (during the first 24 h after surgery). The best analgesic effect was in patients treated with intra-articular ketorolac, and this was statistically significant in: postoperative analgesic effect and the need for additional pain medication immediately after surgery, and after 24 h. No complications were found related to the intra-articular treatment. We conclude that 60 mg intra-articular ketorolac provides better analgesic effect than 10 cc intra-articular bupivacaine 0.25% or 1 mg intra-articular morphine. PMID:15197428

Calmet, J; Esteve, C; Boada, S; Giné, J

2004-11-01

275

Ventricular septal defect  

Science.gov (United States)

VSD; Interventricular septal defect ... known as a ventricular septal defect, or a VSD. Ventricular septal defect is one of the most ... lungs, leading to heart failure. The cause of VSD is not yet known. This defect often occurs ...

276

Facts about Birth Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

... 6348 Contact CDC-INFO Birth Defects Homepage Facts Diagnosis Preventing Birth Defects Specific Birth Defects Anotia/Microtia Anencephaly Atrial Septal Defect Cleft Lip/Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Encephalocele Gastroschisis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypospadias Omphalocele ...

277

Birth Defects Diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... 6348 Contact CDC-INFO Birth Defects Homepage Facts Diagnosis Preventing Birth Defects Specific Birth Defects Anotia/Microtia Anencephaly Atrial Septal Defect Cleft Lip/Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Encephalocele Gastroschisis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypospadias Omphalocele ...

278

I Focalize, You Focalize, We All Focalize Together: Audience Participation in Persepolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract (E: This article combines theories of cognition and empathy with focalization theory to examine how and why different forms of audience engagement in fictional worlds are cued. The article argues that critics should examine the differences between engagement that encourages audiences to apply their own frames to the world presented and type engagement cued by means of point-of-view shots and close-ups of facial expressions.

Abstract (F: Cet article combine les théories de la cognition et de l’empathie avec la théorie de la focalisation afin d’analyser comment et pourquoi certaines œuvres construisent la manière dont le public est invité à s’investir dans des mondes fictionnels. Il défend l’idée que les critiques devraient examiner avant tout les différences entre un type d’investissement qui encourage les publics à appliquer leurs propres schémas de référence au monde de la fiction et un type d’investissement qui passe surtout par des techniques de point de vue et de plans rapprochés d’expressions faciles.

Lizzie Nixon

2010-06-01

279

Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The ?2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

2012-11-01

280

A Case of Linear Focal Elastosis with a Family History  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Linear focal elastosis is an uncommon disorder typically occurring in the back region, which clinically presents as band-like striae, having a histological focal increase in abnormal elastic fibers. Until now, linear focal elastosis occurring in patients with a family history have been rarely reported. Here, we present one such case, of linear focal elastosis which occurred in a brother and sister.

Seo, Jong Keun; Chun, Ji Sung; Jung, So Young; Hwang, Seon Wook; Sung, Ho Suck; Lee, Deborah

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Relation between shape of the articular eminence and disc displacement in the temporomandibular joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the hypothesis that the morphology of the articular eminence of the temporomandibular joint is a predisposing factor for disc displacement. MR images of 126 temporomandibular joints in 94 patients were analyzed to assess for morphology of the articular eminence and disc displacement. The displaced disc was further categorized as disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) and disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). The morphology of the articular eminence was classified into four types; box, sigmoid, flattened, and deformed. The relationship between the four types of shape of the articular eminence and the two types of disc position was assessed. In the DDWR and DDWOR groups, the morphology of articular eminence were a box type in 40.5%, a sigmoid type in 30.2%, a flattened type in 24.6%, and a deformed type in 4.7%. The box type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 42.9% in the DDWOR group. The sigmoid type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 28.6% in the DDWOR group. The flattened type of the articular eminence were 28.6% in the DDWR group and 23.1% in the DDWOR group. The deformed type of the articular eminence were 2.9% in the DDWR group and 5.5% in the DDWOR group. Disc displacement in more likely to be found in the temporomandibular joints with a box-shaped articular eminence. It can be considered that shape of the articular eminence is related to the development of disc displacement

2001-09-01

282

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

2003-12-01

283

ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

Matsumoto, Emi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

2012-03-30

284

Patterns of radiocarpal joint articular cartilage wear in cadavers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radiocarpal joint transmits about 80% of the compression forces crossing the wrist. However, primary osteoarthritis of this joint is surprisingly uncommon, suggesting that articular cartilage wear is not sufficient to produce arthritic symptoms. By examining the distal radius, scaphoid, and lunate in aged cadavers, wear patterns were charted and measured, allowing assessment of radiocarpal joint wear and mechanics. Bilateral radiocarpal joints of 16 females and 14 males (age 77.7 ± 14.4, N = 30) were exposed and measurements of the wear recorded microscopically. Wear locations were mapped, and X-Y loci and wear areas calculated. Gender right and sides compared. Over 95% of distal radius wear showed distinct radial-scaphoid and radial-lunate wear areas. These bilateral areas were in the palmar half of the distal radius. One main central wear area was seen in 95% of the scaphoid, and 97% of the lunate articular surfaces that were examined. Articular wear showed a circular pattern and was minimal in 95.7% of the surfaces, and the lunate showed the largest wear area. Wear patterns in males and females support the literature that for most ADLs the wrist is in slight extension and ulnar deviation. There are gender differences, but wear areas between sides were similar. Female wear indicates their wrist is positioned more often in a more extended and ulnarly deviated position than males. The wear patterns suggest rotational movements of the scaphoid and lunate during wrist motion and that the wrist is most often used in neutral flexion/extension to slight extension. PMID:22095798

Gorniak, Gerard C; Conrad, Will; Conrad, Erin; Decker, Bonnie

2012-05-01

285

Production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by human articular chondrocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a natural IL-1 inhibitor possessing anti-inflammatory properties. IL-1Ra is produced as different isoforms, one secreted (sIL-1Ra) and three intracellular (icIL-1Ra1, icIL-1Ra2 and icIL-1Ra3), derived from the same gene. We examined the production of IL-1Ra species by cultured human articular chondrocytes in response to various cytokines. The levels of IL-1Ra were undetectable in culture supernatants of untreated cells, but were significantly incr...

Palmer, Gaby; Guerne, Pierre-andre; Mezin, Francoise; Maret, Michel; Guicheux, Jerome; Goldring, Mary B.; Gabay, Cem

2002-01-01

286

Production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by human articular chondrocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a natural IL-1 inhibitor possessing anti-inflammatory properties. IL-1Ra is produced as different isoforms, one secreted (sIL-1Ra) and three intracellular (icIL-1Ra1, icIL-1Ra2 and icIL-1Ra3), derived from the same gene. We examined the production of IL-1Ra species by cultured human articular chondrocytes in response to various cytokines. The levels of IL-1Ra were undetectable in culture supernatants of untreated cells, but were significantly incr...

Palmer, Gaby; Guerne, Pierre-andre?; Mezin, Franc?oise; Maret, Michel; Guicheux, Je?ro?me; Goldring, Mary; Gabay, Cem

2002-01-01

287

Osteochondritis dissecans of the subtalar articular facet: an unusual diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteochondritis dissecans of the talus is classically characterized by an abnormality of the articular cartilage of the talar dome. We report a rare case of a lesion of the subtalar facet in a 10-year-old boy. The lesion was responsible for a painful ankle with secondary instability. The diagnosis was made using plain radiographs and CT, which showed a well-circumscribed osteochondral fragment demarcated from the adjacent bone by a radiolucent line. The clinical outcome was favourable after a 6-week period with a non-weight-bearing short-leg cast. (orig.)

Madi, Faouzi; Vialle, Raphael; Mary, Pierre; Damsin, Jean-Paul; Filipe, Georges [Armand Trousseau Hospital, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Paris Cedex 12 (France); Ducou le Pointe, Hubert [Armand Trousseau Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

2005-08-01

288

The long-term effects of articular impaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultimately, the long-term effects of articular impact injury remain unknown. Impact injury has long been considered an explanation for posttraumatic arthritis. It is an attractive hypothesis because often it is the only explanation we can put forth for why arthritis develops in an injured joint. There has been recent interest in the role of chondrocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Chondrocyte apoptosis has also been observed with cartilage impact injury and may provide an explanation for how impact injury leads to osteoarthrosis. This paper reviews impact injury and its association with apoptosis as a potential etiology for posttraumatic arthritis. PMID:15232424

Vrahas, Mark S; Mithoefer, Kai; Joseph, David

2004-06-01

289

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage has recently been recognized as a tool for the characterization of cartilage morphology, biochemistry and function. In this paper advancements in cartilage imaging, computation of cartilage volume and thickness, and measurement of relaxation times (T2 and T1? are presented. In addition, the delayed uptake of Gadolinium DTPA as a marker of proteoglycan depletion is also reviewed. The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using these imaging techniques show promise for cartilage assessment and for the study of osteoarthritis.

G Blumenkrantz

2007-05-01

290

Do gold rings protect against articular erosion in rheumatoid arthritis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—To examine the hypothesis that gold rings might delay articular erosion at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the left ring finger in ring wearers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).?METHODS—Consecutive patients with RA were recruited. They were classified as ring wearers if they had worn a gold ring on the left ring finger throughout most of the time since disease onset, or as non-ring wearers if they had never worn a gold ring. Standard hand radiographs (with rings remov...

1997-01-01

291

Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

292

Focal Loci of Algebraic Varieties, 1  

CERN Multimedia

The focal locus $\\Sigma_X$ of an affine variety $X$ is roughly speaking the (projective) closure of the set of points $O$ for which there is a smooth point $x \\in X$ and a circle with centre $O$ passing through $x$ which osculates $X$ in $x$. Algebraic geometry interprets the focal locus as the branching locus of the endpoint map $\\epsilon$ between the Euclidean normal bundle $N_X$ and the projective ambient space ($\\epsilon$ sends the normal vector $O-x$ to its endpoint $O$), and in this paper we address two general problems : 1) Characterize the "degenerate" case where the focal locus is not a hypersurface 2) Calculate, in the case where $\\Sigma_X$ is a hypersurface, its degree (with multiplicity)

Catanese, F M E; Catanese, Fabrizio; Trifogli, Cecilia

2000-01-01

293

Intra-articular and Peri-articular Tumours and Tumour Mimics- What a Clinician and Onco-imaging Radiologist Should Know  

Science.gov (United States)

Definitive determination of the cause of articular swelling may be difficult based on just the clinical symptoms, physical examinations and laboratory tests. Joint disorders fall under the realms of rheumatology and general orthopaedics; however, patients with joint conditions manifesting primarily as intra-articular and peri-articular soft tissue swelling may at times be referred to an orthopaedic oncology department with suspicion of a tumour. In such a situation, an onco-radiologist needs to think beyond the usual neoplastic lesions and consider the diagnoses of various non-neoplastic arthritic conditions that may be clinically masquerading as masses. Differential diagnoses of articular lesions include infectious and non-infectious synovial proliferative processes, degenerative lesions, deposition diseases, vascular malformations, benign and malignant neoplasms and additional miscellaneous conditions. Many of these diseases have specific imaging findings. Knowledge of these radiological characteristics in an appropriate clinical context will allow for a more confident diagnosis.

DHANDA, Sunita; QUEK, Swee Tian; BATHLA, Girish; JAGMOHAN, Pooja

2014-01-01

294

Focal foveal atrophy of unknown etiology: Clinical pictures and possible underlying causes.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Focal foveal atrophy is defined as the presence of a small, focal, ill-defined, hypopigmented foveal or juxtafoveal lesion, with the remaining retina unaffected. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with focal foveal atrophy of unknown etiology. METHODS: The study was a retrospective observational case series. Data collected included complete ocular examination results for best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, color sense discrimination tests, visual field tests, and OCT examinations. RESULTS: Twenty-three eyes in 21 patients were examined. The mean patient age was 49.2 ± 15.4 years. The mean BCVA was 20/25. The 21 patients were divided into three groups according to OCT results. Group 1 eyes (n = 10) had intact inner and outer hyperreflective layers (HRLs), with the signal of the inner HRL corresponding to the junction between the inner and outer photoreceptor segments and the outer HRL corresponding to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Group 2 eyes (n = 9) had small hyporeflective defects with defects in the inner HRL at the fovea but an intact outer HRL. Group 3 eyes (n = 4) had small hyporeflective defects in both the inner and outer HRLs at the fovea. Groups 3 eyes had significantly lower visual acuity compared to Group 1 eyes and Group 2 eyes. There was no significant difference in visual acuity between Group 1 and Group 2 eyes. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to color vision or foveal thickness. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of clinical presentations for patients with focal foveal atrophy of unknown etiology. OCT aided in the diagnosis and assessment of the degree of retinal structural abnormalities, but the real etiology of foveal atrophy remains unclear. PMID:23602019

Kao, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Muh-Shy; Jou, Jieh-Ren; Lin, Chang-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-Hsun; Ho, Tzyy-Chang

2013-04-17

295

Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

2014-01-01

296

Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

1991-01-01

297

Staring focal plane array system modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

The problems are analyzed of modeling staring focal plane array systems. Two problem areas are highlighted; the difficulty in modeling the operator interface and the inadequate characterization of focal plane array noise sources. The effects of aliasing, response nonuniformity, and the 2-D nature of the spatial and temporal noise require more sophisticated handling than found in present models. Three staring array models were used to predict the Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) for three Platinum Silicide staring array cameras. The predictions were then compared, analyzed, and suggestions for model improvement were made.

Murphy, John G.

1989-12-01

298

Focal plane counter with induction readout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two kinds of position sensitive gas proportional counters were constructed as focal plane detectors for a spectrograph with a long focal line. One is the induction wire gas proportional counter and the other is a two dimensional version of the same principle. In these two counters position information is obtained by the charge division method using induced signals on resistive electrodes placed near anodes. The usual deterioration of resolution for the lightly ionizing particles of non-normal incidence is minimized by using a multi-anode design. The 'induction readout' makes it possible to realize fast rise time of position pulses even for a long counter of multi-anode design. (orig.)

1982-05-01

299

Comparison of efficacy of intra-articular morphine and steroid in patients with knee osteoarthritis  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Primary therapeutic aim in treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee is to relieve the pain of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intra-articular triamcinolone with intra-articular morphine in pain relief due to osteoarthritis of the knee in the elderly population. Materials and Methods: Patients between 50 and 80 years of age were randomized into three groups. Group M received morphine plus bupivacaine intra-articularly, Group T received triamcinolone plus bupivacaine intra-articularly, and Group C received saline plus bupivacaine intra-articularly. Patients were evaluated before injection and in 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 12th weeks after injection. First-line supplementary analgesic was oral paracetamol 1500 mg/day. If analgesia was insufficient with paracetamol, oral dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg/day was recommended to patients. Results: After the intra-articular injection, there was statistically significant decrease in visual analog scale (VAS) scores in Groups M and T, when compared to Group C. The decrease of VAS scores seen at the first 2 weeks continued steadily up to the end of 12th week. There was a significant decrease in Groups M and T in the WOMAC scores, when compared to Group C. There was no significant difference in the WOMAC scores between morphine and steroid groups. Significantly less supplementary analgesics was used in the morphine and steroid groups. Conclusion: Intra-articular morphine was as effective as intra-articular triamcinolone for analgesia in patients with osteoarthritis knee. Intra-articular morphine is possibly a better option than intra-articular steroid as it has lesser side effects.

Beyaz, Serbulent Gokhan

2012-01-01

300

Combinatorial scaffold morphologies for zonal articular cartilage engineering?  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine strategies as cartilage function stems from a complex depth-dependent organization. Tissue engineering scaffolds that vary in morphology and function offer a template for zone-specific cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical properties. We fabricated multi-zone cartilage scaffolds by the electrostatic deposition of polymer microfibres onto particulate-templated scaffolds produced with 0.03 or 1.0 mm3 porogens. The scaffolds allowed ample space for chondrocyte ECM production within the bulk while also mimicking the structural organization and functional interface of cartilage’s superficial zone. Addition of aligned fibre membranes enhanced the mechanical and surface properties of particulate-templated scaffolds. Zonal analysis of scaffolds demonstrated region-specific variations in chondrocyte number, sulfated GAG-rich ECM, and chondrocytic gene expression. Specifically, smaller porogens (0.03 mm3) yielded significantly higher sGAG accumulation and aggrecan gene expression. Our results demonstrate that bilayered scaffolds mimic some key structural characteristics of native cartilage, support in vitro cartilage formation, and have superior features to homogeneous particulate-templated scaffolds. We propose that these scaffolds offer promise for regenerative medicine strategies to repair articular cartilage lesions.

Steele, J.A.M.; McCullen, S.D.; Callanan, A.; Autefage, H.; Accardi, M.A.; Dini, D.; Stevens, M.M.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Expression of Angiotensin II Receptor-1 in Human Articular Chondrocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Besides its involvement in the cardiovascular system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAS) system has also been suggested to play an important role in inflammation. To explore the role of this system in cartilage damage in arthritis, we investigated the expression of angiotensin II receptors in chondrocytes. Methods. Articular cartilage was obtained from patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and traumatic fractures who were undergoing arthroplasty. Chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro with or without interleukin (IL-1). The expression of angiotensin II receptor types 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R) mRNA by the chondrocytes was analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AT1R expression in cartilage tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The effect of IL-1 on AT1R/AT2R expression in the chondrocytes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and flow cytometry. Results. Chondrocytes from all patient types expressed AT1R/AT2R mRNA, though considerable variation was found between samples. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed AT1R expression at the protein level. Stimulation with IL-1 enhanced the expression of AT1R/AT2R mRNA in OA and RA chondrocytes. Conclusions. Human articular chondrocytes, at least partially, express angiotensin II receptors, and IL-1 stimulation induced AT1R/AT2R mRNA expression significantly.

Kawakami, Yuki; Matsuo, Kosuke; Murata, Minako; Yudoh, Kazuo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Beppu, Moroe; Inaba, Yutaka; Saito, Tomoyuki; Kato, Tomohiro; Masuko, Kayo

2012-01-01

302

Effects of freezing on the mechanical properties of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventing cartilage injury is important in minimizing the long term debilitating effects of osteoarthritis. Accurate subfracture injury prediction must take into account the possible effects that freeze thaw cycles may have on the mechanical properties of cartilage tissue. This paper addresses this concern with matched pair testing of various low temperature storage techniques against fresh control groups. Ten matched pairs of bovine knees were used for testing, five pairs for a -20 degrees C slow freeze cycle and five pairs for a -80 degres C flash freeze cycle. Controlled mechanical indention tests were performed on the bovine articular cartilage-on-bone specimens to compare stiffness, peak stress, and loading energy of the cartilage. Findings showed that a slow freeze cycle or flash freeze cycle caused cartilage stiffness to decrease by 37% and 31% respectively, which was statistically significant in both cases (pfreezing process (p=0.03). A similar trend was observed with compressive stress in the flash freeze specimens, although the 37% decrease was not found to be statistically significant (p=0.08). These results may be indicative of a weakened extracellular matrix structure caused by the freeze-thaw process. It is still unclear whether these changes in mechanical properties will result in a change in injury susceptibility for articular cartilage. PMID:17487105

Kennedy, Eric A; Tordonado, David S; Duma, Stefan M

2007-01-01

303

Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido [...] a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson) e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados. Abstract in english In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the [...] tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.

Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah; Sansalone, Vittorio.

304

Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.

Thibault Lemaire

2010-03-01

305

Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net /sup 35/SO/sub 4/-labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage.

Myers, S.L.; Slowman, S.D.; Brandt, K.D.

1989-07-01

306

Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net 35SO4-labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage

1989-01-01

307

Case report 333: Osteochondral fracture of the right patella without an osteochondral defect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summary, a case is presented of a 14-year-old male who presented with pain in the right knee with a history which suggested the possibility that an injury of the knee had occurred during a summer in camp. Radiological studies showed a large defect in the articular surface of the right patella, but no loose body could be identified. (orig./WU)

1985-01-01

308

Considerations for patient selection for focal therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal therapy for prostate cancer is a nascent and emerging field. As such, the patient selection criteria for this new treatment paradigm are evolving in parallel to both the technology on which this approach depends and to our unfolding understanding of the natural history of prostate cancer. Until, and while, prospective trials of focal therapy are being reported, patient selection criteria will be flexible and very dependent on the therapeutic goals. We must carefully define the therapeutic intentions of focal therapy before engaging in the actual process of determining optimal patient selection. The therapeutic intent will define the most appropriate candidate for such therapy. Patient selection encompasses multiple complex issues including the type of prostate biopsy (12 core transrectal versus mapping transperineal) to the type of imaging (multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging or enhanced ultrasound) to the specific anatomical location of the disease within the prostate (apex, mid-prostate, base) and a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s overall health and life expectancy. It is not as simple as saying a patient with a certain grade or a certain number of cores is or is not appropriate for focal therapy. There are many more considerations for a reasonable and thoughtful approach to this new treatment.

Pisters, Louis L.

2013-01-01

309

Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. It is well known that III-V compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP, etc. are easy to grow and process into devices. In addition, III-V compound semiconductors are available in large diameter wafers, up to 8-inches. Thus, III-V compound semiconductor based infrared focal plane technologies such as QWIP, InSb, and strain layer superlattices (SLS) are potential candidates for the development of large format focal planes such as 4096x4096 pixels and larger. In this paper, we will discuss the possibility of extending the infrared detector array size up to 16 megapixels.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

2007-05-01

310

Towards dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 × 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE?T, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 × 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

2007-04-01

311

Dilatancy and the Seismic Focal Mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent paper (Reviews of Geophysics 3:1965) F. C. Frank suggested that the seismic focal stress drop might be the consequence of a mechanical instability of deformation due to dilatancy of the crust and matle. A more complete calculation shows that t...

E. Orowan

1966-01-01

312

Intense FDG activity in focal hepatic steatosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 38-year-old woman underwent PET/CT to evaluate possible hepatic malignancy. The images revealed intense FDG activity in several hypodense regions in the liver, most prominent in the lateral segment of the left lobe. The pathological examination showed that the patient had focal hepatic steatosis. PMID:24873789

Le, Yali; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Cai, Liang; Zhang, Li

2014-07-01

313

Florid periosteal reaction and focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FFCD) is a rare condition causing tibia vara in childhood. It is characterized by progressive tibia vara in young children with a characteristic radiographic lesion. This paper is thought to be the first to describe FFCD exhibiting florid periosteal reaction at the time of presentation with a subtle faint osteolytic lesion in the diametaphysis of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

1998-11-01

314

Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

2000-11-01

315

Focal myasthenia gravis in a dog.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 10-month-old American cocker spaniel was evaluated for megaesophagus, aspiration pneumonia, but no appendicular muscle weakness. During hospitalization, weakness of the facial muscles developed, this resolved with anticholinesterase administration. Serum antibodies against acetylcholine receptors were documented, confirming the diagnosis of focal myasthenia gravis. Diagnosis, management, and medical treatment are discussed.

Webb, A. A.; Taylor, S. M.; Mcphee, L.

1997-01-01

316

Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata / Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observar [...] on facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función. Abstract in english This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wea [...] r facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

José Miguel, Montero Parrilla; Zuilén, Jiménez Quintana.

317

Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism  

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Full Text Available Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observaron facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función.This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wear facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

José Miguel Montero Parrilla

2011-09-01

318

The promotion of osteochondral repair by combined intra-articular injection of parathyroid hormone-related protein and implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold.  

Science.gov (United States)

The repair of osteochondral defects can be enhanced with scaffolds but is often accompanied with undesirable terminal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been shown to inhibit aberrant differentiation, but administration at inappropriate time points would have adverse effects on chondrogenesis. This study aims to develop an effective tissue engineering strategy by combining PTHrP and collagen-silk scaffold for osteochondral defect repair. The underlying mechanisms of the synergistic effect of combining PTHrP administration with collagen-silk scaffold implantation for rabbit knee joint osteochondral defect repair were investigated. In vitro studies showed that PTHrP treatment significantly reduced Alizarin Red staining and expression of terminal differentiation-related markers. This is achieved in part through blocking activation of the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. For the in vivo repair study, intra-articular injection of PTHrP was carried out at three different time windows (4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 weeks) together with implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold. Defects treated with PTHrP at the 4-6 weeks time window exhibited better regeneration (reconstitution of cartilage and subchondral bone) with minimal terminal differentiation (hypertrophy, ossification and matrix degradation), as well as enhanced chondrogenesis (cell shape, Col2 and GAG accumulation) compared with treatment at other time windows. Furthermore, the timing of PTHrP administration also influenced PTHrP receptor expression, thus affecting the treatment outcome. Our results demonstrated that intra-articular injection of PTHrP at 4-6 weeks post-injury together with collagen-silk scaffold implantation is an effective strategy for inhibiting terminal differentiation and enhancing chondrogenesis, thus improving cartilage repair and regeneration in a rabbit model. PMID:23702148

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jialin; Tao, Jiadong; Hu, Changchang; Chen, Longkun; Zhao, Hongshi; Xu, Guowei; Heng, Boon C; Ouyang, Hong Wei

2013-08-01

319

Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

Kurokawa Takayuki

2011-09-01

320

Lavado articular por punción en pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla / Articular washout by puncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la osteoartritis de la rodilla constituye una de las causas más frecuente de dolor de esta articulación, en la actualidad para su alivio uno de los métodos empleados es el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de [...] esta modalidad de tratamiento para el alivio del dolor y la disminución en el consumo de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 75 pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla y tratados mediante lavado articular por punción más el uso de esteroides intra-articulares en el Centro Médico de Diagnóstico Integral, Caracas, República Bolivariana de Venezuela desde diciembre de 2008 hasta mayo 2009.El universo de estudio coincidió con la muestra Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino en más del 60% de los pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 56,9 años. El 48% de los enfermos mantuvo alivio del dolor a los tres meses de realizado el proceder. El uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo disminuyó considerablemente después de realizado el proceder. Un 17,3% de los pacientes requirió de un segundo lavado articular especialmente a partir del primer mes de haber hecho el primer lavado. El 76% de los enfermos a los tres meses se mantuvieron con resultados de excelente o bueno. Los factores de mal pronóstico que más influyeron en el resultado fueron el dolor al reposo, largo periodo de evolución de los síntomas y cambios radiográficos marcados. Conclusiones: el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares es un método útil en el alivio del dolor en la mayoría de los enfermos con Osteoartritis de la Rodilla hasta los tres meses de realizado, además de disminuir de forma significativa el uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Abstract in english Background:osteoarthritis of the knee constitutes one of the most frequent causes of pain of this joint, nowadays for its relief, one of the used methods is the articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of this treatmen [...] t modality for pain relief and the decrease of non-steroid anti-inflammatory consumption. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 75 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and treated them by means of articular washout by puncture, besides the use of intra-articular steroids in the Integral Diagnostic Medical Center from Caracas, Venezuela from December 2008 to May 2009; the universe coincided with the sample. Results: the female sex in more than 60% of patients prevailed. The mean age was about 56,9 years. The 48% of sick persons kept relief of pain to the three months of carrying out proceeding. The use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories diminished considerably after proceeding. The 17,3% of patients required a second articular washout especially starting from the first month of the first washout. The 76% of sick persons to the three months stayed with excellent or good results. Factors of bad prognostic that most influenced in the result was the pain to the rest, long period of evolution of the symptoms and marked radiographic changes. Conclusions: articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids is a useful method of pain relief in the majority of sick persons with osteoarthritis of the knee until the three months of carrying out the procedure, besides diminishing in a significant way the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories.

Álvarez López, Alejandro; García Lorenzo, Yenima; García Lorenzo, Maruldis.

 
 
 
 
321

O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125; em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313. CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental.OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp. METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp and the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125, and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313. CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

Márcio de Oliveira Carneiro

2013-04-01

322

O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas / Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados [...] vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125); em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313). CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp). METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp a [...] nd the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125), and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313). CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

Carneiro, Márcio de Oliveira; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; Barbieri Neto, José.

323

Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage  

Science.gov (United States)

The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n = 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r = -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally degraded articular cartilage in vitro. As high resolution imaging of e.g. the knee joint is possible with pQCT, the present technique may be further developed for in vivo quantification of PG depletion in osteoarthritic cartilage. However, careful in vitro and in vivo characterization of diffusion mechanics and optimal contrast agent concentrations are needed before diagnostic applications are feasible.

Kallioniemi, A. S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammi, M. J.; Töyräs, J.

2007-02-01

324

Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally degraded articular cartilage in vitro. As high resolution imaging of e.g. the knee joint is possible with pQCT, the present technique may be further developed for in vivo quantification of PG depletion in osteoarthritic cartilage. However, careful in vitro and in vivo characterization of diffusion mechanics and optimal contrast agent concentrations are needed before diagnostic applications are feasible

2007-02-21

325

Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T{sub 1,Gd} and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally degraded articular cartilage in vitro. As high resolution imaging of e.g. the knee joint is possible with pQCT, the present technique may be further developed for in vivo quantification of PG depletion in osteoarthritic cartilage. However, careful in vitro and in vivo characterization of diffusion mechanics and optimal contrast agent concentrations are needed before diagnostic applications are feasible.

Kallioniemi, A S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jurvelin, J S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nieminen, M T [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, POB 50, 90029 OYS, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Lammi, M J [Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, J [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

2007-02-21

326

Focal Length Measurements for the National Ignition Facility Large Lenses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focal length of the spatial filter and final focus lenses for the National Ignition Facility are measured to < {+-} 0.01% using a combination of master lenses and production-oriented techniques for relative focal length.

Parham, T G; McCarville, T J; Johnson, M A; Kiikka, C

2002-01-25

327

Human joint performance and the roughness of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that the surface of articular cartilage is rough and it has been suggested that this is likely to affect the lubrication of human joints. This paper describes the direct measurement of a cartilage surface with a stylus instrument. It is found that the height distribution is Gaussian with an inverse-square power spectrum. It is thus possible to calculate the elastic deflection of the surface under normal walking loads and it is shown that the mean separation of the cartilage surfaces in a human joint varies rather slowly with load. In one particular hip joint at heel strike the real area of contact was calculated to be about 1.3 cm2, the mean gap to be about 60 micrometers and the trapped volume to be about 80 percent of that when standing. PMID:7382453

Thomas, T R; Sayles, R S; Haslock, I

1980-02-01

328

Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage  

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Full Text Available Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly repeating patterns. This organization existed in the regions surrounding the columns of chondrocytes, known as chondrons. The load bearing property of the tissue was explained by the directed flow and containment of the interstitial fluid, modulated by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, along these collagen bounded tubular structures. The reason why such a structure has not been described previously may be that it is not retained by aldehyde fixation followed by dehydration, the method commonly used for tissue preparation for electron microscopy.

ap Gwynn I.

2002-12-01

329

Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3 mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly repeating patterns. This organization existed in the regions surrounding the columns of chondrocytes, known as chondrons. The load bearing property of the tissue was explained by the directed flow and containment of the interstitial fluid, modulated by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, along these collagen bounded tubular structures. The reason why such a structure has not been described previously may be that it is not retained by aldehyde fixation followed by dehydration, the method commonly used for tissue preparation for electron microscopy. PMID:14562249

ap Gwynn, I; Wade, S; Ito, K; Richards, R G

2002-12-10

330

Cyclic loading can denature type II collagen in articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sought to explain previously reported associations between osteoarthritis, cartilage collagen denaturation, and repetitive mechanical loading. Eighty specimens of cartilage-on-bone were obtained from bovine patella grooves. After soaking in protease inhibitors, specimens were subjected to 3,600 cycles of compressive loading by means of a flat indenter. Loaded cartilage was supported by adjacent cartilage and subchondral bone. Peak stress ranged between 3.5 MPa and 14 MPa. Collagen denaturation was assessed by an inhibition ELISA assay using the col2-3/4 m antibody. Results showed that denaturation increased with loading severity, from 2% in control (unloaded) cartilage to 7.5% at 14 MPa (p freeze-thaw cycles prior to loading. We conclude that vigorous cyclic mechanical loading causes an immediate dose-related increase in collagen denaturation in bovine articular cartilage. PMID:15512771

Clements, Kristen M; Hollander, Anthony P; Sharif, Mohammed; Adams, Michael A

2004-01-01

331

Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling. PMID:20209248

Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah; Sansalone, Vittorio

2010-03-01

332

Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report  

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In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-15

333

Intra-articular Morphine versus Lidocaine for Acute Knee Pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors conducted an unfunded randomized controlled trial approved by the Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) Institutional Review Board (IRB) to determine the possible efficacy of intra-articular morphine for pain in acute knee injuries. Methods: Patients presenting to the emergency department at San Antonio Military Medical Center (SAMMC) from May 2012 to August 2013 with knee pain due to an acute injury were consented and then enrolled based on a convenience sample. Patients were randomized to one of three intervention arms (morphine, lidocaine, or morphine and lidocaine) and were blinded to the intervention. The respective solution was injected into the knee joint using standard techniques. The patients self-reported their levels of knee pain via a standard 100mm visual analogue scale (VAS) at the time of injection and 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours postinjection. At 24 hours, the patients also reported the estimated amount of time they applied ice to the knee and the amount of oral analgesia consumed in the previous 24 hours. Results: The primary outcome was relative pain reduction as measured by the VAS. Secondary outcomes were the total cumulative use of ice and analgesics during the first 24 hours. Although this was a small study, the results showed a possible trend toward better pain control at all time intervals with injections containing morphine compared with lidocaine-only injections. Ice and oral analgesia usage was equivalent between the three intervention arms. Conclusion: Further investigation with a larger sample is required to explore whether these results are statistically significant and the possible superiority of intra-articular morphine to lidocaine for acute knee pain. PMID:24952044

Graham, Ross F; Hughes, John; Johnson, Anthony; Cuenca, Peter; Mosley, Trey

2014-01-01

334

MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms

2005-01-01

335

MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms.

Huegli, Rolf W. E-mail: rhuegli@uhbs.ch; Moelleken, Sonja M.C.; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K.; Tirman, Phillip F.J

2005-01-01

336

Epilepsies associated with focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs).  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are increasingly recognized as one of the most common causes of pharmaco-resistant epilepsies. FCDs were recently divided into various clinico-pathological subtypes due to distinct imaging, electrophysiological, and outcome characteristics. In this review, we will overview the international consensus classification of FCDs in light of more recently reported clinical, electrical, imaging and functional observations, and will also address areas of ongoing debate. In addition, we will summarize our current knowledge on pathobiology and epileptogenicity of FCDs as well as its underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. The clinical (electroencephalographic, imaging, and functional) characteristics of major FCD subtypes and their implications on the presurgical evaluation and surgical management will be discussed in light of studies describing these characteristics and postoperative seizure outcomes in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy due to histopathologically confirmed FCDs. PMID:24916270

Najm, Imad M; Tassi, Laura; Sarnat, Harvey B; Holthausen, Hans; Russo, Giorgio Lo

2014-07-01

337

Aerogel detector with a Fresnel lens focalization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of threshold Cherenkov detectors for the identification of high momentum particles in high energy physics experiments is connected with the efficiency of detection of light in the aerogel. As one goes lower in the refractive index, less photons are emitted, and more attention should be paid to the improvements of the detection efficiency. The light integration box method relies on photomultipliers of large size and requires even two of them. We have studied the possibility to use a thin focalizing element (Fresnel lens) between the aerogel and the photomultiplier to focalize the light onto a smaller diameter photomultiplier. The results show that for good aerogel and low indices of refraction (<1.01) the scheme with the aerogel and the Fresnel lens may be superior and less costly than the conventional set-up.

Sokolov, O. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Paic, G. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: guypaic@nucleares.unam.mx; Alfaro, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

2009-04-01

338

[Focal atrial fibrillation treated with radiofrequency].  

Science.gov (United States)

Atrial fibrillation is usually thought to be due to multiple circulating reentrant wavelets. From previous studies, a focal mechanism is considered to be very unlikely. This focal source could be successfully treated by radiofrequency catheter ablation. We report a patient without structural heart disease, but with multiple episodes of syncope and palpitations related to atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation. Electrophysiological study demonstrated that all atrial arrhythmias were due to one focus located in the left atrium at the ostium of the left superior pulmonary vein that was successfully treated with the use of a mean of three radiofrequency pulses, without complications. The pulmonary veins are an important source of ectopic beats, initiating frequent paroxysm of atrial fibrillation. These foci respond to treatment with radiofrequency ablation. PMID:10932803

Iturralde, P; Medeiros, A; Guevara, M; Kershenovich, S; Varela, S; Colín, L

2000-01-01

339

Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors. To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas. A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors. We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor. Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells. Abundant myxoid stroma was present, which stained positively with alcian blue and was weakly focally positive with periodic acid Schiff. Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and chromogranin were negative. MIB-1 index was < 0.1%.

De Padua Michelle

2008-05-01

340

[Multidisciplinary therapy for focal spasticity treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

For treating focal dystonias and spastic syndromes local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) are the method of choice. The therapy aims to reduce disabling dystonic and spastic movement disorders, ease care and personal hygiene, reduce pain, and improve quality of life. With respect to functional improvement from and accuracy of BTA-injection, treatment results in spasticity often profits from electrical or sonographical guidance of BTA injection in addition to active time localized training methods (physio- and occupational therapy). Since we know that only active synapses binds BTA (receptor is located in the acetylcholine vesicle) further therapeutic methods should also be employed to enhance efficacy of BTA, especially casting and splinting electrical stimulation, for muscle activation and regaining of normal length of spastic muscules are recommended. The goals of focal therapy for spasticity should be discussed with the patient and family members to guarantee maximum results from the coordinated multidisciplinary effort of BTA-treatment in disabling spasticity. PMID:18927962

Wissel, J

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions  

CERN Document Server

In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random. For double-couple source orientation the random probability distribution function is not uniform, which complicates the calculation of the likelihood value. To better understand the resulting complexities we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two rota...

Kagan, Y Y

2014-01-01

342

Epilepsy, Acquired Aphasia with Focal Cortical Dysplasia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A six year old boy having complex partial seizures with secondary generalization of four months duration developing isolated expressive dysphasia, later progressing to global aphasia is being reported. His awake EEG showed a left temporal spike wave discharge and sleep EEG showed continuous spike and ware discharges. MR imaging demonstrated focal cortical dysplasia in the left frontal and opercular region, a combination that has not been reported earlier.

Girija A. S; Somanath V

1999-01-01

343

Focal adhesion signaling in breast cancer treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the molecular mechanisms of survival and migratory pathways in cancer cells is essential to better comprehending cancer progression, metastasis formation and drug resistance, thereby benefiting the development of novel anticancer treatments. The overall goal of the work is to better understand the role and mechanism of focal adhesion mediated signaling in the control of anticancer drug-related survival signaling of breast tumor cells in vivo as well as the regulation of cell mig...

Ma, Yafeng

2009-01-01

344

Modeling brain adaptation to focal damage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Determining how feature maps in the cerebral cortex adapt to sudden, focal damage is important for gaining a deeper understanding of neurological illnesses such as stroke. In this paper we describe a neural model of the region of primary sensory cortex related to upper extremity proprioception, and show how the feature map there reorganizes following a simulated lesion. A perilesion zone with decreased activity appears and then gradually expands with time. These results differ from those seen...

Goodall, S.; Reggia, J. A.; Cho, S.

1994-01-01

345

Crowding in the GAIA spectrograph focal plane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Superpositions of stellar tracings are present in every slitless spectrograph. The probability for such overlaps in the GAIA RVS spectrograph focal plane is estimated using photometric observations of 66 stellar fields, mostly close to the Galactic plane. It is shown that overlaps of bright stars (V<17) are common near the Galactic plane, and no spectrum is free from superpositions of faint star tracings. Most overlappers are of spectral type K.

Zwitter, Tomaz; Henden, Arne

2003-01-01

346

The pathophysiology of focal hand dystonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focal hand dystonia is a disabling movement disorder, often task-specific, that leads to impaired hand use. In addition to a genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors including repetitive use and musculoskeletal constraints are contributory. Although the underlying cause is unknown, recent studies have identified several key mechanisms that may play a part in its genesis. Failure of inhibition, abnormal sensorimotor integration, and maladaptive plasticity seem to be important. Unders...

Lin, Peter T.; Hallett, Mark

2009-01-01

347

Structural features of the focal adhesion kinase–paxillin complex give insight into the dynamics of focal adhesion assembly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The C-terminal region of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) consists of a right-turn, elongated, four-helix bundle termed the focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. The structure of this domain is maintained by hydrophobic interactions, and this domain is also the proposed binding site for the focal adhesion protein paxillin. Paxillin contains five well-conserved LD motifs, which have been implicated in the binding of many focal adhesion proteins. In this study we determined that LD4 binds specifica...

Bertolucci, Craig M.; Guibao, Cristina D.; Zheng, Jie

2005-01-01

348

Focal parameters of weak seismic events in mining districts and their relations to fracture mechanics in the focal regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of published results and of knowledge realized in the GDR on focal processes of weak seismic events in and close to underground mines the focal parameters estimated by seismological methods are reviewed and discussed. The paper aims at studying in which way the differences between the focal parameters of various mining districts are connected with the geological, geomechanical and mining conditions in the focal regions. The results are compared with the corresponding parameters of weak tectonic earthquakes. 3 figures.

Knoll, P.; Kuhnt, W.; Grosser, H.; Hurtig, E.

1984-01-01

349

Estimation of inflammation by Doppler ultrasound: quantitative changes after intra-articular treatment in rheumatoid arthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To evaluate the use of ultrasound, including quantitative Doppler analysis of synovial vascularisation, before and after intra-articular treatment with glucocorticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Terslev, L.; Torp-pedersen, S.; Qvistgaard, E.; Danneskiold-samso, B.; Bliddal, H.

2003-01-01

350

Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

2010-07-01

351

The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics. (orig.)

Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rajiah, Prabhakar [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-09-15

352

Intra-articular ganglion arising from the meniscofemoral ligament of Humphrey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a case of an intra-articular ganglion of the knee arising from the anterior meniscofemoral ligament of Humphrey. The MR imaging and arthroscopic appearance of the lesion are illustrated. (orig.)

Sonin, Andrew [Radiology Imaging Associates, 8200 East Belleview Avenue, Suite 124, Greenwood Village, CO 80111 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Street, Denver, CO 80262 (United States); Reister, John A. [Orthopaedic Physicians of Colorado, P.C., 799 East Hampton Avenue, Suite 400, Englewood, CO 80110 (United States)

2003-05-01

353

Semi-defects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The notion of semi-defect is introduced for ordered media, where the order parameter divides into two coupled components. A singularity is a semi-defect, if it is singular in only one of the components, and continuous in the other. A topological theory of semi-defects is presented. Stacking faults, hither to not comprised by the topological defect classification, are special forms of semi-defects.

1984-01-01

354

Prevalência de hipermobilidade articular em crianças pré-escolares / Prevalence of joint hypermobility in preschool children / Prevalencia de hipermovilidad articular en niños pre-escolares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A hipermobilidade articular é a capacidade de realizar movimentos em amplitudes maiores que a normal. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a prevalência de hipermobilidade articular em crianças pré-escolares da Rede Municipal de Educação de Londrina/PR. O estudo foi do tipo transversal c [...] om amostra constituída de 366 crianças, de 5 e 6 anos de idade. Verificou-se que, das crianças pré-escolares avaliadas, 198 (54,1%) apresentaram hipermobilidade articular, sendo 96 (59,6%) do sexo feminino e 102 (49,8%) do masculino. A hipermobilidade articular foi encontrada com maior frequência nas articulações de cotovelo e joelho, onde ocorreu a hiperextensão. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos masculino e feminino em relação à hipermobilidade articular (?²=3,539, p=0,072). Pode-se concluir que a hipermobilidade articular nas crianças pré-escolares foi achado comum, compatível com a faixa etária da população avaliada no estudo. Abstract in spanish La hipermovilidad articular es la capacidad de realizar movimientos en amplitudes mayores que lo normal. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la prevalencia de hipermovilidad articular en niños pre-escolares de la Red Municipal de Educación de Londrina/PR. El estudio fue de tipo transve [...] rsal con una muestra constituida de 366 niños, de 5 a 6 años de edad. Se verificó que los niños pre-escolares evaluados, 198 (54,1%) presentaron hipermovilidad articular, siendo 96 (59,6%) de sexo femenino y 102 (49,8%) de sexo masculino. La hipermovilidad articular fue encontrada con mayor frecuencia en las articulaciones del tobillo y rodilla, donde ocurre la hiperextensión. No hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos masculino y femenino en relación a la hipermovilidad articular (?²=3,539, p=0,072). Se puede concluir que la hipermovilidad articular en los niños pre-escolares fue encontrada normal, compatible con la línea etaria de la población evaluada en el estudio. Abstract in english Joint hypermobility is the ability to perform movements with a range of motion that is wider than normal. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of joint hypermobility in junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten children from the Municipal Education System of Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Th [...] e study was cross-­sectional, with a sample of 366 children aged between 5 and 6 years. The detection of joint hypermobility was based on the criteria proposed in literature. It was found that 198 (54.1%) of the children evaluated had joint hypermobility, 96 (59.6%) were girls and 102 (49.8%) were boys. Joint hypermobility was found more frequently in the elbow and knee joints, where hyperextension occurred. There was no statistically significant difference between the male and female groups in relation to joint hypermobility (?²=3.539, p=0.072). We can conclude that joint hypermobility found in the junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten children evaluated was common and compatible with the age of the population evaluated in this study.

Neves, Jessica Caroliny de Jesus; Cibinello, Fabíola Unbehaun; Vitor, Leonardo George Vitorio; Beckner, Débora; Siqueira, Claudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins; Fujisawa, Dirce Shizuko.

355

The hot spot hepatobiliary scan in focal nodular hyperplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective study was performed on 14 patients with histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) using a hepatobiliary scan with trimethylbromoimino-diacetic acid (TBIDA) and a colloid scan with rhenium sulfur colloids. TBIDA uptake was relatively normal in the region of the tumor, but during the clearance phase 23/25 of the tumors were detected by a hot spot of radioactivity. Depending on the relative contrast achieved between the tumor and normal liver, this hot spot appeared early or later, but was always present at 60 min. In three tumors, a "doughnut" pattern was observed within the hot spot due to a central defect. Hypervascularization was observed during the perfusion phase in 76% of the tumoral sites and normal colloid uptake in only 64%. The detectability of FNH appears greater with TBIDA (92%) than with CT or MRI (84%). The high prevalence of hot spots may be due to careful technological conditions when obtaining hepatobiliary scans. Late images, overexposed films, multiple views and stimulation of gallbladder excretion increased tumor detectability. The hot spot sign may be a useful tool when combined with the results of other imaging modalities in the diagnosis of FNH. The peculiar pathology of FNH with fibrosis, hyperplastic hepatocytes and cholangiolar proliferation might explain this scintigraphic appearance. PMID:8254396

Boulahdour, H; Cherqui, D; Charlotte, F; Rahmouni, A; Dhumeaux, D; Zafrani, E S; Meignan, M

1993-12-01

356

MR imaging guidance and monitoring of focal thermotherapies. A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Minimally invasive thermotherapies for focal tissue destruction on the basis of laser-, microwave-, focused ultrasound-, or cryogeninduced changes of tissue temperature represent an alternative to surgical tissue ablation, particularly in the treatment of tumors. The thermotherapy modalities listed necessitate indirect guidance and monitoring, since they often do not lend themselves to immediate visual control. In the brain, in head and neck tumors, in the liver, and in the prostate, MRI reliably and accurately delineates both the positions of interstitial thermotherapy applicators and - in contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted images - the perfusion defects in tissue necrosis induced by thermotherapy. The transfer of results of in-vitro and in-vivo model studies to assess interstitial temperature and lesion development during thermotherapy to the actual treatment of patients, however, is still in an initial phase. Further development of both rapid MRI sequences and MRI scanners suited for interventions will show how far treatment systems and guidance systems can be adapted to one another. (orig.)

1998-03-01

357

High condylar shave of the temporomandibular joint with preservation of the articular soft tissue cover: an experimental study on rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high condylar shave has the disadvantage of removing the articular soft tissue cover together with the underlying condylar bone. In an attempt to overcome this disadvantage, we elevated the articular soft tissue cover, shaved the condylar head, and replaced the articular soft tissue cover in its original position in nine adult rabbit temporomandibular joints. On the contralateral joints, the same amount of bone was shaved together with the articular soft tissue cover. The rabbits were killed after 3 months, and the condyles were macroscopically and histologically evaluated. All condyles were covered with an articular soft tissue layer in the area operated on. This surface was smoother when the articular soft tissue cover was preserved. Histologically, the subarticular layer of cartilage cells was continuous in the joints with preservation of the articular soft tissue cover but was frequently interrupted in the joints where this cover was removed. The incision made in the posterior part of the articular surface for elevating the articular soft tissue cover frequently caused a deformity of the condyle and an interruption of the subarticular layer of cartilage. The results suggest that preservation of the articular soft tissue cover on the mandibular condyle might be one way to improve the postoperative morphology after high condylar shave. The technique in its present state has obvious drawbacks and should be further refined before it is considered for clinical application. PMID:2296439

Kurita, K; Westesson, P L; Eriksson, L; Sternby, N H

1990-01-01

358

Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: A systematic review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue) corticosteroid injection. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were examin...

Brinks, A.; Koes, B. W.; Volkers, A. C.; Verhaar, J. A. N.; Bierma-zeinstra, S. M. A.

2010-01-01

359

Prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in elderly subjects in a rural area of Catalonia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To undertake an epidemiological survey of the prevalence of radiological chondrocalcinosis in the elderly population of Osona, a rural area of Catalonia, north east Spain. METHODS--Knee and wrist radiographs were performed on 261 subjects (141 women, 120 men) aged at least 60 years, who attended a series of 35 general practitioners for various medical problems. RESULTS--Twenty seven subjects had articular chondrocalcinosis, which represents a crude prevalence of 10%. Articular cho...

1993-01-01

360

Intra-articular corrective osteotomy for malunited Hoffa fracture: A case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Hoffa fracture, an isolated coronal plane fracture of the posterior aspect of the femoral condyle, is known as an unstable, intra-articular fracture, and therefore, operative treatment is recommended. However, insufficient open reduction or failure of fixation may lead to malunion. We performed intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited Hoffa fracture in a 31-year-old man and obtained good functional and radiographic results. This report suggests that intra-articu...

Iwai Takao; Hamada Masayuki; Miyama Takahide; Shino Konsei

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

COOPER (COupled OPEration Robot): control de una estructura articular RRR acoplada a un manipulador  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este artículo presenta el modelado, construcción y control de un robot articular tipo RRR, especialmente diseñado para ser acoplado al extremo de un robot antropomórfico PA-10 de Mitsubishi. A este robot articular de tres grados de libertad se le ha asignado como nombre el acrónimo COOPER (COupled OPEration Robot), y su principal finalidad es dotar al PA-10 de la capacidad de visualización dentro de entornos dinámicos. La plataforma multi-robot compuesta por los dos manipuladores se pr...

2011-01-01

362

Histochemistry for studying structure and function of the articular disc of the human temporomandibular joint  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The articular disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is composed of fibrocartilage, and the extracellular matrix of this disc is composed mainly of collagen, glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycans. Research on the changes that occur in the composition of the articular disc of the TMJ is necessary for understanding the basis of the pathological process of internal derangement (ID), and a number of reports have been published in recent years on the application of refined histochemical technique...

2012-01-01

363

Extra-articular cartilage affected in collagen-induced, but not pristane-induced, arthritis models.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting cartilaginous joints but also extra-articular tissues such as the nose and upper respiratory tract. We have investigated extra-articular cartilage involvement in two commonly used animal models for RA, collagen-induced and pristane-induced arthritis, by immunizing rats with different susceptibility to disease (LEW.1 A, LEW.1F and DA rats). We found that nasal and tracheolaryngeal cartilage is affected in LEW.1 A a...

Hansson, Ann-sofie; Lu, Shemin; Holmdahl, Rikard

2002-01-01

364

Clinical utility of ultrasound guidance for intra-articular knee injections: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intra-articular corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections provide short-term symptom amelioration for arthritic conditions involving structural damage or degenerative changes in the knee. Conventional palpation-guided anatomical injections frequently result in inaccurate needle placement into extra-articular tissue and adjacent structures. The purpose of this review was to determine the effect of ultrasound guidance on the accuracy of needle placement, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiv...

Berkoff, David J.; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2012-01-01

365

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib) is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteo...

Dinghua Jiang; Jun Zou; Lixin Huang; Qin Shi; Xuesong Zhu; Genlin Wang; Huilin Yang

2010-01-01

366

The role of intra-articular hyaluronan (Sinovial®) in the treatment of osteoarthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) leads to significant pain and disability. For pain relief, a tailored approach using non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies is recommended. If adequate symptom relief is not achieved with acetaminophen, other pharmacological options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical analgesics, intra-articular corticosteroids and intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) viscosupplementation. Most of these therapies generally do not i...

2010-01-01

367

Relationship between the tensile properties of articular cartilage from the human knee and age.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between the tensile properties of articular cartilage and age has been investigated in vitro in the human knee joint. Specimens orientated parallel to the articular surface were excised from the superficial and deep zones of the femoral condyles of knee joints of persons in the age range from 8 to 91 years. The results showed that the tensile strength of the superficial zone increased with age to reach a maximum value in the third decade. Thereafter the strength decreased mar...

Kempson, G. E.

1982-01-01

368

Plasma steroid levels after intra-articular injection of prednisolone acetate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eight patients with rheumatoid arthritis received an intra-articular injection of either 50 mg or 100 mg of prednisolone acetate into the knee joint. After the injection plasma levels of prednisolone were measured by radioimmunoassay and plasma cortisol levels were estimated fluorimetrically. Peak prednisolone levels were reached at between 2 and 4 hours after the intra-articular injection at both dosage levels, though the peak was higher with the larger dose. The 50 mg dose did not have any ...

Reeback, J. S.; Chakraborty, J.; English, J.; Gibson, T.; Marks, V.

1980-01-01

369

The Temporal Response of the Friction Coefficient of Articular Cartilage Depends on the Contact Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hypothesis of this study is that the time constant for the transient increase in friction coefficient of articular cartilage under a constant load is proportional to the size of the contact area, as predicated by the dependence of the frictional response on interstitial fluid pressurization. This hypothesis is verified experimentally from measurements of the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage disks of three different diameters (4, 6 and 8 mm) against glass. At two different...

2007-01-01

370

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound promotes chondrogenic progenitor cell migration via focal adhesion kinase pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been studied frequently for its beneficial effects on the repair of injured articular cartilage. We hypothesized that these effects are due to stimulation of chondrogenic progenitor cell (CPC) migration toward injured areas of cartilage through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation. CPC chemotaxis in bluntly injured osteochondral explants was examined by confocal microscopy, and migratory activity of cultured CPCs was measured in transwell and monolayer scratch assays. FAK activation by LIPUS was analyzed in cultured CPCs by Western blot. LIPUS effects were compared with the effects of two known chemotactic factors: N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. LIPUS significantly enhanced CPC migration on explants and in cell culture assays. Phosphorylation of FAK at the kinase domain (Tyr 576/577) was maximized by 5 min of exposure to LIPUS at a dose of 27.5 mW/cm(2) and frequency of 3.5 MHz. Treatment with fMLF, but not HMBG1, enhanced FAK activation to a degree similar to that of LIPUS, but neither fMLF nor HMGB1 enhanced the LIPUS effect. LIPUS-induced CPC migration was blocked by suppressing FAK phosphorylation with a Src family kinase inhibitor that blocks FAK phosphorylation. Our results imply that LIPUS might be used to promote cartilage healing by inducing the migration of CPCs to injured sites, which could delay or prevent the onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. PMID:24612644

Jang, Kee W; Ding, Lei; Seol, Dongrim; Lim, Tae-Hong; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Martin, James A

2014-06-01

371

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral knee joint surgery using the Hulth technique. Six weeks post-surgery, the animals were randomly divided into three groups, and each group was respectively given weekly intra-articular injections with Celebrex®, hyaluronic acid and saline. On the sixth week, the results were assessed in rabbit models by gross observation, histological evaluation, and expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3. Results: In the group given Celebrex® and hyaluronic acid, the pathological changes in the rabbit articular cartilage improved significantly, much more than in the saline group. The statistically significant suppression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3 was shown in the Celebrex group. No significant differences were detected between two treatment groups. Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of celecoxib is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis. It might repair and protect early osteoarthritis cartilage by delaying cartilage degeneration and impairing the function of inflammatory mediators, therefore, intra-articular injection of celecoxib can be used as an alternative to the current treatment of osteoarthritis.

Huilin Yang

2010-10-01

372

T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

2012-03-15

373

T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

2012-03-01

374

Elastin fibers display a versatile microfibril network in articular cartilage depending on the mechanical microenvironments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elastin fibers are major extracellular matrix macromolecules that are critical in maintaining the elasticity and resilience of tissues such as blood vessels, lungs and skins. However, the role of elastin in articular cartilage is poorly defined. The present study investigated the organization of elastin fiber in articular cartilage, its relationship to collagen fibers and the architecture of elastin fibers from different mechanical environments by using a kangaroo model. Five morphologies of elastin fibers were identified: Straight fiber, straight fiber with branches, branching fibers directly associated with chondrocyte, wave fiber and fine elastin. The architecture of the elastin network varied significantly with cartilage depth. In the most superficial layer of tibial plateau articular cartilage, dense elastin fibers formed a distinctive cobweb-like meshwork which was parallel to the cartilage surface. In the superficial zone, elastin fibers were well organized in a preferred orientation which was parallel to collagen fibers. In the deep zone, no detectable elastin fiber was found. Moreover, differences in the organization of elastin fibers were also observed between articular cartilage from the tibial plateau, femoral condyle, and distal humerus. This study unravels the detailed microarchitecture of elastin fibers which display a well-organized three-dimensional versatile network in articular cartilage. Our findings imply that elastin fibers may play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity, elasticity, and the mechanical properties of articular cartilage, and that the local mechanical environment affects the architectural development of elastin fibers. PMID:23649803

He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Chen, Hong Hui; Kirk, Thomas Brett; Xu, Jiake

2013-09-01

375

Defects in metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to the study of defects in metals has led to increased knowledge on lattice-defect properties during the past decade in two areas: the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation and post-quench annealing. The study of defects in metals by PAS is reviewed within the context of the other available techniques for defect studies. The strengths and weaknesses of PAS as a method for the characterization of defect microstructures are considered. The additional possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the atomic and electronic structures of atomic defects are discussed, based upon theoretical calculations of the annihilation characteristics of defect-trapped positrons and experimental observations. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals is considered. 71 references, 9 figures

1982-02-12

376

Ultrasonographic features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). US features of 15 patients with pathologically proven focal XGP were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists who reached a consensus, in terms of the location, margin, size, and echo texture of the mass-like lesion, and presence or absence of associated calculi, lymphadenopathy, or local extension. These US findings were compared with CT findings. The patients were checked for the clinical symptom and sign through the review of hospital records. Thirteen of 15 patients were adults and 2 were children, and 10 were males. Their age ranged from 6 to 57 (mean, 39) years at presentation. Eight of 15 cases (53%) were in right kidney, and on US scan 12 cases (80%) were well circumscribed. The size of the mass ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 (mean, 3.8) cm. Of 15 masses, 13 (87%) were solid and two were cystic. Thirteen solid masses were composed of 10 masses (77%) with inner hypo- or anechoic foci and the other three masses without inner hypo- or anechoic foci, and the preoperative diagnosis was either renal cell carcinoma (n=11) or Wilms' tumor (n=2). The preoperative diagnosis in two cystic lesions (13%) was renal abscess. Renal calculi were found in one case, but lymphadenopathy or local extension was not depicted. Clinical symptoms and signs of flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, or anemia were found in 11 of 15 patients. Focal XGP revealed US features of solid or cystic masses confined within the renal outline mimicking renal tumor or abscess. US features, however, in association with clinical findings and other imaging findings (such as CT or MR imaging) may help the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2003-09-15

377

Ultrasonographic features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). US features of 15 patients with pathologically proven focal XGP were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists who reached a consensus, in terms of the location, margin, size, and echo texture of the mass-like lesion, and presence or absence of associated calculi, lymphadenopathy, or local extension. These US findings were compared with CT findings. The patients were checked for the clinical symptom and sign through the review of hospital records. Thirteen of 15 patients were adults and 2 were children, and 10 were males. Their age ranged from 6 to 57 (mean, 39) years at presentation. Eight of 15 cases (53%) were in right kidney, and on US scan 12 cases (80%) were well circumscribed. The size of the mass ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 (mean, 3.8) cm. Of 15 masses, 13 (87%) were solid and two were cystic. Thirteen solid masses were composed of 10 masses (77%) with inner hypo- or anechoic foci and the other three masses without inner hypo- or anechoic foci, and the preoperative diagnosis was either renal cell carcinoma (n=11) or Wilms' tumor (n=2). The preoperative diagnosis in two cystic lesions (13%) was renal abscess. Renal calculi were found in one case, but lymphadenopathy or local extension was not depicted. Clinical symptoms and signs of flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, or anemia were found in 11 of 15 patients. Focal XGP revealed US features of solid or cystic masses confined within the renal outline mimicking renal tumor or abscess. US features, however, in association with clinical findings and other imaging findings (such as CT or MR imaging) may help the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

2003-09-01

378

Cartilage constructs engineered from chondrocytes overexpressing IGF-I improve the repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy is a promising approach for promoting articular cartilage repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that engineered cartilage with chondrocytes overexpressing a human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I gene can enhance the repair of osteochondral defects, in a manner dependent on the duration of cultivation. Genetically modified chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds in dynamic flow rotating bioreactors for either 10 or 28 d. The resulting cartilaginous constructs were implanted into osteochondral defects in rabbit knee joints. After 28 weeks of in vivo implantation, immunoreactivity to ß-gal was detectable in the repair tissue of defects that received lacZ constructs. Engineered cartilaginous constructs based on IGF-I-overexpressing chondrocytes markedly improved osteochondral repair compared with control (lacZ constructs. Moreover, IGF-I constructs cultivated for 28 d in vitro significantly promoted osteochondral repair vis-à-vis similar constructs cultivated for 10 d, leading to significantly decreased osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defects. Hence, the combination of spatially defined overexpression of human IGF-I within a tissue-engineered construct and prolonged bioreactor cultivation resulted in most enhanced articular cartilage repair and reduction of osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defect. Such genetically enhanced tissue engineering provides a versatile tool to evaluate potential therapeutic genes in vivo and to improve our comprehension of the development of the repair tissue within articular cartilage defects. Insights gained with additional exploration using this model may lead to more effective treatment options for acute cartilage defects.

H Madry

2013-04-01

379

Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics

1999-10-01

380

Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

1999-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Focal hepatic infarction with bile lake formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Venous thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives is a well recognized phenomenon. Arterial thrombosis, while less common, is also a known risk, as evidenced by the increased incidence of cerebral vascular accidents and myocardial ischemia or infarction. The liver is relatively protected from the usual consequences of arterial thrombosis because of its dual blood supply. The authors present an unusual case of a young woman with a history of oral contraceptive and cigarette use who developed hepatic artery thrombosis and had focal liver lesions on computed tomography (CT) due to hepatic infarction and bile lake formation despite an intact portal venous system

1984-01-01

382

Focal plane detectors for magnetic spectrometers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter presents a critical review of focal plane detector systems suitable for use in magnetic spectrometers analyzing heavy-ion products of nuclear reactions. The conditions which the detectors must satisfy are discussed and the elementary detector types are described. Representative complex detectors and systems are outlined and their merits are evaluated. Topics considered include magnets, properties of magnetic spectrometers, photographic emulsions, position sensitive (PS) solid state devices, gas counters, the Berkeley spectrometer, the Groningen detector, detectors with ionization chambers, and a triple proportional counter

1985-01-01

383

Hybrid focal plane detectors for heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two non-identical twin gas-filled detectors for use at the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer are described. They are single units containing an ionization chamber yielding a total energy signal, two position-sensitive proportional counters, and several electrodes giving ?E/?X signals. The seven or eight pulses generated in this type of detector for each entering ion are encoded and sent to an on-line computer which can automatically find the nuclear charge, nuclear mass, ionic charge, energy, and angle of entry of each particle and can accumulate separate energy spectra for all specified ionic types of interest. (Auth.)

1979-06-15

384

Multiple quantum well staring focal plane array  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple quantum well (MQW) devices have evolved from single detectors to fully operational medium resolution (128 x 128 array) IR systems, such as long wave IR (LWIR) cameras capable of optical imaging. The required operating temperature has increased from 40 K to nearly 77 K, and dark current has been reduced from very high values to values that are manageable with processing electronics. This paper provides fabrication, modeling, test, and optimized multiplexing results to demonstrate the advantages of MQW IR staring focal plane array technology.

Gooden, C. E.; Leblanc, R. A.; Stokes, B.; Beck, W. A.; Faska, T.

1992-02-01

385

Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

2008-06-01