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1

Articular cartilage defects in 1,000 knee arthroscopies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Focal chondral or osteochondral defects can be painful and disabling, have a poor capacity for repair, and may predispose patients for osteoarthritis. New surgical procedures that aim to reestablish hyaline cartilage have been introduced and the results seem promising. The purpose of this study is to provide reliable data on chondral and osteochondral defects in patients with symptomatic knees requiring arthroscopy and to calculate the prevalence of patients who might benefit from cartilage repair surgery. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. METHODS: One thousand consecutive knee arthroscopies were included in this study. Immediately after each arthroscopy, the surgeon completed a questionnaire providing detailed information about the findings. Chondral and osteochondral lesions were classified in accordance with the system recommended by the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS). RESULTS: Chondral or osteochondral lesions (of any type) were found in 61% of the patients. Focal chondral or osteochondral defects were found in 19% of the patients. In these patients, 61% related their current knee problem to a previous trauma, and a concomitant meniscal or anterior cruciate ligament injury was found in 42% (n = 81) and 26% (n = 50), respectively. The mean chondral or osteochondral total defect area was 2.1 cm(2) (range, 0.5 to 12; standard deviation [SD], 1.5). The main focal chondral or osteochondral defect was found on the medial femoral condyle in 58%, patella in 11%, lateral tibia in 11%, lateral femoral condyle in 9%, trochlea in 6%, and medial tibia in 5%. It has been suggested that cartilage repair surgery may be most suitable in patients younger than 40 to 50 years old. A single, well-defined ICRS grade III or IV defect with an area of at least 1 cm(2) in a patient younger than 40, 45, or 50 years accounted for 5.3%, 6.1%, and 7.1% of all arthroscopies, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the contention that articular cartilage defects are common. It has the advantages of a prospective design and use of a new classification system recommended by the ICRS. This modern system focuses on objectively measurable parameters of the lesion's extent and not its surface appearance.

Hjelle K; Solheim E; Strand T; Muri R; Brittberg M

2002-09-01

2

[Research on repair strategies for articular cartilage defects].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage damage is very common in clinical practices. Due to the low self-healing abilities of articular cartilage, the repair strategies for articular cartilage such as arthroscopic lavage and debridement,osteaochondral or chondrocytes transplantation, tissue engineering and hydrogel based artificial cartilage materials are the primary technologies of repairing articular cartilage defect. In this paper,the main repair strategies for the articular cartilage damage and the advantages or disadvantages of each repair technology are summarized. The arthroscopic lavage and debridement is successful in treating the early stage of osteoarthritis. Osteochondral and chondrocytes transplantation are beneficial to treat small full thickness defects. The technology of tissue engineering becomes a new method to heal articular cartilage damage, but the major problem is the absence of bonding strength between the implants and natural defect surfaces. Hydrogel based artificial cartilage possesses similar bio-mechanical and bio-tribological performances to that of natural articular cartilage. However, both bioactivity and interfacial bonding strength between the implant and natural cartilage could be further improved. How to simultaneously optimize the mechanical and bioactive as well as biotribological properties of hydrogel based materials is a focus problem concerned.

Pan YS; Ding GX; Wang J

2013-02-01

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Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

Amos Matsiko; Tanya J. Levingstone; Fergal J. O'Brien

2013-01-01

4

Effects of manipulation therapy in repairing rabbit articular cartilage defects  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of manipulation therapy in repairing thin-layer and thick-layer articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Methods: Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into manipulation group and control group. Chondral defects in the center of condylus medialis femoris (punch diameter 2.0 mm, thin-layer defect, without damaging the subchondral bone) and the center of facies patellaris femoris (punch diameter 3.0 mm, thick-layer defect, without damaging the subchondral bone) were made in both side knee joints of the rabbits. Four weeks after chondral defect, the rabbits in the manipulation group were treated with manipulation therapy, while the rabbits in the control group didn’t take any therapeutic measure. The rabbits were sacrificed after 4-, 8- and 12-week manipulation treatment to obtain the distal femur. The appearance of the chondral defect was first assessed, and then regenerated tissues were stained respectively with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), safranin O and immunohistochemical methods to observe the changes in pathology. The regenerated tissue O’Driscoll score system was also used to evaluate the efficacy of manipulation therapy.Results: After manipulation treatment, although the thin-layer articular cartilage defects of the control group were partly repaired, a sharp gap between the regenerated tissue and the normal cartilage was visible. The range of the thick-layer articular cartilage defect in the control group became smaller, and the regenerated tissue only consisted of fiber tissue. On the contrary, both the thin-layer defects and the thick-layer defects in the manipulation group were well repaired. The appearance of the regenerated tissues was close to the normal cartilage. The gap between regenerated tissue and normal tissue was disappeared and the regenerated tissue was well integrated with around tissues. HE staining showed that the regenerated tissues in the manipulation group were similar to hyaline cartilage. Safranin O staining showed that matrix stain of the regenerated tissues in the manipulation group was similar to the normal cartilage, but no stain was observed in the control group. The type ? collagen immunohistochemical staining showed that the color of the regenerated tissues was a little darker than that of the normal cartilage in the two kinds of defects in the manipulation group, and the two kinds of defects in the control group were little stained. The O’Driscoll cartilage scores of the two kinds of defects in the manipulation group were higher than those in the control group at different time points (P?0.01), but there were no differences in O’Driscoll scores in the manipulation group among the different time points.Conclusion: Manipulation therapy is effective in repairing the thick-layer and thin-layer articular cartilage defects. The regenerated tissue is constructed with hyaline cartilage.

Ling-hui DAI; Ning DU

2009-01-01

5

[Research on tissue engineered cartilage for repairing of articular cartilage damage and defects].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage damage is very common in clinical practices. Due to the low self healing abilities of articular cartilage, it must be repaired or substituted by implants once natural articular cartilage is damaged. On the other hand, the various technologies currently used for healing damaged articular cartilage are little satisfactory, and rarely restore full function or return the tissue to its natively normal state. Tissue engineering technology holds great promise for the healing of damage or defects of articular cartilage. Tissue engineered articular cartilage is one of the most promising methods for repairing articular cartilage trauma and defects. In this paper, the authors review the research progress of three elements such as seed cells, growth factors and scaffolds which constitute tissue engineered articular cartilage.

Pan Y; Ding G; Wang J

2013-04-01

6

[Research on tissue engineered cartilage for repairing of articular cartilage damage and defects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage damage is very common in clinical practices. Due to the low self healing abilities of articular cartilage, it must be repaired or substituted by implants once natural articular cartilage is damaged. On the other hand, the various technologies currently used for healing damaged articular cartilage are little satisfactory, and rarely restore full function or return the tissue to its natively normal state. Tissue engineering technology holds great promise for the healing of damage or defects of articular cartilage. Tissue engineered articular cartilage is one of the most promising methods for repairing articular cartilage trauma and defects. In this paper, the authors review the research progress of three elements such as seed cells, growth factors and scaffolds which constitute tissue engineered articular cartilage. PMID:23858775

Pan, Yusong; Ding, Guoxin; Wang, Jing

2013-04-01

7

Injectable gellan gum hydrogels with autologous cells for the treatment of rabbit articular cartilage defects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, the ability of gellan gum hydrogels coupled with autologous cells to regenerate rabbit full-thickness articular cartilage defects was tested. Five study groups were defined: (a) gellan gum with encapsulated chondrogenic predifferentiated rabbit adipose stem cells (ASC + GF); (b) gellan gum with encapsulated nonchondrogenic predifferentiated rabbit adipose stem cells (ASC); (c) gellan gum with encapsulated rabbit articular chondrocytes (AC) (standard control); (d) gellan gum alone (control); (e) empty defect (control). Full-thickness articular cartilage defects were created and the gellan gum constructs were injected and left for 8 weeks. The macroscopic aspect of the explants showed a progressive increase of similarity with the lateral native cartilage, stable integration at the defect site, more pronouncedly in the cell-loaded constructs. Tissue scoring showed that ASC + GF exhibited the best results regarding tissue quality progression. Alcian blue retrieved similar results with a better outcome for the cell-loaded constructs. Regarding real-time PCR analyses, ASC + GF had the best progression with an upregulation of collagen type II and aggrecan, and a downregulation of collagen type I. Gellan gum hydrogels combined with autologous cells constitute a promising approach for the treatment of articular cartilage defects, and adipose derived cells may constitute a valid alternative to currently used articular chondrocytes.

Oliveira JT; Gardel LS; Rada T; Martins L; Gomes ME; Reis RL

2010-09-01

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Transplantation of free tibial periosteal grafts for the repair of articular cartilage defect: An experimental study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Articular chondrocytes have got a long lifespan but rarely divides after maturity. Thus, an articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. Periosteal grafts have chondrogenic potential and have been used to repair defects in the articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differentiation of free periosteal grafts in the patellofemoral joint where the cambium layer faces the subchondral bone and to investigate the applicability of periosteal grafts in the reconstruction of articular surfaces. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of 1 year on 25 adult, male Indian rabbits after obtaining permission from the institutional animal ethical committee. A full-thickness osteochondral defect was created by shaving off the whole articular cartilage of the patella of the left knee. The defect thus created was grafted with free periosteal graft. The patella of the right knee was taken as a control where no grafting was done after shaving off the articular cartilage. The first animal was used to study the normal histology of the patellar articular cartilage and periosteum obtained from the medial surface of tibial condyle. Rest 24 animals were subjected to patellectomy, 4 each at serial intervals of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 weeks and the patellar articular surfaces were examined macroscopically and histologically. Results: The grafts got adherent to the underlying patellar articular surface at the end of 4 weeks. Microscopically, graft incorporation could be appreciated at 4 weeks. Mesenchymal cells of the cambium layer were seen differentiating into chondrocytes by the end of 4 weeks in four grafts (100%) and they were arranged in a haphazard manner. Till the end of 8 weeks, the cellular arrangement was mostly wooly. At 16 weeks, one graft (25%) had wooly arrangement of chondrocytes and three grafts (75%) had columnar formation of cells. Same percentage was maintained at 32 weeks. Four grafts (100%) at 48 weeks showed columnar orientation. The control side showed no changes over the shaved off articular surface in all the rabbits. One rabbit at 4 weeks had a dislocation of the patella on the control side. None of the rabbits developed any infection or wound dehiscence. Conclusion: Autologous periosteal graft transplantation can be a promising substitute for articular cartilaginous defects.

Singh Ravijot; Chauhan Vijendra; Chauhan Neena; Sharma Sansar

2009-01-01

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Hypereosinophilic syndrome appearing as a focal defect on liver scan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The case reported here is of a 34-year-old man diagnosed as having hypereosinophilic syndrome. Blood tests showed a large increase in the number of eosinophils and a slight increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. In scintigraphy of the liver with Tc-99m-phytate and with Ga-67-citrate, a focal defect was found in the outer part of the right lobe of the liver. Abdominal computed tomography showed a low density lesion in the same area. Histological inspection of the biopsy specimen showed heavy periportal infiltration with eosinophils. The results suggested that the focal defect seen in liver scintigraphy arose from a circulatory disturbance arising from infiltration by eosinophils. PMID:1797073

Shiomi, S; Kuroki, T; Ueda, T; Ikeoka, N; Kobayashi, K; Ochi, H

1991-11-01

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Hypereosinophilic syndrome appearing as a focal defect on liver scan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The case reported here is of a 34-year-old man diagnosed as having hypereosinophilic syndrome. Blood tests showed a large increase in the number of eosinophils and a slight increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. In scintigraphy of the liver with Tc-99m-phytate and with Ga-67-citrate, a focal defect was found in the outer part of the right lobe of the liver. Abdominal computed tomography showed a low density lesion in the same area. Histological inspection of the biopsy specimen showed heavy periportal infiltration with eosinophils. The results suggested that the focal defect seen in liver scintigraphy arose from a circulatory disturbance arising from infiltration by eosinophils.

Shiomi S; Kuroki T; Ueda T; Ikeoka N; Kobayashi K; Ochi H

1991-11-01

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Focal porta hepatis scintiscan defects: what is their significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A total of 537 consecutive liver /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintiscans were retrospectively reviewed and 80 of them revealed suspicious focal decreased activity in the region of the porta hepatis. Postmortem, surgical, or biopsy correlation was obtained in 40 of these cases: 14 were pathologically negative; 9, cirrhosis or fibrosis; 10, metastases; 3, dilated bile ducts; 1, viral hepatitis; 1, hepatic laceration; 1, falciform ligament cyst; and 1, ruptured gallbladder with abscessed head of the pancreas. Thus, only 42 percent represented significant disease. Sixty-eight percent of the defects were seen only on the anterior scintiscan. Appearance of the majority of defects was nonspecific. Subjective grading of defects according to size and comparative decrease in density was not beneficial. Elevations of serum alkaline phosphatase, total serum bilirubin, and serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase were nonspecific

1975-01-01

12

Preoperative MRI underestimates articular cartilage defect size compared with findings at arthroscopic knee surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used as a preoperative tool to estimate the size of articular cartilage defects to optimize treatment selection. However, the reliability of MRI sizing of cartilage defects is not well understood. Hypothesis/ PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to compare the size of knee articular cartilage defects on MRI to arthroscopic visualization after debridement. It was hypothesized that MRI sizing would produce measurements that were no different than those made during arthroscopic knee surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients (age [mean ± SD], 38 ± 10.7 years) who met inclusion criteria underwent preoperative knee MRI of at least 1.5 T within 1 year of arthroscopic knee surgery for a high-grade cartilage defect. Postdebridement defect sizes were obtained from intraoperative surgery notes and compared with retrospective MRI estimates. RESULTS: Ninety-two total cartilage defects were analyzed with an average of 1.2 high-grade defects per knee and average postdebridement defect area of 2.99 cm(2) per lesion (95% CI, 1.63-2.26 cm(2)). Preoperative MRI analysis estimated a lesion area that was an average of 1.04 cm(2) smaller (95% CI, 0.70-1.39 cm(2); P < .0001). In 74% of the lesions analyzed, defect size was larger on arthroscopic visualization than was estimated by MRI sizing. On average, MRI underestimated the defect area by 70% compared with arthroscopic visualization. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging underestimates the size of articular cartilage defects compared with final postdebridement size as measured during arthroscopic knee surgery. Thus, before arthroscopic surgery, orthopaedic surgeons should consider treatment strategies that are appropriate for a larger defect than predicted by preoperative MRI.

Campbell AB; Knopp MV; Kolovich GP; Wei W; Jia G; Siston RA; Flanigan DC

2013-03-01

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Modeling of constrained articular cartilage growth in an intact knee with focal knee resurfacing metal implant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to simulate the articular cartilage growth in an intact knee model with a metal implant replacing a degenerated portion of the femoral cartilage. The human knee joint was approximated with a simplified axisymmetric shape of the femoral condyle along with the cartilage, meniscus and bones. Two individually growing constituents (proteoglycans and collagen) bound to solid matrix were considered in the solid phase of the cartilage. The cartilage behavior was modeled with a nonlinear biphasic porohyperelastic material model, and meniscus with a transversely isotropic linear biphasic poroelastic material model. Two criteria (permeation and shear), both driven by mechanical loading, were considered to trigger the growth in the solid constituents. Mechanical loading with sixty heavy cycles was considered to represent daily walking activity. The growth algorithm was implemented for 90 days after implantation. The results from simulations show that both cartilage layers were more stimulated near the implant which lead to more growth of the cartilage near the defect. The method developed in the present work could be a powerful technique if more accurate material data and growth laws were available.

Manda K; Eriksson A

2013-08-01

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Microfracture technique in combination with intraarticular hyaluronic acid injection in articular cartilage defect regeneration in rabbit model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although articular hyaline cartilage typically has low potential for regeneration, numerous methods and techniques have been proposed to induce the reparation process. In our work, we used microfracture techniques in combination with intraarticular application of hyaluronic acid in rabbit knee articular cartilage defect. In comparison with the control group, after 6 and 10 weeks we observed a higher potential of healing in the experimental group, with thicker and more organized repair tissue filling the defect. In conclusion, a combination of the microfracture technique and application of hyaluronic acid might be potentially beneficial in inducing articular cartilage defect reparation.

Legovi? D; Zorihi? S; Gulan G; Tudor A; Prpi? T; Santi? V; Bobinac D; Sestan B; Miheli? R; Jurdana H

2009-06-01

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Preliminary results of a novel single-stage cartilage restoration technique: particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft for chondral defects of the patella.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings after use of particulated juvenile cartilage for the treatment of focal Outerbridge grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the patella. METHODS: From 2007 to 2011, 16 patients (2 bilateral) underwent a novel single-stage articular cartilage restoration procedure using particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft. We enrolled 15 knees (13 patients) in this study. The mean age at surgery was 26.4 ± 9.1 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up was 28.8 ± 10.2 months. A musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated each knee with postoperative MRI for the International Cartilage Repair Society cartilage repair assessment score, graft hypertrophy, bony changes around the graft, and percent fill of the defect. All patients also completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation, and Kujala clinical outcome survey (scale, 0 to 100), as well as the Tegner activity scale and visual analog pain scale (scale, 0 to 10). RESULTS: The mean International Cartilage Repair Society cartilage repair assessment score on MRI was 8.0 ± 2.8, a nearly normal assessment. Of 15 knees, 11 (73%) were found to have normal or nearly normal cartilage repair. Three patients had mild graft hypertrophy whereas 2 had gross graft hypertrophy, 2 of whom required arthroscopic debridement because of symptoms. The mean fill of the defect at follow-up was 89% ± 19.6%, with 12 of 15 knees (80%) showing at least 90% defect coverage. The mean clinical outcome score at follow-up was 73.3 ± 17.6 for the International Knee Documentation Committee evaluation, and the mean scores for each subdomain of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score were as follows: 84.2 ± 14.2 for pain, 85.0 ± 12.3 for symptoms and stiffness, 88.9 ± 12.9 for activities of daily living, 62.0 ± 25.1 for sports and recreation, and 60.8 ± 28.6 for quality of life. The median score for the Kujala survey was 79 (range, 55 to 99). The median score on the Tegner activity scale was 5 (range, 3 to 9), and the mean score on the visual analog scale was 1.9 ± 1.4, indicating minimal pain. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results suggest that cartilage restoration using particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft offers a viable option for patients with focal grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the patella. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.

Tompkins M; Hamann JC; Diduch DR; Bonner KF; Hart JM; Gwathmey FW; Milewski MD; Gaskin CM

2013-10-01

16

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering for Regenerative Repair of Articular Cartilage Defects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articular cartilage defects heal very poorly and lead to degenerative arthritis. Existing medications cannot promote healing process; cartilage defects eventually require surgical replacements with autografts. As there is not enough source of articular cartilage that can be donated for autografting, materials that promote cartilage regeneration are important in both research and clinical applications. Tissue engineering involves cell growth on biomaterial scaffolds in vitro. These cells are then injected into cartilage defects for biological in vivo regeneration of the cartilage tissue. This review aims first to provide a brief introduction to the types of materials in medicine (biomaterials), to their roles in treatment of diseases, and to design factors and general requirements of biomaterials. Then, it attempts to sum up the recent advances in engineering articular cartilage; one of the most challenging area of study in biomaterials based tissue engineering, as an example to the research on regenerative solutions to musculoskeletal problems with an emphasis on the biomaterials that have been developed as scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. The definitive goal on cartilage regeneration is to develop a system using biomimetic approach to produce cartilage tissue that mimics native tissue properties, provides rapid restoration of tissue function, and is clinically translatable. This is obviously an ambitious goal; however, significant progress have been made in recent years; and further advances in materials design and technology will pave the way for creating significantly custom-made cellular environment for cartilage regeneration.

Kâz?m Tur

2009-01-01

17

Surgical management of articular cartilage defects in the knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of isolated cartilage lesions of the knee is based on several underlying principles, including a predictable reduction in the patient's symptoms, improvements in function and joint congruence, and prevention of progressive damage. Surgical options for cartilage restoration are described as palliative treatments, such as débridement and lavage; reparative, such as marrow stimulation techniques; or restorative, such as osteochondral grafting and autologous chondrocyte implantation. The choice of an appropriate treatment should be made on an individual basis, with consideration for the patient's specific goals (such as pain reduction or functional improvement), physical demand level, prior treatment history, lesion size and location, and a systematic evaluation of the knee that considers comorbidities, including alignment, meniscal status, and ligament integrity. It is important for the physician to be familiar with the indications, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes of the available treatment options for chondral defects of the knee.

Cole BJ; Pascual-Garrido C; Grumet RC

2010-01-01

18

Surgical management of articular cartilage defects in the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of isolated cartilage lesions of the knee is based on several underlying principles, including a predictable reduction in the patient's symptoms, improvements in function and joint congruence, and prevention of progressive damage. Surgical options for cartilage restoration are described as palliative treatments, such as débridement and lavage; reparative, such as marrow stimulation techniques; or restorative, such as osteochondral grafting and autologous chondrocyte implantation. The choice of an appropriate treatment should be made on an individual basis, with consideration for the patient's specific goals (such as pain reduction or functional improvement), physical demand level, prior treatment history, lesion size and location, and a systematic evaluation of the knee that considers comorbidities, including alignment, meniscal status, and ligament integrity. It is important for the physician to be familiar with the indications, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes of the available treatment options for chondral defects of the knee. PMID:20415379

Cole, Brian J; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Grumet, Robert C

2010-01-01

19

Equine Articular Chondrocytes on MACT Scaffolds for Cartilage Defect Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of cartilage defects poses challenging problems in human and veterinary medicine, especially in horses. This study examines the suitability of applying scaffold materials similar to those used for human cartilage regeneration on equine chondrocytes. Chondrocytes gained from biopsies of the talocrural joint of three horses were propagated in 2D culture and grown on two different scaffold materials, hyaluronan (HYAFF(®) ) and collagen (BioGide(®) ), and evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The equine chondrocytes developed well in both types of materials. They were vital and physiologically highly active. On the surface of the scaffolds, they formed cell multilayers. Inside the hyaluronan web, the chondrocytes were regularly distributed and spanned the large scaffold fibre distances by producing their own matrix sheath. Half-circle-like depressions occasionally found in the cell membrane were probably related to movement on the flexible matrix sheath. Inside the dense collagen scaffold, only single cells were found. They passed through the scaffold strands by cell shape adaptation. This study showed that the examined scaffold materials can be used for equine chondrocyte cultivation. Chondrocytes tend to form multilayers on the surface of both, very dense and very porous scaffolds, and have strategies to span between and move in large gaps. PMID:23323689

Nürnberger, S; Meyer, C; Ponomarev, I; Barnewitz, D; Resinger, C; Klepal, W; Albrecht, C; Marlovits, S

2013-01-16

20

Equine Articular Chondrocytes on MACT Scaffolds for Cartilage Defect Treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treatment of cartilage defects poses challenging problems in human and veterinary medicine, especially in horses. This study examines the suitability of applying scaffold materials similar to those used for human cartilage regeneration on equine chondrocytes. Chondrocytes gained from biopsies of the talocrural joint of three horses were propagated in 2D culture and grown on two different scaffold materials, hyaluronan (HYAFF(®) ) and collagen (BioGide(®) ), and evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The equine chondrocytes developed well in both types of materials. They were vital and physiologically highly active. On the surface of the scaffolds, they formed cell multilayers. Inside the hyaluronan web, the chondrocytes were regularly distributed and spanned the large scaffold fibre distances by producing their own matrix sheath. Half-circle-like depressions occasionally found in the cell membrane were probably related to movement on the flexible matrix sheath. Inside the dense collagen scaffold, only single cells were found. They passed through the scaffold strands by cell shape adaptation. This study showed that the examined scaffold materials can be used for equine chondrocyte cultivation. Chondrocytes tend to form multilayers on the surface of both, very dense and very porous scaffolds, and have strategies to span between and move in large gaps.

Nürnberger S; Meyer C; Ponomarev I; Barnewitz D; Resinger C; Klepal W; Albrecht C; Marlovits S

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

A prospective comparison between Kapandji and percutaneous extra-focal fixation in extra articular distal radius fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: there are multiple methods of distal radius fractures treatments. Of these percutaneous wire insertion has yielded popular acceptance. These percutaneous wire insertions can be done through many different ways with their own advantages and disadvantages. One of these methods is Kapandji method and because of its inherent stability in biomechanical examinations we suppose that we can begin the range of motion sooner than other methods with the hope of better outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2012 we studied 45 patients, of these 23 went under extra-focal technique and 22 went under Kapandji technique. After Kapandji we immobilized the limb in splint for 4 weeks and started partial motion thereafter and in the extra-focal group we immobilized them in for 6 weeks in long arm casts. RESULTS: After 3 months and 6 months we assess the Gartland and Warley score and find 39% and 73% excellent and good result in extra-focal and 45% and 86% excellent and good result in Kapandji group after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Although there were about 0.22 mm collapse in both groups, here were no statistically significant differences in functional score or radiologic and anatomic parameters between groups. CONCLUSION: we have find Kapandji technique a suitable method of distal radius fracture fixation in cases with no articular involvement and we think it is better to immobilize the limb for at least 6 weeks after Kapandji fixation, in order to better control the pain.

Mirhamidi SM; Bayat FM

2013-01-01

22

[Immunological investigation of repair of articular cartilage defects with allogeneic chondrocytes in porcins].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunological reaction and the outcome of allogeneic chondrocyte transplantation in repairing articular cartilage defects in porcins. METHODS: Full articular cartilage from the knee of two Shanghai white porcins about one-month-old was removed and cut mechanically, digested by 0.25% trypsin and 0.2% type II collagenase and cultured in 10% DMEM medium. Defects of 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm involving the subchodral bone were created in both the left and right femur condyloid in 8 two-month-old Yunnai bama porcins. Allogeneic chondrocyte transplantation were implanted in defects at a density of (1.0-2.0) x 10(6), 0.2 ml. The lymphocytes from the receivers' blood were collected before transplantation and after 3, 5, 7 and 12 weeks of transplantation, then mixed with allogeneic chondrocytes to determin the lymphocyte stimulation index(SI) in vitro. The histological observation in vivo was made after 5, 7 and 24 weeks of transplantation. RESULTS: Lymphocyte SI at 3, 5, 7 and 12 weeks (1.457 +/- 0.062, 1.739 +/- 0.142, 1.548 +/- 0.047, 1.216 +/- 0.028) after transplantation was higher than that before transplantation (1.102 +/- 0.034, P<0.05). SI began to increase in the 3rd week and reached the peak value in the 5th week, then gradually declined at the 7th and 12th weeks, showing significant differences when compared with in the 5th week (P< 0.05). Inflammation and lymphocytes infiltration could be seen in subchondral bone and the intergration area between repair tissue and normal cartilage in the 5th week, and then decreased and limited in subchondral bone in the 7th week. Defects were filled with cartilage tissue, which had good intergration with subchondral bone at 24 weeks after transplantation. CONCLUSION: Immunological reactions can be found at early stage of allogeneic chondrocyte transplantation and then decreased with the time, the full-thickness articular cartilage defects could be repaired mainly with hyaline cartilage by the allogeneic chondrocyte transplantation. This may provide a new method to repair articular cartilage defects clinically.

Cai W; Tang T; Zhang X

2007-11-01

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Parathyroid hormone [1-34] improves articular cartilage surface architecture and integration and subchondral bone reconstitution in osteochondral defects in vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The 1-34 amino acid segment of the parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) mediates anabolic effects in chondrocytes and osteocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether systemic application of PTH [1-34] improves the repair of non-osteoarthritic, focal osteochondral defects in vivo. DESIGN: Standardized cylindrical osteochondral defects were bilaterally created in the femoral trochlea of rabbits (n = 8). Daily subcutaneous injections of 10 ?g PTH [1-34]/kg were given to the treatment group (n = 4) for 6 weeks, controls (n = 4) received saline. Articular cartilage repair was evaluated by macroscopic, biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Reconstitution of the subchondral bone was assessed by micro-computed tomography. Effects of PTH [1-34] on synovial membrane, apoptosis, and expression of the PTH receptor (PTH1R) were determined. RESULTS: Systemic PTH [1-34] increased PTH1R expression on both, chondrocytes and osteocytes within the repair tissue. PTH [1-34] ameliorated the macro- and microscopic aspect of the cartilaginous repair tissue. It also enhanced the thickness of the subchondral bone plate and the microarchitecture of the subarticular spongiosa within the defects. No significant correlations were established between these coexistent processes. Apoptotic levels, synovial membrane, biochemical composition of the repair tissue, and type-I/II collagen immunoreactivity remained unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: PTH [1-34] emerges as a promising agent in the treatment of focal osteochondral defects as its systemic administration simultaneously stimulates articular cartilage and subchondral bone repair. Importantly, both time-dependent mechanisms of repair did not correlate significantly at this early time point and need to be followed over prolonged observation periods.

Orth P; Cucchiarini M; Zurakowski D; Menger MD; Kohn DM; Madry H

2013-04-01

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Trends in the surgical treatment of articular cartilage defects of the knee in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate trends in surgical treatment of articular cartilage defects of the knee in the United States. METHODS: The current procedural terminology (CPT) billing codes of patients undergoing articular cartilage procedures of the knee were searched using the PearlDiver Patient Record Database, a national database of insurance billing records. The CPT codes for chondroplasty, microfracture, osteochondral autograft, osteochondral allograft, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) were searched. RESULTS: A total of 163,448 articular cartilage procedures of the knee were identified over a 6-year period. Microfracture and chondroplasty accounted for over 98 % of cases. There was no significant change in the incidence of cartilage procedures noted from 2004 (1.27 cases per 10,000 patients) to 2009 (1.53 cases per 10,000 patients) (p = 0.06). All procedures were performed more commonly in males (p < 0.001). This gender difference was smallest in patients undergoing chondroplasty (51 % males and 49 % females) and greatest for open osteochondral allograft (61 % males and 39 % females). Chondroplasty and microfracture were most commonly performed in patients aged 40-59, while all other procedures were performed most frequently in patients <40 years old (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Articular cartilage lesions of the knee are most commonly treated with microfracture or chondroplasty in the United States. Chondroplasty and microfracture were most often performed in middle-aged patients, whereas osteochondral autograft, allograft, and ACI were performed in younger patients, and more frequently in males. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Cross-sectional study, Level IV.

Montgomery SR; Foster BD; Ngo SS; Terrell RD; Wang JC; Petrigliano FA; McAllister DR

2013-07-01

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Autologous chondrocyte implantation for full thickness articular cartilage defects of the knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Treatments for managing articular cartilage defects of the knee, including drilling and abrasion arthroplasty, are not always effective. When they are, long-term benefits may not be maintained and osteoarthritis may develop. An alternative is autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), the surgical implantation of healthy cartilage cells into the damaged areas. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of ACI in people with full thickness articular cartilage defects of the knee. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (3 December 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to November Week 3 2008), EMBASE (1980 to Week 48 2008), SPORTDiscus (3 December 2008), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (4 December 2008), and Current Controlled Trials (3 December 2008). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing ACI with any other type of treatment (including no treatment or placebo) for symptomatic cartilage defects of the medial or lateral femoral condyle, femoral trochlea or patella. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors selected studies for inclusion independently. We assessed risk of bias based on adequacy of the randomisation and allocation concealment process, potential for selection bias after allocation and level of masking. We did not pool data due to clinical and methodological heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: Six heterogeneous trials were identified with 431 participants. Methodological flaws of the included trials included incomplete follow-up and inadequate reporting of outcomes. Three trials compared ACI versus mosaicplasty. One reported statistically significant results in favour of ACI at one year in the numbers of people with 'good' or 'excellent' functional results. Conversely, another trial found significant improvement for the mosaicplasty group when assessed using one functional scoring system at two years, but no statistically significant differences based on two other scoring systems. A third trial found no difference between ACI and mosaicplasty, 10 months on average after the surgery.There was no statistically significant difference in functional outcomes at two years in single trials comparing ACI with microfracture or characterised chondrocyte implantation versus microfracture. The results of the sixth trial comparing matrix-guided ACI versus microfracture were undermined by the severe loss to follow-up. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the use of ACI for treating full thickness articular cartilage defects in the knee. Further good quality randomised controlled trials with long-term functional outcomes are required.

Vasiliadis HS; Wasiak J

2010-01-01

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Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the dist (more) al femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

Sotoudeh, Amir; Jahanshahi, Amirali; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Bazazan, Ali; Ganjali, Amin; Harati, Maryam Pourramezani

2013-05-01

27

Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

Amir Sotoudeh; Amirali Jahanshahi; Mohammad Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi; Ali Bazazan; Amin Ganjali; Maryam Pourramezani Harati

2013-01-01

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Formation of cartilage from rib perichondrium grafted to an articular defect in the femur condyle of the rabbit.  

Science.gov (United States)

In immature and adult rabbits perichondrium from the rib was autologously grafted to a surgically created defect of the articular surface of the femur condyles exposing the subchondral bone. After one week of immobilization the animals were allowed to move freely until sacrifice after 7 and 13 weeks. In all grafted cases newly formed cartilage of a hyalin appearance filled the defect. Using the technique of intraarticular administration of tritiated thymidine, mitotic activity was found in the superficial zone of the regenerated cartilage indicating that the proliferation of cells is initiated from the perichondrium. In control cases where no graft covered the defect no cartilage was found. PMID:542809

Engkvist, O; Wilander, E

1979-01-01

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Focal lamina cribrosa defects associated with glaucomatous rim thinning and acquired pits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IMPORTANCE: Considering the potential clinical importance of focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defects as a characteristic structural feature in glaucoma and a risk factor for glaucomatous visual field progression, it may be helpful to know the structure of focal LC defects and the spatial relationship between them and glaucomatous optic disc changes such as neuroretinal rim thinning/notching and acquired pits of the optic nerve (APON). OBJECTIVE: To investigate structural and spatial relationships between focal LC defects and glaucomatous neuroretinal rim thinning/notching and APON. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional analysis of data from an ongoing, prospective, longitudinal study, serial enhanced-depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images of the optic nerve head were obtained from patients with glaucoma and reviewed for focal LC defects (laminar holes or disinsertions). Anterior laminar insertion points and edges of laminar holes or disinsertions were marked in EDI-OCT images, reconstructed 3-dimensionally, and superimposed on optic disc photographs. SETTING: A glaucoma referral practice. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred thirty-nine eyes (120 patients) were examined. Fifty-four eyes were excluded because of an incomplete horizontal or vertical set of serial EDI-OCT images or poor-quality EDI-OCT images owing to media opacity, irregular tear film, or poor patient cooperation. Among the remaining 185 eyes, 40 (from 31 patients) had laminar holes or disinsertions and were included for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence, extent, and location of laminar holes or disinsertions. RESULTS: Among 185 eyes, 11 laminar holes and 36 laminar disinsertions were found in 40 eyes. Superimposed images of the 3-dimensionally reconstructed focal LC defects and disc photographs showed that the outline of the LC defect corresponded almost precisely to that of clinical APON for 6 laminar holes and that the LC defect was much larger than and enclosed APON for 10 laminar disinsertions. The remaining 5 laminar holes and 26 laminar disinsertions corresponded to focal neuroretinal rim loss, with no evidence of APON in disc photographs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Focal LC defects (laminar holes or disinsertions) are associated with neuroretinal rim loss and APON. The extent of LC defects can be visualized more effectively on EDI-OCT images than by clinical examination.

You JY; Park SC; Su D; Teng CC; Liebmann JM; Ritch R

2013-03-01

30

Evaluation of the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects filled with autologous exogenous fibrin clot: An experimental study in the shoulder joint of dogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine whether the optimizing effect of an exogenous fibrin clot in the repair of full–thickness articular cartilage defects is valid when joint motions are restricted, standard osteochondral defects were constituted in the articular surface of the humeral head in 16 adult dogs. The defects in 8 dogs were packed with fibrin clots that had been prepared exogenously from each animal and the defects of the other animals were left empty. The operated limbs were inactivated for 2 weeks postoperatively and the healing response was then examined using routine histology at 2, 4, 8 and 12-week intervals. Although the clot-filled and control (empty) defects initially healed through proliferation of fibrous connective tissue; the clot-filled defects finally modulated into fibrocartilage with completed subchondral bone formation. The clot-filled defects demonstrated a more advanced reparative tissue which was congruent with the intact articular surface from 4 weeks after the intervention.

Avki S.; Izci C.

2003-01-01

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Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron™) implantation for treatment of articular cartilage defects of the knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron™) implantations have been used for several years without using periosteum or membrane. This study involves evaluations of the clinical results of Chondron™ at many clinical centers at various time points during the postoperative patient follow-up. Methods Data from 98 patients with articular cartilage injury of the knee joint and who underwent Chondron™ implantation at ten Korean hospitals between January 2005 and November 2008, were included and were divided into two groups based on the patient follow-up period, i.e. 13~24-month follow-up and greater than 25-month follow-up. The telephone Knee Society Score obtained during telephone interviews with patients, was used as the evaluation tool. Results On the tKSS-A (telephone Knee Society Score-A), the score improved from 43.52 ± 20.20 to 89.71 ± 13.69 (P Conclusion Gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation for chondral knee defects appears to be a safe and effective method for both decreasing pain and improving knee function.

Choi Nam-Yong; Kim Byoung-Woo; Yeo Woo-Jin; Kim Haeng-Boo; Suh Dong-Sam; Kim Jin-Soo; Kim Yoon-Sik; Seo Yong-Ho; Cho Jea-Yeong; Chun Chung-Woo; Park Hyun-Shin; Shetty Asode; Kim Seok-Jung

2010-01-01

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Reentrant and focal activations during atrial fibrillation in patients with atrial septal defect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Adult patients with atrial septal defect frequently experience atrial fibrillation. However, the electrophysiologic mechanism has not been directly examined, and the optimal surgical procedure has not been determined. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing operations for atrial septal defect and atrial fibrillation underwent intraoperative mapping by use of 253 epicardial electrodes. There were 7 men and 3 women, whose average age was 54 ± 11 years. Eight patients had a secundum defect and 2 a primum defect. There were 4 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 6 with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. A modified biatrial Maze procedure was performed in 6 patients and pulmonary vein isolation with no other left atrial lesions in 4. RESULTS: The reentrant or focal activations driving atrial fibrillation were confined within the right atrium in all patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, whereas multiple focal activations arising from the pulmonary veins or posterior left atrium and reentrant activations in the left atrium were observed in 5 of 6 patients with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. In 9 patients, sinus rhythm was restored postoperatively and 8 of those patients have been free of any atrial fibrillation during a follow-up period of 94 ± 45 months. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of the atrial activation during atrial fibrillation correlated with the type of atrial fibrillation and varied from a simple right atrial reentry to complex reentrant and focal activations in the left atrium.

Nitta T; Sakamoto S; Miyagi Y; Fujii M; Ishii Y; Ochi M

2013-10-01

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One-stage focal cartilage defect treatment with bone marrow mononuclear cells and chondrocytes leads to better macroscopic cartilage regeneration compared to microfracture in goats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The combination of chondrocytes and mononuclear fraction (MNF) cells might solve the expansion induced dedifferentiation problem of reimplanted cells in autologous chondrocytes implantation as sufficient cells would be available for direct, one-stage, implantation. Earlier in vitro work already showed a positive stimulation of cartilage specific matrix production when chondrocytes and MNF cells were combined. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate cartilage regeneration using a one-stage procedure combining MNF cells and primary chondrocytes for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions in goats compared to microfracture treatment. DESIGN: Freshly created focal cartilage defects were treated with either a combination of chondrocytes and MNF cells embedded in fibrin glue or microfracture treatment. After 6 months follow-up local regeneration as well as the general joint cartilage health were evaluated using validated scores and biochemical assays. RESULTS: Macroscopic (P = 0.015) scores for the cartilage surface at the treated defect were, after 6 months, significantly higher for the chondrocyteMNF treatment compared to microfracture-treated defects, but microscopic scores were not (P = 0.067). The articulating cartilage showed more (P = 0.005) degeneration following microfracture treatment compared to chondrocyteMNF treatment. Biochemical glycosaminoglycans (GAG) evaluation did not reveal differences between the treatments. Both treatments had resulted in a slight to moderate cartilage degeneration at other locations in the joint. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, treatment of focal articular cartilage lesions in goats using a combination of MNF cells from bone marrow and unexpanded chondrocytes leads to better macroscopic regeneration compared to microfracture, however needs further fine-tuning to decrease the negative influence on other joint compartments.

Bekkers JE; Creemers LB; Tsuchida AI; van Rijen MH; Custers RJ; Dhert WJ; Saris DB

2013-07-01

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Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.)[de] Zur Behandlung umschriebener Defekte des artikulaeren Kniegelenkgelenkknorpels wird der Einsatz autologer Knorpelzellen zunehmend als neue biologische Methode empfohlen. Die Technik der autologen Chondrozytentransplantation (ACT) und deren Modifikationen als matrixassoziierte autologe Chondrozytentransplantation (MACT) werden dargestellt. Es erfolgt ein Ueberblick ueber die experimentellen und klinischen Ergebnisse mit der Darstellung der haeufigsten Komplikationen und den derzeit gueltigen Indikationsrichtlinien. Unter Verwendung qualitativ hochwertiger Zellen zeigen besonders posttraumatische Knorpeldefekte bei juengeren Patienten eine hohe Erfolgsquote mit der Ausbildung eines hyalinartigen Regeneratgewebes. Die haeufigsten Komplikationen der ACT sind Periosthypertrophie, Delamination des Transplantats, intraartikulaere Adhaesionen und Transplantatversagen. Die derzeit wichtigsten Limitierungen stellen die Osteoarthrose und ein hoeheres Patientenalter dar. Bei richtiger Indikationsstellung und operativer Technik kann die ACT als effiziente und sichere Therapieoption fuer die Behandlung grosser und tiefer Knorpeldefekte des Kniegelenks angesehen werden. (orig.)

2004-01-01

35

ICRS Recommendation Document : Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments for Use in Patients with Articular Cartilage Defects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend patient-reported outcome instruments for use in patients with articular cartilage lesions undergoing cartilage repair interventions. Methods: Nonsystematic literature search identifying measures addressing pain and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic requirements for reliability, validity, and responsiveness in cartilage repair patients. A major difference between them is that the former results in a single score and the latter results in 5 subscores. A single score is preferred for simplicity’s sake, whereas subscores allow for evaluation of separate constructs at all levels according to the International Classification of Functioning. Conclusions: Because there is no obvious superiority of either instrument at this time, both outcome measures are recommended for use in cartilage repair. Rescaling of the Lysholm Scoring Scale has been suggested, and confirmatory longitudinal studies are needed prior to recommending this scale for use in cartilage repair. Inclusion of a generic measure is feasible in cartilage repair studies and allows analysis of health-related quality of life and health economic outcomes. The Marx or Tegner Activity Rating Scales are feasible and have been evaluated in patients with knee injuries. However, activity measures require age and sex adjustment, and data are lacking in people with cartilage repair.

Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella

2011-01-01

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Regeneration of articular cartilage of the knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cartilage therapy for focal articular lesions of the knee has been implemented for more than a decade, and it is becoming increasingly available. What do we know on the healing response of cartilage lesions? What do we know on the treatment of focal cartilage lesions of the knee and the prognostic factors involved? PubMed articles related to articular cartilage regeneration of the knee in clinical studies were searched from January 2006 to November 2012, using the following key words: articular cartilage, regeneration, clinical studies, and knee. A total of 44 reports were found. They showed the following possibilities for the treatment of focal lesions of the articular cartilage of the knee: cartilage regeneration and repair including cartilage reparation with gene-activated matrices, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and matrix-induced ACI (MACI), microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer (mosaicplasty), biological approaches (scaffolds, mesenchymal stem cells-MSCs, platelet-rich plasma, growing factors-GF, bone morphogenetic proteins-BMPs, magnetically labeled synovium-derived cells-M-SDCs, and elastic-like polypeptide gels), osteotomies, stem-cell-coated titanium implants, and chondroprotection with pulsed electromagnetic fields. Untreated cartilage lesions on the femoral condyles had a superior healing response compared to those on the tibial plateaus, and in the patellofemoral joint. Clinical outcome regarding the treatment of medial defects is better than that of the lateral defects. Improvement from baseline was better for patients < or = 30 years compared with patients > or = 30 years. ACI, MACI, and mosaicplasty have shown similar results. The results of comparative clinical studies using ACI have shown some superiority over conventional microfracturing in medium or large defects and in long-term durability. Some biological methods such as scaffolds, MSCs, GF, M-SDCs, BMPs, and elastic-like polypeptide gels still need more research.

Rodriguez-Merchan EC

2013-04-01

37

Regeneration of articular cartilage of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cartilage therapy for focal articular lesions of the knee has been implemented for more than a decade, and it is becoming increasingly available. What do we know on the healing response of cartilage lesions? What do we know on the treatment of focal cartilage lesions of the knee and the prognostic factors involved? PubMed articles related to articular cartilage regeneration of the knee in clinical studies were searched from January 2006 to November 2012, using the following key words: articular cartilage, regeneration, clinical studies, and knee. A total of 44 reports were found. They showed the following possibilities for the treatment of focal lesions of the articular cartilage of the knee: cartilage regeneration and repair including cartilage reparation with gene-activated matrices, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and matrix-induced ACI (MACI), microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer (mosaicplasty), biological approaches (scaffolds, mesenchymal stem cells-MSCs, platelet-rich plasma, growing factors-GF, bone morphogenetic proteins-BMPs, magnetically labeled synovium-derived cells-M-SDCs, and elastic-like polypeptide gels), osteotomies, stem-cell-coated titanium implants, and chondroprotection with pulsed electromagnetic fields. Untreated cartilage lesions on the femoral condyles had a superior healing response compared to those on the tibial plateaus, and in the patellofemoral joint. Clinical outcome regarding the treatment of medial defects is better than that of the lateral defects. Improvement from baseline was better for patients or = 30 years. ACI, MACI, and mosaicplasty have shown similar results. The results of comparative clinical studies using ACI have shown some superiority over conventional microfracturing in medium or large defects and in long-term durability. Some biological methods such as scaffolds, MSCs, GF, M-SDCs, BMPs, and elastic-like polypeptide gels still need more research. PMID:23263546

Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

2012-12-23

38

A Comparison of Patella Retention versus Resurfacing for Moderate or Severe Patellar Articular Defects in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Minimum 5-year Follow-up Results  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical and radiological results of patients who underwent patellar retention or resurfacing for moderate or severe patellar articular defects during total knee arthroplasty and evaluate the clinical efficacy of patellar resurfacing according to the articular defect of the patella. Materials and Methods From May 2003 to March 2006, 252 patients (277 cases) underwent total knee arthroplasty by one surgeon. Intraoperatively, we divided these patients into a moderate articular defect group (50-75%: group I) and a severe articular defect group (75-100%: group II) and randomly performed patellar resurfacing. The average age was 67.2 years. There were 234 female and 17 male patients. The average follow-up period was 74.6 months. Clinical outcomes were analyzed using the Knee Society (KS) knee score. Functional score, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score, Feller patellar score and range of motion (ROM). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using the congruence angle, Insall-Salvati ratio and patella tilt angle. Results The KS knee score and functional score at the last follow-up were 84.4/73.1 in the retention group and 85.2/71.8 in the resurfacing group (p=0.80, p=0.63) in group I. In group II, the values were 82.1/75.1 and 87.0/71.2, respectively (p=0.51, p=0.26). The HSS score and Feller patella score were 86.7/20.3 in the retention group and 84.3/21.7 in the resurfacing group (p=0.31, p=0.29) in group I. In group II, the values were 91.6/21.2 and 85.5/22.1, respectively (p=0.37/p=0.30). The knee ROM (p=0.36/p=0.41), congruence angle (p=0.22/p=0.16), Insall-Salvati ratio (p=0.16/p=0.21) and patella tilt angle (p=0.12/p=0.19) were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions In this study, we could not find any correlations between the degree of patellar articular defect and patellar resurfacing in terms of the clinical and radiological results. Therefore, patellar articular defects is thought to be less meaningful in determining patellar resurfacing.

Seo, Seung Suk; Moon, Sang Won

2011-01-01

39

A Comparison of Patella Retention versus Resurfacing for Moderate or Severe Patellar Articular Defects in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Minimum 5-year Follow-up Results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical and radiological results of patients who underwent patellar retention or resurfacing for moderate or severe patellar articular defects during total knee arthroplasty and evaluate the clinical efficacy of patellar resurfacing according to the articular defect of the patella. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2003 to March 2006, 252 patients (277 cases) underwent total knee arthroplasty by one surgeon. Intraoperatively, we divided these patients into a moderate articular defect group (50-75%: group I) and a severe articular defect group (75-100%: group II) and randomly performed patellar resurfacing. The average age was 67.2 years. There were 234 female and 17 male patients. The average follow-up period was 74.6 months. Clinical outcomes were analyzed using the Knee Society (KS) knee score. Functional score, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score, Feller patellar score and range of motion (ROM). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using the congruence angle, Insall-Salvati ratio and patella tilt angle. RESULTS: The KS knee score and functional score at the last follow-up were 84.4/73.1 in the retention group and 85.2/71.8 in the resurfacing group (p=0.80, p=0.63) in group I. In group II, the values were 82.1/75.1 and 87.0/71.2, respectively (p=0.51, p=0.26). The HSS score and Feller patella score were 86.7/20.3 in the retention group and 84.3/21.7 in the resurfacing group (p=0.31, p=0.29) in group I. In group II, the values were 91.6/21.2 and 85.5/22.1, respectively (p=0.37/p=0.30). The knee ROM (p=0.36/p=0.41), congruence angle (p=0.22/p=0.16), Insall-Salvati ratio (p=0.16/p=0.21) and patella tilt angle (p=0.12/p=0.19) were not statistically different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we could not find any correlations between the degree of patellar articular defect and patellar resurfacing in terms of the clinical and radiological results. Therefore, patellar articular defects is thought to be less meaningful in determining patellar resurfacing.

Seo SS; Kim CW; Moon SW

2011-09-01

40

Cultured articular chondrocytes sheets for partial thickness cartilage defects utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage has several functions that are unique to joints. Although a technique for transplanting cultured chondrocytes has already been introduced, it is difficult to collect intact ECM when using enzymes to harvest samples. Temperature-responsive culture dishes have already been clinically applied in the fields of myocardial and corneal transplantation. Earlier studies have shown that a sheet of cultured cells with intact ECM and adhesive factors can be harvested using such culture dishes, which allow the surface properties of the dish to be reversibly altered by changing the temperature. Human chondrocytes were subjected to enzymatic digestion and then were seeded in temperature-responsive culture dishes. A sheet of chondrocytes was harvested by only reducing the temperature after the cultured cells reached confluency. A real-time PCR analysis of the chondrocyte sheets confirmed that type II collagen, aggrecan, and fibronectin were present. These results suggested that, although chondrocytes undergo dedifferentiation in a monolayer culture, multilayer chondrocyte sheets grown in a similar environment to that of three-dimensional culture may be able to maintain a normal phenotype. A histological examination suggested that multilayer chondrocyte sheets could thus prevent the loss of proteoglycans because the area covered by the sheets was well stained by safranin-O. The present experiments suggested that temperature-responsive culture dishes are useful for obtaining cultured chondrocytes, which may then be clinically employed as a substitute for periosteal patches because such sheets can be applied without a scaffold.

N Kaneshiro; M Sato; M Ishihara; G Mitani; H Sakai; T Kikuchi; J Mochida

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Stereological analysis of subchondral angiogenesis induced by chitosan and coagulation factors in microdrilled articular cartilage defects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Cartilage repair elicited by bone marrow stimulation can be enhanced by a chitosan-glycerol phosphate (GP)/blood implant, through mechanisms involving therapeutic inflammatory angiogenesis. The implant is formed by in situ coagulation, which can be accelerated by adding coagulation factors. We hypothesized that coagulation factors enhance acute subchondral angiogenesis in repairing drilled defects. DESIGN: Full-thickness cartilage defects were created bilaterally in 12 skeletally mature rabbit knee trochlea, microdrilled, then allowed to bleed as a control (N = 6) or treated with chitosan-GP/blood implant (N = 6), or implant solidified with thrombin (IIa), tissue factor (TF) with recombinant human factor VIIa (rhFVIIa), or rhFVIIa alone (N = 4 each condition). At 3 weeks post-operative, quantitative stereology was used to obtain blood vessel length (L(V)), surface (S(V)), and volume (V(V)) density at systematic depths in two microdrill holes per defect. Collagen type I, type II and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) percent stain in non-mineralized repair tissue were analysed by histomorphometry. RESULTS: All drill holes were healing, and showed a depth-dependent increase in granulation tissue blood vessel density (Lv, Sv, and Vv, P < 0.005). Residual chitosan implant locally suppressed blood vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue, whereas holes completely cleared of chitosan amplified angiogenesis vs microdrill-only (P = 0.049), an effect enhanced by IIa. Chitosan implant suppressed strong Col-I, Col-II, and GAG accumulation that occurred spontaneously in drill-only bone defects (P < 0.005) and coagulation factors did not alter this effect. CONCLUSIONS: Subchondral angiogenesis is promoted by chitosan implant clearance. Chitosan implant treatment suppresses fibrocartilage scar tissue formation, and promotes bone remodeling, which allows more blood vessel migration and woven bone repair towards the cartilage lesion area.

Mathieu C; Chevrier A; Lascau-Coman V; Rivard GE; Hoemann CD

2013-06-01

42

Articular cartilage defect detectability in human knees with MR-arthrography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One hundred and thirteen knee joints were examined, of which 48 showed damage of the hyaline cartilage in one or more locations. For the evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) arthrographic images we used the macroscopic staging according to Outerbridge, the defect staging according to Bauer, as well as a new MR-arthrographic staging. The results of the evaluation were compared with the surgical findings in 61 knee joints. This revealed a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 90 %. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. (orig.)

Engel, A. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kramer, J. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Stiglbauer, R. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Hajek, P.C. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Imhof, H. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

1993-04-01

43

Repair of articular cartilage defect with layered chondrocyte sheets and cultured synovial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigate the effects of treatment with layered chondrocyte sheets and synovial cell transplantation. An osteochondral defect was created of 48 Japanese white rabbits. In order to determine the effects of treatment, the following 6 groups were produced: (A) synovial cells (1.8 × 10(6) cells), (B)layered chondrocyte sheets (1.7 × 10(6) cells), (C) synovial cells (3.0 × 10(5) cells) + layered chondrocyte sheets, (D)synovial cells (6.0 × 10(5) cells) + layered chondrocyte sheets, (E)synovial cells (1.2 × 10(6) cells) + layered chondrocyte sheets, (F) osteochondral defect. Layered chondrocyte sheets and synovial cells were transplanted, sacrificed four and 12 weeks postoperatively. An incapacitance tester (Linton) was used to find trends in the weight distribution ratio of the damaged limbs after surgery. Sections were stained with Safranin-O. Repair sites were evaluated using ICRS grading system. In groups (A) to (E), the damaged limb weight distribution ratio had improved. The repair tissue stained positively with Safranin-O. Four and 12 weeks after surgery, groups (A) to (E) exhibited significantly higher scores than group (F), and groups (D) and (E) exhibited significantly higher scores than groups (A) and (B). This suggests the efficacy of combining layered chondrocyte sheets with synovial cells. PMID:22551484

Ito, Satoshi; Sato, Masato; Yamato, Masayuki; Mitani, Genya; Kutsuna, Toshiharu; Nagai, Toshihiro; Ukai, Taku; Kobayashi, Miyuki; Kokubo, Mami; Okano, Teruo; Mochida, Joji

2012-04-30

44

Tissue Engineering Based Therapy for Articular Cartilage Defects - A New Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue in diarthrodial joints, when damaged due to trauma could lead to osteoarthritis. At present Autologous Cartilage Implantation is an established method in which patients own chondrocytes are isolated and then implanted after in vitro expansion over the affected area with bovine or porcine collagen matrix. This procedure results in more of Collagen Type I during in vitro expansion, which eventually becomes fibrocartilage. Also it requires growth factors. We have in this study tried growing human Chondrocytes without growth factors using synthetic scaffolds to grow more Collagen Type II Materials and Methods: Human cartilage specimens were harvested through arthroscopy from the non-weight bearing area of the knee joint from 13 patients who underwent surgical procedures of the knee joint after getting their informed consent. The tissues were transported in saline taking 1 hour to laboratory and subjected to digestion with Collagenase type II for 16~18 Hrs. The chondrocyte cells obtained after dissociation were divided into two groups for culture. Gr. I were embedded in a Thermogelation polymer (TGP) and Gr. II in basal culture media (DMEM + Ascorbic Acid) without using any growth factors. The Group II cells were viable only for 4 weeks and then started degenerating. The TGP-Chondrocytes scaffolds were grown for 16 weeks and the specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 and 16-week intervals and their morphology and molecular characteristics were studied by H&E staining, S-100 protein analysis and RT-PCR.Results: Human chondrocytes could be cultured in both TGP (group I) and Basal culture media (group II). The Gr. I cells were viable upto the 16th week while the Group II chondrocytes started degenerating after the 4 week. Both the groups were proven positive for S-100 protein, a Chondrocyte specific marker protein; Gr. II specimens after 4 weeks, and Gr. I specimens after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. RT-PCR study of the cells of group I were positive for TGF beta 3 (Proliferation, differentiation, and other functions), GR beta, GR alpha (Development, metabolism and immune Response) (glucocorticoid receptor alpha), AGGF (Apoptosis), VDR (Vitamin D3 Receptor), Col II (Type II Collagen). Conclusion: We have established a methodology by which Human chondrocytes could be cultured in vitro without any growth factors for a period of 16 weeks in a polymer-hydrogel scaffold. Upon further confirmation of their characteristics, the TGP grown chondrocytes can be used for autologous implantation to repair damaged cartilage area as the Collagen Type II which grows better without growth factors in the scaffold, eventually will become Hyaline cartilage is expected to give a longer disease free duration than the present method of ACI.

Arumugam S; Manjunath S; Abraham S

2007-01-01

45

Osteochondral allografts: applications in treating articular cartilage defects in the knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chondral injury in the knee is a unique challenge to the ortho-paedic surgeon. Given the high probability of progression to knee arthrosis, the treatment of symptomatic cartilage defects of the knee has become an important surgical intervention in young, active patients. The demand for an alternative to prosthetic resurfacing has driven the trend towards biologic resurfacing and joint preservation. Osteochondral allografts are composed of hyaline cartilage attached to subchondral bone and are suited for large osteochondral lesions. This allograft tissue must be harvested, processed, and stored appropriately to reduce the risks of graft failure and potential complications. With appropriate indications and surgical techniques, osteochondral allografts have been shown to have good long-term graft survival and patient outcomes.

2013-01-01

46

Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} gene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3}-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3} gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease.

Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu Kai [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Quan Daping [Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2006-12-15

47

Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor ?1 gene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-?1 that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-?1 gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA3-TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA3 gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-?1 gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-?1 gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease

2006-01-01

48

Complex articular cartilage restoration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage injury and degeneration occurs frequently in athletes and results from the significant chronic joint stress and acute traumatic injuries associated with high-impact sports. These injuries do not heal spontaneously and often lead to progressive painful impairment of joint function and limitation of sports participation. Untreated articular cartilage defects frequently lead to chronic joint degeneration and disability. Treatment of articular cartilage injury in athletes can be complex and requires effective and durable joint surface restoration that can withstand even the significant joint stresses generated during sports activity. Several established articular cartilage repair techniques have been shown to successfully return the athlete with articular cartilage injury to high-impact sports. In addition, novel treatment concepts and techniques that apply modern tissue engineering technologies promise further advancement in the treatment of these challenging injuries in the demanding athletic population.

Mithoefer K

2013-03-01

49

Basic science and treatment options for articular cartilage injuries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage injuries can produce significant musculoskeletal morbidity for both young and active aging patient populations. The complex and highly specialized composition of normal hyaline cartilage makes treatment of focal chondral injuries a formidable challenge for the basic scientist, surgeon, and physical therapist. The current array of surgical treatment options offers palliative, reparative, and restorative treatment strategies. Palliative options include simple arthroscopic debridement. Reparative strategies utilize marrow stimulation techniques to induce formation of fibrocartilage within the chondral defect. Restorative tactics attempt to replace damaged cartilage with hyaline or hyaline-like tissue using osteochondral or chondrocyte transplantation. Furthermore, while treatment success is obviously dependent on good surgical selection and technique, the importance of sound, compliant postoperative rehabilitation cannot be understated. The purpose of this article is to review the basic science of articular cartilage, current treatment options available, and outline the clinical decision making involved when using these procedures by presenting the algorithm used at our institution for treating focal cartilage lesions.

Lewis PB; McCarty LP 3rd; Kang RW; Cole BJ

2006-10-01

50

Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato) - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blendas do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN) de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis.The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA) as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose acetate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

Sonia M Malmonge; Cecília A. C Zavaglia

1997-01-01

51

Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica/ PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato) - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blendas do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN) de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização t (more) érmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis. Abstract in english The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA) as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose acetate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling b (more) ehaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

Malmonge, Sonia M; Zavaglia, Cecília A. C

1997-06-01

52

Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results; Autologe Chondrozytentransplantation zur Behandlung von Knorpeldefekten des Kniegelenks. Techniken und Ergebnisse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.) [German] Zur Behandlung umschriebener Defekte des artikulaeren Kniegelenkgelenkknorpels wird der Einsatz autologer Knorpelzellen zunehmend als neue biologische Methode empfohlen. Die Technik der autologen Chondrozytentransplantation (ACT) und deren Modifikationen als matrixassoziierte autologe Chondrozytentransplantation (MACT) werden dargestellt. Es erfolgt ein Ueberblick ueber die experimentellen und klinischen Ergebnisse mit der Darstellung der haeufigsten Komplikationen und den derzeit gueltigen Indikationsrichtlinien. Unter Verwendung qualitativ hochwertiger Zellen zeigen besonders posttraumatische Knorpeldefekte bei juengeren Patienten eine hohe Erfolgsquote mit der Ausbildung eines hyalinartigen Regeneratgewebes. Die haeufigsten Komplikationen der ACT sind Periosthypertrophie, Delamination des Transplantats, intraartikulaere Adhaesionen und Transplantatversagen. Die derzeit wichtigsten Limitierungen stellen die Osteoarthrose und ein hoeheres Patientenalter dar. Bei richtiger Indikationsstellung und operativer Technik kann die ACT als effiziente und sichere Therapieoption fuer die Behandlung grosser und tiefer Knorpeldefekte des Kniegelenks angesehen werden. (orig.)

Marlovits, S.; Kutscha-Lissberg, F.; Aldrian, S.; Resinger, C.; Singer, P.; Zeller, P.; Vecsei, V. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

2004-08-01

53

Deletion of Porcn in mice leads to multiple developmental defects and models human focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH) is a genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects in skin, skeleton and ectodermal appendages. FDH is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations in X-linked PORCN. PORCN orthologues in Drosophila and mice encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins required for secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins play important roles in embryo development, tissue homeostasis and stem cell maintenance. Since features of FDH overlap with those seen in mouse Wnt pathway mutants, FDH likely results from defective Wnt signaling but molecular mechanisms by which inactivation of PORCN affects Wnt signaling and manifestations of FDH remain to be elucidated. RESULTS: We introduced intronic loxP sites and a neomycin gene in the mouse Porcn locus for conditional inactivation. Porcn-ex3-7flox mice have no apparent developmental defects, but chimeric mice retaining the neomycin gene (Porcn-ex3-7Neo-flox) have limb, skin, and urogenital abnormalities. Conditional Porcn inactivation by EIIa-driven or Hprt-driven Cre recombinase results in increased early embryonic lethality. Mesenchyme-specific Prx-Cre-driven inactivation of Porcn produces FDH-like limb defects, while ectodermal Krt14-Cre-driven inactivation produces thin skin, alopecia, and abnormal dentition. Furthermore, cell-based assays confirm that human PORCN mutations reduce WNT3A secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that Porcn inactivation in the mouse produces a model for human FDH and that phenotypic features result from defective WNT signaling in ectodermal- and mesenchymal-derived structures.

Liu W; Shaver TM; Balasa A; Ljungberg MC; Wang X; Wen S; Nguyen H; Van den Veyver IB

2012-01-01

54

Repair of an articular cartilage defect using adipose-derived stem cells loaded on a polyelectrolyte complex scaffold based on poly(l-glutamic acid) and chitosan.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a synthetic polypeptide water-soluble poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLGA) was designed to fabricate scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Chitosan (CHI) has been employed as a physical cross-linking component in the construction of scaffolds. PLGA/CHI scaffolds act as sponges with a swelling ratio of 760±45% (mass%), showing promising biocompatibility and biodegradation. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were expanded and seeded on PLGA/CHI scaffolds, ASC/scaffold constructs were then subjected to chondrogenic induction in vitro for 2weeks. The results showed that PLGA/CHI scaffolds could effectively support ASC adherence, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. The ASCs/scaffold constructs were then transplanted to repair full thickness articular cartilage defects (4mm in diameter, to the depth of subchondral bone) created in rabbit femur trochlea. Histological observations found that articular defects were covered with newly formed cartilage 6weeks post-implantation. After 12weeks the regenerated cartilage had integrated well with the surrounding native cartilage and subchondral bone. Toluidine blue and immunohistochemical staining confirmed similar accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and type II collagen in engineered cartilage as in native cartilage 12weeks post-implantation. The result was further supported by quantitative analysis of extracellular matrix deposition. The compressive modulus of the engineered cartilage increased significantly from 30% of that of normal cartilage at 6weeks to 83% at 12weeks. Cyto-nanoindentation also showed analogous biomechanical behavior of the engineered cartilage to that of native cartilage. The results of the present study thus demonstrate the potentiality of PLGA/CHI scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:23535234

Zhang, Kunxi; Zhang, Yun; Yan, Shifeng; Gong, Lunli; Wang, Jia; Chen, Xuesi; Cui, Lei; Yin, Jingbo

2013-03-25

55

Repair of an articular cartilage defect using adipose-derived stem cells loaded on a polyelectrolyte complex scaffold based on poly(l-glutamic acid) and chitosan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a synthetic polypeptide water-soluble poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLGA) was designed to fabricate scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Chitosan (CHI) has been employed as a physical cross-linking component in the construction of scaffolds. PLGA/CHI scaffolds act as sponges with a swelling ratio of 760±45% (mass%), showing promising biocompatibility and biodegradation. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were expanded and seeded on PLGA/CHI scaffolds, ASC/scaffold constructs were then subjected to chondrogenic induction in vitro for 2weeks. The results showed that PLGA/CHI scaffolds could effectively support ASC adherence, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. The ASCs/scaffold constructs were then transplanted to repair full thickness articular cartilage defects (4mm in diameter, to the depth of subchondral bone) created in rabbit femur trochlea. Histological observations found that articular defects were covered with newly formed cartilage 6weeks post-implantation. After 12weeks the regenerated cartilage had integrated well with the surrounding native cartilage and subchondral bone. Toluidine blue and immunohistochemical staining confirmed similar accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and type II collagen in engineered cartilage as in native cartilage 12weeks post-implantation. The result was further supported by quantitative analysis of extracellular matrix deposition. The compressive modulus of the engineered cartilage increased significantly from 30% of that of normal cartilage at 6weeks to 83% at 12weeks. Cyto-nanoindentation also showed analogous biomechanical behavior of the engineered cartilage to that of native cartilage. The results of the present study thus demonstrate the potentiality of PLGA/CHI scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering.

Zhang K; Zhang Y; Yan S; Gong L; Wang J; Chen X; Cui L; Yin J

2013-07-01

56

Activity levels are higher after osteochondral autograft transfer mosaicplasty than after microfracture for articular cartilage defects of the knee: a retrospective comparative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding direct comparisons of the outcome of osteochondral autograft transfer (OAT) mosaicplasty and microfracture for the treatment of isolated articular cartilage defects of the knee. The purpose of this retrospective comparative study was to compare the general health outcomes, knee function, and Marx Activity Rating Scale scores for patients treated with OAT or microfracture for symptomatic chondral defects of the femoral condyles or trochlea. We hypothesized that the patients in the two treatment groups would have similar clinical outcomes at intermediate-term follow-up. METHODS: Ninety-six patients with full-thickness cartilage defects of the femoral condyles or trochlea were treated with either OAT mosaicplasty (n = 48) or microfracture (n = 48). The average age of the patients (thirty-two male and sixteen female in each group) at the time of surgery was 29.7 years in the OAT group and 32.5 years in the microfracture group. Patients were prospectively evaluated at baseline and at one, two, three, and five years postoperatively with use of validated clinical outcome measures including the Short Form-36 (SF-36) physical component, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Knee Outcome Survey activities of daily living, and Marx Activity Rating Scale instruments. Comparisons between outcomes before and after treatment or between outcomes after microfracture and mosaicplasty were made with use of two-tailed tests. RESULTS: At the time of the latest follow-up, both groups demonstrated significant increases in SF-36 physical component, Knee Outcome Survey activities of daily living, and IKDC scores compared with baseline. These scores did not differ significantly between the two groups at any of the follow-up time points. However, the OAT group demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in the Marx Activity Rating Scale scores from baseline to the two-year (p = 0.001), three-year (p = 0.03), and five-year (p = 0.02) time points compared with the microfracture group. CONCLUSIONS: In the present retrospective comparative study, the hypothesis that patients treated with microfracture or OAT mosaicplasty for symptomatic articular cartilage defects of the femoral condyles or trochlea would have similar clinical outcomes at intermediate-term follow-up was affirmed for general health outcome and for knee function. However, patients treated with OAT mosaicplasty maintained a superior level of athletic activity compared with those treated with microfracture.

Krych AJ; Harnly HW; Rodeo SA; Williams RJ 3rd

2012-06-01

57

Comparative biomechanical analysis of human and caprine knee articular cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The goat is one of the most commonly used preclinical models for focal defect repair and regeneration. While the biomechanics of the human knee has been studied extensively, less is known about the biomechanics of the caprine knee. Differences between human and caprine knees have not been quantified and their significance is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a biomechanical analysis of the differences in goat and human knees to assess the validity of these preclinical in vivo models. RESULTS: CT and MRI scans revealed several differences in articular geometry: the caprine tibial plateaux were more convex and the menisci were significantly thicker and covered a larger proportion of the tibial articular surface. Caprine cartilage thickness was consistently thinner, while elastic modulus on indentation testing was consistently stiffer than human cartilage measured at eight different articular locations. Contact area and pressure were measured with electronic pressure sensors under loads normalized by multiples of body weight and at knee flexion angles reported for walking. The highest peaks in contact pressure were measured in the patellofemoral joint in goat and human knees. Peak contact pressure measured at 2 times body weight at the goat tibiofemoral joint at 70° flexion was significantly higher than for any other condition at the human tibiofemoral joint. CONCLUSION: These differences in contact conditions might explain the lower quality of local repair reported for caprine femoral condylar defects relative to trochlear defects. Further comparative analysis, including biologic response, is necessary to determine the extent to which the goat knee reproduces clinical conditions.

Patil S; Steklov N; Song L; Bae WC; D'Lima DD

2013-04-01

58

Comparative biomechanical analysis of human and caprine knee articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The goat is one of the most commonly used preclinical models for focal defect repair and regeneration. While the biomechanics of the human knee has been studied extensively, less is known about the biomechanics of the caprine knee. Differences between human and caprine knees have not been quantified and their significance is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a biomechanical analysis of the differences in goat and human knees to assess the validity of these preclinical in vivo models. RESULTS: CT and MRI scans revealed several differences in articular geometry: the caprine tibial plateaux were more convex and the menisci were significantly thicker and covered a larger proportion of the tibial articular surface. Caprine cartilage thickness was consistently thinner, while elastic modulus on indentation testing was consistently stiffer than human cartilage measured at eight different articular locations. Contact area and pressure were measured with electronic pressure sensors under loads normalized by multiples of body weight and at knee flexion angles reported for walking. The highest peaks in contact pressure were measured in the patellofemoral joint in goat and human knees. Peak contact pressure measured at 2 times body weight at the goat tibiofemoral joint at 70° flexion was significantly higher than for any other condition at the human tibiofemoral joint. CONCLUSION: These differences in contact conditions might explain the lower quality of local repair reported for caprine femoral condylar defects relative to trochlear defects. Further comparative analysis, including biologic response, is necessary to determine the extent to which the goat knee reproduces clinical conditions. PMID:23583005

Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Song, Lin; Bae, Won C; D'Lima, Darryl D

2013-04-01

59

Goltz-Gorlin (focal dermal hypoplasia) and the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: no evidence of genetic overlap.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with mutations of HCCS in the majority of cases. We performed DNA sequencing of PORCN in 13 female patients with the clinical diagnosis of FDH as well as four female patients with MLS syndrome and no mutation in HCCS. We identified PORCN mutations in all female patients with FDH. Eleven patients seem to have constitutional PORCN alterations in the heterozygous state and two individuals are mosaic for the heterozygous sequence change in PORCN. No PORCN mutation was identified in the MLS-affected patients, providing further evidence that FDH and MLS do not overlap genetically. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) analysis revealed a random or slightly skewed XCI pattern in leukocytes of individuals with intragenic PORCN mutation suggesting that defective PORCN does not lead to selective growth disadvantage, at least in leukocytes. We conclude that the PORCN mutation detection rate is high in individuals with a clear-cut FDH phenotype and somatic mosaicism can be present in a significant proportion of patients with mild or classic FDH.

Harmsen MB; Azzarello-Burri S; García González MM; Gillessen-Kaesbach G; Meinecke P; Müller D; Rauch A; Rossier E; Seemanova E; Spaich C; Steiner B; Wieczorek D; Zenker M; Kutsche K

2009-10-01

60

Goltz-Gorlin (focal dermal hypoplasia) and the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: no evidence of genetic overlap.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with mutations of HCCS in the majority of cases. We performed DNA sequencing of PORCN in 13 female patients with the clinical diagnosis of FDH as well as four female patients with MLS syndrome and no mutation in HCCS. We identified PORCN mutations in all female patients with FDH. Eleven patients seem to have constitutional PORCN alterations in the heterozygous state and two individuals are mosaic for the heterozygous sequence change in PORCN. No PORCN mutation was identified in the MLS-affected patients, providing further evidence that FDH and MLS do not overlap genetically. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) analysis revealed a random or slightly skewed XCI pattern in leukocytes of individuals with intragenic PORCN mutation suggesting that defective PORCN does not lead to selective growth disadvantage, at least in leukocytes. We conclude that the PORCN mutation detection rate is high in individuals with a clear-cut FDH phenotype and somatic mosaicism can be present in a significant proportion of patients with mild or classic FDH. PMID:19277062

Harmsen, May-Britt; Azzarello-Burri, Silvia; García González, M Mar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Meinecke, Peter; Müller, Dietmar; Rauch, Anita; Rossier, Eva; Seemanova, Eva; Spaich, Christiane; Steiner, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Zenker, Martin; Kutsche, Kerstin

2009-03-11

 
 
 
 
61

A novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model for assessing the regeneration of focal cartilage defects with biocompatible bacterial nanocellulose.  

Science.gov (United States)

INTRODUCTION: Current therapies for articular cartilage defects fail to achieve qualitatively sufficient tissue regeneration, possibly because of a mismatch between the speed of cartilage rebuilding and the resorption of degradable implant polymers. The present study focused on the self-healing capacity of resident cartilage cells in conjunction with cell-free and biocompatible (but non-resorbable) bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). This was tested in a novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model. METHODS: Standardized bovine cartilage discs with a central defect filled with BNC were cultured for up to 8 weeks with/without stimulation with TGF-beta1. Cartilage formation and integrity were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Content, release, and neosynthesis of the matrix molecules proteoglycan/aggrecan, collagen II, and collagen I were also quantified. Finally, gene expression of these molecules was profiled in resident chondrocytes and chondrocytes migrated onto the cartilage surface or the implant material. RESULTS: Non-stimulated and especially TGF-beta1-stimulated cartilage discs displayed a preserved structural and functional integrity of the chondrocytes and surrounding matrix, remained vital in long-term culture (8 weeks) without signs of degeneration, and showed substantial synthesis of cartilage-specific molecules at the protein and mRNA level. Whereas mobilization of chondrocytes from the matrix onto the surface of cartilage and implant was pivotal for successful seeding of cell-free BNC, chondrocytes did not immigrate into the central BNC area, possibly due to the relatively small diameter of its pores (2-5 um). Chondrocytes on the BNC surface showed signs of successful redifferentiation over time, including increase of aggrecan/collagen type II mRNA, decrease of collagen type I mRNA, and initial deposition of proteoglycan and collagen type II in long-term high-density pellet cultures. Although TGF-beta1 stimulation showed protective effects on matrix integrity, effects on other parameters were limited. CONCLUSIONS: The present bovine cartilage punch model represents a robust, reproducible, and highly suitable tool for the long-term culture of cartilage, maintaining matrix integrity and homoeostasis. As an alternative to animal studies, this model may closely reflect early stages of cartilage regeneration, allowing the evaluation of promising biomaterials with/without chondrogenic factors. PMID:23673274

Pretzel, David; Linss, Stefanie; Ahrem, Hannes; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian; Klemm, Dieter; Kinne, Raimund W

2013-05-14

62

A novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model for assessing the regeneration of focal cartilage defects with biocompatible bacterial nanocellulose.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Current therapies for articular cartilage defects fail to achieve qualitatively sufficient tissue regeneration, possibly because of a mismatch between the speed of cartilage rebuilding and the resorption of degradable implant polymers. The present study focused on the self-healing capacity of resident cartilage cells in conjunction with cell-free and biocompatible (but non-resorbable) bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). This was tested in a novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model. METHODS: Standardized bovine cartilage discs with a central defect filled with BNC were cultured for up to 8 weeks with/without stimulation with TGF-beta1. Cartilage formation and integrity were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Content, release, and neosynthesis of the matrix molecules proteoglycan/aggrecan, collagen II, and collagen I were also quantified. Finally, gene expression of these molecules was profiled in resident chondrocytes and chondrocytes migrated onto the cartilage surface or the implant material. RESULTS: Non-stimulated and especially TGF-beta1-stimulated cartilage discs displayed a preserved structural and functional integrity of the chondrocytes and surrounding matrix, remained vital in long-term culture (8 weeks) without signs of degeneration, and showed substantial synthesis of cartilage-specific molecules at the protein and mRNA level. Whereas mobilization of chondrocytes from the matrix onto the surface of cartilage and implant was pivotal for successful seeding of cell-free BNC, chondrocytes did not immigrate into the central BNC area, possibly due to the relatively small diameter of its pores (2-5 um). Chondrocytes on the BNC surface showed signs of successful redifferentiation over time, including increase of aggrecan/collagen type II mRNA, decrease of collagen type I mRNA, and initial deposition of proteoglycan and collagen type II in long-term high-density pellet cultures. Although TGF-beta1 stimulation showed protective effects on matrix integrity, effects on other parameters were limited. CONCLUSIONS: The present bovine cartilage punch model represents a robust, reproducible, and highly suitable tool for the long-term culture of cartilage, maintaining matrix integrity and homoeostasis. As an alternative to animal studies, this model may closely reflect early stages of cartilage regeneration, allowing the evaluation of promising biomaterials with/without chondrogenic factors.

Pretzel D; Linss S; Ahrem H; Endres M; Kaps C; Klemm D; Kinne RW

2013-05-01

63

Cardiac developmental defects and eccentric right ventricular hypertrophy in cardiomyocyte focal adhesion kinase (FAK) conditional knockout mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in integrin-mediated signal transduction. To explore the role and mechanisms of FAK in cardiac development, we inactivated FAK in embryonic cardiomyocytes by crossing the floxed FAK mice with myosin light chain-2a (MLC2a) Cre mice, which expressed Cre as early as embryonic day 9.5 in the heart. The majority of conditional FAK knockout mice generated from MLC2a-Cre (CFKO-2a) died in the embryonic stage with thin ventricular wall and ventricular septal defects. A small fraction of CFKO-2a mice survived to adulthood with spontaneous eccentric right ventricle hypertrophy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis displayed swelling in the rough endoplasmic reticulum in CFKO-2a embryonic cardiomyocytes. We found that decreased cell proliferation, but not increased cell apoptosis or differentiation, is the reason for the thin ventricular wall in CFKO-2a mice. Microarray analysis suggests that myocyte enhancer factor 2a (MEF2a) can be regulated by FAK and that inactivation of FAK in the embryonic heart compromised MEF2a expression. Last, we found that Src, but not PI3K, is important in mediating signal transduction for the regulation of MEF2a by FAK. Together, these results identified the role and mechanisms of FAK in embryonic cardiac development. PMID:18448675

Peng, Xu; Wu, Xiaoyang; Druso, Joseph E; Wei, Huijun; Park, Ann Yong-Jin; Kraus, Marc S; Alcaraz, Ana; Chen, Ju; Chien, Shu; Cerione, Richard A; Guan, Jun-Lin

2008-04-30

64

Toward regeneration of articular cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage is classified as permanent hyaline cartilage and has significant differences in structure, extracelluar matrix components, gene expression profile, and mechanical property from transient hyaline cartilage found in the epiphyseal growth plate. In the process of synovial joint development, articular cartilage originates from the interzone, developing at the edge of the cartilaginous anlagen, and establishes zonal structure over time and supports smooth movement of the synovial joint through life. The cascade actions of key regulators, such as Wnts, GDF5, Erg, and PTHLH, coordinate sequential steps of articular cartilage formation. Articular chondrocytes are restrictedly controlled not to differentiate into a hypertrophic stage by autocrine and paracrine factors and extracellular matrix microenvironment, but retain potential to undergo hypertrophy. The basal calcified zone of articular cartilage is connected with subchondral bone, but not invaded by blood vessels nor replaced by bone, which is highly contrasted with the growth plate. Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capacity, but likely possesses and potentially uses intrinsic stem cell source in the superficial layer, Ranvier's groove, the intra-articular tissues such as synovium and fat pad, and marrow below the subchondral bone. Considering the biological views on articular cartilage, several important points are raised for regeneration of articular cartilage. We should evaluate the nature of regenerated cartilage as permanent hyaline cartilage and not just hyaline cartilage. We should study how a hypertrophic phenotype of transplanted cells can be lastingly suppressed in regenerating tissue. Furthermore, we should develop the methods and reagents to activate recruitment of intrinsic stem/progenitor cells into the damaged site. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 99:192-202, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Iwamoto M; Ohta Y; Larmour C; Enomoto-Iwamoto M

2013-09-01

65

Toward regeneration of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage is classified as permanent hyaline cartilage and has significant differences in structure, extracelluar matrix components, gene expression profile, and mechanical property from transient hyaline cartilage found in the epiphyseal growth plate. In the process of synovial joint development, articular cartilage originates from the interzone, developing at the edge of the cartilaginous anlagen, and establishes zonal structure over time and supports smooth movement of the synovial joint through life. The cascade actions of key regulators, such as Wnts, GDF5, Erg, and PTHLH, coordinate sequential steps of articular cartilage formation. Articular chondrocytes are restrictedly controlled not to differentiate into a hypertrophic stage by autocrine and paracrine factors and extracellular matrix microenvironment, but retain potential to undergo hypertrophy. The basal calcified zone of articular cartilage is connected with subchondral bone, but not invaded by blood vessels nor replaced by bone, which is highly contrasted with the growth plate. Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capacity, but likely possesses and potentially uses intrinsic stem cell source in the superficial layer, Ranvier's groove, the intra-articular tissues such as synovium and fat pad, and marrow below the subchondral bone. Considering the biological views on articular cartilage, several important points are raised for regeneration of articular cartilage. We should evaluate the nature of regenerated cartilage as permanent hyaline cartilage and not just hyaline cartilage. We should study how a hypertrophic phenotype of transplanted cells can be lastingly suppressed in regenerating tissue. Furthermore, we should develop the methods and reagents to activate recruitment of intrinsic stem/progenitor cells into the damaged site. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 99:192-202, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24078496

Iwamoto, Masahiro; Ohta, Yoichi; Larmour, Colleen; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

2013-09-01

66

Basic science and treatment options for articular cartilage injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage injuries can produce significant musculoskeletal morbidity for both young and active aging patient populations. The complex and highly specialized composition of normal hyaline cartilage makes treatment of focal chondral injuries a formidable challenge for the basic scientist, surgeon, and physical therapist. The current array of surgical treatment options offers palliative, reparative, and restorative treatment strategies. Palliative options include simple arthroscopic debridement. Reparative strategies utilize marrow stimulation techniques to induce formation of fibrocartilage within the chondral defect. Restorative tactics attempt to replace damaged cartilage with hyaline or hyaline-like tissue using osteochondral or chondrocyte transplantation. Furthermore, while treatment success is obviously dependent on good surgical selection and technique, the importance of sound, compliant postoperative rehabilitation cannot be understated. The purpose of this article is to review the basic science of articular cartilage, current treatment options available, and outline the clinical decision making involved when using these procedures by presenting the algorithm used at our institution for treating focal cartilage lesions. PMID:17063834

Lewis, Paul B; McCarty, L Pearce; Kang, Richard W; Cole, Brian J

2006-10-01

67

Cardiac developmental defects and eccentric right ventricular hypertrophy in cardiomyocyte focal adhesion kinase (FAK) conditional knockout mice  

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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in integrin-mediated signal transduction. To explore the role and mechanisms of FAK in cardiac development, we inactivated FAK in embryonic cardiomyocytes by crossing the floxed FAK mice with myosin light chain...

Peng, Xu; Wu, Xiaoyang; Druso, Joseph E.; Wei, Huijun; Park, Ann Yong-Jin; Kraus, Marc S.; Alcaraz, Ana; Chen, Ju; Chien, Shu

68

Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica/ Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solu (more) ção fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos. Abstract in english The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were (more) treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero) and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

Yamada, A.L.M.; Carvalho, A.M.; Oliveira, P.G.G.; Felisbino, S.L.; Queiroz, D.L.; Watanabe, M.J.; Hussni, C.A.; Alves, A.L.G.

2012-04-01

69

Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos.The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero) and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

A.L.M. Yamada; A.M. Carvalho; P.G.G. Oliveira; S.L. Felisbino; D.L. Queiroz; M.J. Watanabe; C.A. Hussni; A.L.G. Alves

2012-01-01

70

Finding of right hepatic vein focal defect in liver scan of a patient with veno-occlusive disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 38-year-old woman hospitalized for delivery after treatment for infertility with lymphocyte transfusions from her husband developed severe hepatopathy. On the basis of findings in a hepatic specimen obtained by biopsy, the authors diagnosed hepatic veno-occlusive disease. In scintigrams that used Tc-99m phytate, a long, narrow defect was found that extended from the outer part of the right lobe of the liver to the junction of the hepatic veins and the inferior vena cava. In SPECT of the liver performed with Tc-99m phytate, the defect corresponded to the region of the right hepatic vein.

Shiomi S; Kuroki T; Kitada T; Nakajima S; Kobayashi K; Ochi H

1993-11-01

71

Surgical restoration/repair of articular cartilage injuries in athletes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are an increasingly common source of pain and dysfunction, particularly in the athletic population. In the athlete, untreated articular cartilage defects can represent a career threatening injury and create a significant obstacle in returning to full athletic participation. The markedly limited healing potential of articular cartilage often leads to continued deterioration and progressive functional limitations. Numerous studies have shown that full thickness articular cartilage lesions are frequently encountered at the time of arthroscopy, particularly associated with athletic injury. A variety of surgical treatment options exist, including debridement, microfracture, osteochondral autograft, osteochondral allograft, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Each technique has advantages and limitations for restoring articular cartilage function, and emerging technology continues to improve the results of treatment. Our article provides an evidence-based review on the etiology and prevalence of articular cartilage injuries in athletes, along with the principles and techniques available for restoring articular cartilage function following injury.

Kane P; Frederick R; Tucker B; Dodson CC; Anderson JA; Ciccotti MG; Freedman KB

2013-05-01

72

Articular cartilage lesions of the knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pathogenesis and clinical significance of articular cartilage lesions of the knee persist as topics of considerable interest among orthopedic surgeons. This study was designed to assess the association of articular cartilage degeneration with concomitant intraarticular abnormalities and to correlate the prevalence and severity of articular cartilage damage with preoperative historical and physical exam findings in patients presenting with knee pain. Twenty-six history and physical exam data points were prospectively collected from 192 patients (200 knees), consecutively undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery. During surgery, all articular cartilage lesions were recorded with respect to size, location, and character and were graded according to Oglivie-Harris et al. All concomitant knee joint abnormalities were simultaneously recorded. Of 200 knees examined arthroscopically, 12 knees revealed no demonstrable etiology for the presenting symptoms, 65 knees revealed assorted intraarticular pathology but no articular cartilage degeneration, and the remaining 123 knees revealed a total of 211 articular cartilage lesions (103 femoral, 72 patellar, 36 tibial); 7 femoral, 6 patellar and 0 tibial lesions were completely isolated (no concomitant knee joint pathology). The concomitance of femoral defects with tibial lesions was highly significant (p = 0.01). Femoral and tibial articular cartilage lesions were strikingly correlated with the presence of an unstable torn meniscus (p less than 0.001). Medial compartment articular cartilage lesions were significantly more common (p = 0.001), more closely associated with meniscal derangement, and appreciably more severe than lateral compartment lesions. In 75% of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees with concomitant articular cartilage degeneration, the duration from injury to surgery was greater than 9 months, and in each of these cases, a history of reinjury to the knee was elicited. From these data one can conclude that: (a) in some patients with painful knees, isolated articular cartilage lesions may be the only abnormality noted at arthroscopy; (b) unstable meniscal tears are significantly associated with destruction of articular cartilage; (c) the medial compartment is particularly susceptible to articular cartilage degeneration; and (d) in our series, anterior cruciate ligament tears were increasingly associated with articular cartilage destruction as the elapsed time from injury to arthroscopy increased.

Zamber RW; Teitz CC; McGuire DA; Frost JD; Hermanson BK

1989-01-01

73

Articular cartilage lesions of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenesis and clinical significance of articular cartilage lesions of the knee persist as topics of considerable interest among orthopedic surgeons. This study was designed to assess the association of articular cartilage degeneration with concomitant intraarticular abnormalities and to correlate the prevalence and severity of articular cartilage damage with preoperative historical and physical exam findings in patients presenting with knee pain. Twenty-six history and physical exam data points were prospectively collected from 192 patients (200 knees), consecutively undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery. During surgery, all articular cartilage lesions were recorded with respect to size, location, and character and were graded according to Oglivie-Harris et al. All concomitant knee joint abnormalities were simultaneously recorded. Of 200 knees examined arthroscopically, 12 knees revealed no demonstrable etiology for the presenting symptoms, 65 knees revealed assorted intraarticular pathology but no articular cartilage degeneration, and the remaining 123 knees revealed a total of 211 articular cartilage lesions (103 femoral, 72 patellar, 36 tibial); 7 femoral, 6 patellar and 0 tibial lesions were completely isolated (no concomitant knee joint pathology). The concomitance of femoral defects with tibial lesions was highly significant (p = 0.01). Femoral and tibial articular cartilage lesions were strikingly correlated with the presence of an unstable torn meniscus (p less than 0.001). Medial compartment articular cartilage lesions were significantly more common (p = 0.001), more closely associated with meniscal derangement, and appreciably more severe than lateral compartment lesions. In 75% of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees with concomitant articular cartilage degeneration, the duration from injury to surgery was greater than 9 months, and in each of these cases, a history of reinjury to the knee was elicited. From these data one can conclude that: (a) in some patients with painful knees, isolated articular cartilage lesions may be the only abnormality noted at arthroscopy; (b) unstable meniscal tears are significantly associated with destruction of articular cartilage; (c) the medial compartment is particularly susceptible to articular cartilage degeneration; and (d) in our series, anterior cruciate ligament tears were increasingly associated with articular cartilage destruction as the elapsed time from injury to arthroscopy increased. PMID:2590323

Zamber, R W; Teitz, C C; McGuire, D A; Frost, J D; Hermanson, B K

1989-01-01

74

Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remained empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups with postoperative follow-up periods of 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Indentation tests were performed on the neoformed surfaces in the knee joint (with or without a hydrogel implant) and on adjacent articular cartilage in order to assess the mechanical properties of the newly formed surface. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the mechanical behavior of the neoformed surfaces was significantly different from that of normal cartilage. Histological analysis of the repaired defects showed that the hydrogel implant filled the defect with no signs of inflammation as it was well anchored to the surrounding tissues, resulting in a newly formed articular surface. In the case of empty control defects, osseous tissue grew inside the defects and fibrous tissue formed on the articular surface of the defects. The repaired surface of the hydrogel implant was more compliant than normal articular cartilage throughout the 16 weeks following the operation, whereas the fibrous tissue that formed postoperatively over the empty defect was stiffer than normal articular cartilage after 5 weeks. This stiffness started to decrease 16 weeks after the operation, probably due to tissue degeneration. Thus, from the biomechanical and histological point of view, the hydrogel implant improved the articular surface repair.

S.M. Malmonge; C.A.C. Zavaglia; W.D. Belangero

2000-01-01

75

Autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects: postoperative MR appearance with clinical correlation  

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Objective: To describe the MR appearance following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects of the knee. Design and patients: Twenty-nine 1.5-T MR knee studies including dynamic gadolinium enhancement were performed on 21 patients following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed images to evaluate graft and donor site appearance and MR findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: MR images demonstrated graft protuberance (n=12/21; range 1-2 mm), depression (n=2/21; range 1 mm), and surface incongruity: mild (n=17/21), moderate (n=2/21), marked (n=1/21). The T2 signal of graft cartilage was similar to that of adjacent cartilage in 25 of 29 examinations, and increased in four. Graft cartilage thickness relative to adjacent cartilage was <50% in six patients, 50-100% in 15. Graft enhancement in bone was absent at 2 weeks, but present at between 4 and 6 weeks following surgery. All patients had clinical follow-up examinations and knee outcome survey scores were obtained in 15 patients with follow-up greater than 3 months after surgery. All patients demonstrated the expected short-term progressive clinical improvement. Conclusion: MR images reveal a wide range of appearances following osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Minor variations in graft orientation and surface congruity do not result in adverse clinical outcome in the short term. (orig.)

Sanders, T.G. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas, San Antonio (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland AFB, Texas (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Mentzer, K.D. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Miller, M.D. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States); Morrison, W.B. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Campbell, S.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Penrod, B.J. [Musculoskeletal Radiology, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2001-10-01

76

TGF-?1 Improves Articular Cartilage Damage in Rabbit Knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the role of TGF-?1 in cartilage repair in an in vivo model of articular cartilage defect in rabbit. Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits of either sex, 6-7 months old (1-2 kgs) were divided into two groups i.e. A (Control) or B (TGF-?1). The articular cartilage defect of 3mm diameter and 2mm depth was created in the femoral groove of femoropatellar joint. Animals of both the groups were provided with collagen scaffolds at 10?g/cm2 in the articular defect. However, Group B animals were further provided with 20ng/20?l of TGF- ?1 in the defect stuffed with collagen scaffold. Articular defect grossly appeared re-surfaced completely and healed with better joint movement in group B as compared to the animals of group A. Repaired articular surface maintained the transparency and sheen as hyaline cartilage. Synthesis of proteoglycans, enhanced filapodia activity, significant increase in the collagen type II and aggrecan in the repaired tissue further supports that TGF-?1 at the tested dosage improved the articular cartilage management and repair.

N. K. Singh, S. Shiwani1, G. R. Singh2, D. K. Jeong3, P. Kinjavdekar4, Amarpal4, J. D. Lohakare and S. J. Lee*

2012-01-01

77

Intra articular synovial sarcoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue neoplasm with a characteristic biphasic pattern. Incidence in soft tissues is 5-10%. Intra articularly synovial sarcoma is extremely rare. Fewer than 5% of all synovial sarcomas arise within the joint space. We report a case of intra articular synovial sarcoma in a young male who presented as internal derangement of the knee.

Sistla Radha; Tameem Afroz; Vidyasagar JVS

2010-01-01

78

Current strategies for articular cartilage repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Defects of articular cartilage that do not penetrate to the subchondral bone fail to heal spontaneously. Defects that penetrate to the subchondral bone elicit an intrinsic repair response that yields a fibrocartilaginous repair tissue which is a poor substitute for hyaline articular cartilage. Many arthroscopic repair strategies employed utilise this intrinsic repair response to induce the formation of a repair tissue within the defect. The goal, however, is to produce a repair tissue that has the same functional and mechanical properties of hyaline articular cartilage. To this end, autologous osteochondral transfer can provide symptomatic relief. This technique involves the excision of healthy cartilage plugs from "non-load bearing" regions of the joint for implantation into the defect. Cell based transplantation methods currently involve the transplantation of expanded autologous chondrocytes to the defects to form a repair tissue. This technique again involves the excision of healthy cartilage from the joint for expansion. Current research is exploring the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells as a source for tissue engineering, as well as the combination of cells with biodegradable scaffolds. Although current repair strategies improve joint function, further research is required to prevent future degeneration of repair tissue.

Redman S. N.; Oldfield S. F.; Archer C. W.

2005-01-01

79

Laser soldering of articular cartilage  

Science.gov (United States)

The surgical treatment of full thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint remains a therapeutic challenge. Recently, new techniques for articular cartilage transplantation, such as mosaicplasty, have become available for cartilage repair. The long-term success of these techniques, however, depends not only on the chondrocyte viability, but also on a lateral integration of the implant. We evaluated the feasibility of cartilage welding using albumin solder that was dye-enhanced to allow coagulation with 808 nm laser diode irradiation. Therefore circular cartilage defects (1-2 mm depth and 6 mm diameter) were made and subsequently repaired using healthy cartilage grafts, which were solder welded through the graft. Conventional histology was compared with viability staining to precisely determine the extent of thermal damage after laser welding.

Zueger, Benno J.; Ott, Beat; Mainil-Varlet, P. M.; Schaffner, Thomas; Clemence, Jean-Francois; Weber, Heinz P.; Frenz, Martin

2001-05-01

80

Bioengineering of articular cartilage: past, present and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of cartilage defects poses a clinical challenge owing to the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of cartilage. The use of tissue engineering techniques to bioengineer articular cartilage is promising and may hold the key to the successful regeneration of cartilage tissue. Natural and synthetic biomaterials have been used to recreate the microarchitecture of articular cartilage through multilayered biomimetic scaffolds. Acellular scaffolds preserve the microarchitecture of articular cartilage through a process of decellularization of biological tissue. Although promising, this technique often results in poor biomechanical strength of the graft. However, biomechanical strength could be improved if biomaterials could be incorporated back into the decellularized tissue to overcome this limitation. PMID:23627827

Ye, Ken; Felimban, Raed; Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G; Di Bella, Claudia; Traianedes, Kathy; Choong, Peter F M; Myers, Damian E

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Bioengineering of articular cartilage: past, present and future.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of cartilage defects poses a clinical challenge owing to the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of cartilage. The use of tissue engineering techniques to bioengineer articular cartilage is promising and may hold the key to the successful regeneration of cartilage tissue. Natural and synthetic biomaterials have been used to recreate the microarchitecture of articular cartilage through multilayered biomimetic scaffolds. Acellular scaffolds preserve the microarchitecture of articular cartilage through a process of decellularization of biological tissue. Although promising, this technique often results in poor biomechanical strength of the graft. However, biomechanical strength could be improved if biomaterials could be incorporated back into the decellularized tissue to overcome this limitation.

Ye K; Felimban R; Moulton SE; Wallace GG; Di Bella C; Traianedes K; Choong PF; Myers DE

2013-05-01

82

Focal myositis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Sweet, D.E. [Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-05-01

83

Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair – the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach – combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

B Johnstone; M Alini; M Cucchiarini; GR Dodge; D Eglin; F Guilak; H Madry; A Mata; RL Mauck; CE Semino; MJ Stoddart

2013-01-01

84

Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair--the state of the art.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach - combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

Johnstone B; Alini M; Cucchiarini M; Dodge GR; Eglin D; Guilak F; Madry H; Mata A; Mauck RL; Semino CE; Stoddart MJ

2013-01-01

85

Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed.

Brennan SA; Devitt BM; O'Neill CJ; Nicholson P

2013-03-01

86

Influence of bone morphogenetic protein on articular cartilage regeneration following periosteal grafting  

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Background: Autologous periosteal grafting is used as treatment for articular cartilage defect. Objective: To study the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) on articular cartilage regeneration following periosteal grafting. Methods: 16 healthy 15...

87

The restoration of the articular surfaces overlying Replamineform porous biomaterials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Replamineform porous implants (4 mm X 4 mm diameter) were placed into full-thickness cartilage and bone defects of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyles of adult male white rabbits. These were analyzed at 1 day, 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months for 1) ingrowth of tissue within the implants and 2) restoration of the articular surface overlying them. Appropriate unfilled, but similar, control defects were also studied. Mineralized bone was seen within the substance of both the TiO2 and hydroxyapatite implants at 1 week; this extremely rapid response was present in every specimen studied and was not seen with alphaAl2O3 or control animals. With the passage of time, maturation of this bone ingrowth occurred so that by 3 months, they were all incorporated into the surrounding bone. Only the hydroxyapatite implants showed consistent regenerative healing of hyaline articular cartilage from the margins of the defects with the passage of time; this occurred whenever the subchondral bone adjacent to the defect proliferated in a "creeping" fashion over the articular aspect of the implant, and the undamaged cartilage then followed it. Fibrocartilage, and not hyaline cartilage, formed the articular surface over the TiO2 and alphaAl2O3 implants and in the controls.

Chiroff RT; White RA; White EW; Weber JN; Roy D

1977-03-01

88

Interleukin-6 is elevated in synovial fluid of patients with focal cartilage defects and stimulates cartilage matrix production in an in vitro regeneration model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine whether, as in osteoarthritis, increased levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are present in the synovial fluid of patients with symptomatic cartilage defects and whether this IL-6 affects cartilage regeneration as well as the cartilage in the degenerated knee. METHODS: IL-6 concentrations were determined by ELISA in synovial fluid and in conditioned media of chondrocytes regenerating cartilage. Chondrocytes were obtained from donors with symptomatic cartilage defects, healthy and osteoarthritic donors. The effect of IL-6 on cartilage regeneration and on metabolism of the resident cartilage in the knee was studied by both inhibition of endogenous IL-6 and addition of IL-6, in a regeneration model and in osteoarthritic explants in the presence of synovial fluid, respectively. Readout parameters were DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and release. Differences between controls and IL-6 blocked or supplemented samples were determined by univariate analysis of variance using a randomized block design. RESULTS: Synovial fluid of patients with symptomatic cartilage defects contained more IL-6 than synovial fluid of healthy donors (P = 0.001) and did not differ from osteoarthritic donors. IL-6 production of osteoarthritic chondrocytes during cartilage regeneration was higher than that of healthy and defect chondrocytes (P < 0.001). Adding IL-6 increased GAG production by healthy chondrocytes and decreased GAG release by osteoarthritic chondrocytes (P < 0.05). Inhibition of IL-6 present in osteoarthritic synovial fluid showed a trend towards decreased GAG content of the explants (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a modest anabolic role for IL-6 in cartilage matrix production. Targeting multiple cytokines, including IL-6, may be effective in improving cartilage repair in symptomatic cartilage defects and osteoarthritis.

Tsuchida AI; Beekhuizen M; Rutgers M; van Osch GJ; Bekkers JE; Bot AG; Geurts B; Dhert WJ; Saris DB; Creemers LB

2012-12-01

89

Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering  

CERN Multimedia

Cartilage injuries in children and adolescents are increasingly observed, with roughly 20% of knee injuries in adolescents requiring surgery. In the US alone, costs of osteoarthritis (OA) are in excess of 65 billion per year (both medical costs and lost wages). Comorbidities are common with OA and are also costly to manage. Articular cartilage's low friction and high capacity to bear load makes it critical in the movement of one bone against another, and its lack of a sustained natural healing response has necessitated a plethora of therapies. Tissue engineering is an emerging technology at th

Athanasiou, Kyriacos

2009-01-01

90

Low friction hydrogel for articular cartilage repair: Evaluation of mechanical and tribological properties in comparison with natural cartilage tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mechanical and tribological properties of a novel biomaterial, a boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogel, were investigated and compared to natural cartilage tissue. This low friction hydrogel material was developed for use as a synthetic replacement for focal defects in articular cartilage. The hydrogel was made by functionalizing the biocompatible polymer polyvinyl alcohol with a carboxylic acid derivative boundary lubricant molecule. Two different gel processing techniques were used to create the hydrogels. The first method consisted of initially functionalizing the boundary lubricant to the polyvinyl alcohol and then creating hydrogels by physically crosslinking the reacted polymer. The second method consisted of creating non-functionalized polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels and then performing the functionalization reaction on the fully formed gel. Osteochondral bovine samples were collected and replicate experiments were conducted to compare the mechanical and tribological performance of the boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels to non-functionalized hydrogels and native cartilage. Friction experiments displayed a maximum decrease in friction coefficient of 70% for the functionalized hydrogels compared to neat polyvinyl alcohol. Indentation investigated the elastic modulus of the hydrogels, demonstrating that stability of the hydrogel was affected by processing method. Hydrogel performance was within the lower ranges of natural cartilage tested under the exact same conditions, showing the potential of the boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels to perform as a biomimetic synthetic articular cartilage replacement.

Blum MM; Ovaert TC

2013-10-01

91

First ex vivo study demonstrating that 99mTc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preclinical data pointed to 99mTc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify 99mTc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with 99mTc-NTP 15-5 and 99mTc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 ± 2.35 and 0.76 ± 0.24, respectively, for 99mTc-NTP 15-5 and 99mTc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense 99mTc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas 99mTc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of 99mTc-NTP 15-5. The tracer 99mTc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

2011-01-01

92

Low friction hydrogel for articular cartilage repair: evaluation of mechanical and tribological properties in comparison with natural cartilage tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical and tribological properties of a novel biomaterial, a boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogel, were investigated and compared to natural cartilage tissue. This low friction hydrogel material was developed for use as a synthetic replacement for focal defects in articular cartilage. The hydrogel was made by functionalizing the biocompatible polymer polyvinyl alcohol with a carboxylic acid derivative boundary lubricant molecule. Two different gel processing techniques were used to create the hydrogels. The first method consisted of initially functionalizing the boundary lubricant to the polyvinyl alcohol and then creating hydrogels by physically crosslinking the reacted polymer. The second method consisted of creating non-functionalized polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels and then performing the functionalization reaction on the fully formed gel. Osteochondral bovine samples were collected and replicate experiments were conducted to compare the mechanical and tribological performance of the boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels to non-functionalized hydrogels and native cartilage. Friction experiments displayed a maximum decrease in friction coefficient of 70% for the functionalized hydrogels compared to neat polyvinyl alcohol. Indentation investigated the elastic modulus of the hydrogels, demonstrating that stability of the hydrogel was affected by processing method. Hydrogel performance was within the lower ranges of natural cartilage tested under the exact same conditions, showing the potential of the boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels to perform as a biomimetic synthetic articular cartilage replacement. PMID:23910356

Blum, Michelle M; Ovaert, Timothy C

2013-06-30

93

Response of Human Engineered Cartilage Based on Articular or Nasal Chondrocytes to Interleukin-1? and Low Oxygen  

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Previous studies showed that human nasal chondrocytes (HNC) exhibit higher proliferation and chondrogenic capacity as compared to human articular chondrocytes (HAC). To consider HNC as a relevant alternative cell source for the repair of articular cartilage defects it is necessary to test how these ...

Scotti, Celeste; Osmokrovic, Andrea; Wolf, Francine; Miot, Sylvie; Peretti, Giuseppe M.; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

94

Articular cartilage mineralization in osteoarthritis of the hip.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of articular cartilage calcification in patients with end-stage hip OA. Further, its impact on the clinical situation and the OA severity are analyzed. METHODS: Eighty patients with OA of the hip who consecutively underwent total hip replacement were prospectively evaluated, and 10 controls were included. The patients' X-rays were analyzed for the presence of articular cartilage mineralization. A Harris Hip Score (HHS) was preoperatively calculated for every patient.Slab specimens from the femoral head of bone and cartilage and an additional square centimeter of articular cartilage from the main chondral defect were obtained from each patient for analysis of mineralization by digital contact radiography (DCR). Histological grading was also performed. In a subset of 20 patients, minerals were characterized with an electron microscope (FE-SEM). RESULTS: Calcifications were seen in all OA cartilage and slab specimens using DCR, while preoperative X-rays revealed calcification in only 17.5%. None of the control cartilage specimens showed mineralization. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between articular cartilage calcification and preoperative HHS. Histological OA grade correlated positively with the amount of matrix calcification. FE-SEM analysis revealed basic calcium phosphate (BCP) as the predominant mineral; CPPD crystals were found in only two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Articular cartilage calcification is a common event in osteoarthritis of the hip. The amount of calcification correlates with clinical symptoms and histological OA grade.

Fuerst M; Niggemeyer O; Lammers L; Schäfer F; Lohmann C; Rüther W

2009-01-01

95

Articular cartilage mineralization in osteoarthritis of the hip  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of articular cartilage calcification in patients with end-stage hip OA. Further, its impact on the clinical situation and the OA severity are analyzed. Methods Eighty patients with OA of the hip who consecutively underwent total hip replacement were prospectively evaluated, and 10 controls were included. The patients' X-rays were analyzed for the presence of articular cartilage mineralization. A Harris Hip Score (HHS) was preoperatively calculated for every patient. Slab specimens from the femoral head of bone and cartilage and an additional square centimeter of articular cartilage from the main chondral defect were obtained from each patient for analysis of mineralization by digital contact radiography (DCR). Histological grading was also performed. In a subset of 20 patients, minerals were characterized with an electron microscope (FE-SEM). Results Calcifications were seen in all OA cartilage and slab specimens using DCR, while preoperative X-rays revealed calcification in only 17.5%. None of the control cartilage specimens showed mineralization. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between articular cartilage calcification and preoperative HHS. Histological OA grade correlated positively with the amount of matrix calcification. FE-SEM analysis revealed basic calcium phosphate (BCP) as the predominant mineral; CPPD crystals were found in only two patients. Conclusions Articular cartilage calcification is a common event in osteoarthritis of the hip. The amount of calcification correlates with clinical symptoms and histological OA grade.

Fuerst Martin; Niggemeyer Oliver; Lammers Lydia; Schäfer Fritz; Lohmann Christoph; Rüther Wolfgang

2009-01-01

96

Articular Cartilage Restoration  

Science.gov (United States)

... an arthroscope. Top of page Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) ACI is a two-step procedure. New cartilage cells ... injected into the defect under the periosteal cover. ACI is most useful for younger patients who have ...

97

Biologic approaches to articular cartilage surgery: future trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of unicompartmental osteoarthritis and focal chondral pathologic conditions in the knee in active aging athletes has captured the interest of patients, clinicians, basic scientists, and medical industry researchers. Most would agree that a biologic solution to treating hyaline cartilage injuries and degeneration would be optimal over prosthetic joint arthroplasty. Articular cartilage resurfacing techniques and biologic surgical methods continue to evolve and have gained more acceptance in orthopedic practice. A consensus exists for the ultimate goal of achieving a more predictable and durable result after surgical tissue repair or regeneration. Numerous promising approaches are now on the horizon and although the final word is far from in, the integration of many of the anticipated advances in molecular medicine, biomedical engineering, polymer chemistry, cell biology, and clinical orthopedics contributes to an exciting and rapidly evolving field. This article reviews the current concepts of the biologic approach to articular cartilage pathologic conditions and discusses future trends and novel technologies. PMID:16164953

Sgaglione, Nicholas A

2005-10-01

98

Biologic approaches to articular cartilage surgery: future trends.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of unicompartmental osteoarthritis and focal chondral pathologic conditions in the knee in active aging athletes has captured the interest of patients, clinicians, basic scientists, and medical industry researchers. Most would agree that a biologic solution to treating hyaline cartilage injuries and degeneration would be optimal over prosthetic joint arthroplasty. Articular cartilage resurfacing techniques and biologic surgical methods continue to evolve and have gained more acceptance in orthopedic practice. A consensus exists for the ultimate goal of achieving a more predictable and durable result after surgical tissue repair or regeneration. Numerous promising approaches are now on the horizon and although the final word is far from in, the integration of many of the anticipated advances in molecular medicine, biomedical engineering, polymer chemistry, cell biology, and clinical orthopedics contributes to an exciting and rapidly evolving field. This article reviews the current concepts of the biologic approach to articular cartilage pathologic conditions and discusses future trends and novel technologies.

Sgaglione NA

2005-10-01

99

Injury to articular cartilage joint surfaces. I. Chondral injury produced by patellar shaving: a histopathologic study of human tissue specimens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five patella specimens from patients who had previously undergone elective shaving procedures for chondromalacia five months to two years prior to patellectomy were examined. There was no significant repair arising from the articular chondrocytes. Fibrous pannus that originated from the subchondral osseous tissue filled the surgical defects. These cases of failed shaving procedures suggest that it is not advisable to assume that all articular defects that are shaved down to bone will be repaired by new cartilage tissue.

Milgram JW

1985-01-01

100

Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors efficiently and persistently transduce chondrocytes in normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful gene transfer into articular cartilage is a prerequisite for gene therapy of articular joint disorders. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are capable of effecting gene transfer in isolated articular chondrocytes in vitro, articular cartilage tissue in vitro, and sites of articular damage in vivo. Using an rAAV vector carrying the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter/enhancer (rAAV-lacZ), transduction efficiency exceeded 70% for isolated normal human adult articular chondrocytes, and osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes. These were comparable to the transduction efficiency obtained with neonatal bovine articular chondrocytes. Transduction of explant cultures of articular cartilage resulted in reporter gene expression within the tissue of all three cartilage types to a depth exceeding 450 microm, which remained present until 150 days. When rAAV-lacZ vectors were applied to femoral chondral defects and osteochondral defects in vivo in a rat knee model, reporter gene expression was achieved for at least 10 days after transduction. These data suggest that AAV-based vectors can efficiently transduce and stably express foreign genes in articular chondrocytes, including chondrocytes of normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage. The data further suggest that the same rAAV vectors are capable of transducing chondrocytes in situ within their native matrix to a depth sufficient to be of potential clinical significance. Finally, the data demonstrate that these rAAV vectors are capable of effectively delivering recombinant genes to chondral and osteochondral defects in vivo. PMID:12659680

Madry, Henning; Cucchiarini, Magali; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Trippel, Stephen B

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors efficiently and persistently transduce chondrocytes in normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Successful gene transfer into articular cartilage is a prerequisite for gene therapy of articular joint disorders. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are capable of effecting gene transfer in isolated articular chondrocytes in vitro, articular cartilage tissue in vitro, and sites of articular damage in vivo. Using an rAAV vector carrying the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter/enhancer (rAAV-lacZ), transduction efficiency exceeded 70% for isolated normal human adult articular chondrocytes, and osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes. These were comparable to the transduction efficiency obtained with neonatal bovine articular chondrocytes. Transduction of explant cultures of articular cartilage resulted in reporter gene expression within the tissue of all three cartilage types to a depth exceeding 450 microm, which remained present until 150 days. When rAAV-lacZ vectors were applied to femoral chondral defects and osteochondral defects in vivo in a rat knee model, reporter gene expression was achieved for at least 10 days after transduction. These data suggest that AAV-based vectors can efficiently transduce and stably express foreign genes in articular chondrocytes, including chondrocytes of normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage. The data further suggest that the same rAAV vectors are capable of transducing chondrocytes in situ within their native matrix to a depth sufficient to be of potential clinical significance. Finally, the data demonstrate that these rAAV vectors are capable of effectively delivering recombinant genes to chondral and osteochondral defects in vivo.

Madry H; Cucchiarini M; Terwilliger EF; Trippel SB

2003-03-01

102

Cryopreservation of articular cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cryopreservation has numerous practical applications in medicine, biotechnology, agriculture, forestry, aquaculture and biodiversity conservation, with huge potentials for biological cell and tissue banking. A specific tissue of interest for cryopreservation is the articular cartilage of the human knee joint for two major reasons: (1) clinically, there exists an untapped potential for cryopreserved cartilage to be used in surgical repair/reconstruction/replacement of injured joints because of the limited availability of fresh donor tissue and, (2) scientifically, successful cryopreservation of cartilage, an avascular tissue with only one cell type, is considered a stepping stone for transition from biobanking cell suspensions and small tissue slices to larger and more complicated tissues. For more than 50years, a great deal of effort has been directed toward understanding and overcoming the challenges of cartilage preservation. In this article, we focus mainly on studies that led to the finding that vitrification is an appropriate approach toward successful preservation of cartilage. This is followed by a review of the studies on the main challenges of vitrification, i.e. toxicity and diffusion, and the novel approaches to overcome these challenges such as liquidus tracking, diffusion modeling, and cryoprotective agent cocktails, which have resulted in the recent advancements in the field.

Abazari A; Jomha NM; Elliott JA; McGann LE

2013-06-01

103

Cryopreservation of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryopreservation has numerous practical applications in medicine, biotechnology, agriculture, forestry, aquaculture and biodiversity conservation, with huge potentials for biological cell and tissue banking. A specific tissue of interest for cryopreservation is the articular cartilage of the human knee joint for two major reasons: (1) clinically, there exists an untapped potential for cryopreserved cartilage to be used in surgical repair/reconstruction/replacement of injured joints because of the limited availability of fresh donor tissue and, (2) scientifically, successful cryopreservation of cartilage, an avascular tissue with only one cell type, is considered a stepping stone for transition from biobanking cell suspensions and small tissue slices to larger and more complicated tissues. For more than 50years, a great deal of effort has been directed toward understanding and overcoming the challenges of cartilage preservation. In this article, we focus mainly on studies that led to the finding that vitrification is an appropriate approach toward successful preservation of cartilage. This is followed by a review of the studies on the main challenges of vitrification, i.e. toxicity and diffusion, and the novel approaches to overcome these challenges such as liquidus tracking, diffusion modeling, and cryoprotective agent cocktails, which have resulted in the recent advancements in the field. PMID:23499618

Abazari, Alireza; Jomha, Nadr M; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

2013-03-13

104

A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS) and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS) on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months) and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy) group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate) may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

T Kamarul; S Ab-Rahim; M Tumin; L Selvaratnam; TS Ahmad

2011-01-01

105

Fisiología del condrocito articular/ Physiology of articular cartilage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english El condrocito es la única célula presente en el cartílago articular, por lo que es de gran importancia el conocimiento de los mecanismos que regulan sus funciones, en particular los mecanismos de transporte de membrana que le permiten a esta célula enfrentar los continuos cambios de la osmolaridad externa a que están sometidos como consecuencia de las variaciones en la carga mecánica. Los mecanismos implicados en la regulaciín del volumen intracelular, el pH intrac (more) elular, la concentraciín citoplásmica de calcio y el potencial de membrana son claves para la comprensiín de los procesos que se afectan con el desarrollo de la enfermedad, puesto que cualquier alteraciín de la homeostasis del condrocito articular afecta el metabolismo de los componentes de la matriz extracelular y por ende, las características funcionales del tejido. El presente artículo revisa los principales elementos funcionales del condrocito articular y su entorno en el contexto del transporte de membrana y su regulaciín. The chondrocyte is the only cell in the articular cartilage; for this reason it is very important the knowledge about mechanisms that regulate its functions, particularly the membrane transport mechanisms which allow this cell to cope the continuous changes of external osmolarity as a consequence of variations in mechanic load. The mechanisms implied in regulation of cell volume, intracellular pH, cytoplasmic calcium concentration and membrane potential are key factors for understanding the process that are affected during illness, because any alteration of articular chondrocyte homeostasis affects the metabolism of the components of extracellular matrix and tissue functional characteristics. The present paper reviews the main functional elements of articular chondrocytes and its environment in the context of membrane transport regulation.

Sánchez Naranjo, Julio César

2008-01-01

106

Focal Dermal Hypoplasia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment. DIAGNOSIS/TESTING: Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and molecular genetic testing. PORCN is the only gene in which mutations are known to cause focal dermal hypoplasia. MANAGEMENT: Treatment of manifestations: Care by a dermatologist for painful and pruritic erosive lesions that are prone to infection; referral to an otolaryngologist for evaluation of large papillomas of the larynx and management with surgical or laser therapy; referral to a physical/occupational therapist and hand surgeon for management of hand and foot malformations; standard protocols for management of diaphragmatic hernia and abdominal wall defects, and structural abnormalities of the eyes and kidneys. Prevention of secondary complications: Preventive dental care for those with enamel hypoplasia to reduce the risk for dental caries. Surveillance: Routine follow up with a dermatologist; preoperative evaluation by an otolaryngologist for hypopharyngeal and/or tonsillar papillomas; routine evaluations for scoliosis, particularly in individuals with costovertebral segmentation abnormalities. GENETIC COUNSELING: Focal dermal hypoplasia is inherited in an X-linked dominant manner. Females (90% of affected individuals) are heterozygous or mosaic for mutations in PORCN; live-born affected males (10% of affected individuals) are mosaic for mutations in PORCN. It is presumed that non-mosaic hemizygous males are not viable. Approximately 95% of females with focal dermal hypoplasia have a new gene mutation; approximately 5% inherited the mutation from a parent. The risk that the mutant PORCN allele will be transmitted by an affected female with a heterozygous mutation is 50%; however, most male conceptuses with the mutant PORCN allele are presumed to be spontaneously aborted. Thus, at delivery the expected sex ratio of offspring is: 33% unaffected females; 33% affected females; 33% unaffected males. If the affected female has a mosaic mutation, the risk to her female offspring of inheriting the mutation is as high as 50%, depending on the level of mosaicism in her germline. Prenatal molecular genetic testing is possible for pregnancies at increased risk if the disease-causing mutation in the family has been identified.

Sutton VR; Van den Veyver IB

107

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase and glucose-regulated protein 78 increase the life span of articular chondrocytes and their repair potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Like all mammalian cells, normal adult chondrocytes have a limited replicative life span, which decreases with age. To facilitate the therapeutic use of chondrocytes from older donors, a method is needed to prolong their life span. METHODS: We transfected chondrocytes with hTERT or GRP78 and cultured them in a 3-dimensional atelocollagen honeycomb-shaped scaffold with a membrane seal. Then, we measured the amount of nuclear DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the expression level of type II collagen as markers of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, respectively, in these cultures. In addition, we allografted this tissue-engineered cartilage into osteochondral defects in old rabbits to assess their repair activity in vivo. RESULTS: Our results showed different degrees of differentiation in terms of GAG content between chondrocytes from old and young rabbits. Chondrocytes that were cotransfected with hTERT and GRP78 showed higher cellular proliferation and expression of type II collagen than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of the age of the cartilage donor. In addition, the in vitro growth rates of hTERT- or GRP78-transfected chondrocytes were higher than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of donor age. In vivo, the tissue-engineered cartilage implants exhibited strong repairing activity, maintained a chondrocyte-specific phenotype, and produced extracellular matrix components. CONCLUSIONS: Focal gene delivery to aged articular chondrocytes exhibited strong repairing activity and may be therapeutically useful for articular cartilage regeneration.

Sato M; Shin-ya K; Lee JI; Ishihara M; Nagai T; Kaneshiro N; Mitani G; Tahara H; Mochida J

2012-01-01

108

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase and glucose-regulated protein 78 increase the life span of articular chondrocytes and their repair potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Like all mammalian cells, normal adult chondrocytes have a limited replicative life span, which decreases with age. To facilitate the therapeutic use of chondrocytes from older donors, a method is needed to prolong their life span. Methods We transfected chondrocytes with hTERT or GRP78 and cultured them in a 3-dimensional atelocollagen honeycomb-shaped scaffold with a membrane seal. Then, we measured the amount of nuclear DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the expression level of type II collagen as markers of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, respectively, in these cultures. In addition, we allografted this tissue-engineered cartilage into osteochondral defects in old rabbits to assess their repair activity in vivo. Results Our results showed different degrees of differentiation in terms of GAG content between chondrocytes from old and young rabbits. Chondrocytes that were cotransfected with hTERT and GRP78 showed higher cellular proliferation and expression of type II collagen than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of the age of the cartilage donor. In addition, the in vitro growth rates of hTERT- or GRP78-transfected chondrocytes were higher than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of donor age. In vivo, the tissue-engineered cartilage implants exhibited strong repairing activity, maintained a chondrocyte-specific phenotype, and produced extracellular matrix components. Conclusions Focal gene delivery to aged articular chondrocytes exhibited strong repairing activity and may be therapeutically useful for articular cartilage regeneration.

Sato Masato; Shin-ya Kazuo; Lee Jeong Ik; Ishihara Miya; Nagai Toshihiro; Kaneshiro Nagatoshi; Mitani Genya; Tahara Hidetoshi; Mochida Joji

2012-01-01

109

First ex vivo study demonstrating that {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preclinical data pointed to {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 {+-} 2.35 and 0.76 {+-} 0.24, respectively, for {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. The tracer {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

Cachin, Florent; Culot, Damien [Jean Perrin Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Boisgard, Stephane [Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Vidal, Aurelien; Auzeloux, Philippe; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth [Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Filaire, Marc [Universite d' Auvergne, Anatomy Laboratory, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, Serge [Cyclopharma Laboratoire, Saint-Beauzire (France)

2011-11-15

110

MR imaging of articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] MR imaging has evolved to the best non-invasive method for the evaluation of articular cartilage. MR imaging helps to understand the structure and physiology of cartilage, and to diagnose cartilage lesions. Numerous studies have shown high accuracy and reliability concerning detection of cartilage lesions and early changes in both structure and biochemistry. High contrast-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution are essential for analysis of articular cartilage. Fat-suppressed 3D-T1 weighted gradient echo and T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with or without fat suppression are recommended for clinical routine. In this article the anatomy and pathology of hyaline articular cartilage and the complex imaging characteristics of hyaline cartilage will be discussed. (orig.)

2001-01-01

111

PRESSURE NECROSIS OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis that was evolved in the present study was to investigate the repairof damaged articular cartilage by connective tissue fibers other than collagen fibers. SETTING:Anatomy Department. PERIOD: Seven Weeks. RESULT: At the end of sixth week ofimmobilization reticular fibers were seen invading the collagenous scar in the floor of ulcer.CONCLUSION: The obtained result indicates that it is not only the collagen fibers, which fill the gap, butreticular fibers are also involved in the repair of articular cartilage by fibrosis.

Arbab Abdul Wadood

2001-01-01

112

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is scar tissue that forms in parts of the kidney called glomeruli. The glomeruli serve as ... The cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is usually ... and adults. Men and boys are affected slightly more often than ...

113

Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging.

Chin HC; Moeini M; Quinn TM

2013-07-01

114

Articular cartilage friction increases in hip joints after the removal of acetabular labrum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acetabular labrum is believed to have a sealing function. However, a torn labrum may not effectively prevent joint fluid from escaping a compressed joint, resulting in impaired lubrication. We aimed to understand the role of the acetabular labrum in maintaining a low friction environment in the hip joint. We did this by measuring the resistance to rotation (RTR) of the hip, which reflects the friction of the articular cartilage surface, following focal and complete labrectomy. Five cadaveric hips without evidence of osteoarthritis and impingement were tested. We measured resistance to rotation of the hip joint during 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 times body weight (BW) cyclic loading in the intact hip, and after focal and complete labrectomy. Resistance to rotation, which reflects articular cartilage friction in an intact hip was significantly increased following focal labrectomy at 1-3 BW loading, and following complete labrectomy at all load levels. The acetabular labrum appears to maintain a low friction environment, possibly by sealing the joint from fluid exudation. Even focal labrectomy may result in increased joint friction, a condition that may be detrimental to articular cartilage and lead to osteoarthritis.

Song Y; Ito H; Kourtis L; Safran MR; Carter DR; Giori NJ

2012-02-01

115

Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica/ Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeit (more) os do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT); os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC). A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear su (more) lcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

Iamaguti, L.S.; Brandão, C.V.S.; Mota, L.S.L.S.; Ranzani, J.J.T.; Ribeiro, L.M.; Rossetto, V.J.V.; Padovani, C.R.; Felisbino, S.L.

2013-02-01

116

Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT); os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC). A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina.The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

L.S. Iamaguti; C.V.S. Brandão; L.S.L.S. Mota; J.J.T. Ranzani; L.M. Ribeiro; V.J.V. Rossetto; C.R. Padovani; S.L. Felisbino

2013-01-01

117

Human stem cells and articular cartilage tissue engineering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Injuries to articular cartilage are one of the most challenging issues of musculoskeletal medicine due to the poor intrinsic ability of this tissue for repair. Despite progress in orthopaedic surgery, cell-based surgical therapies such as autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) have been in clinical use for cartilage repair for over a decade but this approach has shown mixed results. Moreover, the lack of efficient modalities of treatment for large chondral defects has prompted research on cartilage tissue engineering combining cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. This paper focuses on the main parameters in tissue engineering and in particular, on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative to cells derived from patient tissues in autologous transplantation and tissue engineering. We discussed the prospects of using autologous chondrocytes or MSCs in regenerative medicine and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these cells in articular cartilage engineering.

Stoltz JF; Huselstein C; Schiavi J; Li YY; Bensoussan D; Decot V; De Isla N

2012-12-01

118

Osteochondral autograft transplantation for malunited intra-articular fracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Malunited intra-articular fracture of the proximal inter-phalangeal (PIP) joint sometimes causes problems, such as range of motion (ROM) limitation in the joint or lack of digital dexterity; however, the treatment method has not yet been established. We report a juvenile case of osteochondral autograft tranplantation to treat a malunited intra-articular fracture of the middle finger. CASE REPORT: A 14-year-old boy was injured at the right middle finger by a baseball impact and underwent conservative treatment. At 5 months after the injury, he complained of continuing pain and restricted ROM. Plain X-ray and CT images showed a bony defect in the articular surface of the PIP joint of the right middle finger. He was diagnosed with malunited intra-articular fracture of the PIP joint and underwent surgical treatment. First, through a palmar incision, a columnar-shaped drill hole was made at the recipient site of osteochondral defect. Then a cylindrical osteochondral plug, 4.5 mm in diameter, harvested from the knee, was inserted into the recipient hole and press-fitted. One year after surgery, the patient has neither pain nor ROM limitation of the finger and the knee joint. MRI showed smooth articular surface of the PIP joint. DISCUSSION: The benefits of our method include use of articular cartilage as a reconstruction material, availability for a relatively large cartilage defect, and stability of the autograft for the press-fitting method, which enable early mobilization exercise after surgery.

Yamagami N; Yamamoto S; Tsujimoto Y; Uchio Y

2013-01-01

119

[Complex fragmentation of the distal radial articular surface. Reconstruction with subchondral Kirschner wires and bone grafts].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Complex fragmentation of the distal radial articular surface often results in three major problems: some fragments are too small for stabilisation by standard plates or screws; in addition, substantial loss of articular surfaces and metaphyseal/subchondral bony defects frequently occur. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To solve these problems the following strategy was developed: the fixation of small articular fragments was performed by small K-wires that were placed subchondrally and countersunk in the bone. In case of lost articular surfaces a silicone foil was inserted intra-articularly to induce a cartilage-like tissue. Bony defects were replaced by iliac crest bone grafts. Additional stability was achieved by dorsal and volar plate fixation or bridge plating. RESULTS: An average of 53° of extension, 44° of flexion, 74° of pronation, and 66° of supination were achieved. The grip strength was an average of 61% of that in the contralateral limb. The average radiographic measurements were -5° of palmar inclination, 21° of ulnar inclination, and 0 mm of positive ulnar variance. A good or excellent functional result was achieved for five of seven wrists according to the rating system of Gartland and Werley. According to the modified Mayo Wrist Score four of five wrists achieved a good and one a fair result.The DASH Score averaged 19 (6-59) points. CONCLUSIONS: The applied treatment resulted in stable, mobile wrists with reasonable alignment and nearly even articular surfaces. The functional results were similar to those reported by other authors for less complex distal radius fractures. This strategy seems to be a rational approach to the reconstruction of severely comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius.

Pillukat T; Schädel-Höpfner M; Windolf J; Prommersberger KJ

2013-07-01

120

Thickness of patellofemoral articular cartilage as measured on MR imaging: sequence comparison of accuracy, reproducibility, and interobserver variation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision, and reliability of magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of articular cartilage. Fifteen cadaveric patellas were imaged in the axial plane at 1.5 T. Gradient echo and fat-suppressed FSE, T2-weighted, proton density, and T1-weighted sequences were performed. We measured each 5-mm section separately at three standardized positions, giving a total of 900 measurements. These findings were correlated with independently performed measurements of the corresponding anatomic sections. A hundred random measurements were also evaluated for reproducibility and interobserver variation. Although all sequences were highly accurate, the T1-weighted images were the most accurate, with a mean difference of 0.25 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.85. All sequences were also highly reproducible with little inter-observer variation. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of the MR measurements further, we retrospectively evaluated all measurements with discrepancies greater than 1 mm from the specimen. All these differences were attributable to focal defects causing exaggeration of the thickness on MR imaging. (orig.).

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Beamlet focal plane diagnostic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

1996-12-01

122

Immunohistological localization of BMP-2, BMP-7, and their receptors in knee joints with focal cartilage lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that BMP-2 and BMP-7 play significant roles in cartilage metabolism, data about intra-articular expression and localization of these proteins and their receptors in humans are rare. METHODS: Biopsies of synovia and debrided cartilage were taken in patients undergoing autologous chondrocyte implantation. Expression of BMP-2, BMP-7, and their receptors BMPR-1A, BMPR-1B and BMPR-2 were semiquantitatively evaluated by immunohistological staining. RESULTS: BMP-7 was equally highly expressed in all cartilage and synovial biopsies. Increased levels of BMPR-1A, but not of BMPR-1B, and BMPR-2, were found in all synovial and 47% of all cartilage samples (P = 0.002). BMP-2 was positively scored in 47% of all cartilage and 40% of all synovial specimens. Defect size, KOSS, Henderson or Kellgren-Lawrence score did not statistically significant correlate with the expression of the analyzed proteins or Mankin and Pritzker scores. Duration of symptoms and localization of lesions were associated with KOSS (P < 0.02), but there was no influence of these parameters on protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMPR-1A were expressed in cartilage and synovia of knees with focal cartilage lesions. Although defect localization and duration of symptoms decisively influence KOSS, there was no associated alteration of protein expression observed.

Schmal H; Mehlhorn AT; Pilz IH; Dovi-Akue D; Kirchhoff C; Südkamp NP; Gerlach U; Lohrmann C; Niemeyer P

2012-01-01

123

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

2010-01-15

124

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. PURPOSE: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). RESULTS: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases.

Ogino S; Huang T; Watanabe A; Iranpour-Boroujeni T; Yoshioka H

2010-02-01

125

Imaging of the cervical articular pillar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cervical articular pillar, due to the complex anatomical structure of the cervical spine, is not well demonstrated in routine plain radiographic views. Dedicated views have been devised to demonstrate the pillar, yet their performance has abated considerably since the inception of Computed Tomography (CT) in the 1970's. It is the consideration that CT does not image the articular pillar with a 10 per cent accuracy that poses the question: Is there still a need for plain radiography of the cervical articular pillar? This paper studies the anatomy, plain radiography, and incidence of injury to the cervical articular pillar. It discusses (with reference to current and historic literature) the efficacy of current imaging protocols in depicting this injury. It deals with plain radiography, CT, complex tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine to conclude there may still be a position in current imaging protocols for plain radiography of the cervical articular pillar. Copyright (1998) Australian Institute of Radiography

1998-01-01

126

Focal dermal hypoplasia in a male  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare mesoectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by cutaneous, skeletal, dental, ocular and soft-tissue defects. An X-linked dominant mode of inheritance with lethality in male subjects has been proposed. Only around 30 cases of FDH have been reported in male subjects. Live born affected males are mosaic for mutations in PORCN gene . We present the mosaic pattern of FDH  in a young boy.

Leni George; Nisha Agrawal; Peter Hogan

2011-01-01

127

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of some clinical, laboratory, histopathologic and therapeutic factors in 62 children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. There were no significant differences between the factors studied, except for severe interstitial fibrosis, which was more frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease (P=0.03). The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in nonresponder groups was significantly higher (P <0.05). We found therapy with cyclophosphamide to be promising in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

Naseri M; Madani A; Attaii N; Naseri H

2010-06-01

128

Influence of bone morphogenetic protein on articular cartilage regeneration following periosteal grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Autologous periosteal grafting is used as treatment for articular cartilage defect. Objective: To study the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) on articular cartilage regeneration following periosteal grafting. Methods: 16 healthy 15 week-old New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes (32 knees) were randomly divided into experimental group (group A) and control group (group B). A4.0 mmdiameter full-thickness articular cartilage defect was created in the femoral intercondylar fossa in all rabbits. Following this, a4.0 mmdiameter section of the periosteum was harvested from the anteromedial part of the upper tibial bone. In group A (eight rabbits, 16 knees), the cartilage defect was covered with periosteum, into which 20 ?g BMP and 20% Pluronic were injected. In group B (eight rabbits, 16 knees), the cartilage defect was covered with periosteum, into which the same dosage of 0.9% NS (Normal saline) and 20% Pluronic were injected. All rabbits were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively, the cartilage defect areas were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and the morphology of the chondrocytes and collagen fibers were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: The filling of the defects with regenerated tissue was observed in both the group. The most notable improvement was that the cartilage regeneration in group A was obviously superior to that in group B, with the total histological score in group A significantly higher. Conclusion: BMP is an effective factor that could promote regeneration of articular cartilage and lead to successful cartilaginous resurfacing following periosteal grafting

Yimin Zhang; Xin Jiang; Yongzhi Guo

2013-01-01

129

Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3) and metatarsal (Mt3) bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb) is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration.Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected.Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC) up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02) and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02). Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

A Boyde; CM Riggs; AJ Bushby; B McDermott; GL Pinchbeck; PD Clegg

2011-01-01

130

Focal retinal phlebitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To report three cases of solitary, focal retinal phlebitis. METHODS: An observational case series. RESULTS: Three eyes in three patients were noted to have unilateral decreased vision, macular edema, and a focal retinal phlebitis, which was not at an arteriovenous crossing. All three patients developed a branch retinal vein occlusion at the site of inflammation. These patients had no other evidence of intraocular inflammation, including vitritis, retinitis, retinal vasculitis, or choroiditis, nor was there any systemic disorder associated with inflammation, infection, or coagulation identified. CONCLUSION: Focal retinal phlebitis appears to be an uncommon and unique entity that produces macular edema and ultimately branch retinal vein occlusion. In our patients, the focal phlebitis and venous occlusion did not occur at an arteriovenous crossing, which is the typical site for branch retinal venous occlusive disease. This suggests that our cases represent a distinct clinical entity, which starts with a focal abnormality in the wall of a retinal venule, resulting in surrounding exudation and, ultimately, ends with branch retinal vein occlusion.

Hoang QV; Freund KB; Klancnik JM Jr; Sorenson JA; Cunningham ET Jr; Yannuzzi LA

2012-01-01

131

Joint cracking and popping: understanding noises that accompany articular release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular release is a physiologic event that may or may not be audible. It is seen in patients with healthy joints as well as those with somatic dysfunction. After an articular release, there is a difference in joint spacing-with the release increasing the distance between articular surfaces. Not all noise that emanates from a joint signifies an articular release. A hypothesis about the noise that frequently accompanies this release is offered and includes anatomic, physiologic, and functional models of articular release. Repeated performance of articular release may decrease the occurrence of arthritis. Potential problems from repeated articular release (eg, hypermobility) are also examined. PMID:12033758

Protopapas, Marina G; Cymet, Tyler C; Protapapas, Marina G

2002-05-01

132

Joint cracking and popping: understanding noises that accompany articular release.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular release is a physiologic event that may or may not be audible. It is seen in patients with healthy joints as well as those with somatic dysfunction. After an articular release, there is a difference in joint spacing-with the release increasing the distance between articular surfaces. Not all noise that emanates from a joint signifies an articular release. A hypothesis about the noise that frequently accompanies this release is offered and includes anatomic, physiologic, and functional models of articular release. Repeated performance of articular release may decrease the occurrence of arthritis. Potential problems from repeated articular release (eg, hypermobility) are also examined.

Protopapas MG; Cymet TC; Protapapas MG

2002-05-01

133

MRI of articular cartilaginous lesions. MRI findings in osteoarthritis of the knee joint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for imaging of the knee joint, especially for detecting articular cartilaginous lesions associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 141 patients with osteoarthritis were examined (23 males, 118 females). Their age range was 40-93 (mean age 66.2). Using radiotherapy examinations, patients were classified according to Hokkaido University Classification Criteria; 22, 49, 46, 16, and 8 patients were classified as Type I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Articular cartilage defects were examined using MRI, and the number of such defects increased as the X-ray stage progressed. The appearance of a low signal intensity area in the bone marrow was examined using MRI, and the number of patients observed to have such areas increased as the x-ray stages progressed. JOA OA scores were significantly low for patients with meniscal tears. Patients were classified and results reviewed using MRI examinations. Classification by MRI of articular cartilage lesions correlated with the JOA OA scores. Low signal intensity areas in the bone marrow were frequently observed in advanced osteoarthritis cases, and there was correlation between FTA and MRI classifications of these areas. MRI is extremely valuable in detecting articular cartilage lesions in the knee joint, showing those lesions which cannot be detected by conventional radiography examinations. Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically useful method for diagnosis of osteoarthritis. (author).

Nozaki, Hiroyuki; Takezawa, Yuuichi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Ohashi Hospital; Suguro, Tohru; Igata, Atsuomi; Kudo, Yukihiko; Motegi, Mitsuo

1995-03-01

134

Biomechanical evaluation of intra-articular and extra-articular procedures in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A finite element analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Intra-articular techniques (single and double bundles) are the most widely used procedures for the anterior cruciate lig- ament reconstruction. Lemaire introduced in 1967 the extra-articular techniques, and combined intra-articular and extra-articular recon- struction, to better restor...

Ramaniraka, N.A.; Saunier, P.; Siegrist, O.; Pioletti, Dominique P.

135

SNAP focal plane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

2002-07-29

136

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of some clinical, laboratory, histopathologic and therapeutic factors in 62 children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. There were no significant differences between the factors studied, except for severe interstitial fibrosis, which was more frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease (P=0.03). The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in nonresponder groups was significantly higher (P <0.05). We found therapy with cyclophosphamide to be promising in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. PMID:19736363

Naseri, Mitra; Madani, Abbas; Attaii, Nematolah; Naseri, Homa

2009-09-03

137

[Focal epithelial hyperplasia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

Vera-Iglesias E; García-Arpa M; Sánchez-Caminero P; Romero-Aguilera G; Cortina de la Calle P

2007-11-01

138

Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

Atsuyuki Inui; Takashi Iwakura; A. Hari Reddi

2012-01-01

139

Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair.

Shi S; Mercer S; Eckert GJ; Trippel SB

2013-04-01

140

Reversible focal splenial lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

Gallucci, Massimo; Limbucci, Nicola [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, S. Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy); Paonessa, Amalia [Loreto Nuovo Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Napoli (Italy); Caranci, Ferdinando [Federico II University, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

2007-07-15

 
 
 
 
141

Focal degenerative dementia syndromes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal degenerative dementia syndromes are associated with a characteristic clinical picture, such as frontotemporal dementia, primary progressive aphasia, semantic dementia, corticobasal degeneration, and the Balint syndrome. A lobar approach may be used to classify the degenerative dementias. The underlying pathology of these various syndromes seems to be less heterogeneous than previously thought.

Arvanitakis Z; Graff-Radford N

2001-05-01

142

Joint surface defects: clinical course and cellular response in spontaneous and experimental lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Joint surface defects (JSD) involving the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone are a common clinical problem in rheumatology and orthopaedics. The recent availability of accurate imaging for diagnosis and efficacious therapeutic options has stirred new interest in their natural history and biology. The evidence that some of these lesions can heal spontaneously whereas others precipitate osteoarthritis has raised important questions as to which lesions should be treated, when, and how. Evidence of repair of some of these lesions has also stimulated research into which factors contribute to successful healing and which ones determine chronic evolution and development of osteoarthritis (OA). Older anatomical observations, together with novel molecular tools and experimental models, have revealed a complex cellular and molecular response of cartilage to focal defects, which could explain differences in healing responses between individuals, and may provide clues to stimulating intrinsic tissue repair. In the first part of this review we will discuss clinical aspects of these lesions in the patient, with particular emphasis on their biology and natural history. In the second part we will summarize the data coming from in vitro and in vivo models of cartilage injury and regeneration, focussing on the molecular control of cartilage homeostasis after creation of cartilage surface defects.

F Dell’accio; TL Vincent

2010-01-01

143

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of articular chondrocalcinosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the role of high-frequency ultrasonography in the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) calcifications, in the most commonly affected joints in CPPD disease. Sixty patients with knee effusion were included in the study. All patients underwent musculoskeletal ultrasonography (on the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and knee joints), radiological examination of the sites examined by US, and synovial fluid analysis (using polarized light microscopy). Out of 60 patients with knee effusion, ultrasonographic calcifications (knees, shoulders, and wrists) were present in 38 patients (63.3%) and out of those patients; 32 had calcification characteristic of CPPD crystals deposition (hyperechoic deposits) in the knee and wrist joints. Pattern II (punctate pattern) was the most common pattern of calcification. It was present in all patients who had wrist calcification (18 patients) and in the knee in either alone (21 patients) or in association with pattern I (hyperechoic band) and/or pattern III (hyperechoic nodular or oval deposits) (9 patients). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for the detection of calcification was 84.2% while that of plain radiography was 13.2%, the specificity of both ultrasonography and plain radiography for the detection of calcification was 100%, and ultrasonography is valuable for diagnosing articular chondrocalcinosis via the detection of calcifications within the joint cartilage and fibrocartilage. Both sensitivity and specificity are high for detecting CPPD deposits.

Ellabban AS; Kamel SR; Omar HA; El-Sherif AM; Abdel-Magied RA

2012-12-01

144

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of articular chondrocalcinosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the role of high-frequency ultrasonography in the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) calcifications, in the most commonly affected joints in CPPD disease. Sixty patients with knee effusion were included in the study. All patients underwent musculoskeletal ultrasonography (on the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and knee joints), radiological examination of the sites examined by US, and synovial fluid analysis (using polarized light microscopy). Out of 60 patients with knee effusion, ultrasonographic calcifications (knees, shoulders, and wrists) were present in 38 patients (63.3%) and out of those patients; 32 had calcification characteristic of CPPD crystals deposition (hyperechoic deposits) in the knee and wrist joints. Pattern II (punctate pattern) was the most common pattern of calcification. It was present in all patients who had wrist calcification (18 patients) and in the knee in either alone (21 patients) or in association with pattern I (hyperechoic band) and/or pattern III (hyperechoic nodular or oval deposits) (9 patients). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for the detection of calcification was 84.2% while that of plain radiography was 13.2%, the specificity of both ultrasonography and plain radiography for the detection of calcification was 100%, and ultrasonography is valuable for diagnosing articular chondrocalcinosis via the detection of calcifications within the joint cartilage and fibrocartilage. Both sensitivity and specificity are high for detecting CPPD deposits. PMID:22193232

Ellabban, Abdou S; Kamel, Shereen R; Omar, Hanaa A S Abo; El-Sherif, Ashraf M H; Abdel-Magied, Rasha A

2011-12-23

145

Articular cartilage evaluation after TruFit plug implantation analyzed by delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Quantitative MRI of articular cartilage has rapidly developed in recent years and provides the clinician with a noninvasive tool to determine the biological consequence of an intervention. PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of intra-articular cartilage, using the dGEMRIC scanning technique, 1 year after TruFit implantation. The hypothesis was that implantation of a TruFit plug does not lead to damage at the opposing articular cartilage. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: A total of 13 patients (age, 32 ± 8 years) were evaluated with dGEMRIC at 12 ± 4 months after treatment of an osteochondral lesion by implantation of 1 or multiple TruFit plugs. The dGEMRIC scanning protocol was applied 90 minutes after intravenous Magnevist (0.2 mmol/kg body weight) injection. Different regions of interest (ROIs) were defined: the femur cartilage, cartilage directly surrounding the implanted TruFit plug, the TruFit plug, and the articulating and nonarticulating tibia cartilage. The average dGEMRIC index (T1gd; magnetic resonance imaging relaxation time per ROI) was calculated by a pixel-by-pixel curve fitting using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Differences between the mean T1gd of the individual ROI for all patients were tested using analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni correction. A P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The average T1gd of the TruFit ROI (385 ± 74 ms) was comparable with those in the femur (409 ± 49 ms) and surrounding (392 ± 64 ms) ROIs (P ? .339). The average T1gds for the articulating (578 ± 133 ms) and nonarticulating (516 ± 118 ms) ROIs were higher compared with the femur (409 ± 49 ms), surrounding (392 ± 64 ms), and TruFit (385 ± 74 ms) ROIs (P < .002), while no difference was observed between the tibia ROIs (P = .160). CONCLUSION: Implantation of the TruFit plug in osteochondral lesions does not damage the opposing or surrounding surface, and newly formed tissue inside the plug has cartilage-like dGEMRIC characteristics 12 months after implantation. The implantation of synthetic TruFit plugs is safe for the opposing cartilage, an item that is frequently discussed when using such materials to treat focal cartilage defects.

Bekkers JE; Bartels LW; Vincken KL; Dhert WJ; Creemers LB; Saris DB

2013-06-01

146

BMP Receptor Signaling Is Required for Postnatal Maintenance of Articular Cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression specifically in this tissue have not been available. Here we use regulatory information from the mouse Gdf5 gene (a bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] family member) to develop new mouse lines that can be used to either activate or inactivate genes specifically in developing joints. Expression of Cre recombinase from Gdf5 bacterial artificial chromosome clones leads to specific activation or inactivation of floxed target genes in developing joints, including early joint interzones, adult articular cartilage, and the joint capsule. We have used this system to test the role of BMP receptor signaling in joint development. Mice with null mutations in Bmpr1a are known to die early in embryogenesis with multiple defects. However, combining a floxed Bmpr1a allele with the Gdf5-Cre driver bypasses this embryonic lethality, and leads to birth and postnatal development of mice missing the Bmpr1a gene in articular regions. Most joints in the body form normally in the absence of Bmpr1a receptor function. However, articular cartilage within the joints gradually wears away in receptor-deficient mice after birth in a process resembling human osteoarthritis. Gdf5-Cre mice provide a general system that can be used to test the role of genes in articular regions. BMP receptor signaling is required not only for early development and creation of multiple tissues, but also for ongoing maintenance of articular cartilage after birth. Genetic variation in the strength of BMP receptor signaling may be an important risk factor in human osteoarthritis, and treatments that mimic or augment BMP receptor signaling should be investigated as a possible therapeutic strategy for maintaining the health of joint linings.

Rountree Ryan B; Schoor Michael; Chen Hao; Marks Melissa E; Harley Vincent; Mishina Yuji; Kingsley David M

2004-01-01

147

FLUOROCARBONS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ARTICULAR DISORDERS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Use of fluorocarbons for the diagnosis and treatment of articular disorders is disclosed. The invention provides for the introduction of a fluorocarbon into an articular region to replace or augment natural synovial fluid. The introduced fluorocarbons, which may be in various forms including liquids, gels or emulsions, provide articular lubrification and cushioning which is effective for the treatment of disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Additionally, the present invention may be used to provide high resolution articular images, reduce articular inflammation and introduce bioactive agents to the articular region.

WALTERS Mark A.; HOPKINS Ronald M.; KLEIN David H.

148

Childhood Focal Epilepsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done in order to obtain a baseline profile of childhood focal epilepsies Patient and methods: Subjects included in this study were children suffering from focal epilepsy with age above 2 y. They were attending pediatric neurology clinic in Queen Rania Hospital for children in Jordan . The study included 112 children with ages ranging from 2-14 years. The following data were obtained: age, sex, detailed of seizures type, age at first unprovoked seizure, family history of seizure disorders, history and type of febrile seizures, etiological factors, socioeconomic class, history of consanguinity, additional neuro -impairment, Electroencephalography and brain imaging finding and the use of antiepileptic drugs, the results were recorded for further study. Results: A total of 112 consecutive cases of focal epilepsy were enrolled , 59 were male. The commonest partial seizure recorded was simple partial type 52 (46.4%) while simple partial with secondary generalization had 17 (16.9%) and complex partial seizure formed 36.8 %. ), In partial onset seizures the peak age was between 11-14 years and complex partial seizures plateau was seen between ages 6-10 years. Twenty six (23.2%) patients reported a family history of epilepsy, 91% of low socioeconomic class .11.5 % of cases have history of febrile seizures, idiopathic epilepsy was 53.5 % . In most of epileptic patients have accessory neurological impairment, the most common were learning difficulties Electroencephalography was normal in 20.4 %, mono-therapy was used in 68.8 % Conclusion: the pattern of focal epilepsies in our country do not differ from that of developed countries, further population ­based epidemiological research is indicated to confirm the prevalence of seizure disorders in this locality

Wael hayel khreisat

2011-01-01

149

Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

López-Jornet P; Camacho-Alonso F; Berdugo L

2010-06-01

150

Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%), Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13%) e Escherichia coli (12,68%) os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%). Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45%) e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%). Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69%) de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação.In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%), nursery (44.35%) and growing-finishing (25.22%) phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs) for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total of 57 (49.5%) samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13%) and Escherichia coli (12.68%), and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%). In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45%) and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%). Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%). Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

Ana Carolina S. Faria; João X. de Oliveira Filho; Daphine A.J. de Paula; Laila Natasha S. Brandão; Danny Franciele S. Dias; Luciano Nakazato; Valéria Dutra

2011-01-01

151

Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos/ Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Strep (more) tococcus spp. (19,72%), Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13%) e Escherichia coli (12,68%) os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%). Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45%) e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%). Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69%) de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação. Abstract in english In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%), nursery (44.35%) and growing-finishing (25.22%) phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs) for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total of 57 (49.5%) samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%), Arcanobacterium py (more) ogenes (18.13%) and Escherichia coli (12.68%), and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%). In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45%) and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%). Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%). Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

Faria, Ana Carolina S.; Oliveira Filho, João X. de; Paula, Daphine A.J. de; Brandão, Laila Natasha S.; Dias, Danny Franciele S.; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria

2011-08-01

152

Equine articular synovial cysts: 16 cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of equine patients with articular synovial cysts. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Horses (n = 16) with articular synovial cysts. METHODS: Horses diagnosed with articular synovial cysts (1988-2009) at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were studied. Signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic methods and treatment were retrieved and telephone follow-up was obtained. RESULTS: Sixteen horses with articular synovial cysts were identified. Lameness was the reason for referral in most (n = 9) horses. Diagnosis was based on a combination of palpation and imaging studies, including radiography, ultrasonography and/or arthrography. Excision of the cyst was performed in 8 horses. Outcome was available for 4 surgically and 2 conservatively treated horses. Lameness resolved in 3 horses treated surgically and the 4th died for unrelated reasons. The 2 conservatively treated horses performed satisfactorily for the rest of their career. CONCLUSIONS: Equine articular synovial cysts are rare and can be associated with lameness. The cysts had a synovial lining in all horses where it was assessed. Surgical excision may be successful in resolving the lameness and allowing selected horses to return to work.

Lacourt M; MacDonald M; Rossier Y; Laverty S

2013-01-01

153

Spectrum of PORCN mutations in Focal Dermal Hypoplasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz syndrome (OMIM 305600), is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems early in development. Features of FDH include skin abnormalities, (hypoplasia, atrophy, linear pigmentation, and herniation of fat through dermal defects); papillomas...

154

Effects of fiber orientation on the frictional properties and damage of regenerative articular cartilage surfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage provides a low-friction, wear-resistant surface for diarthrodial joints. Due to overloading and overuse, articular cartilage is known to undergo significant wear and degeneration potentially resulting in osteoarthritis (OA). Regenerative medicine strategies offer a promising solution for the treatment of articular cartilage defects and potentially localized early OA. Such strategies rely on the development of materials to restore some aspects of cartilage. In this study, microfibrous poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds of varying fiber orientations (random and aligned) were cultured with bovine chondrocytes for 4 weeks in vitro, and the mechanical and frictional properties were evaluated. Mechanical properties were quantified using unconfined compression and tensile testing techniques. Frictional properties were investigated at physiological compressive strains occurring in native articular cartilage. Scaffolds were sheared along the fiber direction, perpendicular to the fiber direction and in random orientation. The evolution of damage as a result of shear was evaluated via white light interferometry and scanning electron microscopy. As expected, the fiber orientation strongly affected the tensile properties as well as the compressive modulus of the scaffolds. Fiber orientation did not significantly affect the equilibrium frictional coefficient, but it was, however, a key factor in dictating the evolution of surface damage on the surface. Scaffolds shear tested perpendicular to the fiber orientation displayed the highest surface damage. Our results suggest that the fiber orientation of the scaffold implanted in the joint could strongly affect its resistance to damage due to shear. Scaffold fiber orientation should thus be carefully considered when using microfibrous scaffolds.

Accardi MA; McCullen SD; Callanan A; Chung S; Cann PM; Stevens MM; Dini D

2013-10-01

155

Differentiation plasticity of human fetal articular chondrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To test chondrogenic differentiation potential, we examined the differentiation plasticity of isolated human fetal articular chondrocytes (HFACs). STUDY AND DESIGN SETTING: Culture-expanded human fetal articular chondrocytes (HFACs) were analyzed for chondrogenic, adipogenic, osteogenic capacity and neural differentiation ability in defined in vitro culture systems. RESULTS: The different assays demonstrated that culture-expanded HFACs have potential to form cartilage in pellet mass culture, to form adipose cells, osteogenic cells, and neural cells in monolayer culture. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that within human fetal articular cartilages there are MSC-like cells that exhibit differentiation plasticity that is comparable with that of BM-MSCs and they may be a new kind of seeding cells for head and neck cartilage reconstruction.

Cui Y; Wang H; Yu M; Xu T; Li X; Li L

2006-07-01

156

Intra-articular Osteochondroma: A case Report.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteochondromas usually arise from the metaphyseal region of the growing skeleton. They usually develop in relation to the periosteum, and occur around the growth plate of long bones, especially the knee. The tumor usually stops to grow with closure of the growth plate. Extraskeletal cartilaginous tumors are uncommon. These tumors can arise at unusual anatomic site. Intra-articular osteochondromas are rare in older individuals. In joints with a large capsular space, such as the patellofemoral joint, osteochondromas can remain intra-articular [3]. Clinical-pathologic and radiological correlation helps to clarify the nature of the lesion. Complete local surgical excision is the management of choice. We report a patient with an intra-articular osteochondroma in the anterior portion of the knee joint. The tumor caused pain and swelling in the joint and affected knee motion.

Lt. Col.Sunil Sanga; Gaurav Goswami; Lt. Col.Raj S Negi

2013-01-01

157

Intra-articular glucocorticoids for acute gout.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although intra-articular glucocorticoids are a commonly used intervention in the treatment of acute gout, there is little evidence to support their safety and efficacy in this setting. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intra-articular glucocorticoids in the treatment of acute gout. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies to 16th October 2012. We also searched the 2010 to 2011 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) abstracts and performed a handsearch of the reference lists of articles considered for inclusion. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) that used quasi-randomisation methods to allocate participants to treatment and compared intra-articular glucocorticoids to another therapy (active or placebo) in adults with acute gout. Outcomes selected for inclusion were pain, the proportion of participant withdrawals due to adverse events, inflammation, function, patient global assessment of treatment success, quality of life and proportion of particpants with serious adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected the studies for inclusion and planned to extract the data and perform a risk of bias assessment. MAIN RESULTS: No trials were identified that evaluated the efficacy and safety of intra-articular glucocorticoids for acute gout. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is presently no evidence from randomised trials to support the use of intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment in acute gout. Evidence suggests intra-articular glucocorticoids may be a safe and effective treatment in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. These results may be generalisable to people with acute gout, and the treatment may be especially useful in people when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or colchicine are contraindicated.

Wechalekar MD; Vinik O; Schlesinger N; Buchbinder R

2013-01-01

158

Synovial folds in equine articular process joints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Cervical synovial folds have been suggested as a potential cause of neck pain in humans. Little is known about the extent and characteristics of cervical synovial folds in horses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this explorative study was to determine the frequency of synovial folds in equine cervical articular process joints and to provide a characterisation of the size and morphology of the synovial folds. METHODS: Equine cervical articular process joints from 6 horses were included in the study, ranging from cervical vertebra 2 (C2) to cervical vertebra 7 (C7) bilaterally. The articular process joints were dissected, and the cranial and caudal synovial folds of each joint were measured and embedded in paraffin. Synovial folds were analysed histologically and classified according to type, as adipose, fibrous and mixed type. Factors potentially influencing fold size were investigated, including joint number (from C2/C3 to C6/C7), fold type, position of fold within the joint (cranial or caudal) and side of neck (right or left). RESULTS: Synovial folds were identified in 98% of cervical articular process joints examined. The width of the synovial folds varied from 4 to 41 mm, and the height from 1 to 17.8 mm. Thirty-eight per cent of the synovial folds were of adipose type, 41% of fibrous type and 21% of mixed type. Synovial fold size was significantly influenced by the side of the neck and fold type. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: This study provides a characterisation of the frequency, size and morphology of equine cervical synovial folds in 6 horses. Synovial folds were present in 98% of the cervical articular process joints examined, and the size of the synovial folds indicates that they could be damaged by acute injury or chronic disease in the cervical articular process joints.

Thomsen LN; Berg LC; Markussen B; Thomsen PD

2013-07-01

159

Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH. PMID:20863043

López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

160

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a primary glomerular disease that essentially represents a form of chronic, progressive renal fibrosis for which there is no discernible cause. Often presenting with or eventually manifesting the nephrotic syndrome, this disease is increasing in incidence in both children and adults. Therapy continues to be a challenge, although some patients clearly respond to corticosteroids or cyclosporine with a decrease in, or remission of, proteinuria. A favorable response is associated with a decreased likelihood of progression to kidney failure. Given our clinical experience and recent advances in understanding the genetics of FSGS, a stochastic model of disease pathogenesis can be proposed.

Schnaper HW

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

[Focal epithelial hyperplasia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferation of the oral mucosa with well defined clinical and histological characteristics. It has been associated with infection of the oral mucosa by types 13 and 32 of the human papillomavirus (HPV), and to a lesser extent, with other types. Its clinical course is variable, although it usually persists for months or years; cases with spontaneous resolution have been described, as have others with prolonged persistence. We present the case of an Ecuadorian boy whose visit was motivated by lesions in the oral mucosa consistent with a diagnosis of FEH, which were confirmed in the histological study, and in which HPV type 13 DNA was identified.

Delgado Y; Torrelo A; Colmenero I; Zambrano A

2005-12-01

162

ACL reconstruction and extra-articular tenodesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this article is to update the orthopedic community on the role of lateral extra-articular tenodesis in the management of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees. Information includes historical perspective, current applications and techniques, and a review of published outcomes.

Duthon VB; Magnussen RA; Servien E; Neyret P

2013-01-01

163

Emerging intra-articular causes of groin pain in athletes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Groin pain remains one of the most poorly understood conditions in clinical sports medicine. It may be caused by either extra-articular or intra-articular conditions. While extra-articular causes have been extensively studied and reasonably understood, a number of elusive intra-articular causes are emerging, many of which were previously unknown and therefore undiagnosed, leading to premature ending of many competitive careers. This article makes an attempt to look at various, elusive intra-articular causes of groin pain in athletes. This article also analyses the currently available evidence on trends in diagnosis and treatment for these conditions.

Jagtap P; Shetty G; Mane P; Shetty V

2013-10-01

164

Repair of articular cartilage and meniscal tears by photoactive dyes: in-vivo study  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe healing results of our 6 month study of a repair procedure which evokes the healing response in meniscal tears and partial thickness defects in articular cartilage by a non-thermal tissue sparing photochemical weld using 1,8-naphthalimide dyes. Welds of incisional flaps in adult sheep meniscus and femoral articular cartilage were made using the dye MBM Gold 012011012 at 12 mM in PBS, 457.9nm Argon ion laser radiation at 800 mW/cm2, 7.5 minutes with approximately 1 kg/cm2 externally applied pressure. Gross appearance of tissues in all welded knees appeared normal. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections disclosed close bonding of welded areas and continuing healing response as cellular recruitment.

Judy, Millard M.; Jackson, Robert W.; Nosir, Hany R.; Matthews, James Lester; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

1996-12-01

165

Focal dermal hypoplasia: updates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is a rare syndrome and may result in multisystem disorders. Several reviews of FDH have been published. However, the last comprehensive review of this disorder appeared more than 20 years ago. To date, a number of new clinical manifestations have been reported and considerable knowledge has accumulated regarding etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to gather these more recent data and to provide organized and reliable information. So we reviewed 159 cases of FDH that had been reported from 1990 to 2012, summarized the new discoveries, and suggested a potential standard for the diagnosis of FDH. We also reported on a Chinese girl with FDH, who was clinically and histologically in accord with FDH, as an example. PMID:23463902

Wang, L; Jin, X; Zhao, X; Liu, D; Hu, T; Li, W; Jiang, L; Dan, H; Zeng, X; Chen, Q

2013-02-13

166

Focal dermal hypoplasia: updates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is a rare syndrome and may result in multisystem disorders. Several reviews of FDH have been published. However, the last comprehensive review of this disorder appeared more than 20 years ago. To date, a number of new clinical manifestations have been reported and considerable knowledge has accumulated regarding etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to gather these more recent data and to provide organized and reliable information. So we reviewed 159 cases of FDH that had been reported from 1990 to 2012, summarized the new discoveries, and suggested a potential standard for the diagnosis of FDH. We also reported on a Chinese girl with FDH, who was clinically and histologically in accord with FDH, as an example.

Wang L; Jin X; Zhao X; Liu D; Hu T; Li W; Jiang L; Dan H; Zeng X; Chen Q

2013-02-01

167

Epidemiology and imaging of the subchondral bone in articular cartilage repair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular cartilage and the subchondral bone act as a functional unit. Following trauma, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis or osteoarthritis, this intimate connection may become disrupted. Osteochondral defects-the type of defects that extend into the subchondral bone-account for about 5% of all articular cartilage lesions. They are very often caused by trauma, in about one-third of the cases by osteoarthritis and rarely by osteochondritis dissecans. Osteochondral defects are predominantly located on the medial femoral condyle and also on the patella. Frequently, they are associated with lesions of the menisci or the anterior cruciate ligament. Because of the close relationship between the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone, imaging of cartilage defects or cartilage repair should also focus on the subchondral bone. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently considered to be the key modality for the evaluation of cartilage and underlying subchondral bone. However, the choice of imaging technique also depends on the nature of the disease that caused the subchondral bone lesion. For example, radiography is still the golden standard for imaging features of osteoarthritis. Bone scintigraphy is one of the most valuable techniques for early diagnosis of spontaneous osteonecrosis about the knee. A CT scan is a useful technique to rule out a possible depression of the subchondral bone plate, whereas a CT arthrography is highly accurate to evaluate the stability of the osteochondral fragment in osteochondritis dissecans. Particularly for the problem of subchondral bone lesions, image evaluation methods need to be refined for adequate and reproducible analysis. This article highlights recent studies on the epidemiology and imaging of the subchondral bone, with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging.

Menetrey J; Unno-Veith F; Madry H; Van Breuseghem I

2010-04-01

168

Polarized IR microscopic imaging of articular cartilage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this spectroscopic imaging study is to understand the anisotropic behavior of articular cartilage under polarized infrared radiation at 6.25 {mu}m pixel resolution. Paraffin embedded canine humeral cartilage-bone blocks were used to obtain 6 {mu}m thick tissue sections. Two wire grid polarizers were used to manipulate the polarization states of IR radiation by setting them for various polarizer/analyzer angles. The characteristics of the major chemical components (amide I, amide II, amide III and sugar) of articular cartilage were investigated using (a) a polarizer and (b) a combination of a polarizer and an analyzer. These results were compared to those obtained using only an analyzer. The infrared anisotropy (variation in infrared absorption as a function of polarization angles) of amide I, amide II and amide III bands correlates with the orientation of collagen fibrils along the tissue depth in different histological zones. An 'anisotropic flipping' region of amide profiles indicates the possibility of using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to determine the histological zones in cartilage. Cross-polarization experiment indicates the resolution of overlapping peaks of collagen triple helix and/or proteoglycan in articular cartilage.

Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Xia Yang; Bidthanapally, Aruna [Department of Physics and Center for Biomedical Research, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)

2007-08-07

169

Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO), a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

B Fermor; S E Christensen; I Youn; J M Cernanec; C M Davies; J B Weinberg

2007-01-01

170

Clinical outcomes assessment for articular cartilage restoration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and perspective of the available options for clinical outcomes evaluation of articular cartilage repair in the knee. A nonsystematic literature review of reported clinical measures for functional, qualitative, and quantitative structural outcomes evaluation after knee articular cartilage repair was performed. Several outcome scores have been validated for articular cartilage repair in the knee with the International Knee Documentation Committee score, Lysholm score, and Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score being reported most frequently. Activity measures including Tegner and Marx activity scales and the rate of return to sports have direct practical relevance for athletically active patients. Macroscopic and histological assessment provides important structural information about repair cartilage quality and quantity. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome scoring and functional MRI are gaining increasing popularity and promise less invasive systematic assessment. In summary, clinical outcome evaluation after cartilage repair can be performed by various established and validated functional outcome instruments as well as several evolving outcome parameters that provide clinically relevant outcome information for researchers, clinicians, and patients.

Mithoefer K; Acuna M

2013-02-01

171

Structural and functional analysis of intra-articular interzone tissue in axolotl salamanders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of mechanisms directing diarthrodial joint development may be useful in understanding joint pathologies and identifying new therapies. We have previously established that axolotl salamanders can fully repair large articular cartilage lesions, which may be due to the presence of an interzone-like tissue in the intra-articular space. Study objectives were to further characterize axolotl diarthrodial joint structure and determine the differentiation potential of interzone-like tissue in a skeletal microenvironment. DESIGN: Diarthrodial joint morphology and expression of aggrecan, brother of CDO (BOC), type I collagen, type II collagen, and growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) were examined in femorotibial joints of sexually mature (>12 months) axolotls. Joint tissue cellularity was evaluated in individuals from 2 to 24 months of age. Chondrogenic potential of the interzone was evaluated by placing interzone-like tissue into 4 mm tibial defects. RESULTS: Cavitation reached completion in the femoroacetabular and humeroradial joints, but an interzone-like tissue was retained in the intra-articular space of distal limb joints. Joint tissue cellularity decreased to 7 months of age and then remained stable. Gene expression patterns of joint markers are broadly similar in developing mammals and mature axolotls. When interzone-like tissue was transplanted into critical size skeletal defects, an accessory joint developed within the defect site. CONCLUSIONS: These experiments indicate that mature axolotl diarthrodial joints are phenotypically similar to developing synovial joints in mammals. Generation of an accessory joint by interzone-like tissue suggests multipotent cellular differentiation potential similar to that of interzone cells in the mammalian fetus. The data support the axolotl as a novel vertebrate model for joint development and repair.

Cosden-Decker RS; Bickett MM; Lattermann C; MacLeod JN

2012-11-01

172

Exogenous bFGF promotes articular cartilage repair via up-regulation of multiple growth factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits. DESIGN: In the present study, a double-layered collagen membrane sandwiched with bFGF-loaded-nanoparticles between a dense layer and a loose layer was implanted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits. By grafting the membrane in a different direction, the dense layer or the loose layer facing the surface of the subchondral bone, the effects of the released bFGF on the defects and the profiles of nine growth factors (GFs) in synovial fluid (SF) were investigated using histological methods and antibody arrays, respectively. RESULTS: In the group with the loose layer facing the surface of the subchondral bone, fast release of bFGF was observed, and early high levels of endogenous transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), bFGF, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), BMP-3, and BMP-4 in SF were detected by antibody arrays, especially on day 3. Chondrocyte-like cells were also observed in this group at an early stage. As a result, this group showed better levels of repair, as compared to the other groups in which low GF levels were detected at an early stage, and chondrocyte-like cells appeared much later. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that exogenous bFGF promotes articular cartilage repair by up-regulating the levels of multiple GFs, but administration at an early stage is required.

Li X; Su G; Wang J; Zhou Z; Li L; Liu L; Guan M; Zhang Q; Wang H

2013-10-01

173

Methodologic quality of knee articular cartilage studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: (1) To evaluate the quality of knee articular cartilage surgery literature using established methodologic quality instruments, and (2) to assess whether study quality has improved with time. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Studies of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), osteochondral autograft and allograft transplant, and microfracture were analyzed. Study methodologic quality was assessed by the level of evidence and 9 different methodologic quality questionnaires. Comparisons were made between different surgical technique groups by use of Student's t tests. Assessment of study quality improvement with time was performed by comparison of the Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) from the included studies (2004 to present) and CMS from a prior study assessing quality of articular cartilage studies (1985 to 2004). Furthermore, assessment of study quality improvement with time was performed over the period of the included studies (2004 to present). RESULTS: We included 194 studies (11,787 subjects). Most evidence was Level IV (76%) and nonrandomized (91%). ACI was the most commonly reported technique (62% of studies). Only 34% of studies denied the presence of a financial conflict of interest. The mean subject age was 33.5 ± 8.2 years, and the mean length of follow-up was 3.7 ± 2.3 years. By use of study quality questionnaires, the methodologic quality of articular cartilage studies was poor. However, study quality (after 2004) was significantly improved versus that reported from a prior study (before 2004) using the CMS (P < .01). The mean level of evidence, CMS, CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) score, and Jadad score showed no significant improvement over the period of the included studies (P > .05). The quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was significantly higher than that of non-RCTs (P < .05). The most common study weaknesses included blinding, subject selection process, study type, sample size calculation, and outcome measures and assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The methodologic quality of knee articular cartilage surgery studies was poor overall and also for individual techniques (ACI, osteochondral autograft transplant, osteochondral allograft transplant, and microfracture). However, the overall quality of the investigations in this review (after June 2004) has significantly improved in comparison to those published before 2004. The quality of RCTs was significantly higher than that of non-RCTs. Level of evidence, CMS, CONSORT score, and Jadad score did not significantly improve with later publication date within the period of the studies analyzed. Methodologic quality deficiencies identified in this investigation may be used to guide future articular cartilage studies' design, conduct, and reporting. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, systematic review of studies with Levels of Evidence I-IV.

Harris JD; Erickson BJ; Abrams GD; Cvetanovich GL; McCormick FM; Gupta AK; Bach BR Jr; Cole BJ

2013-07-01

174

Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE). Over the past two decades, different designs and fabrication techniques have been investigated for developing TE scaffolds suitable for the construction of transplantable artificial cartilage tissue substitutes. Advances in fabrication technologies now enable the strategic design of scaffolds with complex, biomimetic structures and properties. In particular, scaffolds with hybrid and/or biomimetic zonal designs have recently been developed for cartilage tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews critical aspects of the design of engineered scaffolds for articular cartilage repair as well as the available advanced fabrication techniques. In addition, recent studies on the design of hybrid and zonal scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue repair are highlighted.

Zohreh Izadifar; Xiongbiao Chen; William Kulyk

2012-01-01

175

Metric analysis of loading magnitudes at articular and non-articular weight-bearing surfaces in human calcaneus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The calcaneus is axially loaded at its articular interface with the talus. A large bulk of this load is transmitted to the ground across the non-articular tubercles at the plantar surface of the bone. A small part of the incumbent load sustained by the calcaneus is directed towards the forefoot at the calcaneo-cuboid junction. This study investigates the proportion of load distributed across the articular and non-articular surfaces of the calcaneus. The present study demonstrates strong and significant correlation between some of the load bearing variables and suggests the need for further investigations to understand the effect of angular aspects of axial loading on the calcaneus. Accounting for the relative distribution of weight across the articular and non-articular areas may enable us to appreciate the internal trabecular structure of the calcaneus in light of its clinical importance.

Mahato NK; Murthy SS

2013-03-01

176

Birth Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

177

Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão Extra-articular synovial sarcoma in a dog  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II.

S.A. França; R. Serakides; A.E. Silva; M.A. Rachid; J.R.C. Moraes; G.E. Lavalle; N.M. Ocarino

2004-01-01

178

Delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) can be effectively applied for longitudinal cohort evaluation of articular cartilage regeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) facilitates non-invasive evaluation of the glycosaminoglycan content in articular cartilage. The primary aim of this study was to show that the dGEMRIC technique is able to monitor cartilage repair following regenerative cartilage treatment. DESIGN: Thirty-one patients with a focal cartilage lesion underwent a dGEMRIC scan prior to cartilage repair surgery and at 3 and 12 months follow-up. At similar time points clinical improvement was monitored using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Lysholm questionnaires. Per MRI scan several regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined for different locations in the joint. The dGEMRIC index (T1gd) was calculated for each ROI. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) analysis was used to evaluate improvement in clinical scores and MRI T1gd over time. Also regression analysis was performed to show the influence of local repair on cartilage quality at distant locations in the knee. RESULTS: Clinical scores and the dGEMRIC T1gd per ROI showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.01), from baseline, at 12 months follow-up. Also, improvement from baseline in T1gd of the ROI defining the treated cartilage defect showed a direct relationship (P < 0.007) to the improvement of the T1gd of ROI at other locations in the joint. CONCLUSIONS: The dGEMRIC MRI protocol is a useful method to evaluate cartilage repair. In addition, local cartilage repair influenced the cartilage quality at other location in the joint. These findings validate the use of dGEMRIC for non-invasive evaluation of the effects of cartilage regeneration.

Bekkers JE; Bartels LW; Benink RJ; Tsuchida AI; Vincken KL; Dhert WJ; Creemers LB; Saris DB

2013-07-01

179

Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

Yuan-cheng LI; Wei-guo ZHANG

2013-01-01

180

Focal plane electronics for the GAIA focal plane demonstrator  

Science.gov (United States)

The GAIA mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) comprises two Astro telescopes with a very large common focal plane. The focal plane assembly consist of about 180 CCDs and accompanying video chains. The CCDs are operating in a TDI mode with complex windowing- and binning modes. Low noise, large dynamic range, linearity are mandatory for success of the Mission. Therefore, ESA has initiated a technology demonstrator, which should demonstrate the technical feasibility. Astrium-SAS in Toulouse and DLR-IPF in Berlin have successfully performed the study, in which DLR has developed the CCD- video electronics and the Interconnection Modules for the Focal Plane Demonstrator. The requirements, the conceptional design and the results are presented in this paper.

Michaelis, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Lichopoj, Alexander; Solbrig, Michael

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Treatment of articular fractures with continuous passive motion.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a review of the basic science and current research on the use of continuous passive motion therapy after surgery for an intra-articular fracture. This information is useful for surgeons in the postoperative management of intra-articular fractures in determining the best course of treatment to reduce complications and facilitate quicker recovery. PMID:23827837

Onderko, Laura Lynn; Rehman, Saqib

2013-05-16

182

Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE) and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E) at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

M Doube; EC Firth; A Boyde; AJ Bushby

2010-01-01

183

MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Juxta-articular venous malformations (VMs) are uncommon, but may cause early arthropathy of the knee in children and adolescents. We sought to describe the prevalence, extent and initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee arthropathy in children with VM adjacent to the knee joint. Thirty-five patients with VM adjacent to the knee who had MRI performed between 2000 and 2009 were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system. VM extended to the joint in 17 of the 35 patients (5.4-21.5 years, mean 11.8 years). Most of these 17 patients had joint changes (15/17, 88%), most commonly haemosiderin deposition (14/17, 82%). Other findings included the presence of subchondral bone lesions (eight, 47%), cartilage loss (six, 35%), synovial thickening (six, 35%), marrow oedema (six, 35%), joint effusion (five, 29%), subchondral cysts (five, 29%) and one loose body (6%). VM location and size did not correlate with the degree of articular involvement. Joint changes were present in focal as well as non-discrete VM. We found that the frequency of arthropathy increased with extension of VM into the joint itself. This finding stresses the importance of early MRI evaluation of all juxta-articular VM. (orig.)

Jans, L. [University of Melbourne, Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium); Ditchfield, M.; Jaremko, J.L.; Stephens, N. [University of Melbourne, Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Verstraete, K. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium)

2010-07-15

184

Focal rigidity of flat tori  

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Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g), i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ?i?i called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets ?i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g), i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g) fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ?i?i chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos ?i estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g), isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

Ferry Kwakkel; Marco Martens; Mauricio Peixoto

2011-01-01

185

Focal rigidity of flat tori  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g) fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ?i?i chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos ?i estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g), isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma v (more) ariedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel. Abstract in english Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g), i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ?i?i called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets ?i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g), i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and it (more) s relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.

Kwakkel, Ferry; Martens, Marco; Peixoto, Mauricio

2011-12-01

186

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a histologic diagnosis that usually presents as the nephrotic syndrome but, unlike minimal change disease, often leads to renal failure in children. Standard therapies used to treat the proteinuria are often futile, and thus patients are at risk for the multiple complications resulting from persistent, severe proteinuria. Eventually, end-stage renal failure ensues, and the possibility of the disease recurring in the transplanted renal allograft is worrisome. This report reviews the clinical features and outcomes of idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children, the response to newer treatment options, and new insights into understanding what factors may be involved in causing the disorder.

Ingulli E; Tejani A

1995-04-01

187

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a histologic diagnosis that usually presents as the nephrotic syndrome but, unlike minimal change disease, often leads to renal failure in children. Standard therapies used to treat the proteinuria are often futile, and thus patients are at risk for the multiple complications resulting from persistent, severe proteinuria. Eventually, end-stage renal failure ensues, and the possibility of the disease recurring in the transplanted renal allograft is worrisome. This report reviews the clinical features and outcomes of idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children, the response to newer treatment options, and new insights into understanding what factors may be involved in causing the disorder. PMID:7787934

Ingulli, E; Tejani, A

1995-04-01

188

[Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in a nine years old caucasian girl is described. The disease is characterized by multiple flat verruca like elevations of the oral mucosa. The histological findings were acanthosis and papillomatosis with elongated anastomosing rete ridges. We also observed vacuolated cells with a hypercromatic marginated nucleo. In this paper the etiology is also discussed and we agreed that focal epithelial hyperplasia is an HPV, induced disease. Local application of vitamin A acid for three months was unsuccessful.

Rodrigues JC; Soares AP; Lopes JM

1985-01-01

189

EVALUACIÓN DEL CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR CON RESONANCIA MAGNÉTICA ASSESSMENT OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las lesiones del cartílago articular son frecuentes y su diagnóstico por imagen cada día más importante. La resonancia magnética es el método de diagnóstico por imagen de elección para la evaluación de lesiones condrales. Este artículo revisa la utilidad de este método, en relación a estudios convencionales así como también estudios avanzados, cuantitativos, que permiten evaluar alteraciones condrales iniciales antes de ser evidentes en secuencias habituales de resonancia magnética.Articular cartilage injuries is a common event and imaging technique has become increasingly important in diagnosing them. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the imaging method of choice forthe evaluation of chondral lesions. This article reviews the usef ulness of this method compared to conventional as well as to advanced quantitative studies, thus enabling evaluation of initial cartilage alterations before being evident in normal MRI sequences.

Gonzalo Delgado P

2009-01-01

190

Modelos computacionales del comportamiento del cartílago articular Computational models of articular cartilage behavior  

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Full Text Available El cartílago articular suministra a las articulaciones diartrodiales baja fricción, resistencia al desgaste en las superficies de contacto y distribuye los esfuerzos en las zonas donde se presenta contacto con el hueso; adicionalmente, es un tejido alinfático y avascular, razón por la cual su regeneración toma demasiado tiempo y en pacientes con avanzada edad no es posible realizarla. Con el propósito de estudiar y entender completamente el comportamiento del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones de carga y en presencia de enfermedades como la osteoartritis, se han creado diferentes modelos computacionales que incluyen características propias de la estructura del tejido cartilaginoso que permiten predecir su comportamiento en condiciones normales y anormales, disminuyendo tiempos y costos de experimentación. Este artículo de actualización expone las principales características estructurales y biológicas del cartílago articular y presenta diferentes modelos computacionales que permiten modelar el tejido cartilaginoso de acuerdo con sus principales características y de esta forma simular el deterioro del cartílago bajo diferentes condiciones y enfermedades.The articular cartilage provides diarthrodial articulations with low friction, resistance to wear on contact surfaces, and an effective distribution of efforts in areas of contact with the bone. On the other hand, because their tissue is alymphatic and avascular, regeneration takes a long time and is not possible in elderly patients. Various computational models have been developed to study and fully understand cartilage behavior under varying load conditions and in the presence of diseases such as osteoarthritis. The models include specific features of cartilaginous tissue allowing to predict its behavior in normal and abnormal conditions, reducing experimentation time and costs. This update paper presents the main structural and biological characteristics of the articular cartilage, as well as various computational models representing cartilaginous tissue according to its main features, with a view to simulating cartilage deterioration under varying conditions and diseases.

Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca; Carlos Alberto Narváez-Tovar; Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado

2012-01-01

191

REVISIÓN DE MODELOS CONSTITUTIVOS PARA CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR/ REVIEW OF CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presenta una revisión de varios modelos utilizados para explicar el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular. La revisión hace énfasis en modelos mecánicos ya que los modelos físico químicos desbordan el alcance del análisis de sólidos que se quiere tratar. La mayoría de los modelos revisados retoman la idea planteada por Mow, la cual plantea que este tipo de tejidos puede ser modelado como un material bifásico, en donde cada fase tiene sus caracter? (more) ?sticas específicas y la interacción entre ellas brinda las propiedades mecánicas del tejido como un global. El planteamiento de un modelo fenomenológico para el cartílago articular es complejo debido a la naturaleza de la respuesta bajo cargas transitorias y a los fenómenos físico químicos acoplados que tienen lugar. Los modelos futuros deberán estar orientados a considerar integralmente dichas características e interacciones. Abstract in english In this article, a review of several models used to explain the mechanical behavior of the articular cartilage is presented. This review makes an emphasis on the mechanical models because the physical-chemical models are out of scope of the solid behavior analysis explained in this study. Most of the revised models retake the idea proposed by Mow which states that this type of tissues can be modeled as a biphasic material where each phase has got its specific characterist (more) ics and the interaction among these phases offers the tissue overall mechanical properties. The approach of a phenomenological model for an articular cartilage is complex due to the nature of the transitory loads answer and bonded physical-chemical phenomena. The future models will have to be oriented to consider, in an integrated way, these characteristics and interactions among them.

CABALLERO, PEDRO J.; ARZOLA, NELSON

2012-06-01

192

Impact of proteoglycan-4 and parathyroid hormone on articular cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proteoglycan-4 (Prg4) protects synovial joints from arthropathic changes by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), known for its anabolic actions in bone, increases Prg4 expression and has been reported to inhibit articular cartilage degeneration in arthropathic joints. To investigate the effect of Prg4 and PTH on articular cartilage, 16-week-old Prg4 mutant and wild-type mice were treated with intermittent PTH (1-34) or vehicle control daily for six weeks. Analyses included histology of the knee joint, micro-CT of the distal femur, and serum biochemical analysis of type II collagen fragments (CTX-II). Compared to wild-type littermates, Prg4 mutant mice had an acellular layer of material lining the surfaces of the articular cartilage and menisci, increased articular cartilage degradation, increased serum CTX-II concentrations, decreased articular chondrocyte apoptosis, increased synovium SDF-1 expression, and irregularly contoured subchondral bone. PTH-treated Prg4 mutant mice developed a secondary deposit overlaying the acellular layer of material lining the joint surfaces, but PTH-treatment did not alter signs of articular cartilage degeneration in Prg4 mutant mice. The increased joint SDF-1 levels and irregular subchondral bone found in Prg4 mutant mice introduce novel candidate mechanisms by which Prg4 protects articular cartilage.

Novince CM; Entezami P; Wilson CG; Wang J; Oh S; Koh AJ; Michalski MN; Sinder BP; Kozloff KM; Taichman RS; McCauley LK

2013-02-01

193

Familial focal facial dermal dysplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Familial focal facial dermal dysplasia is a disorder, autosomal dominant in its inheritance, characterized by areas of puckered skin at the temples with other areas of the face sometimes affected. The large family reported has 26 known affected individuals. The family considers "cancer of the stomach" as an hereditary trait, but their histories suggest some abdominal carcinoma, such as intestinal polyposis.

McGeoch AH; Reed WB

1971-06-01

194

Problems with 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis'.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)' has been applied to many different conditions. All classifications of 'FSGS', including those describing 'variants', perpetuate the misconceptions that the entities included have something in common and that the term 'FSGS' has some value. With a ...

Howie, AJ

195

Genetics of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and molecular function of glomerular filtration barrier come directly from genetic linkage and positional cloning studies. The exact role and function of the newly discovered genes and proteins are ...

Woroniecki, Robert P.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

196

Pathophysiology of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). In recent years, animal models and studies of familial forms of nephrotic syndrome helped elucidate some mechanisms of podocyte injury and disease...

Reidy, Kimberly; Kaskel, Frederick J.

197

Reparação de defeitos osteocondrais de cães com implante de cultura de condrócitos homólogos e membrana biossintética de celulose: avaliação clínica, ultrassonográfica e macroscópica/ The repair of osteochondral defects in dogs with homologous articular chondrocytes and biosynthetic cellulose membrane: clinical, ultrasound and macroscopic evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o implante de condrócitos homólogos em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando a membrana biossintética à base de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães adultos e clinicamente sadios foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de quatro milímetros de diâmetro por quatro milímetros de profundidade foram induzidos na tróclea femoral de ambos os membros. A MBC foi aplicada na base e superfície das lesões. Os defeit (more) os do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados e formaram o grupo tratado (GT); e os defeitos do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, formaram o grupo controle (GC). Os animais foram avaliados clínica e ultrassonograficamente aos 30 e 60 dias. A evolução pós-operatória dos cães foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de macroscopia. Não houve diferença clínica e ultrassonográfica entre os grupos. Entretanto, à macroscopia, ocorreu maior prevalência de formação de tecido cicatricial esbranquiçado no GT. O tecido neoformado apresentou melhor qualidade associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, mas não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the repair of deep cartilaginous defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects with four millimeters diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM was applied in the lesion's base and surface (more) of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), the defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), the defects of the left limb were filled without cellular implant. The animals were evaluated by physical examination and ultrasound at 30 and 60 days. The postoperative follow up of the dogs was done by macroscopy with special interest in the healing process of the osteochondral defect. No clinical and ultrasonographic differences were observed in both groups. In the macroscopic evaluation higher prevalence of whitish scar tissue formation was noted in TG, but without statistical difference. The neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

Iamaguti, L.S.; Brandão, C.V.S.; Mota, L.S.L.S.; Sereno, M.G.; Almeida, M.F.; Padovani, C.R.

2012-12-01

198

Effects of recombination human bone morphogenetic protein 2 on articular cartilage repair in rabbits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is one of the growth factors capable of inducing the new cartilage or bone formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reparative effect of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on articular cartilage defects in rabbits. rhBMP-2 and polylactic acid-polyglycol acid copolymers (PLGA) were from Genetics Institute, (Cambridge, America). The implants consisted of rhBMP-2 and 100 mg of PLGA as a carrier and 0.6 ml of autologous peripheral blood. An Osteochondral defect (6 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth) was made on each femoral groove of rabbit knees. Then, rhBMP-2 composites were implanted into the defects. Rabbits were divided into following 3 groups based on implanted materials. For group 1, the implants without rhBMP-2 were implanted into the defects. For group 11, the implants including I 00 pg of rhBMP-2, and for group 111, those including 200 pg of rhBMP-2 were implanted. These animals were killed at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after implantation. Sections from each osteochondral defect were examined histologically with H and E stain and Safranin-0 stain. The depth of new cartilage formation was measured at the center of the defect area. Some extent of cartilage formation was observed in all groups from 4 weeks, although it was particularly poor in group 1. Group 11 and III had more white surface of newborn cartilage. The surface of new cartilage could be distinguished from adjacent cartilage by its color. Group I showed osteochondral conduction from the surrounding tissue. Group 11 and III had chondrocytes and matrix stained well with Safranin-0. Columnar cell alignment was observed on week 12 of Group 11 and 111. The depth of new cartilage increased by 200 % on week 4 of group III and by 150 % on week 8 of group 11, compared with that of the adjacent cartilage, and decreased by 40-60 % on week 12. The result revealed that 200 pg of rhBMP-2 with 100 mg of PLGA is an effective implant to repair the articular cartilage defects

1999-01-01

199

Articular cartilage repair using allogeneic perichondrocyte-seeded biodegradable porous polylactic acid (PLA): a tissue-engineering study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efforts to expand treatment options for articular cartilage repair have increasingly focused on the implantation of cell-polymer constructs. The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of porous D,D-L,L-polylactic acid as a carrier for delivering repair cells obtained from rib perichondrium into full-thickness articular cartilage defects. In vitro characterization of perichondrocyte-polylactic acid composite grafts was combined with in vivo assessment of the early articular cartilage repair in a clinically relevant model. Using a fluorescent double-stain protocol to visualize live and dead cells in situ, primary cells cultured from perichondrium were found to be capable of attaching to and surviving within a porous D,D-L,L-polylactic acid matrix. These perichondrocyte-polylactic acid composite grafts were then implanted within osteochondral defects drilled into the left medial femoral condyles of 16 adult New Zealand white rabbits. Experimental animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after implantation and the repair tissue was evaluated grossly, histologically, and biochemically. Grossly, 96% (15/16) of the experimental animals demonstrated repairs consisting of a smooth, firm neocartilage which appeared similar in color and texture to the surrounding articular surface. Matrix staining for cartilaginous protein was seen surrounding chondrocyte-like cells in the cartilage regions of the repair. Cellular alignment was found to be related to scaffold architecture. These results suggest that scaffolds composed of porous D,D-L,L-polylactic acid support the growth of cartilaginous repair tissue and are compatible with both in vitro and in vivo survival of chondrogenic cells.

Chu CR; Coutts RD; Yoshioka M; Harwood FL; Monosov AZ; Amiel D

1995-09-01

200

Articular cartilage repair using allogeneic perichondrocyte-seeded biodegradable porous polylactic acid (PLA): a tissue-engineering study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to expand treatment options for articular cartilage repair have increasingly focused on the implantation of cell-polymer constructs. The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of porous D,D-L,L-polylactic acid as a carrier for delivering repair cells obtained from rib perichondrium into full-thickness articular cartilage defects. In vitro characterization of perichondrocyte-polylactic acid composite grafts was combined with in vivo assessment of the early articular cartilage repair in a clinically relevant model. Using a fluorescent double-stain protocol to visualize live and dead cells in situ, primary cells cultured from perichondrium were found to be capable of attaching to and surviving within a porous D,D-L,L-polylactic acid matrix. These perichondrocyte-polylactic acid composite grafts were then implanted within osteochondral defects drilled into the left medial femoral condyles of 16 adult New Zealand white rabbits. Experimental animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after implantation and the repair tissue was evaluated grossly, histologically, and biochemically. Grossly, 96% (15/16) of the experimental animals demonstrated repairs consisting of a smooth, firm neocartilage which appeared similar in color and texture to the surrounding articular surface. Matrix staining for cartilaginous protein was seen surrounding chondrocyte-like cells in the cartilage regions of the repair. Cellular alignment was found to be related to scaffold architecture. These results suggest that scaffolds composed of porous D,D-L,L-polylactic acid support the growth of cartilaginous repair tissue and are compatible with both in vitro and in vivo survival of chondrogenic cells. PMID:8567713

Chu, C R; Coutts, R D; Yoshioka, M; Harwood, F L; Monosov, A Z; Amiel, D

1995-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Genetics Home Reference: Focal dermal hypoplasia  

Science.gov (United States)

... related to focal dermal hypoplasia? Mutations in the PORCN gene cause focal dermal hypoplasia. This gene provides ... and other structures before birth. Mutations in the PORCN gene appear to prevent the production of any ...

202

Convex fuzzy bodies and fuzzy focal points  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we will define convex fuzzy bodies and will discuss the geometric properties for these bodies in terms of fuzzy focal points of their boundaries when the ambient space is of no fuzzy focal points.

El-Sayied, Hoda Kamal E-mail: eyouness1989@yahoo.com

2003-11-01

203

Insight into osteo-articular digital tomosynthesis: a pictorial essay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this pictorial essay are to describe osteo-articular imaging using digital tomosynthesis. We provide characteristic examples in eight patients. Digital tomosynthesis allows easy, fast and low-dose imaging, with excellent spatial resolution.

Lacout A; Thariat J; El Hajjam M; Marcy PY

2013-02-01

204

Variable focal length deformable mirror  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-12

205

Articular cartilage thickness at the distal radius: a cadaveric study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Articular stepoffs that occur after fracture and are greater in size than the thickness of the articular surface seem to result in arthritis. The thickness of a joint's cartilage may, therefore, set the limit for acceptable stepoff when treating fractures. The goal of our study was to determine the thickness of the articular cartilage at the distal radius. METHODS: We conducted a cadaveric study of 19 wrists to measure the thickness of cartilage at the distal radius. After harvest, we made multiple slices of each radius and used a standardized technique to directly measure the articular cartilage in the scaphoid and lunate fossae and along the interfossal ridge. RESULTS: The average cartilage thickness in our cohort was 0.6 mm. The average articular surface thickness was < 1 mm in all measured areas (scaphoid fossa, 0.7 mm; interfossal ridge, 0.8 mm; lunate fossa, 0.6 mm). Among the samples, 98% had an average thickness of < 1 mm. The maximum recorded thickness was 1.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Our study quantifies the thickness of the articular cartilage at the distal radius. Our finding of cartilage thicknesses of < 1 mm is consistent with multiple clinical studies, suggesting that stepoffs of > 1 mm result in radiographic signs of arthritis. This provides further evidence linking the thickness of articular cartilage to radiographic outcomes and, possibly, clinical outcomes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our findings provide anatomic support for using 1 mm or less as an acceptable articular stepoff size in the treatment of fractures of the distal radius.

Pollock J; O'Toole RV; Nowicki SD; Eglseder WA

2013-08-01

206

High-grade intra-articular liposarcoma of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-grade pleomorphic intra-articular liposarcoma of the knee is described in a 48-year-old man, which was diagnosed histologically after arthroscopy of the knee for suspected pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). The patient proceeded to undergo an extra-articular resection with a custom-made prosthesis. This report highlights the need to remember this rare tumour in the differential diagnosis of atypical soft tissue lesions within the knee joint prior to instrumentation. PMID:21174203

Shaerf, Daniel A; Mann, Bhupinder; Alorjani, Mohammed; Aston, Will; Saifuddin, Asif

2010-12-21

207

Pendulum mass affects the measurement of articular friction coefficient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton's equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (?) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton's model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating ?. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n=4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and ? was estimated using two models: Stanton's equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. ? estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that ? decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum ? values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as ? values are mass dependent.

Akelman MR; Teeple E; Machan JT; Crisco JJ; Jay GD; Fleming BC

2013-02-01

208

Differential gene expression associated with postnatal equine articular cartilage maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage undergoes an important maturation process from neonate to adult that is reflected by alterations in matrix protein organization and increased heterogeneity of chondrocyte morphology. In the horse, these changes are influenced by exercise during the first five months of postnatal life. Transcriptional profiling was used to evaluate changes in articular chondrocyte gene expression during postnatal growth and development. Methods Total RNA was isolated from the articular cartilage of neonatal (0–10 days) and adult (4–5 years) horses, subjected to one round of linear RNA amplification, and then applied to a 9,367-element equine-specific cDNA microarray. Comparisons were made with a dye-swap experimental design. Microarray results for selected genes (COL2A1, COMP, P4HA1, TGFB1, TGFBR3, TNC) were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Fifty-six probe sets, which represent 45 gene products, were up-regulated (p Conclusion Differential expression of genes encoding matrix proteins and matrix-modifying enzymes between neonates and adults reflect a cellular maturation process in articular chondrocytes. Up-regulated transcripts in neonatal cartilage are consistent with growth and expansion of the articular surface. Expression patterns in mature articular cartilage indicate a transition from growth to homeostasis, and tissue function related to withstanding shear and weight-bearing stresses.

Mienaltowski Michael J; Huang Liping; Stromberg Arnold J; MacLeod James N

2008-01-01

209

Extra-articular pigmented villonodular synovitis of the subacromial space.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign, proliferating disease affecting the synovium of joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. The knee is the most common site of involvement and accounts for up to 80% of cases. Involvement of the shoulder is extremely rare. Only 1 case of involvement of the subacromial space has been reported worldwide. We report a case of localized extra-articular PVNS of the subacromial space that was satisfactorily treated with open excisional biopsy and subacromial bursectomy after diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy. We visualized the glenohumeral joint to rule out articular invasion and intra-articular pathology with an arthroscope, which revealed a highly vascular synovium protruding into the intra-articular area of the rotator interval, with no direct invasion by the extra-articular mass. An open excisional biopsy and subacromial bursectomy was performed. The disease has not recurred during an 18-month follow-up period. The clinical manifestation, treatment, and prognosis of extra-articular PVNS are poorly understood, but if the lesion is left untreated, it can invade the surrounding soft tissue and joint. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important for the satisfactory management of PVNS. PMID:19226060

Cho, Chul-Hyun; Sohn, Sung-Won; Song, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Chul-Hyung; Min, Byung-Woo; Bae, Ki-Cheor; Lee, Sung Moon

2008-12-01

210

How to 'visualize' lattice defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods to recognize objects are discussed. In case of optics, lenses are used, and light from objects passing through the lenses focuses on focal planes. The amplitude of light on the focal planes in given as a function of the structure factor of scattering light from objects, images of objects are made on image planes. In case of X-ray or neutron diffraction, lenses which make images by X-ray or neutrons can not be made, accordingly images cannot be obtained. Images can be seen with electron microscopes. By X-ray or thermal neutron diffraction, intensity on focal planes in observed, and the defects to be studied are recognized as diffuse scattering. Since it is necessary to minimize aberration in case of image observation with electron microscopes, slits are used to utilize electron beam near optical axis exclusively. Therefore large resolving power cannot be expected. The information concerning structure obtained from focal planes is of statistical nature, and that from image planes is local information. The principle of neutron topography, by which the informations concerning local points are obtained, is explained. A photograph of LiF irradiated by 0.5 MeV proton beam was taken by the topographic method, and shown in this paper. (Kato, T.)

1974-01-11

211

[Knee arthroscopic resection of articular capsule valvular treat popliteal cysts].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To retrospective study the results of arthroscopic resection of articular capsule valvular treated popliteal cysts and examined the incidence of complication. METHODS: From July 2007 to July 2010, 45 patients with symptomatic popliteal cysts such as knee pain and limitation of motion were treated with arthroscopic technique to resect the connecting valvular mechanism at posteromedial compartment of articular capsule. Through the posteromedial viewing portal and cyst resection working portal, resected the valvular mechanism by shaver and plasma cutter, associated intra-articular pathology was treated simultaneously. The functional outcome was evaluated by employed Rauschning and Lindgren score before the surgery and the last follow-up. By using of Wilcoxon rank sum test to statistics analyze the clinic outcome. RESULT: In all cases, 40 patients were found the associated intra-articular pathology, the incidence was 88.9%.The intra-articular pathology was medial meniscus tear (27 cases, 60.0%), lateral meniscus tear (20 cases, 44.4%), cartilage lesion (28 cases, 62.2%), which composed with patellofemoral joint (12 cases, 26.7%),medial condyles of femur (10 cases, 22.2%),lateral condyles of femur (6 cases, 13.3%). The anterior cruciate ligment injury was found in 2 cases, the incidence was 4.4%. All the patients achieved symptoms relief postoperative, such as posterior knee discomfort and swelling after activities.The Rauschning and Lindgren score was improved 1-2 grade in average (Z = -6.092, P = 0.00). The recurrence rate was 2.2%. All the incision healed good. No major complications were encountered such as saphenous nerve, great saphenous vein, blood vessel in popliteal injury. CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic resection of articular capsule valvular treatment of popliteal cyst and treatment of associated intra-articular pathology are effective and safe. This surgery technique has more minimally trauma and lower recurrence rate.The clinic results in short term are excellent.

He R; Guo L; Yang L; Chen GX; Duan XJ; Luo CF

2013-05-01

212

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck) is a rare lesion caused by human papilloma virus subtype 13 or 32 and presents as multiple small white or pink papules on the mucosal surface of lips, buccal mucosa and tongue usually seen in children and adolescent of American Indian and Eskimo background. This disease has a genetic basis. The site of new lesions and recurrence are unpredictable. Continued follow up of the patient is often necessary. In this report, a 50-year-old woman is described with benign papillomatous lesions on dorsal surface of tongue for 15 years

Parichehr Gheliani; Atefe Tavangar; Nakissa Torabinia; Laleh Maleki; Tahereh Nosratzehi

2011-01-01

213

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

2003-07-07

214

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

2003-08-07

215

Extra-articular diffuse-type giant cell tumour of the temporomandibular joint.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diffuse-type giant cell tumour (DTGCT) is a benign but destructive proliferative disorder of the synovium of joint capsules, tendons and bursae. Lesions originating from the articular synovium may grow intra-articularly or expand widely extra-articularly. Rare cases may develop only in peri-articular tissues. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement is exceptional and only two cases of purely extra-articular TMJ-DTGCT have been reported. The authors report an additional case of extra-articular TMJ-DTGCT. The clinical features, histopathological characteristics, imaging modalities and diagnostic methods for DTGCT are discussed together with a literature review based on the clinical aspects of TMJ involvement.

De Benedittis M; Turco M; Petruzzi M; Cortelazzi R

2013-03-01

216

Calcification of articular cartilage in human osteoarthritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation is a key step in endochondral ossification that produces basic calcium phosphates (BCPs). Although chondrocyte hypertrophy has been associated with osteoarthritis (OA), chondrocalcinosis has been considered an irregular event and linked mainly to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and composition of calcium crystals in human OA and analyze their relationship to disease severity and markers of chondrocyte hypertrophy. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients with end-stage OA undergoing total knee replacement were prospectively evaluated. Cartilage calcification was studied by conventional x-ray radiography, digital-contact radiography (DCR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and synovial fluid analysis. Cartilage calcification findings were correlated with scores of knee function as well as histologic changes and chondrocyte hypertrophy as analyzed in vitro. RESULTS: DCR revealed mineralization in all cartilage specimens. Its extent correlated significantly with the Hospital for Special Surgery knee score but not with age. FE-SEM analysis showed that BCPs, rather than CPPD, were the prominent minerals. On histologic analysis, it was observed that mineralization correlated with the expression of type X collagen, a marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between the extent of mineralization in vivo and the ability of chondrocytes to produce BCPs in vitro. The induction of hypertrophy in healthy human chondrocytes resulted in a prominent mineralization of the extracellular matrix. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that mineralization of articular cartilage by BCP is an indissociable process of OA and does not characterize a specific subset of the disease, which has important consequences in the development of therapeutic strategies for patients with OA.

Fuerst M; Bertrand J; Lammers L; Dreier R; Echtermeyer F; Nitschke Y; Rutsch F; Schäfer FK; Niggemeyer O; Steinhagen J; Lohmann CH; Pap T; Rüther W

2009-09-01

217

Anaphylatoxin receptors and complement regulatory proteins in human articular and non-articular chondrocytes: interrelation with cytokines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tissue trauma induces an inflammatory response associated with a cytokine release that may engage complement pathways. Cytokine-mediated complement expression may contribute to cartilage degradation. Hence, we analysed the complement expression profile in primary articular and non-articular chondrocytes and its interrelation with cytokines. The expression of the anaphylatoxin receptors (C3aR and C5aR) and the complement regulatory proteins (CPRs) CD35, CD46, CD55 and CD59 was studied in cultured articular, auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes using RTD-PCR and immunofluorescence labelling. The complement profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was opposed to the expression in articular chondrocytes. The time-dependent regulation (6 and 24 h) of these complement factors was assessed in articular chondrocytes in response to the cytokines TNF?, IL-10 or TNF? combined with IL-10 (each 10 ng/mL). C3aR, C5aR, CD46, CD55 and CD59 but almost no CD35 mRNA was expressed in any of chondrocyte types studied. The anaphylatoxin receptor expression was lower and that of the CRPs was higher in chondrocytes when compared with PBMCs. The majority of the studied complement factors were expressed at a significantly lower level in non-articular chondrocytes compared with the articular chondrocytes. TNF? significantly increased the C3aR expression in chondrocytes after 6 and 24 h. TNF? + IL-10 significantly downregulated C5aR and IL-10 significantly inhibited the CD46 and CD55 gene expression after 24 h. C5aR and CD55 could be localised in cartilage in situ. Anaphylatoxin receptors and CRPs are regulated differentially by TNF? and IL-10. Whether cytokine-induced complement activation occurs in response to cartilage trauma has to be further identified.

Schulze-Tanzil G; Kohl B; El Sayed K; Arens S; Ertel W; Stölzel K; John T

2012-12-01

218

Anaphylatoxin receptors and complement regulatory proteins in human articular and non-articular chondrocytes: interrelation with cytokines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tissue trauma induces an inflammatory response associated with a cytokine release that may engage complement pathways. Cytokine-mediated complement expression may contribute to cartilage degradation. Hence, we analysed the complement expression profile in primary articular and non-articular chondrocytes and its interrelation with cytokines. The expression of the anaphylatoxin receptors (C3aR and C5aR) and the complement regulatory proteins (CPRs) CD35, CD46, CD55 and CD59 was studied in cultured articular, auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes using RTD-PCR and immunofluorescence labelling. The complement profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was opposed to the expression in articular chondrocytes. The time-dependent regulation (6 and 24 h) of these complement factors was assessed in articular chondrocytes in response to the cytokines TNF?, IL-10 or TNF? combined with IL-10 (each 10 ng/mL). C3aR, C5aR, CD46, CD55 and CD59 but almost no CD35 mRNA was expressed in any of chondrocyte types studied. The anaphylatoxin receptor expression was lower and that of the CRPs was higher in chondrocytes when compared with PBMCs. The majority of the studied complement factors were expressed at a significantly lower level in non-articular chondrocytes compared with the articular chondrocytes. TNF? significantly increased the C3aR expression in chondrocytes after 6 and 24 h. TNF? + IL-10 significantly downregulated C5aR and IL-10 significantly inhibited the CD46 and CD55 gene expression after 24 h. C5aR and CD55 could be localised in cartilage in situ. Anaphylatoxin receptors and CRPs are regulated differentially by TNF? and IL-10. Whether cytokine-induced complement activation occurs in response to cartilage trauma has to be further identified. PMID:23053049

Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; El Sayed, Karym; Arens, Stephan; Ertel, Wolfgang; Stölzel, Katharina; John, Thilo

2012-10-03

219

Focal posterior pole viral retinitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features of an atypical form of viral retinitis in immunocompetent patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective noncomparative case series. The charts of 8 patients diagnosed with and treated for focal posterior viral retinitis were reviewed. Clinical and demographic features were evaluated. All the patients had extensive laboratory tests, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography of macula, and polymerase chain reaction of vitreous. RESULTS: All the patients were referred to our Uveitis Service from other hospitals, as their uveitis symptoms deteriorated in spite of treatment. The mean age of 4 male and 4 female patients was 32.1 years (range, 22-42 years). The mean follow-up period was 10 months (range, 6-18 months). All of the patients had unilateral disease. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of vitreous specimen was positive for herpes simplex virus-1 in 5 patients and varicella zoster virus in 3 patients. Retinitis resolved after systemic acyclovir treatment in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Viral etiology must be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of atypical retinitis. It can be a milder form of viral retinitis like focal viral retinitis, as mentioned in this study. The prognosis of this disease is better than the other forms of necrotizing retinopathies involving a larger area of retina.

Hazirolan D; Sungur G; Demir N; Kasim R; Duman S

2010-09-01

220

Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-?1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-?1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-?1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-?1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. Published 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res.

Shi S; Chan AG; Mercer S; Eckert GJ; Trippel SB

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Surface modified PLGA/carbon nanofiber composite enhances articular chondrocyte functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Since articular cartilage has a limited self regeneration capability, alternative methods are needed for repairing cartilage defects. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to explore the effects of material surface properties and external stimulation on chondrocyte (cartilage-synthesizing cell) functions. Based on this information, a goal of this research was to propose a scaffold composite material for enhancing articular chondrocyte function. To improve functions of chondrocytes, material (namely, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); PLGA) surfaces were modified via chemical (NaOH) etching techniques. Chondrocytes were cultured on surface-modified 2-D PLGA films and 3-D PLGA tissue engineering scaffolds, which were created by a salt-leaching method. Carbon nanofibers were imprinted on PLGA matrices in an aligned pattern for controlled electrically-active surface features. Electrical stimulation was applied to expedite and enhance chondrocyte functions. Results demonstrated that both NaOH-treated 2-D and 3-D substrates enhanced chondrocyte functions (cell numbers as well as extracellular matrix production) compared to non-treated PLGA substrates. Furthermore, chondrocytes preferred to attach along the carbon nanofiber patterns imprinted on PLGA. Electrical stimulation also enhanced chondrocyte functions on carbon nanofiber/PLGA composites. Underlying material properties that may have enhanced chondrocyte functions include a more hydrophilic surface, surface energy differences due to the presence of carbon nanofibers, increased surface area, altered porosity, and a greater degree of nanometer roughness. Moreover, these altered surface properties positively influenced select protein adsorption that controlled subsequent chondrocyte adhesion. Collectively, this study provided a scaffold model for osteochondral defects that can be synthesized using the above techniques and a layer by layer approach to accommodate the property differences in each layer of natural cartilage. Specifically, these results suggest that the superficial zone, middle zone, and deep zone of cartilage should be composed of carbon nanofibers aligned parallel to the surface in PLGA, randomly oriented carbon nanofibers in PLGA, and carbon nanofibers aligned perpendicular to the surface in PLGA, respectively. Clearly, such scaffolds may ultimately enhance the efficacy of scaffolds used for articular cartilage repair.

Park, Grace Eunseung

222

Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

Alexandrova ?.?.; Lepilin A.V.; Kazimirova N.E.; Shuldyakov ?.?.

2010-01-01

223

Case report 333: Osteochondral fracture of the right patella without an osteochondral defect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In summary, a case is presented of a 14-year-old male who presented with pain in the right knee with a history which suggested the possibility that an injury of the knee had occurred during a summer in camp. Radiological studies showed a large defect in the articular surface of the right patella, but no loose body could be identified.

Milgram, J.W.

1985-08-01

224

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage at 3 tesla  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smooth motor function can be maintained by articular cartilage. When the cartilage is injured, edema occurs, and as degeneration progresses, the cartilage thins and the cartilage matrix decreases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows noninvasive evaluation of these changes. Fat suppression proton density- and T2-weighted imaging are useful in the morphologic evaluation of articular cartilage. High resolution, 3-tesla MR imaging provides more detailed evaluation. Biochemical information from T2 mapping, T1? mapping, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is useful for early diagnosis of cartilage injury and evaluation of cartilage repair. The role of MR imaging in evaluating articular cartilage will increase in the future aging society. (author)

2009-01-01

225

Tuberculosis extrapulmonar: Forma articular/ Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Articular form/ Tuberculose extrapulmonaire: à localisation articulaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó una revisión del tema de la Tuberculosis extrapulmonar de forma articular, por haber encontrado un paciente con esta patología de presentación "pura" sin otras manifestaciones sistémicas. Se trata del primer paciente diagnosticado en el Hospital Comunitario Integral de "San Andrés", del municipio de Caracollo, provincia Cercado, en el departamento de Oruro, Bolivia. En la revisión del tema se demuestra la infrecuencia de esta forma de presentación de la (more) enfermedad a pesar de ser la Tuberculosis pulmonar frecuente en la región por sumarse los factores: frío, altura con poco tenor de oxígeno, desnutrición, tormentas de polvo, muchos trabajadores mineros, etc. Se realiza la presentación del paciente, se muestra su evolución satisfactoria en cuanto a la patología de base y se arriban a conclusiones dentro de las que se destacan que la Tuberculosis en su forma articular es infrecuente en apariencia y su diagnóstico se hace difícil al no existir, por la misma razón, patrones ecográficos o radiográficos definidos. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico es el único que puede definir la etiología de la Tuberculosis de una lesión proliferativa de la sinovial y que la sinovectomía es una intervención generalmente invalidante por lo que un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento médico adecuado, a tiempo, evitaría limitaciones funcionales a posteriori. Se recomienda que en todo caso portador de una sinovitis de rodilla de larga evolución, se le realice una ecografía diagnóstica, y en los pacientes en los que se observen imágenes complejas de bordes regulares, del tipo "copos de nieve", se le efectúen estudios específicos para la detección de la Tuberculosis. Abstract in english A review of the topic on extrapulmonary articular tuberculosis was made for having found a male patient with this pathology of pure presentation with no other systemic manifestations. This is the first patient diagnosed at the Community Comprehensive Hospital of San Andrés, municipality of Caracollo, Cervado province, department of Oruro, Bolivia. On reviewing the topic it was proven the infrequency of this form of presentation in spite of the fact that extrapulmonary tu (more) berculosis is common in the region due to the existence of the following factors: cold, height with little tenor of oxygen, malnutrition, dust storms, many mining workers, etc. The patient was presented and his satisfactory evolution as regards the base pathology was showed. It was concluded that tuberculosis in its articular form is rare in appearance and that its diagnosis is difficult due to the absence of echographic or radiographic patterns defined. The anatomopathological diagnosis is the only one that can determine the aetiology of the tuberculosis of a proliferative injury of the synovia. As synovectomy is a generally disabling intervention, an early diagnosis and an adequate medical treatment on time will prevent functional future limitations. It is recommended to perform a diagnostic echography in every carrier of knee synovitis of long evolution, and to conduct specific studies for the detection of tuberculosis in those patients among whom complex images of regular snowflake-like edges are observed.

Escarpanter Buliés, Julio C.; García Rodríguez, Yoel; Gutiérrez Guillén, Marta A.

2008-06-01

226

Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares Update on infections in articular prosthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infectadas, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-positivas são predominantes nas contaminações das próteses articulares, em especial o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus epidermidis. As infecções causadas por bacilos gram-negativos e fungos como Candida sp vêm sendo relatadas com maior frequência em todo o mundo. As infecções de próteses articulares apresentam sinais característicos que podem ser divididos em manifestações agudas (dor severa, febre alta, toxemia, calor, rubor e secreção na ferida operatória) e crônicas (dor progressiva, formação de fístulas cutâneas, com drenagem de secreção purulenta, sem febre). O diagnóstico definitivo da infecção deve ser realizado através do isolamento em cultura do micro-organismo obtido a partir da punção do líquido articular, secreção da ferida cirúrgica e materiais colhidos durante desbridamento cirúrgico. É fundamental a cobertura de S.aureus meticilino-resistente, visto a importância epidemiológica deste agente nessas infecções. O tempo total da antibioticoterapia varia de seis semanas a seis meses, sendo que o tratamento deve ser readequado quando necessário, com base nos resultados das culturas colhidas.The implantation of artificial joints, especially the hip and knee, is becoming increasingly common, representing a significant reduction in discomfort and an immeasurable improvement in patient mobility. Reviews of the global literature indicate that 1-5% of these grafts become infected, though it is important to remember that, as the number of surgeries for implantation of these prosthesis grows, so will the number of cases of this type of infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the contamination of joint prosthesis, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections caused by gram-negative bacilli and fungi such as Candida sp have been reported with increased frequency throughout the world. Infections of joint prosthesis have characteristic signals that can be divided into acute (severe pain, high fever, toxemia, heat, redness, and wound secretion) and chronic (progressive pain, cutaneous fistula formation, with pus drainage, no fever) manifestations. The definitive diagnosis of the infection should be made through the isolation in culture of the micro-organism obtained from the puncture of the joint fluid, surgical wound secretion, and material collected during surgical debridement. It is essential to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, given the epidemiological importance of this agent in these infections. The total time of antibiotic therapy varies from six weeks to six months, and that treatment should be adjusted as needed, based on the results of culturing.

Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz Lima; Priscila Rosalba Domingos de Oliveira

2010-01-01

227

Spontaneous peri-talar dislocation after steroid intra-articular injections: A case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of spontaneous peri-talar dislocation after intra-articular steroid injections. We have reviewed the literature on spontaneous peri- and sub-talar dislocations and the effects of intra-articular steroid injections.

Northover JR; Williamson D; Rooker J; Kneale K

2013-12-01

228

Spontaneous peri-talar dislocation after steroid intra-articular injections: A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of spontaneous peri-talar dislocation after intra-articular steroid injections. We have reviewed the literature on spontaneous peri- and sub-talar dislocations and the effects of intra-articular steroid injections. PMID:24095240

Northover, Julian R; Williamson, David; Rooker, Jemma; Kneale, Kathryn

2013-07-04

229

Defect branes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss some general properties of “defect branes”, i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 3?D?10 as well as their higher-dimensional string and M-theory origin as branes and a set of “generalized” Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed-symmetry tensors. These mixed-symmetry tensors can be defined at the linearized level as duals of the supergravity potentials that describe propagating degrees of freedom. It is noted that the number of supersymmetric defect branes is always twice the number of corresponding central charges in the supersymmetry algebra.

2012-03-11

230

[Articular and periarticular tumors: differential diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most patients with articular or periarticular tumors present with chronic monoarthritis and nonspecific alterations on laboratory tests; thus, it is important to know the changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can suggest their diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of these tumors. MRI defines the anatomic origin and the tissue characteristics of articular and periarticular tumors, making it possible to reach a specific diagnosis in most cases. It is important to evaluate the MRI findings together with the plain-film findings because this helps in the characterization of mineralized tumors.

Rodríguez Pan A; Martínez Calvo A; Ríos Reboredo A; Méndez Díaz C; Soler Fernández R

2012-01-01

231

Combination of bone marrow concentrate and PGA scaffolds enhance bone marrow stimulation in rabbit articular cartilage repair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bone marrow stimulation (BMS) has been regarded as a first-line procedure for the repair of articular cartilage. However, cartilage repair using BMS alone has so far not been ideal because cell homing to the required area has not been sufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of autologous bone marrow concentrate transplantation for the repair of large, full-thickness cartilage defects. Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups: untreated (control); BMS only (BMS); BMS followed by PGA implantation (PGA); BMS followed by a combination of PGA and autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC); and BMS together with a composite of PGA and cultured bone marrow stem cells (BME). The animals were sacrificed at week 8 after operation, and HE staining, toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the repair of defects. The results showed that improved repair, including more newly formed cartilage tissue and hyaline cartilage-specific extracellular matrix, was observed in BMC group relative to the first three groups, in addition similar results were found between BMC and BME groups, however it took longer time for in vitro cell expansion in the BME group. This study demonstrates that the transplantation of autologous bone marrow concentrate is an easy, safe and potentially viable method to contribute to articular cartilage repair.

Zhao Q; Wang S; Tian J; Wang L; Dong S; Xia T; Wu Z

2013-03-01

232

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep/ Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS) é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton), que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementad (more) os com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis. Abstract in english Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass), and supplemented, ad libitum, with a conce (more) ntrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.

Pimentel, Luciano A.; Oliveira, Diego M.; Galiza, Glauco J.N.; Dantas, Antônio F.M.; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2010-05-01

233

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass), and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS) é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton), que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis.

Luciano A. Pimentel; Diego M. Oliveira; Glauco J.N. Galiza; Antônio F.M. Dantas; Francisco Uzal; Franklin Riet-Correa

2010-01-01

234

Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

2001-01-01

235

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and kidney transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recurrence rate of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation is ranging between 20% and 40%. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with poor graft survival. In this review, the etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathological features, risk factors of recurrence, and updated lines of management are discussed.

Gheith O; Hassan R

2013-07-01

236

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and kidney transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recurrence rate of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation is ranging between 20% and 40%. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with poor graft survival. In this review, the etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathological features, risk factors of recurrence, and updated lines of management are discussed. PMID:23880801

Gheith, Osama; Hassan, Rashad

2013-07-01

237

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Kidney Transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recurrence rate of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation is ranging between 20% and 40%. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with poor graft survival. In this review, the etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathological features, risk factors of recurrence, and updated lines of management are discussed.

Osama Gheith; Rashad Hassan

2013-01-01

238

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

2002-01-01

239

On Focal Length Calibration from Two Views  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the problem of self-calibration of a camera whose intrinsic parameters are known, besides the focal length. In the past, algorithms were mainly proposed for estimating two values of the focal length, for two images taken with different zoom. While there exist closed form solutions based ...

Sturm, Peter

240

Intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We report a case of intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee in a 53-year-old man. The case demonstrates an unusual pattern of migration of the marrow edema within the knee joint. This phenomenon has received scant attention in the radiological literature. (orig.)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Congenital Absence of Unilateral Lumbar Articular Process - A Case Report -  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A congenital absence of a lumbar articular process is a rare condition with an uncertain etiology. However, an intervertebral instability caused by this anomaly can cause occasional lower back pain. A 20 years old man presented with lower back pain. The physical examination revealed no neurological ...

Shim, Dae Moo; Oh, Sung Kyun

242

[Articular lesions in Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Articular lesions in 157 patients infected with ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITB) in a central Russia's region set on, on the average, in 4 months after tick attack; they were associated with systemic signs of an early disseminated infection and set on less seldom in a late period. The most often encountered systemic signs were as follows: secondary erythema (32% of patients), neurological syndrome (13%), cardio-vascular lesions (22%), ocular lesions (13%) and hepatic lesions (8%). The articular syndrome manifested itself through arthralgia (53 patients) and arthritis (104 patients), which set on quite often in the tick-attack area. There was a peculiarity typical of articular lesions, which made it possible to distinguish them from other rheumatic disease. A dynamic follow-up revealed different clinical variations of Lyme's arthritis and peculiarities of the genetic profile, i.e. a higher prevalence of HLA A2, HLA-B15 and HLA-DR4 as well as of haplo-types HLA A2-B15 and HLAB15-DR4. The articular lesions were associated with an intensive specific humoral immune response. The instrumental examination methods, i.e. ultrasonography of joints as well as scintigraphy of bones and joints, did not reveal any qualitative differences between arthralgia and arthritis, which is indicative of a common nature different-intensity manifestations of arthropathy in thick-borne borreliosis.

Anan'eva LP; Barskova VG; Koneva OA; Ushakova MA; Mach ES; Pushkova OV; Guseva IA; Zakharova MM; Radenska-Lopovok SG; Speranski? AI; Kashnikova LN

2003-01-01

243

The effects of hyaluronic acid on articular chondrocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hyaluronic acid supplementation on chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. The clinical benefits of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections are thought to occur through improved joint lubrication. Recent findings have shown that exogenous hyaluroni...

Akmal, M; Singh, A; Anand, A; Kesani, A; Aslam, N; Goodship, A; Bentley, G

244

Haemorrhoids and joint hypermobility: a new extra-articular association.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An association has been demonstrated between haemorrhoids and joint hypermobility. Reasons for this are discussed. Many performing artists are hypermobile and the extra-articular features of joint hypermobility should not be forgotten or underestimated as a potential constraint upon performance.

Yousif UN; Bird HA

2013-04-01

245

Friction and wear behaviour of bacterial cellulose against articular cartilage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural and biocompatible material with unique properties, such as high water holding capacity, ultra-fine fibre network and high strength that makes it an attractive material for the repair of articular cartilage lesions. However, data on the tribological properties of...

Lopes, J. L.; Machado, J. M.; Castanheira, L.; Granja, P. L.; Gama, F. M.; Dourado, Fernando; Gomes, J. R.

246

Intra-articular lipoma causing snapping in the patellofemoral joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra-articular lipoma is an exceedingly rare diagnosis. We identified a lipoma that was seated in the retropatellar are and caused snapping of the patella during flexion of the knee joint. The tumor was easily and totally excised under arthroscopic guidance after the thin pedicle was cut. (author)

2007-01-01

247

Computational aspects in mechanical modeling of the articular cartilage tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review focuses on the modeling of articular cartilage (at the tissue level), chondrocyte mechanobiology (at the cell level) and a combination of both in a multiscale computation scheme. The primary objective is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of conventional models implemented to study the mechanics of the articular cartilage tissue and chondrocytes. From monophasic material models as the simplest form to more complicated multiscale theories, these approaches have been frequently used to model articular cartilage and have contributed significantly to modeling joint mechanics, addressing and resolving numerous issues regarding cartilage mechanics and function. It should be noted that attentiveness is important when using different modeling approaches, as the choice of the model limits the applications available. In this review, we discuss the conventional models applicable to some of the mechanical aspects of articular cartilage such as lubrication, swelling pressure and chondrocyte mechanics and address some of the issues associated with the current modeling approaches. We then suggest future pathways for a more realistic modeling strategy as applied for the simulation of the mechanics of the cartilage tissue using multiscale and parallelized finite element method.

Mohammadi H; Mequanint K; Herzog W

2013-04-01

248

Articular fractures of the digits: A prospective study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a prospective study of 92 articular fractures of the digits. The treatment protocol was based on functional stability and acceptable alignment rather than on joint congruity. 54% of patients had good results, with 22% fair and 24% poor results being recorded. These results are similar to r...

Shibata, T; O'flanagan, SJ; Ip, FK; Chow, SP

249

Study of calcaneal articular facets in human tali.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Aim of the present study is to know the presence and their percentages of incidences of various patterns of calcaneal articular facets in human tali. PLACE OF STUDY: Department of Anatomy of Sree Dev Raj Urs Medical College, Tamaka, Kolar, Karnataka, India. PERIOD OF STUDY: It is a study of two years of 1996-97 and 1997-98 batches of students. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two hundred and forty unknown, dry human tali possessed from the bone sets of students of above batches constituted the materials for the study during the above period. They were carefully examined for articular facets and classified into five groups. OBSERVATIONS: The present study on human tali revealed five types articular facets . They are Type-1 were observed in 10% (in 24 tali), similarly Type-2 in 50% (120 tali), Type-3 in 16.66% (40 tali), Type-4 in 5.00% (12 tali), Type-5 in 18.41% (44 tali). Later they were well compared and correlated with available literatures. CONCLUSION: This study on human tali has revealed the type of gait, and walking habits and weight bearing bone that has given rise to various articular facets. Hence it has been studied and reported.

Bilodi AK

2006-01-01

250

A Novel Biomaterial for Cartilage Repair Generated by Self-Assembly: Creation of a Self-Organized Articular Cartilage-Like Tissue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, attention has been drawn to tissue engineering and other novel techniques aimed at reconstruction of the joint. Regarding articular cartilage tissue engineering, three-dimensional materials created in vitro by cultivation of autologous chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells with a collagen gel have been implanted to replace defective parts of the articular cartilage in limited cases with the diseases such as trauma or arthritis. However, several passages of chondrocyte culture are required to obtain a sufficient number of cells for tissue engineering. Additionally, several other problems arise including dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during cell culture, which need to be solved from a viewpoint of cellular resources. The purpose of our study is to create a novel biomaterial possessing functions and structures comparable to native hyaline articular cartilage by utilizing the physicochemical properties of the cartilage matrix components themselves, in other words, employing a self-assembly technique instead of using chondrocytes to produce cartilage matrices eventually leading to articular cartilage tissue formation. We verified the conditions and accuracy of the self-organization process and analyzed the resulting micro structure using electron beam microscopy in order to study the technique involved in the self-organization which would be applicable to creation of cartilage-like tissue. We demonstrated that self-assembly of several cartilage components including type II collagen, proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid could construct self-assembled cartilage-like tissues characterized by nano composite structures comparable to human articular cartilage and by low friction coefficients as small as those of native cartilage.

Kazuo Yudoh; Rie Karasawa

2012-01-01

251

Emerging drugs for focal epilepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders in adults, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide at a total annual cost, in Europe, of approximately 15.5 billion Euros. AREAS COVERED: The present paper reviews current compounds in preclinical and clinical development for the treatment of focal epilepsies, namely, ganaxolone, perampanel, BGG-492, NS-1209, belnacasan, YKP-3089, brivaracetam. New formulations in clinical development, such as intranasal midazolam, diazepam auto-injection, a new formulation of valproic acid using drug targeting technology and controlled release formulations for topiramate and pregabalin, are also discussed. EXPERT OPINION: During the last 30 years, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) development have been based on specific assumptions regarding the neurobiology of epilepsy but all marketed drugs have not changed the proportion of drug refractory patients. AEDs in development with new mechanisms of actions, especially anti-inflammatory agents, are of interest. AMPA blockers, especially water-soluble ones, being suitable for parenteral formulation, can be of relevance in treating refractory status epilepticus, a major life-threatening complication. Finally, new formulations, especially those adopting drug targeting technologies are promising in order to maximize the efficacy with very limited adverse effects.

Mula M

2013-03-01

252

Focal brain inflammation and autism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD. PMID:23570274

Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

2013-04-09

253

Focal brain inflammation and autism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

Theoharides TC; Asadi S; Patel AB

2013-01-01

254

Healing results in meniscus and articular cartilage photochemically welded with 1,8-naphthalimide dyes  

Science.gov (United States)

Meniscal tears and partial thickness defects in articular cartilage do not heal spontaneously. In this paper results are described of studies of a procedure for evoking the healing response in such lesions by a non-thermal tissue sparing photochemical weld using 1,8-naphthalimide dyes. Fifteen essentially mature Barbados sheep 40 - 60 pounds in weight received a 2 - 3 mm flap tear by incision in the red white zone of the medial meniscus oriented parallel to the table of the tibia. The animals were divided into four groups; Group I, no treatment; Group II, treatment by laser activated photoactive dyes; Group III, treatment by suturing; Group IV, treatment by laser irradiation only; Group V, treatment by photoactive dyes only. In another group of 12 sheep partial thickness flap tear was created by incision in the articular cartilage of the femoral condyle. These were divided into four groups as for the meniscus study, omitting the sutured control. Welds were made using the dimeric dye MBM Gold BW 012-012-012 at 12 mM in PBS, 457.9 nm argon ion laser radiation at 800 mW/cm2, 7.5 minutes (360 J/cm2) with approximately 2 kg/cm2 externally applied pressure. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hr, 4 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Gross appearance of menisci and cartilage in all welded knees was normal and all welds resisted deformation or loosening under forceful probing. Histology of studies of both tissues out to 6 moths disclosed close bonding of welded area, continuing healing response in the form of cellular recruitment and protein deposition and the absence of inflammatory response. Tissue erosion and arthritic changes were evident in all unwelded controls.

Judy, Millard M.; Jackson, Robert W.; Nosir, Hany R.; Matthews, James Lester; Loyd, John D.; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

1997-05-01

255

The Geometric Osteotomy: Joint Preservation in Juxta-Articular Surface Bone Neoplasms  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To present the oncologic and functional results of a consecutive series of patients treated by geometric osteotomy and allograft reconstruction for juxta-articular surface bone neoplasms. Patients. Twelve consecutive patients (mean age 28 years) underwent excision of benign aggressive or malignant juxta-articular surface bone neoplasms. In each case, only part of the circumference of the bone was excised, and the joint surface was preserved and kept in continuity with the remainder of the bone. The defects were filled with allograft or autograff, and internally fixed as appropriate. Methods. Patients were eligible for the study if they had a histologically proven, primary tumour of bone adjacent to a joint such that the turnout could be completely excised with a partial cortical resection and preservation of the joint. The database at the University Musculoskeletal Oncology Unit was used to identify all cases. Patient demographics and oncologic results were recorded. Functional assessment was performed using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society rating scale and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score. Results. Nine tumours were about the knee and three were in the proximal humerus. Negative margins were achieved in all cases. No patient had metastatic disease at a mean follow-up of 56.5 months. There was one local recurrence and this was managed by conversion to a Van Nes rotationplasty. Functional results were excellent in the proximal humeral cases and in cases about the knee where the stabilizing ligaments were preserved. Cases with post-operative knee instability were less successful but none the less were well controlled with bracing. Discussion. This technique offers an alternative to joint excision and prosthetic replacement in a group of young patients.

Masterson, Eric L.; Ferracini, Riccardo; Davis, Aileen M.; Wunder, Jay S.

1997-01-01

256

Mosaic focal plane for star sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

The basic principles of star sensors are reviewed with reference to the advantages of replacing photodiodes, image dissectors, and vidicons with mosaic charge transfer device (CTD) focal planes. The desirable characteristics of CTD focal planes include: high uniformity, high transfer effect, low dark current, low hot and cold spots, low dead space, low angular misalignment, high coplanarity, and high thermal stability. An implementation of a mosaic CTD array star sensor which achieves high angular position accuracy and frequency attitude update is presented. Two focal plane packaging concepts, the planar and vertical board packagings, are examined.

Chang, N. C.

257

I Focalize, You Focalize, We All Focalize Together: Audience Participation in Persepolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract (E): This article combines theories of cognition and empathy with focalization theory to examine how and why different forms of audience engagement in fictional worlds are cued. The article argues that critics should examine the differences between engagement that encourages audiences to apply their own frames to the world presented and type engagement cued by means of point-of-view shots and close-ups of facial expressions. Abstract (F): Cet article combine les théories de la cognition et de l’empathie avec la théorie de la focalisation afin d’analyser comment et pourquoi certaines œuvres construisent la manière dont le public est invité à s’investir dans des mondes fictionnels. Il défend l’idée que les critiques devraient examiner avant tout les différences entre un type d’investissement qui encourage les publics à appliquer leurs propres schémas de référence au monde de la fiction et un type d’investissement qui passe surtout par des techniques de point de vue et de plans rapprochés d’expressions faciles.

Lizzie Nixon

2010-01-01

258

Ventricular septal defect  

Science.gov (United States)

VSD; Interventricular septal defect ... known as a ventricular septal defect, or a VSD. Ventricular septal defect is one of the most ... lungs, leading to heart failure. The cause of VSD is not yet known. This defect often occurs ...

259

A hydrophobically-modified alginate gel system: utility in the repair of articular cartilage defects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alginate is a family of natural polysaccharides, widely used in industry and medicine for many applications, with its non toxic nature, gentle sol/gel transition procedure and low cost, alginate inferior biomechanical properties have limited its utility especially in tissue engineering. Additionally, ionically cross-linked alginate hydrogels generally lose most of their initial mechanical and swelling properties within a few hours in physiological solution. In order to overcome these limitations, the referenced alginate was treated by covalent fixation of octadecyl chains onto the polysaccharide backbone by esterification. In semi dilute solution, intermolecular hydrophobic interactions of long alkyl chains result in the formation of physical hydrogels, which can then be reinforced by the addition of calcium chloride. FTIR studies clearly showed the presence of ester bonds at 1612 and 1730 cm(-1) indicating that the alkyl groups are incorporated in the backbone of resulting polymer. The endothermic peak and exothermic peak present in the DSC thermogram of Alg-C18 had shifted to lower temperatures comparing to native alginate (from 106 to 83°C and from 250 to 245°C, respectively) due to the esterification reaction that leads to high hydrophobic nature of the modified sample. From rheological experiments, it can be inferred that the combination of both calcium bridges and intermolecular hydrophobic interaction in the treated alginate leads to enhanced gel strength accompanied by more stable structure in physiological solution comparing to native sodium alginate hydrogel. Finally, the modified alginate tended to have no toxic effects on mesenchymal stem cell culture, rather it supported MSC chondrogenic differentiation.

Ghahramanpoor MK; Hassani Najafabadi SA; Abdouss M; Bagheri F; Baghaban Eslaminejad M

2011-10-01

260

Focal odontodysgenesis of the maxillary second premolars in a child.  

Science.gov (United States)

A few months before her sixth birthday, a Caucasian girl suffered progressively worse episodes of painful, nontender, erythematous swellings of the palate lingual to apparently healthy primary second molars. Neither of the developing maxillary second premolars was discerned clearly in radiographs, but, upon surgical exploration, incomplete crowns were found in both follicles. All the other premolars appeared to be developing normally. Histologic, histochemical, and chemical analyses showed that the enamel was hypocalcified, apparently as a result of hypomaturation; the dentin was essentially normal; and morphogenesis had ceased when the heights of contour of the crowns had not yet been reached. This pattern of developmental defects differs from those of well-characterized odontogenic disorders, such as regional odontodysplasia and amelogenesis imperfecta. We suggest that focal odontodysgenesis might be an appropriate term for it. The bilateral symmetry suggests a genetic component in the etiology. PMID:219405

Redman, R S; Cohen, I M; Greer, R O

1979-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Focal odontodysgenesis of the maxillary second premolars in a child.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A few months before her sixth birthday, a Caucasian girl suffered progressively worse episodes of painful, nontender, erythematous swellings of the palate lingual to apparently healthy primary second molars. Neither of the developing maxillary second premolars was discerned clearly in radiographs, but, upon surgical exploration, incomplete crowns were found in both follicles. All the other premolars appeared to be developing normally. Histologic, histochemical, and chemical analyses showed that the enamel was hypocalcified, apparently as a result of hypomaturation; the dentin was essentially normal; and morphogenesis had ceased when the heights of contour of the crowns had not yet been reached. This pattern of developmental defects differs from those of well-characterized odontogenic disorders, such as regional odontodysplasia and amelogenesis imperfecta. We suggest that focal odontodysgenesis might be an appropriate term for it. The bilateral symmetry suggests a genetic component in the etiology.

Redman RS; Cohen IM; Greer RO Jr

1979-04-01

262

CT signs of hepatic focal lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT) semiotics has been analysed for 288 patients with focal lesions of the liver. Most frequently occurring symptoms served the basis for establishing characteristic CT symptom complexes typical of various diseases.

1988-01-01

263

PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia: coping with lethality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The X-linked dominant trait focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, Goltz syndrome) is a developmental defect with focal distribution of affected tissues due to a block of Wnt signal transmission from cells carrying a detrimental PORCN mutation on an active X-chromosome. Molecular characterization of 24 unrelated patients from different ethnic backgrounds revealed 23 different mutations of the PORCN gene in Xp11.23. Three were microdeletions eliminating PORCN and encompassing neighboring genes such as EBP, the gene associated with Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome (CDPX2). 12/24 patients carried nonsense mutations resulting in loss of function. In one case a canonical splice acceptor site was mutated, and 8 missense mutations exchanged highly conserved amino acids. FDH patients overcome the consequences of potentially lethal X-chromosomal mutations by extreme skewing of X-chromosome inactivation in females, enabling transmission of the trait in families, or by postzygotic mosaicism both in male and female individuals. Molecular characterization of the PORCN mutations in cases diagnosed as Goltz syndrome is particularly relevant for genetic counseling of patients and their families since no functional diagnostic test is available and carriers of the mutation might otherwise be overlooked due to considerable phenotypic variability associated with the mosaic status.

Bornholdt D; Oeffner F; König A; Happle R; Alanay Y; Ascherman J; Benke PJ; Boente Mdel C; van der Burgt I; Chassaing N; Ellis I; Francisco CR; Della Giovanna P; Hamel B; Has C; Heinelt K; Janecke A; Kastrup W; Loeys B; Lohrisch I; Marcelis C; Mehraein Y; Nicolas ME; Pagliarini D; Paradisi M; Patrizi A; Piccione M; Piza-Katzer H; Prager B; Prescott K; Strien J; Utine GE; Zeller MS; Grzeschik KH

2009-05-01

264

PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia: coping with lethality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The X-linked dominant trait focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, Goltz syndrome) is a developmental defect with focal distribution of affected tissues due to a block of Wnt signal transmission from cells carrying a detrimental PORCN mutation on an active X-chromosome. Molecular characterization of 24 unrelated patients from different ethnic backgrounds revealed 23 different mutations of the PORCN gene in Xp11.23. Three were microdeletions eliminating PORCN and encompassing neighboring genes such as EBP, the gene associated with Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome (CDPX2). 12/24 patients carried nonsense mutations resulting in loss of function. In one case a canonical splice acceptor site was mutated, and 8 missense mutations exchanged highly conserved amino acids. FDH patients overcome the consequences of potentially lethal X-chromosomal mutations by extreme skewing of X-chromosome inactivation in females, enabling transmission of the trait in families, or by postzygotic mosaicism both in male and female individuals. Molecular characterization of the PORCN mutations in cases diagnosed as Goltz syndrome is particularly relevant for genetic counseling of patients and their families since no functional diagnostic test is available and carriers of the mutation might otherwise be overlooked due to considerable phenotypic variability associated with the mosaic status. PMID:19309688

Bornholdt, Dorothea; Oeffner, Frank; König, Arne; Happle, Rudolf; Alanay, Yasemin; Ascherman, Jeffrey; Benke, Paul J; Boente, María del Carmen; van der Burgt, Ineke; Chassaing, Nicolas; Ellis, Ian; Francisco, Christina Raissa I; Della Giovanna, Patricia; Hamel, Ben; Has, Cristina; Heinelt, Kaatje; Janecke, Andreas; Kastrup, Wolfgang; Loeys, Bart; Lohrisch, Ingo; Marcelis, Carlo; Mehraein, Yasmin; Nicolas, Marie Eleanore O; Pagliarini, Dana; Paradisi, Mauro; Patrizi, Annalisa; Piccione, Maria; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Prager, Bettina; Prescott, Katrina; Strien, Juliane; Utine, G Eda; Zeller, Marc S; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz

2009-05-01

265

Bigenic mouse models of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis involving pairwise interaction of CD2AP, Fyn, and synaptopodin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common primary glomerular diagnosis resulting in end-stage renal disease. Defects in several podocyte proteins have been implicated in the etiology of FSGS, including podocin, ?-actinin–4, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), and TRPC6. Despite our gr...

Huber, Tobias B.; Kwoh, Christopher; Wu, Hui; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Gödel, Markus; Hartleben, Björn; Blumer, Ken J.

266

Focal adhesions and assessment of cytotoxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal adhesions are highly ordered assemblies of transmembrane receptors, extracellular matrix proteins, and a large number of cytoplasmic proteins, including structural proteins, as well as tyrosine kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates. They are now accepted as a prime component of signal transduction. Because focal adhesions also play an important role in cell morphology and migration, it can be argued that their presence is indicative of healthy cells. This has been the reason for several research groups to conclude that biomaterials sustaining focal adhesion assembly are biocompatible. In this study we demonstrate that cells under cytotoxic stress may still be able to retain their focal adhesions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells at passage 2 were exposed to nickel and zinc ion solutions ranging from 1 to 0.01 mM for 4 and 24 h. Cells were seeded on fibronectin precoated glass slides or in tissue culture quality 96-well plates. MTT conversion with 1 and 0.5 mM nickel and zinc was strongly depressed, indicating that these concentrations are cytotoxic. Proliferative activity was also affected by these concentrations. Cells exposed to zinc typically retracted and detached from the surface, whereas cells exposed to nickel remained on the surface without signs of retraction. Nevertheless, cells exposed to nickel were impaired to reach confluency, which was determined by cadherin-5 expression. All these data indicate that nickel ions at a sufficient concentration influence cells in a cytotoxic way. Despite this apparent cytotoxicity, focal adhesion distribution as visualized by immunofluorescence staining of vinculin was not affected. With zinc the morphological changes were accompanied by apparent fusion of focal adhesions during retraction and finally dissolution. These data indicate that the mere presence of focal adhesions does not allow a reliable statement about the functional status of a cell. On the other hand, when focal adhesions are affected it is an excellent monitor of disturbed cell function.

van Kooten TG; Klein CL; Wagner M; Kirkpatrick CJ

1999-07-01

267

Radiographic evaluation of focal lung disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Optimal clinical management of patients with focal lung pathology necessitates thorough familiarity with basic concepts in imaging. Over the past decade, radiologic evaluation has undergone rapid change, reflecting considerable growth in imaging technology. As this article discusses and illustrates at length, improvements in computed tomography technology in particular have resulted in a significant alteration in our approach to both the diagnosis and treatment of patients with focal lung disease.

Naidich DP; Garay SM

1991-03-01

268

Análise da sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular Analysis of symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo analisando a sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular. A queixa mais citada foi de dor na região pré-auricular (40,7%). Sintomatologia dolorosa articular (63,2%) e ruídos articulares (83,3%) foram os achados mais comuns ao exame clínico. Os ruídos articulares mais freqüentes foram os estalos (66,6%). Dor muscular ocorreu, em especial, nos músculos pterigóideo medial e lateral e na inserção do temporal. Houve decréscimo na amplitude para a protrusão dentre os movimentos mandibulares máximosThe study analyzed the symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The most frequent complaint was pain in the preauricular region (40.7%). Articular pain (63.2%) and articular sounds (83.3%) were the most common findings during clinical examination. Muscular pain occurred particularly in the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles and at the insertion of the temporalis muscle. The most frequent articular sound was clicking (66.6%). There was a decrease in extent of protrusion among the mandibular border positions.

Sílvio Henrique de Paula DONEGÁ; Renato CARDOSO; Antonio Sílvio Fontão PROCÓPIO; João Gualberto de Cerqueira LUZ

1997-01-01

269

Usefulness of computed tomography for intra-articular distal radius fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of only plain radiographs with that of plain radiographs plus computed tomography (CT) scanning for the evaluation of intra-articular distal radius fractures. We classified the fractures into 3 types: type L1, only lunate facet; type L2, lunate facet and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) articular surfaces; and type S, lunate and scaphoid facets. Further, we classified the fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces into 2 types: type D1, DRUJ articular surface gap/step-off under 2 mm; and type D2, DRUJ articular surface gap/step-off over 2 mm. Six observers classified 43 intra-articular distal radius fractures using only plain radiographs and compared the results with those obtained by using plain radiographs plus CT scans. There were several cases of fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces (n=31, 72%). The inter-observer reliability was poor for fractures involving the DRUJ articular surfaces (types L2, D1, and D2). CT scans were shown to demonstrate the articular surface gap/step-off of the distal radius more accurately than plain radiographs. In conclusion, CT scanning was useful for evaluating intra-articular distal radius fractures. (author)

2006-01-01

270

Evaluation of cartilage specific matrix synthesis of human articular chondrocytes after extended propagation on microcarriers by image analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cell-based technologies for the repair of cartilage defects usually rely on the expansion of low numbers of chondrocytes isolated from biopsies of healthy cartilage. Proliferating chondrocytes are known to undergo dedifferentiation characterized by downregulation of collagen type II and proteoglycan production, and by upregulation of collagen type I synthesis. Re-expression of cartilage specific matrix components by expanded chondrocytes is therefore critical for successful cartilage repair. METHODS: Human articular chondrocytes were expanded on microcarriers Cytodex 3. The growth area was increased by adding empty microcarriers. Added microcarriers were colonized by bead-to-bead transfer of the cells. The chondrocytes were harvested from the microcarriers and characterized by their ability to synthesize collagen type II when cultivated in alginate beads using chondrogenic growth factors. A semi-automatic image analysis technique was developed to determine the fractions of collagen type II and type I positive cells. RESULTS: The expansion of human articular chondrocytes on microcarriers yielded high cell numbers and propagation rates compared to chondrocytes expanded in flask culture for one passage. The proportion of collagen type II positive cells compared to collagen type I synthesizing cells was increased compared to chondrocytes expanded using conventional methods. The matrix synthesis upon treatment with chondrogenic factors IGF-I and BMP-7 was enhanced whereas TGF-ss had an inhibitory effect on microcarrier expanded chondrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Expanding human articular chondrocytes on microcarriers omitting subcultivation steps leads to superior ratios of collagen type II to type I forming cells compared to the expansion in conventional monolayer culture.

Goepfert C; Lutz V; Lünse S; Kittel S; Wiegandt K; Kammal M; Püschel K; Pörtner R

2010-04-01

271

Comparison of MR-arthrography and MDCT-arthrography for detection of labral and articular cartilage hip pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic ability of MR arthrography (MRa) and MDCT arthrography (CTa) in depicting surgically proven hip labral tears and articular cartilage degradation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Labral pathology and articular cartilage were prospectively evaluated with MRa and CTa in 14 hips of 10 patients. The findings were evaluated by two independent observers (a musculoskeletal fellow and one senior musculoskeletal radiologist). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were determined using arthroscopic and open surgery findings as the standard of reference. Interobserver agreement was recorded. All images were assessed for the presence of a labral tear (according to Czerny classification) and for cartilage erosion using a 3 point scale for both methods: 1 = complete visualization-sharp edges, 2 = blurred edges fissuring-partial defects, 3 = exposed bone. The same classification was applied surgically. RESULTS: Disagreement between the senior observer and the fellow observer was recorded in three cases of labral tearing with MRa and six with CTa. Disagreement was also found in four cases of cartilage erosion with both MRa and CTa. The percent sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value for correctly assessing the labral tear were as follows for MRa/CTa, respectively: 100/15, 50/13, 90/14, and 90/13 (P < 0.05). The same values for cartilage assessment were 63/66, 33/40, 50/57 and 55/66 (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Interobserver reproducibility with MRa is very good for labral tearing assessment. MRa is better for assessing labral tears. CTa shows better, but not statistically significant, demonstration of the articular cartilage.

Perdikakis E; Karachalios T; Katonis P; Karantanas A

2011-11-01

272

Comparison of MR-arthrography and MDCT-arthrography for detection of labral and articular cartilage hip pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To compare the diagnostic ability of MR arthrography (MRa) and MDCT arthrography (CTa) in depicting surgically proven hip labral tears and articular cartilage degradation. Labral pathology and articular cartilage were prospectively evaluated with MRa and CTa in 14 hips of 10 patients. The findings were evaluated by two independent observers (a musculoskeletal fellow and one senior musculoskeletal radiologist). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were determined using arthroscopic and open surgery findings as the standard of reference. Interobserver agreement was recorded. All images were assessed for the presence of a labral tear (according to Czerny classification) and for cartilage erosion using a 3 point scale for both methods: 1 = complete visualization-sharp edges, 2 = blurred edges fissuring-partial defects, 3 = exposed bone. The same classification was applied surgically. Disagreement between the senior observer and the fellow observer was recorded in three cases of labral tearing with MRa and six with CTa. Disagreement was also found in four cases of cartilage erosion with both MRa and CTa. The percent sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value for correctly assessing the labral tear were as follows for MRa/CTa, respectively: 100/15, 50/13, 90/14, and 90/13 (P < 0.05). The same values for cartilage assessment were 63/66, 33/40, 50/57 and 55/66 (P > 0.05). Interobserver reproducibility with MRa is very good for labral tearing assessment. MRa is better for assessing labral tears. CTa shows better, but not statistically significant, demonstration of the articular cartilage. (orig.)

Perdikakis, Evangelos; Karantanas, Apostolos [University Hospital, University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece); Karachalios, Theofilos [University of Thessaly, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Larissa (Greece); Katonis, Pavlos [University of Crete, Department of Orthopaedics, Heraklion (Greece)

2011-11-15

273

Intra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intra-articular lipoma arborescens (LA) is a rare entity that can present with monoarticular or polyarticular involvement of joints such as knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, and elbows. We describe a case in a 26-year-old man who presented with intermittent pain and swelling of the left knee joint for the previous 2 years. Physical examination showed only tenderness over the medial line of the left knee joint. MRI found only joint effusion; therefore, the patient was referred to the orthopedic clinic where he underwent arthroscopy, which revealed a diffuse yellow soft tissue synovial papillary growth involving both medial and lateral gutters of the suprapatellar pouch. A biopsy reported intra-articular LA. This is the first case of LA reported in Saudi Arabia. LA should be included in the clinical and radiologic differential diagnosis of cases with persistent knee joint effusion.

Al-Shraim Mubarak

2011-01-01

274

Steroid-responsive focal epilepsy with focal dystonia accompanied by glutamate receptor delta2 antibody.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes a rare case presenting with focal epilepsy and focal dystonia associated with glutamate receptor ?2 antibody. The patient was a 47-year-old male patient with neurosyphilis. He presented with an intractable focal seizure spreading from the right arm, with dystonia of the left leg. The IgG antibody of glutamate receptor ?2 was detected. Ictal and interictal SPECT suggested focal epilepsy in the left frontal cortex. Antibiotic and antiepileptic drugs were ineffective, although steroid pulse therapy effectively diminished the patient's symptoms. Inflammatory mechanisms may have contributed to this disorder.

Matsumoto H; Okabe S; Hirakawa-Yamada M; Takahashi Y; Satoh N; Igeta Y; Hashida H

2012-08-01

275

Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length  

Science.gov (United States)

One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

Crandall, David Lynn (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-08-01

276

Intra-articular tenoxicam improves postoperative analgesia in knee arthroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs have a well documented benefit in the relief of postoperative pain. This study was designed to compare the analgesic effect of intra-articular tenoxicam 20 mg with intravenous tenoxicam on postoperative pain in 88 patients undergoing day case knee arthroscopy. METHODS: A prospective, double blind, randomized trial was performed. All patients received a standard general anesthetic. Patients in group A received 20 mg tenoxicam made up to 40 ml with normal saline intra-articularly (ia) and 2 ml normal saline i.v. Patients in group B received 40 ml normal saline intra-articularly and 2 ml, 20 mg of tenoxicam, i.v. RESULTS: Both groups of patients were similar with respect to age, weight, sex and tourniquet inflation time. Patients receiving ia tenoxicam had lower pain scores (at rest and upon movement) at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min postoperatively (0.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.5+/-0.2 at rest and 1.24+/-0.2 vs. 3.4+/-0.2 at movement at 60 min; P< 0.0001). Fewer patients required additional analgesia in the first four hours postoperatively (33% vs. 84%; P<0.00001) and the time to first analgesia (23.7+/-11.2 vs. 9.4+/-0.6; P<0.02) was longer in those receiving ia tenoxicam. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular tenoxicam provides superior postoperative analgesia and reduces postoperative analgesic requirements compared with i.v. tenoxicam in patients undergoing day case knee arthroscopy.

Colbert ST; Curran E; O'Hanlon DM; Moran R; McCarroll M

1999-07-01

277

Para-articular osteochondroma of the temporomandibular joint.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A para-articular osteochondroma is a rare osteocartilaginous tumour that arises in the soft tissue adjacent to a joint but with no attachment to the bone. To our knowledge, this is the first case of one reported in the region of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The patient presented with severe preauricular pain caused by a para-auricular osteochondroma, which arose in the preauricular region just external to the TMJ.

Gonzalez-Perez LM; Sanchez-Gallego F

2013-06-01

278

[Acid polysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) of the articular cartilage in rheumatoid arthritis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a result of histochemical investigation of the articular hyaline cartilage in 22 pateints with rheumatoid arthritis data were obtained on the decrease and redistribution of acid polysaccharides glycosamine glucane including keratosulphates, which led to an impartment of the cartilage supply and development therein of destructive processes. It was established that the most pronounced changer occurred in the main substance of the cartilage; changes in chondrocytes, according to the authors, were of secondary nature.

Gritsman NN; Rusakova MS

1975-01-01

279

A simulation trainer for complex articular fracture surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a physical model to improve articular fracture reduction skills, (2) to develop objective assessment methods to evaluate these skills, and (3) to assess the construct validity of the simulation. METHODS: A surgical simulation was staged utilizing surrogate tibial plafond fractures. Multiple three-segment radio-opacified polyurethane foam fracture models were produced from the same mold, ensuring uniform surgical complexity between trials. Using fluoroscopic guidance, five senior and seven junior orthopaedic residents reduced the fracture through a limited anterior window. The residents were assessed on the basis of time to completion, hand movements (tracked with use of a motion capture system), and quality of the obtained reduction. RESULTS: All but three of the residents successfully reduced and fixed the fracture fragments (one senior resident and two junior residents completed the reduction but were unsuccessful in fixating all fragments). Senior residents had an average time to completion of 13.43 minutes, an average gross articular step-off of 3.00 mm, discrete hand motions of 540 actions, and a cumulative hand motion distance of 79 m. Junior residents had an average time to completion of 14.75 minutes, an average gross articular step-off of 3.09 mm, discrete hand motions of 511 actions, and a cumulative hand motion distance of 390 m. CONCLUSIONS: The large difference in cumulative hand motion distance, despite comparable numbers of discrete hand motion events, indicates that senior residents were more precise in their hand motions. The present experiment establishes the basic construct validity of the simulation trainer. Further studies are required to demonstrate that this laboratory-based model for articular fracture reduction training, along with an objective assessment of performance, can be used to improve resident surgical skills.

Yehyawi TM; Thomas TP; Ohrt GT; Marsh JL; Karam MD; Brown TD; Anderson DD

2013-07-01

280

The mechanical environment of chondrocytes in articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing literature concerning chondrocyte responses to mechanical loading, but relatively little is known about the mechanical environment these cells experience in a living joint. Calculations indicate that high forces are applied to limb joints whenever the joints are flexed, because flexion can cause body weight to act on long lever arms compared to the joint centre, whereas the muscles which extend the joint act on much shorter lever arms. As a result, joint reaction forces (which compress the cartilage) can rise to 3-6 times body weight during activities such as stair climbing. Articular cartilage tends to spread this load evenly over the joint surface, but is too thin to do this well, and compressive stresses can rise to 10-20 MPa. Within cartilage, matrix stresses vary locally, possibly as a result of variation in composition or undulations in the subchondral bone, and further modifications of stress occur within each chondron. Articular cartilage is a fibrous solid and cells within it are deformed by mechanical loading rather than subjected to a hydrostatic pressure. The mechanical environment of chondrocytes can best be reproduced in vitro by direct compression of the articular surface of cartilage which is supported naturally by adjacent cartilage and subchondral bone. PMID:16912425

Adams, Michael A

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Dynamic bone scans in osteo-articular pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three-phase radionuclide bone scanning was performed in patients with algodystrophy or osteonecrosis. This method is used to improve the specificity of ordinary bone scan. It explores vascularization and blood pool, then bone uptake in two symmetrical articulations. Non-focal hyperaemia and late diffuse uptake are in favour of algodystrophy, whereas a distinct focal hypervascularization and late uptake predominant in the femoral condyle area seem to be in favour of pre-radiological osteonecrosis.

Laurin, J.; Acquaviva, P.; Kaphan, G.

1986-06-21

282

Dynamic bone scans in osteo-articular pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-phase radionuclide bone scanning was performed in patients with algodystrophy or osteonecrosis. This method is used to improve the specificity of ordinary bone scan. It explores vascularization and blood pool, then bone uptake in two symmetrical articulations. Non-focal hyperaemia and late diffuse uptake are in favour of algodystrophy, whereas a distinct focal hypervascularization and late uptake predominant in the femoral condyle area seem to be in favour of pre-radiological osteonecrosis.

1986-01-01

283

Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and 12 months after the procedure. High-resolution imaging was obtained with a surface phased array coil placed over the knee compartment of interest and adapted sequences were used on a 1 T MRI scanner. The analysis of the repair tissue included the definition and rating of nine pertinent variables: the degree of filling of the defect, the integration to the border zone, the description of the surface and structure, the signal intensity, the status of the subchondral lamina and subchondral bone, the appearance of adhesions and the presence of synovitis. High-resolution MRI, using a surface phased array coil and specific sequences, can be used on every standard 1 or 1.5 T MRI scanner according to the in-house standard protocols for knee imaging in patients who have had cartilage repair procedures without substantially prolonging the total imaging time. The new classification and grading system allows a subtle description and suitable assessment of the articular cartilage repair tissue.

Marlovits, Stefan E-mail: stefan.marlovits@akh-wien.ac.at; Striessnig, Gabriele; Resinger, Christoph T.; Aldrian, Silke M.; Vecsei, Vilmos; Imhof, Herwig; Trattnig, Siegfried

2004-12-01

284

Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and 12 months after the procedure. High-resolution imaging was obtained with a surface phased array coil placed over the knee compartment of interest and adapted sequences were used on a 1 T MRI scanner. The analysis of the repair tissue included the definition and rating of nine pertinent variables: the degree of filling of the defect, the integration to the border zone, the description of the surface and structure, the signal intensity, the status of the subchondral lamina and subchondral bone, the appearance of adhesions and the presence of synovitis. High-resolution MRI, using a surface phased array coil and specific sequences, can be used on every standard 1 or 1.5 T MRI scanner according to the in-house standard protocols for knee imaging in patients who have had cartilage repair procedures without substantially prolonging the total imaging time. The new classification and grading system allows a subtle description and suitable assessment of the articular cartilage repair tissue

2004-01-01

285

Restoration of arthritic cartilage defects using autologous chondrocytes transplantation is superior to cartilage-paste graft in rabbits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared the articular cartilage repair potential of cultured chondrocytes transplantation with bone-cartilage paste-graft in the resurfacing of full-thickness defects without breaching of the subchondral bone plate in rabbit knees. A 5 x 5-mm articular cartilage defect was created in the patellar groove of the femur. Three months following creation, the defect was filled with cultured autologous chondrocytes (group 1) or bone-cartilage paste (group 2). A control group of untreated defects was followed for 1 year. The reparative tissue was analyzed macroscopically, histologically, and by immunohistochemistry 3-12 months post-transplantation. The surfaces of the reparative tissue in group 1 were smooth, and the defects were filled with reparative tissue that resembled hyaline cartilage. The composition of the repair tissue more closely resembled cartilage, as demonstrated by cartilage-specific stains. In contrast, the reparative tissue in group 2 was fibrous and exhibited markers of mesenchymal stem cells and bone formation. Transplantation of cultured chondrocytes into a full-thickness defect in the rabbit generates a biologic substitute tissue that resembles native articular cartilage with living cells capable of synthesizing the surrounding cartilage matrix. In contrast, analysis of the healing response to the paste-graft technique failed to show cartilage-like characteristics. This information may be clinically applicable to direct the use of these treatments in chondral injuries.

Melamed E; Robinson D; Halperin N; Nevo Z

2004-01-01

286

Central perforation of the articular disc of the triangular fibrocartilage complex in a 17-year-old girl: could it be congenital?  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of a central perforation of the horizontal portion of the triangular fibrocartilage complex in a 17-year-old girl is reported. The age of the patient, along with normal articular surfaces of the ulnar head and ulnar carpus and the lack of an ulnar-positive wrist, made the existence of a degenerative tear unlikely. The possibility that the central perforation in this patient could be congenital suggests that this defect should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ulnar-sided wrist pain in the young patient. PMID:9267558

Kaempffe, F A

1997-08-01

287

Central perforation of the articular disc of the triangular fibrocartilage complex in a 17-year-old girl: could it be congenital?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of a central perforation of the horizontal portion of the triangular fibrocartilage complex in a 17-year-old girl is reported. The age of the patient, along with normal articular surfaces of the ulnar head and ulnar carpus and the lack of an ulnar-positive wrist, made the existence of a degenerative tear unlikely. The possibility that the central perforation in this patient could be congenital suggests that this defect should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ulnar-sided wrist pain in the young patient.

Kaempffe FA

1997-08-01

288

Potential for thermal damage to articular cartilage by PMMA reconstruction of a bone cavity following tumor excision: A finite element study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign, giant cell tumors are often treated by intralesional excision and reconstruction with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. The exothermic reaction of the in-situ polymerizing PMMA is believed to beneficially kill remaining tumor cells. However, at issue is the extent of this necrotic effect into the surrounding normal bone and the adjacent articular cartilage. Finite element analysis (ABAQUS 6.4-1) was used to determine the extent of possible thermal necrosis around prismatically shaped, PMMA implants (8-24cc in volume), placed into a peripheral, sagittally symmetric, metaphyseal defect in the proximal tibia. Temperature/exposure time conditions indicating necrotic potential during the exotherm of the polymerizing bone cement were found in regions of the cancellous bone within 3mm of the superior surface of the PMMA implant. If less than 3mm of cancellous bone existed between the PMMA implant and the subchondral bone layer, regions of the subchondral bone were also exposed to thermally necrotic conditions. However, as long as there were at least 2mm of uniform subchondral bone above the PMMA implant, the necrotic regions did not extend into the overlying articular cartilage. This was the case even when the PMMA was in direct contact with the subchondral bone. If the subchondral bone is not of sufficient thickness, or is not continuous, then care should be taken to protect the articular cartilage from thermal damage as a result of the reconstruction of the tumor cavity with PMMA bone cement. PMID:19344902

Radev, Boyko R; Kase, Jonathan A; Askew, Michael J; Weiner, Scott D

2009-04-02

289

Extra-articular triplane fracture of the distal tibia: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The triplane fracture of the distal tibia is anatomically complex. It typically consists of a coronal fracture of the metaphysis, a transverse fracture of the physis, and a sagittal, intra-articular fracture of the epiphysis. We report an unusual variation of the triplane fracture which includes an extra-articular epiphyseal component involving the medial malleolus. This is an important variant to recognize because it does not disrupt the distal tibial articular surface. This lack of articular involvement allows for non-surgical management in contrast to the usual triplane fracture which often requires open reduction and internal fixation. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 refs.

O`Connor, D.K.; Mulligan, M.E. [Department of Radiology, University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1998-05-01

290

Análise da sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo analisando a sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular. A queixa mais citada foi de dor na região pré-auricular (40,7%). Sintomatologia dolorosa articular (63,2%) e ruídos articulares (83,3%) foram os achados mais comuns ao exame clínico. Os ruídos articulares mais freqüentes foram os estalos (66,6%). Dor muscular ocorreu, em especial, nos músculos pterigóideo medial e lateral e na inserção do temporal. Houve decréscimo na amplitude para a protrusão dentre os movimentos mandibulares máximos

DONEGÁ Sílvio Henrique de Paula; CARDOSO Renato; PROCÓPIO Antonio Sílvio Fontão; LUZ João Gualberto de Cerqueira

1997-01-01

291

Three-dimensional CT imaging usefulness in distal radial intra-articular fracture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed information on articular damage in distal radial intra-articular fracture in provided by three-dimensional CT imaging of intra-articular distal radius fracture. We conducted this procedure in 16 patients. Eliminated axial views of intra-articular fracture revealed details of joint surface damage. These images were then compared to those of plain radiographs. Three-dimensional CT was very useful in detecting fracture displacement and distal radioulnar joint fracture, and also useful in evaluating the distal radio-carpal joint compression and fragmentation. (author)

Kato, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Ryogo; Horii, Emiko; Imaeda, Toshihiko; Sakuma, Masayuki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1998-02-01

292

Three-dimensional CT imaging usefulness in distal radial intra-articular fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed information on articular damage in distal radial intra-articular fracture in provided by three-dimensional CT imaging of intra-articular distal radius fracture. We conducted this procedure in 16 patients. Eliminated axial views of intra-articular fracture revealed details of joint surface damage. These images were then compared to those of plain radiographs. Three-dimensional CT was very useful in detecting fracture displacement and distal radioulnar joint fracture, and also useful in evaluating the distal radio-carpal joint compression and fragmentation. (author)

1998-01-01

293

Expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia and emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis. BACKGROUND: Cemento-osseous dysplasia is categorized into three subtypes on the basis of the clinical and radiographic features: Periapical, focal and florid. The focal type exhibits a single site of involvement in any tooth-bearing or edentulous area of the jaws. These lesions are usually asymptomatic; therefore, they are frequently diagnosed incidentally during routine radiographic examinations. Lesions are usually benign, show limited growth, and do not require further surgical intervention, but periodic follow-up is recommended because occasionally, this type of dysplasia progresses into florid osseous dysplasia and simple bone cysts are formed. CASE REPORT: A 24-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic for swelling in the left edentulous mandibular premolarmolar region and felt discomfort when she wore her prosthetics. She had no pain, tenderness or paresthesia. Clinical examination showed that the swelling in the posterior mandible that was firm, nonfluctuant and covered by normal mucosa. On panoramic radiography and computed tomography, a well defined lesion of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter of mixed density was observed. The swelling increased slightly in size over 2 years making it difficult to use prosthetics and, therefore, the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia, and surgical specimens were submitted for histopathological examination. The histopathological diagnosis was focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. CONCLUSION: In the present case, because of the increasing size of the swelling making it difficult to use prosthetics, young age of the patient and localization of the lesion, in the initial examination, cemento-ossifying fibroma was suspected, and the lesion was excised surgically; the histopathological diagnosis confirmed it as focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Clinical significance: We present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Differential diagnosis is essential because ossifying fibroma is a real neoplastic entity.

Bulut EU; Acikgoz A; Ozan B; Zengin AZ; Gunhan O

2012-01-01

294

Cluster analysis of infrared spectra can differentiate intact and repaired articular cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Successful repair of articular cartilage (AC) defects would be a major advantage due to the low ability of AC to heal spontaneously. Sensitive methods to determine changes in AC composition and structure are required to monitor the success of repair. This study evaluates the ability of unsupervised cluster analysis applied to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to discriminate between healthy and repaired AC. METHODS: Osteochondral lesions (3 mm in depth) were surgically created in patellar grooves of rabbit femurs and were either left to heal spontaneously (n = 6) or surgically repaired with autologous chondrocytes in type II collagen gel (n = 6). After 6 months, tissues were harvested, FTIR microspectroscopy was conducted and Fuzzy c-means (FCM) cluster analysis applied to spectra of pairs of intact and repaired AC samples from each rabbit. Two spectral regions [amide I and carbohydrate (CHO)] were analyzed and the results from the two types of repair were compared. RESULTS: Two separate regions of repair were detected with FCM. The estimated proteoglycan content (from CHO region) in the repaired AC was significantly lower than that in intact AC. The spontaneously repaired AC was better distinguished from the intact AC than the collagen II gel repaired AC. The most distinct clustering was observed for spontaneously repaired samples using CHO region. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that unsupervised cluster analysis applied to FTIR microspectroscopy can detect subtle differences in infrared spectra between normal and repaired AC. The method may help in evaluation and optimization of future AC repair strategies.

Kobrina Y; Rieppo L; Saarakkala S; Pulkkinen HJ; Tiitu V; Valonen P; Kiviranta I; Jurvelin JS; Isaksson H

2013-03-01

295

MODELADO MATEMÁTICO DEL COMPORTAMIENTO MECÁNICO DE UN FRAGMENTO DE CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR/ MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF AN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE PIECE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El cartílago articular es un material biológico poroelástico que permite la distribución de las cargas mecánicas y el movimiento de las articulaciones. Como material bifásico, en presencia de carga, el cartílago articular deforma su matriz sólida y modifica la presión hidrostática del fluido en su interior. El objetivo del presente trabajo es implementar numéricamente un modelo matemático que predice el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular teniend (more) o en cuenta la dualidad entre la matriz sólida y el líquido articular, y la característica de poroelasticidad. Utilizando una metodología basada en el método de los elementos finitos, se simuló el comportamiento de un fragmento de cartílago articular en una y dos dimensiones, ante cargas mecánicas de tensión, compresión y oscilación. El análisis de los resultados permite validar cualitativamente el comportamiento poroelástico del modelo debido a la deformación de la matriz sólida y a la salida de fluido que modifica la presión del mismo de manera similar a lo reportado en trabajos experimentales. Se concluye que el modelo matemático permite realizar predicciones sobre el comportamiento biomecánico del cartílago articular, contribuyendo al proceso investigativo en áreas como la biomecánica y la ingeniería de tejidos. Abstract in english The articular cartilage is a poroelastic biological material that allows the distribution of mechanical loads and the joint movements. As a biphasic material, in presence of load, the articular cartilage deforms its solid matrix and modifies the fluid hydrostatic pressure inside. The aim of this work is to implement numerically a mathematical model that predicts the mechanical behaviour of articular cartilage taking into account the duality between the solid matrix and ar (more) ticular liquid, and its poroelastic feature. Using a finite element method approach , the response of a piece of articular cartilage in one and two dimensions has been simulated, with tensile, compresive and oscillative mechanical loads. The analysis of results allows a qualitatively validation of the poroelastic behavior of the model due to the solid matrix deformation and the fluid outflow that causes variations of pressures inside the articular cartilage according with reported trials. We conclude that the mathematical model allows the prediction of the articular cartilage biomechanical behaviour. Our results contribute to the investigative processes in fields of study like biomechanics and tissue engineering

LANDÍNEZ, NANCY STELLA; VANEGAS, JUAN CARLOS; GARZÓN, DIEGO ALEXANDER

2009-06-01

296

A study on MR images of the articular cartilage in medial-type osteoarthritis of the knee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in the articular cartilage of 88 knees of 73 cases (age range 40-78) diagnosed clinically and radiologically as OA (osteoarthritis) were studied by obtaining fat-suppressed MR images of the knee. On 27 knees out of the 88, moreover, macroscopic observation was performed to make a comparative study between the directly-observed findings and MR findings. Fat-suppressed MR images were obtained sagittally by 3D-FLASH (fast low angle shot) sequence. The examined regions consisted of the following 4 sites; the medial condyle of the femur, its lateral condyle, the medial condyle of the tibia, and its lateral condyle. The revealed conditions of the cartilage were morphologically classified into 4 Stages. The evidence of cartilage defect on MR images was most frequently found at the medial condyle of the femur, with the medial condyle of the tibia, the lateral condyle of the femur, and the lateral condyle of the tibia following in a less frequent order. Fat-suppressed MRI's sensitivity to cartilage defect against macroscopy was 94.5%, specificity 95.4%, and accuracy 95.2%. MR imaging using fat-suppression can reveal cartilaginous degeneration and defect so well that this technique provides an important indication for selecting a proper method of treatment. (author)

Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Mitsutoshi; Kotani, Akihiro [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

2001-06-01

297

Direct rAAV SOX9 administration for durable articular cartilage repair with delayed terminal differentiation and hypertrophy in vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Direct gene transfer strategies are of promising value to treat articular cartilage defects. Here, we tested the ability of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) SOX9 vector to enhance the repair of cartilage lesions in vivo. The candidate construct was provided to osteochondral defects in rabbit knee joints vis-à-vis control (lacZ) vector treatment and to cells relevant of the repair tissue (mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes). Efficient, long-term transgene expression was noted within the lesions (up to 16 weeks) and in cells in vitro (21 days). Administration of the SOX9 vector was capable of stimulating the biological activities in vitro and over time in vivo. SOX9 treatment in vivo was well tolerated, leading to improved cartilage repair processes with enhanced production of major matrix components. Remarkably, application of rAAV SOX9 delayed premature terminal differentiation and hypertrophy in the newly formed cartilage, possible due to contrasting effects of SOX9 on RUNX2 and ?-catenin osteogenic expression in this area. Most strikingly, SOX9 treatment improved the reconstitution of the subchondral bone in the defects, possibly due to an increase in RUNX2 expression in this location. These findings show the potential of direct rAAV gene delivery as an efficient tool to treat cartilage lesions.

Cucchiarini M; Orth P; Madry H

2013-05-01

298

Birth Defects Quiz  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Birth Defects Quiz Your browser does not support iFrames. Related Pages Share the Birth Defects Quiz Birth Defects Folic Acid Healthy Pregnancy ...

299

Neural Tube Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...

300

Chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes depends on their original location in the knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the regenerative capacity of chondrocytes derived from debrided defect cartilage and healthy cartilage from different regions in the joint in order to determine the best cell source for regenerative cartilage therapies. Methods: Articular cartilage was obtained form Outerbridge grade III and IV cartilage lesions and from macroscopically healthy weight-bearing and non-weight bearing locations in the knee. Chondrocytes isolated from all locations were either pelleted directly (P0 pellets) or after expansion (P2 pellets) and analyzed for GAG, DNA and cartilage-specific gene expression. Harvested cartilage samples and cultured pellets were also analysed by Safranin-O histology and immunohistochemistry for collagen I, II and X. Immunohistochemical stainings were quantified using a computerized pixel-intensity staining segmentation method. Results: After 4 weeks of culture the P0 pellets derived from grade III or healthy weight bearing chondrocytes contained more (p<0.015) GAG and GAG normalised per DNA compared to those from grade IV and non-weight bearing locations. After expansion, these differences were lost. Cartilage-specific gene expression was higher (p<0.04) in P0 pellets from grade III chondrocytes compared to grade IV chondrocytes. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry showed a more intense (p<0.033) collagen I and X staining for grade IV debrided cartilage compared to grade III and weight bearing cartilage. Also collagen type X staining intensity was higher (p<0.033) in non-weight bearing cartilage compared to grade III and weight bearing regions. Conclusion: Chondrocytes derived from debrided cartilage perform better than cells from the non-weight bearing biopsy site, however this difference is lost upon expansion. Based thereon the debrided defect cartilage could be a viable donor site for regenerative cartilage surgery.

Bekkers JE; Saris D; Tsuchida AI; Van Rijen MH; Dhert W; Creemers L

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Shape of articular surface of crocodilian (Archosauria) elbow joints and its relevance to sauropsids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The determination of area and shape of articular surfaces on the limb bones of extinct archosaurs is difficult because of postmortem decomposition of the fibrous tissue and articular cartilages that provide the complex three-dimensional joint surfaces in vivo. This study aims at describing the shape of the articular cartilages in the elbow joints of six crocodilian specimens; comparing its structure with that of four birds, three testudines, and five squamates; and comparing the shapes of the surfaces of the calcified and the articular cartilages in the elbow joints of an Alligator specimen. The shapes of the articular cartilages of crocodilian elbow joint are shown to resemble those of birds. The humerus possesses an olecranon fossa positioned approximately at the midportion of the distal epiphysis and bordering the margin of the extensor side of the articular surface. The ulna possesses a prominent intercotylar process at approximately the middle of its articular surface, and splits the surface into the radial and ulnar cotylae. This divides the articular cartilage into an articular surface on the flexor portion, and the olecranon on the extensor portion. The intercotylar process fits into the olecranon fossa to restrict elbow joint extension. Dinosaurs and pterosaurs, phylogenetically bracketed by Crocodylia and Aves (birds), may have possessed a similar olecranon fossa and intercotylar process on their articular cartilages. Although these shapes are rarely recognizable on the bones, their impressions on the surfaces of the calcified cartilages provide an important indication of the extensor margin of the articular surfaces. This, in turn, helps to determine the maximum angle of extension of the elbow joint in archosaurs.

Fujiwara S; Taru H; Suzuki D

2010-07-01

302

PGA-associated heterotopic chondrocyte cocultures: implications of nasoseptal and auricular chondrocytes in articular cartilage repair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The availability of autologous articular chondrocytes remains a limiting issue in matrix assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Non-articular heterotopic chondrocytes could be an alternative autologous cell source. The aims of this study were to establish heterotopic chondrocyte cocultures to analyze cell-cell compatibilities and to characterize the chondrogenic potential of nasoseptal chondrocytes compared to articular chondrocytes. Primary porcine and human nasoseptal and articular chondrocytes were investigated for extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) expression in a monolayer culture. 3D polyglycolic acid- (PGA) associated porcine heterotopic mono- and cocultures were assessed for cell vitality, types II, I, and total collagen-, and proteoglycan content. The type II collagen, lubricin, and Sox9 gene expressions were significantly higher in articular compared with nasoseptal monolayer chondrocytes, while type IX collagen expression was lower in articular chondrocytes. Only ?1-integrin gene expression was significantly inferior in humans but not in porcine nasoseptal compared with articular chondrocytes, indicating species-dependent differences. Heterotopic chondrocytes in PGA cultures revealed high vitality with proteoglycan-rich hyaline-like ECM production. Similar amounts of type II collagen deposition and type II/I collagen ratios were found in heterotopic chondrocytes cultured on PGA compared to articular chondrocytes. Quantitative analyses revealed a time-dependent increase in total collagen and proteoglycan content, whereby the differences between heterotopic and articular chondrocyte cultures were not significant. Nasoseptal and auricular chondrocytes monocultured in PGA or cocultured with articular chondrocytes revealed a comparable high chondrogenic potential in a tissue engineering setting, which created the opportunity to test them in vivo for articular cartilage repair.

El Sayed K; Marzahn U; John T; Hoyer M; Zreiqat H; Witthuhn A; Kohl B; Haisch A; Schulze-Tanzil G

2013-01-01

303

Manifestações articulares nas viroses exantemáticas Joint complaints in exanthematic diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A freqüência de manifestações articulares foi avaliada em 251 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial (detecção de IgM por ensaio imunoenzimático) de virose exantemática. As artropatias (artralgia e/ou artrite) foram mais observadas nos casos de dengue (49%) e de rubéola (38,2%) do que naqueles com parvovirose humana (30%) e sarampo (28,1%). Com exceção do sarampo, as artropatias predominaram nos adultos (315 anos de idade), sendo tal diferença estatisticamente significativa. A ocorrência maior de artropatias em adultos foi mais evidente nos pacientes com parvovirose (75%), rubéola (65%) e dengue (57,7%) do que naqueles com sarampo (31%). As queixas articulares também predominaram nos pacientes do sexo feminino para todas as viroses avaliadas. Os resultados encontrados demonstram o freqüente acometimento articular nas doenças estudadas, e indicam a necessidade de comprovação laboratorial para o diagnóstico diferencial entre elas.The frequency of arthropathy was evaluated in 251 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis (specific IgM detection by enzyme immunoassay) of exanthematic disease. Arthropathy (arthralgia and/or arthritis) was more frequent in dengue fever (49%) and rubella (38.2%) cases than in human parvovirus (30%) and measles (28.1%) cases. Except for measles cases, joint complaints prevailed in adults (315 years of age) and this difference was significant. The higher frequency of arthropathy in adults was more evident in human parvovirus (75%), rubella (65%) and dengue fever (57.7%) cases than in measles cases (31%). Arthropathy was also more frequent in females for all rash diseases studied. The results of this study showed the high occurrence of joint complaints in the diseases described here and the importance of laboratory confirmation for their differential diagnosis.

Solange Artimos de Oliveira; Luís A.B. Camacho; Lílian Rachel Bettini; Daniele Guerreiro Fernandes; Nathalia A.C. Gouvea; Roberto A.Q. Barros; Sérgio Setúbal; Marilda Mendonça Siqueira

1999-01-01

304

Manifestações articulares nas viroses exantemáticas/ Joint complaints in exanthematic diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A freqüência de manifestações articulares foi avaliada em 251 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial (detecção de IgM por ensaio imunoenzimático) de virose exantemática. As artropatias (artralgia e/ou artrite) foram mais observadas nos casos de dengue (49%) e de rubéola (38,2%) do que naqueles com parvovirose humana (30%) e sarampo (28,1%). Com exceção do sarampo, as artropatias predominaram nos adultos (315 anos de idade), sendo tal diferença esta (more) tisticamente significativa. A ocorrência maior de artropatias em adultos foi mais evidente nos pacientes com parvovirose (75%), rubéola (65%) e dengue (57,7%) do que naqueles com sarampo (31%). As queixas articulares também predominaram nos pacientes do sexo feminino para todas as viroses avaliadas. Os resultados encontrados demonstram o freqüente acometimento articular nas doenças estudadas, e indicam a necessidade de comprovação laboratorial para o diagnóstico diferencial entre elas. Abstract in english The frequency of arthropathy was evaluated in 251 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis (specific IgM detection by enzyme immunoassay) of exanthematic disease. Arthropathy (arthralgia and/or arthritis) was more frequent in dengue fever (49%) and rubella (38.2%) cases than in human parvovirus (30%) and measles (28.1%) cases. Except for measles cases, joint complaints prevailed in adults (315 years of age) and this difference was significant. The higher frequency (more) of arthropathy in adults was more evident in human parvovirus (75%), rubella (65%) and dengue fever (57.7%) cases than in measles cases (31%). Arthropathy was also more frequent in females for all rash diseases studied. The results of this study showed the high occurrence of joint complaints in the diseases described here and the importance of laboratory confirmation for their differential diagnosis.

Oliveira, Solange Artimos de; Camacho, Luís A.B.; Bettini, Lílian Rachel; Fernandes, Daniele Guerreiro; Gouvea, Nathalia A.C.; Barros, Roberto A.Q.; Setúbal, Sérgio; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça

1999-04-01

305

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage has recently been recognized as a tool for the characterization of cartilage morphology, biochemistry and function. In this paper advancements in cartilage imaging, computation of cartilage volume and thickness, and measurement of relaxation times (T2 and T1?) are presented. In addition, the delayed uptake of Gadolinium DTPA as a marker of proteoglycan depletion is also reviewed. The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using these imaging techniques show promise for cartilage assessment and for the study of osteoarthritis.

G Blumenkrantz; S Majumdar

2007-01-01

306

Prevention of peri-articular ossifications by postoperative hip irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] After total hip replacement, peri-articular ectopic bone formation occurs as a post-operative complication in up to 30% of the cases. (orig./SHA)[de] Nach Implantation einer Totalendoprothese an der Huefte kommt es als postoperative Komplikation in bis zu 30% der Faelle zu einer periarticulaeren ektopen Knochenbildung. Zielsetzung dieser Arbeit war es, die Effizienz der Radiotherapie in der Prophylaxe der ektopen Knochenneubildung nachzuweisen. Acht Patienten wurden postoperativ bestrahlt: fuenf nach Implantation einer Totalendoprothese, drei nach Ossifikationsexzision. (orig./SHA)

1987-01-01

307

[Subtle focal diffusion abnormality in the hippocampus].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 53-year-old female patient presented with sudden onset confusion and disorientation. Further neurological examination was unremarkable and the patient showed a complete recovery after several hours. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination performed 2 days later revealed a tiny focal lesion in the lateral hippocampus in the diffusion weighted images consistent with transient global amnesia. PMID:22710991

Macht, S; Hellen, F; Wenzel, D; Turowski, B

2012-07-01

308

Familial glioblastoma with hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two siblings succumbed to glioblastoma multiforme, associated with hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia and cafe-au-lait spots. One sibling had syndactyly and multiple colonic polyps, while the other had an angiomatous malformation in the brain. Their mother died of myasthenia gravis. The findings suggest a hamartomatous syndrome of malformations that predisposes to brain tumors.

Everson RB; Fraumeni JF Jr

1976-07-01

309

Earthquake Focal Mechanisms in Southern Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the largest inland earthquakes in Taiwan since the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.6) occurred on March 4, 2010, near the town of Jiashian in southern Taiwan. The earthquake (Mw5.7) has a hypocentral depth of 18 km and is located in an area of relatively low seismicity. In this study, we conduct a systematic examination of the focal mechanisms of earthquakes in the source region of Jiashian earthquake. Waveform records are obtained for all crustal earthquakes within a 50-km radius from the Jiashian epicenter with 4.0 ? ML ? 6.2 from 1997 to 2010. A total of 233 earthquakes are collected, and the source parameters of these earthquakes, including focal mechanisms, focal depths and moment magnitudes, are determined by fitting P, S and surface waveforms using the cut-and-paste (CAP) method of Zhao & Helmberger [1994] and Zhu & Helmberger [1996]. We also compare our results with those determined by other independent methods whenever available. Based on the source parameters of these earthquakes, we estimate the orientations of the principle stress axes around the Jiashian source area by linear stress inversions. Results from focal mechanism solutions and variations in stress-field orientation provide important information on the characteristics of regional tectonics and the mechanics of regional earthquakes and deformation.

Lee, C.; Zhao, L.; Hung, S.

2011-12-01

310

MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

1999-06-17

311

Treatment of intra-articular fractures with shape memory compression staples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The management of intra-articular fractures remains difficult. Shape memory compression staples fulfil nearly all the special treatment requirements of intra-articular fractures. Early bone union and 93.5 per cent satisfactory function were achieved in a series of 121 cases. Stable fixation, 'early' movement and continuous compressive force produced by the staple are the main factors contributing to good results.

Dai KR; Hou XK; Sun YH; Tang RG; Qiu SJ; Ni C

1993-12-01

312

Automation and computerization of the articular and Ritchie’s indexes calculation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compilation and calculation of some articular indexes is time consuming. Therefore the authors present a data base for automatic compilation and calculation of articular and Ritchie’s indexes. Moreover the program allows to determine the number of the swollen and painful joints.

W. Troise Rioda; A. Nervetti

2011-01-01

313

The subchondral bone in articular cartilage repair: current problems in the surgical management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the understanding of interactions between articular cartilage and subchondral bone continues to evolve, increased attention is being directed at treatment options for the entire osteochondral unit, rather than focusing on the articular surface only. It is becoming apparent that without support fr...

Madry, Henning; Knutsen, Gunnar; van Dijk, Niek; Seil, Romain; Brittberg, Mats; Kon, Elizaveta; Gomoll, Andreas H.

314

The Subchondral Bone in Articular Cartilage Repair: Current Problems in the Surgical Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the understanding of interactions between articular cartilage and subchondral bone continues to evolve, increased attention is being directed at treatment options for the entire osteochondral unit, rather than focusing on the articular surface only. It is becoming apparent that without support fr...

Madry, Henning; Knutsen, Gunnar; van Dijk, Niek; Seil, Romain; Brittberg, Mats; Kon, Elizaveta; Gomoll, Andreas H.

315

Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea/ Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR) pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA), relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP) son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1 (more) 987) mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p Abstract in english A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM), which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint damage and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Sev (more) enty four RA patients (ACR 1987) with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p

Haye Salinas, María Jezabel; Retamozo, Soledad; Vetorazzi, Lorena; Peano, Natalia; Díaz Cuiza, Patricia Ericka; Castaños Menescardi, María Sol; Miretti, Evangelina María; Encinas, Laura Mariela; Álvarez, Ana Cecilia; Saurit, Verónica; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Caeiro, Francisco

2013-02-01

316

Focal laser ablation for localized prostate cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Throughout history, medicine has witnessed paradigm shifts that significantly change patient treatment. In surgical oncology, the introduction of lumpectomy revolutionized breast cancer treatment while partial nephrectomy has altered the management of kidney cancer. In both cases, organ preservation is combined with efficacious management of the cancer via a less invasive approach. Within urology, prostate cancer (PCa) may be the next to benefit from such a treatment paradigm. Current management of PCa involves either whole organ treatment, with the inherent side effects, while selected patients are eligible for active surveillance. Focal therapy offers a middle ground for low-risk patients with PCa, again using the principles of a minimally invasive treatment of the cancer, in this case using an energy source with few side effects, combined with maximal organ preservation. Because focal therapy for PCa is still in evolution, there is no consensus on the ideal energy source that should be used to ablate the PCa, imaging to monitor the tissue destruction in real time, how many treatments may be offered, and the ideal follow-up regimen. Long-term follow-up of patients is needed before it is recommended as a first-line treatment. Nevertheless, evidence is accumulating that radically treating PCa holds survival benefit for patients; however, the number of men needed to treat is considerable, with significant side effects; thus, more centers are investigating focal therapy as an option. This review focuses on the use of the laser as the energy source for focal ablation, while bringing historically relevant information regarding laser energy and highlighting the perceived advantageous of focal laser ablation.

Lindner U; Lawrentschuk N; Trachtenberg J

2010-05-01

317

Case report 333: Osteochondral fracture of the right patella without an osteochondral defect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In summary, a case is presented of a 14-year-old male who presented with pain in the right knee with a history which suggested the possibility that an injury of the knee had occurred during a summer in camp. Radiological studies showed a large defect in the articular surface of the right patella, but no loose body could be identified. (orig./WU)

1985-01-01

318

Improved repair of chondral and osteochondral defects in the ovine trochlea compared with the medial condyle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Associations between topographic location and articular cartilage repair in preclinical animal models are unknown. Based on clinical investigations, we hypothesized that lesions in the ovine femoral condyle repair better than in the trochlea. Full-thickness chondral and osteochondral defects were simultaneously established in the weightbearing area of the medial femoral condyle and the lateral trochlear facet in sheep, with chondral defects subjected to subchondral drilling. After 6 months in vivo, cartilage repair and osteoarthritis development was evaluated by macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses. Macroscopic and histological articular cartilage repair and type-II collagen immunoreactivity were better in the femoral trochlea, regardless of the defect type. Location-independently, osteochondral defects induced more osteoarthritic degeneration of the adjacent cartilage than drilled chondral lesions. DNA and proteoglycan contents of chondral defects were higher in the condyle, reflecting physiological topographical differences. The results indicate that topographic location dictates the structural patterns and biochemical composition of the repair tissue in sheep. These findings suggest that repair of cartilage defects at different anatomical sites of the ovine stifle joint needs to be assessed independently and that the sheep trochlea exhibits cartilage repair patterns reflective of the human medial femoral condyle. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1772-1779, 2013.

Orth P; Meyer HL; Goebel L; Eldracher M; Ong MF; Cucchiarini M; Madry H

2013-11-01

319

Improved repair of chondral and osteochondral defects in the ovine trochlea compared with the medial condyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between topographic location and articular cartilage repair in preclinical animal models are unknown. Based on clinical investigations, we hypothesized that lesions in the ovine femoral condyle repair better than in the trochlea. Full-thickness chondral and osteochondral defects were simultaneously established in the weightbearing area of the medial femoral condyle and the lateral trochlear facet in sheep, with chondral defects subjected to subchondral drilling. After 6 months in vivo, cartilage repair and osteoarthritis development was evaluated by macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses. Macroscopic and histological articular cartilage repair and type-II collagen immunoreactivity were better in the femoral trochlea, regardless of the defect type. Location-independently, osteochondral defects induced more osteoarthritic degeneration of the adjacent cartilage than drilled chondral lesions. DNA and proteoglycan contents of chondral defects were higher in the condyle, reflecting physiological topographical differences. The results indicate that topographic location dictates the structural patterns and biochemical composition of the repair tissue in sheep. These findings suggest that repair of cartilage defects at different anatomical sites of the ovine stifle joint needs to be assessed independently and that the sheep trochlea exhibits cartilage repair patterns reflective of the human medial femoral condyle. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1772-1779, 2013. PMID:23813860

Orth, Patrick; Meyer, Heinz-Lothar; Goebel, Lars; Eldracher, Mona; Ong, Mei Fang; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

2013-06-27

320

Dexamethasone promotes calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal formation by articular chondrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritic joints and correlate with a poor prognosis. Intraarticular corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone (Dxm), are commonly used therapies for osteoarthritis with or without CPPD deposition. Dxm has variable effects in mineralization models. We investigated the effects of Dxm on CPPD crystal formation in a well established tissue culture model. METHODS: Porcine articular chondrocytes were incubated with ATP to generate CPPD crystals. Chondrocytes incubated with or without ATP were exposed to 1-100 nM Dxm in the presence of 45Ca. Mineralization was measured by 45Ca uptake in the cell layer. We also investigated the effect of Dxm on mineralization-regulating enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (NTPPPH), and transglutaminase. RESULTS: Dxm significantly increased ATP-induced mineralization by articular chondrocytes. While alkaline phosphatase and NTPPPH activities were unchanged by Dxm, transglutaminase activity increased in a dose-responsive manner. Levels of Factor XIIIA mRNA and protein were increased by Dxm, while type II Tgase protein was unchanged. Transglutaminase inhibitors suppressed Dxminduced increases in CPPD crystal formation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a potential for Dxm to contribute to pathologic mineralization in cartilage and reinforce a central role for the transglutaminase enzymes in CPPD crystal formation.

Fahey M; Mitton E; Muth E; Rosenthal AK

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos (more) eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson) e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados. Abstract in english In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with loca (more) l electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.

Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah; Sansalone, Vittorio

2010-03-01

322

Intra-articular morphine and postoperative analgesia after knee arthroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative analgesic effect of intra-articular administration of a low- and a high-dose morphine solution after knee arthroscopy. Thirty patients who underwent diagnostic arthroscopy or arthroscopic meniscectomy were allocated in three groups. At the end of the arthroscopic procedure patients in Group A received intra-articularly 20 ml normal saline (N/S), Group B received 5 mg morphine in 20 ml N/S and Group C received 15 mg morphine in 20 ml N/S. The postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale for 24 h, while all the patients stayed at hospital. Side effects from the central action of opioids were not detected. Although the pain scores in the group of low-dose morphine were lower than in the control group, we failed to detect any significant differences in pain scores among the three groups. There was evidence that a high-dose can cause hyperalgesia. PMID:12424044

Drosos, G I; Vlachonikolis, I G; Papoutsidakis, A N; Gavalas, N S; Anthopoulos, G

2002-12-01

323

Intra-articular morphine and postoperative analgesia after knee arthroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative analgesic effect of intra-articular administration of a low- and a high-dose morphine solution after knee arthroscopy. Thirty patients who underwent diagnostic arthroscopy or arthroscopic meniscectomy were allocated in three groups. At the end of the arthroscopic procedure patients in Group A received intra-articularly 20 ml normal saline (N/S), Group B received 5 mg morphine in 20 ml N/S and Group C received 15 mg morphine in 20 ml N/S. The postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale for 24 h, while all the patients stayed at hospital. Side effects from the central action of opioids were not detected. Although the pain scores in the group of low-dose morphine were lower than in the control group, we failed to detect any significant differences in pain scores among the three groups. There was evidence that a high-dose can cause hyperalgesia.

Drosos GI; Vlachonikolis IG; Papoutsidakis AN; Gavalas NS; Anthopoulos G

2002-12-01

324

Injectable extracellular matrix hydrogel developed using porcine articular cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work was first development of a delivery system capable of maintaining a sustained release of protein drugs at specific sites by using potentially biocompatible porcine articular cartilage. The prepared porcine articular cartilage powder (PCP) was easily soluble in phosphate-buffered saline. The PCP suspension easily entrapped bovine serum albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC) in pharmaceutical formulations at room temperature. The aggregation of PCP and BSA-FITC was confirmed by dynamic light scattering. When the BSA-FITC-loaded PCP suspension was subcutaneously injected into rats, it gelled and formed an interconnecting three-dimensional PCP structure that allowed BSA to penetrate through it. The amount of BSA-FITC released from the PCP hydrogel was determined in rat plasma and monitored by real-time in vivo molecular imaging. The data indicated sustained release of BSA-FITC for 20 days in vivo. In addition, the PCP hydrogel induced a slight inflammatory response. In conclusion, we showed that the PCP hydrogel could serve as a minimally invasive therapeutics depot.

Kwon JS; Yoon SM; Shim SW; Park JH; Min KJ; Oh HJ; Kim JH; Kim YJ; Yoon JJ; Choi BH; Kim MS

2013-09-01

325

Quantitative analysis of cyanogen bromide-cleaved peptides for the assessment of type I: type II collagen ratios in equine articular repair tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanogen bromide was used to solubilise and specifically fragment purified equine Type I and II collagen and equine articular surface repair tissue. The resultant peptides were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantified by densitometric scanning. Measurement of the relative amounts of the peptides alpha 2(I) CB3, 5 and alpha 1(II)CB10 provided an accurate method of establishing the ratio of Type I to Type II collagen in mixtures of purified equine collagens. The method was sensitive to 6% Type II collagen when the band areas were corrected for peptide molecular weight and the number of chains in the parent tropocollagen molecule which contain that particular peptide. Use of this technique showed that repair tissue in full thickness osteochondral defects in the dorso-distal margins of the intermediate carpal bones of ponies did not contain detectable amounts of Type II collagen 11 weeks after defect induction. PMID:8143659

Barr, A R; Duance, V C; Wotton, S F; Waterman, A E; Holt, P E

1994-01-01

326

Minimum ten-year results of a prospective randomised study of autologous chondrocyte implantation versus mosaicplasty for symptomatic articular cartilage lesions of the knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and mosaicplasty are methods of treating symptomatic articular cartilage defects in the knee. This study represents the first long-term randomised comparison of the two techniques in 100 patients at a minimum follow-up of ten years. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 31.3 years (16 to 49); the mean duration of symptoms pre-operatively was 7.2 years (9 months to 20 years). The lesions were large with the mean size for the ACI group being 440.9 mm(2) (100 to 1050) and the mosaicplasty group being 399.6 mm(2) (100 to 2000). Patients had a mean of 1.5 previous operations (0 to 4) to the articular cartilage defect. Patients were assessed using the modified Cincinnati knee score and the Stanmore-Bentley Functional Rating system. The number of patients whose repair had failed at ten years was ten of 58 (17%) in the ACI group and 23 of 42 (55%) in the mosaicplasty group (p < 0.001). The functional outcome of those patients with a surviving graft was significantly better in patients who underwent ACI compared with mosaicplasty (p = 0.02).

Bentley G; Biant LC; Vijayan S; Macmull S; Skinner JA; Carrington RW

2012-04-01

327

Maturation-dependent spontaneous healing of partial thickness cartilage defects in infantile rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Partial-thickness articular cartilage defects (PTCDs) do not heal spontaneously and are thought to be a predisposing factor for the development of osteoarthritis. Younger and smaller animals have a better healing capacity for many types of injuries including those to articular cartilage. Our aim was to examine the longitudinal histological changes of immature murine articular cartilage after the creation of small PTCDs and to compare them to PTCDs in mature cartilage. Single linear PTCDs were created in 3-week-old and 16-week-old rats in the direction of joint motion. At 6 and 12 weeks after PTCD creation, histological changes were examined in the defect sites and surrounding cartilage. Immature cartilage showed a higher repair capability than mature cartilage. Although repaired immature cartilage had fibrocartilage, it exhibited better quality than any PTCD model, except for a fetus model and comparable quality to full-thickness cartilage defects (FTCD) after bone marrow stimulation. Elucidation of the underlining mechanisms that immature cartilage possesses for repairing PTCDs is necessary in order to aid the prevention or develop treatment for osteoarthritis.

Tsuruoka H; Sasho T; Yamaguchi S; Ikegawa N; Saito M; Akagi R; Ochiai N; Nakagawa K; Nakajima A; Fallouh L; Takahashi K

2011-11-01

328

Maturation-dependent spontaneous healing of partial thickness cartilage defects in infantile rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial-thickness articular cartilage defects (PTCDs) do not heal spontaneously and are thought to be a predisposing factor for the development of osteoarthritis. Younger and smaller animals have a better healing capacity for many types of injuries including those to articular cartilage. Our aim was to examine the longitudinal histological changes of immature murine articular cartilage after the creation of small PTCDs and to compare them to PTCDs in mature cartilage. Single linear PTCDs were created in 3-week-old and 16-week-old rats in the direction of joint motion. At 6 and 12 weeks after PTCD creation, histological changes were examined in the defect sites and surrounding cartilage. Immature cartilage showed a higher repair capability than mature cartilage. Although repaired immature cartilage had fibrocartilage, it exhibited better quality than any PTCD model, except for a fetus model and comparable quality to full-thickness cartilage defects (FTCD) after bone marrow stimulation. Elucidation of the underlining mechanisms that immature cartilage possesses for repairing PTCDs is necessary in order to aid the prevention or develop treatment for osteoarthritis. PMID:22006252

Tsuruoka, Hiroaki; Sasho, Takahisa; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ikegawa, Naoshi; Saito, Masahiko; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Nakagawa, Koichi; Nakajima, Arata; Fallouh, Louay; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2011-10-19

329

Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN) hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide), at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

Imabuchi Ryusei; Ohmiya Yoshihiro; Joon Kwon Hyuck; Onodera Shin; Kitamura Nobuto; Kurokawa Takayuki; Ping Gong Jian; Yasuda Kazunori

2011-01-01

330

Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: comparisons with the normal articular cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN) hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide), at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. METHODS: We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. CONCLUSIONS: The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

Imabuchi R; Ohmiya Y; Kwon HJ; Onodera S; Kitamura N; Kurokawa T; Gong JP; Yasuda K

2011-01-01

331

The promotion of osteochondral repair by combined intra-articular injection of parathyroid hormone-related protein and implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold.  

Science.gov (United States)

The repair of osteochondral defects can be enhanced with scaffolds but is often accompanied with undesirable terminal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been shown to inhibit aberrant differentiation, but administration at inappropriate time points would have adverse effects on chondrogenesis. This study aims to develop an effective tissue engineering strategy by combining PTHrP and collagen-silk scaffold for osteochondral defect repair. The underlying mechanisms of the synergistic effect of combining PTHrP administration with collagen-silk scaffold implantation for rabbit knee joint osteochondral defect repair were investigated. In vitro studies showed that PTHrP treatment significantly reduced Alizarin Red staining and expression of terminal differentiation-related markers. This is achieved in part through blocking activation of the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. For the in vivo repair study, intra-articular injection of PTHrP was carried out at three different time windows (4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 weeks) together with implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold. Defects treated with PTHrP at the 4-6 weeks time window exhibited better regeneration (reconstitution of cartilage and subchondral bone) with minimal terminal differentiation (hypertrophy, ossification and matrix degradation), as well as enhanced chondrogenesis (cell shape, Col2 and GAG accumulation) compared with treatment at other time windows. Furthermore, the timing of PTHrP administration also influenced PTHrP receptor expression, thus affecting the treatment outcome. Our results demonstrated that intra-articular injection of PTHrP at 4-6 weeks post-injury together with collagen-silk scaffold implantation is an effective strategy for inhibiting terminal differentiation and enhancing chondrogenesis, thus improving cartilage repair and regeneration in a rabbit model. PMID:23702148

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jialin; Tao, Jiadong; Hu, Changchang; Chen, Longkun; Zhao, Hongshi; Xu, Guowei; Heng, Boon C; Ouyang, Hong Wei

2013-05-20

332

Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata/ Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observaron facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamient (more) o seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función. Abstract in english This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wear facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

Montero Parrilla, José Miguel; Jiménez Quintana, Zuilén

2011-09-01

333

Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observaron facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función.This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wear facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

José Miguel Montero Parrilla; Zuilén Jiménez Quintana

2011-01-01

334

Topographically induced hierarchical assembly and geometrical transformation of focal conic domain arrays in smectic liquid crystals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Controlling topological defects in 3D liquid crystal phases is a crucial element in the development of novel devices, from blue-phase displays to passive biochemical sensors. However, it remains challenging to realize the 3D topological conditions necessary to robustly and arbitrarily direct the formation of defects. Here, using a series of short pillar arrays as topological templates, we demonstrate the hierarchical assembly of focal conic domains (FCDs) in smectic-A liquid crystals that break the underlying symmetry of the pillar lattice, exhibit tunable eccentricity, and together develop a nontrivial yet organized array of defects. The key to our approach lies in the selection of the appropriate ratio of the size of focal domain to the dimension of pillars such that the system favors the "pinning" of FCD centers near pillar edges while avoiding the opposing effect of confinement. Our study unequivocally shows that the arrangement of FCDs is strongly influenced by the height and shape of the pillars, a feature that promotes both a variety of nontrivial self-assembled lattice types and the attraction of FCD centers to pillar edges, especially at regions of high curvature. Finally, we propose a geometric model to reconstruct the smectic layer structure in the gaps between neighboring FCDs to estimate the energetic effects of nonzero eccentricity and assess their thermodynamic stability.

Honglawan A; Beller DA; Cavallaro M Jr; Kamien RD; Stebe KJ; Yang S

2013-01-01

335

O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125); em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313). CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental.OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp). METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp and the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125), and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313). CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

Márcio de Oliveira Carneiro; Cláudio Henrique Barbieri; José Barbieri Neto

2013-01-01

336

O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas/ Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliaç (more) ões macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125); em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313). CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp). METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp and the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic an (more) d microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125), and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313). CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

Carneiro, Márcio de Oliveira; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; Barbieri Neto, José

2013-04-01

337

Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern  

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Full Text Available Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors. To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas. A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors. We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor. Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells. Abundant myxoid stroma was present, which stained positively with alcian blue and was weakly focally positive with periodic acid Schiff. Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and chromogranin were negative. MIB-1 index was < 0.1%.

De Padua Michelle; Rajagopal V

2008-01-01

338

Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors. To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas. A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors. We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor. Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells. Abundant myxoid stroma was present, which stained positively with alcian blue and was weakly focally positive with periodic acid Schiff. Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and chromogranin were negative. MIB-1 index was < 0.1%.

De Padua M; Rajagopal V

2008-05-01

339

Epilepsy, Acquired Aphasia with Focal Cortical Dysplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A six year old boy having complex partial seizures with secondary generalization of four months duration developing isolated expressive dysphasia, later progressing to global aphasia is being reported. His awake EEG showed a left temporal spike wave discharge and sleep EEG showed continuous spike and ware discharges. MR imaging demonstrated focal cortical dysplasia in the left frontal and opercular region, a combination that has not been reported earlier.

Girija A.S; Somanath V

1999-01-01

340

Gamma-insensitive optical focal plane array  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two types of optical focal plane array concepts are proposed which use semitransparent photocathodes and gas avalanche multiplication to count an optical photon or a gamma as submicrosecond pulses with a charge that can be adjusted to be as large as 106 electrons. Avalanche diameters are sufficiently small to allow use of pixel sizes of tens of microns. Currently available photocathode materials permit operation at ultraviolet/visible wavelengths with [approximately]10--20% quantum efficiency and in the near-infrared with [approximately]0.1--0.3% quantum efficiency. The dark current of these photocathodes is sufficiently low so that they can be operated at room temperature. The weight of these gas avalanche focal plane designs is small and negligible compared to that required for data processing. The first concept, using a quartz cathode plate, is a relatively simple mechanical design. It detects a gamma mainly through the Cerenkov photons radiated in the quartz by the high-energy end of the gamma-produced Compton electron spectrum. It can operate in a high gamma flux; however, it has little capability to discriminate between optical photon and gamma counts. The second concept uses scintillating fiberoptic cathode and anode plates to detect all the gamma-produced electrons. It is a more complicated design; however, it is inherently capable of discriminating between optical photon and gamma events on the basis of pulse height and pixel count pattern. It can operate in a gamma flux of 10[sup 10] to 10[sup 11] gammas/cm[sup 2]/sec if built with scintillating glass fibers. Use of plastic scintillation fibers increases the tolerable gamma flux to [approximately]10[sup 12]--10[sup 13] gammas/cm[sup 2]/sec, but makes the mechanical design of the gas avalanche focal plane array more difficult. Prototype gas avalanche focal plane arrays need to be built and tested to verify feasibility of this optical sensor concept.

Kruger, H.

1992-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Gamma-insensitive optical focal plane array  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two types of optical focal plane array concepts are proposed which use semitransparent photocathodes and gas avalanche multiplication to count an optical photon or a gamma as submicrosecond pulses with a charge that can be adjusted to be as large as 106 electrons. Avalanche diameters are sufficiently small to allow use of pixel sizes of tens of microns. Currently available photocathode materials permit operation at ultraviolet/visible wavelengths with {approximately}10--20% quantum efficiency and in the near-infrared with {approximately}0.1--0.3% quantum efficiency. The dark current of these photocathodes is sufficiently low so that they can be operated at room temperature. The weight of these gas avalanche focal plane designs is small and negligible compared to that required for data processing. The first concept, using a quartz cathode plate, is a relatively simple mechanical design. It detects a gamma mainly through the Cerenkov photons radiated in the quartz by the high-energy end of the gamma-produced Compton electron spectrum. It can operate in a high gamma flux; however, it has little capability to discriminate between optical photon and gamma counts. The second concept uses scintillating fiberoptic cathode and anode plates to detect all the gamma-produced electrons. It is a more complicated design; however, it is inherently capable of discriminating between optical photon and gamma events on the basis of pulse height and pixel count pattern. It can operate in a gamma flux of 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 11} gammas/cm{sup 2}/sec if built with scintillating glass fibers. Use of plastic scintillation fibers increases the tolerable gamma flux to {approximately}10{sup 12}--10{sup 13} gammas/cm{sup 2}/sec, but makes the mechanical design of the gas avalanche focal plane array more difficult. Prototype gas avalanche focal plane arrays need to be built and tested to verify feasibility of this optical sensor concept.

Kruger, H.

1992-10-01

342

Crowding in the GAIA spectrograph focal plane  

CERN Multimedia

Superpositions of stellar tracings are present in every slitless spectrograph. The probability for such overlaps in the GAIA RVS spectrograph focal plane is estimated using photometric observations of 66 stellar fields, mostly close to the Galactic plane. It is shown that overlaps of bright stars (V<17) are common near the Galactic plane, and no spectrum is free from superpositions of faint star tracings. Most overlappers are of spectral type K.

Zwitter, T; Zwitter, Tomaz; Henden, Arne

2003-01-01

343

Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3{omega} high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3{omega} (a 3{omega} laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 {+-} 45) {mu}m.

Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C. [CEA - Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, CESTA/DLP, 33 - Le Barp (France)

2006-06-15

344

[Gammagraphic findings in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two cases, of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are presented which were detected by chance and in which the gammagraphic study was the only parameter which indicated the changes that occurred in the hyperplasia revealing a hypervascular mass, colloid capture and 99mTc-DISIDA retention in the later image. These liver masses are now seen more frequently given the wide use of echography and the gammagraphic studies could be useful in the orientation of their nature in a non aggressive manner.

de Haro FJ; Ramos J; Castejón I; Uriarte P; Maraña G; Ortiz J

1992-04-01

345

Lavado articular por punción en pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla/ Articular washout by puncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la osteoartritis de la rodilla constituye una de las causas más frecuente de dolor de esta articulación, en la actualidad para su alivio uno de los métodos empleados es el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de esta modalidad de tratamiento para el alivio del dolor y la disminución en el consumo de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y t (more) ransversal en 75 pacientes con osteoartritis de la rodilla y tratados mediante lavado articular por punción más el uso de esteroides intra-articulares en el Centro Médico de Diagnóstico Integral, Caracas, República Bolivariana de Venezuela desde diciembre de 2008 hasta mayo 2009.El universo de estudio coincidió con la muestra Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino en más del 60% de los pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 56,9 años. El 48% de los enfermos mantuvo alivio del dolor a los tres meses de realizado el proceder. El uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo disminuyó considerablemente después de realizado el proceder. Un 17,3% de los pacientes requirió de un segundo lavado articular especialmente a partir del primer mes de haber hecho el primer lavado. El 76% de los enfermos a los tres meses se mantuvieron con resultados de excelente o bueno. Los factores de mal pronóstico que más influyeron en el resultado fueron el dolor al reposo, largo periodo de evolución de los síntomas y cambios radiográficos marcados. Conclusiones: el lavado articular por punción asociado al uso de esteroides intra-articulares es un método útil en el alivio del dolor en la mayoría de los enfermos con Osteoartritis de la Rodilla hasta los tres meses de realizado, además de disminuir de forma significativa el uso de anti-inflamatorios no esteroideo. Abstract in english Background:osteoarthritis of the knee constitutes one of the most frequent causes of pain of this joint, nowadays for its relief, one of the used methods is the articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of this treatment modality for pain relief and the decrease of non-steroid anti-inflammatory consumption. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 75 patients with oste (more) oarthritis of the knee and treated them by means of articular washout by puncture, besides the use of intra-articular steroids in the Integral Diagnostic Medical Center from Caracas, Venezuela from December 2008 to May 2009; the universe coincided with the sample. Results: the female sex in more than 60% of patients prevailed. The mean age was about 56,9 years. The 48% of sick persons kept relief of pain to the three months of carrying out proceeding. The use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories diminished considerably after proceeding. The 17,3% of patients required a second articular washout especially starting from the first month of the first washout. The 76% of sick persons to the three months stayed with excellent or good results. Factors of bad prognostic that most influenced in the result was the pain to the rest, long period of evolution of the symptoms and marked radiographic changes. Conclusions: articular washout by puncture associated to the use of intra-articular steroids is a useful method of pain relief in the majority of sick persons with osteoarthritis of the knee until the three months of carrying out the procedure, besides diminishing in a significant way the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatories.

Álvarez López, Alejandro; García Lorenzo, Yenima; García Lorenzo, Maruldis

2011-02-01

346

Dynamic focal retinal arteriolar vasospasm in migraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented following an episode of sudden onset simultaneous inferior altitudinal visual loss in his left eye and visual obscuration with shimmering in the inferonasal quadrant of the right eye. Clinical examination demonstrated left superior hemiretinal artery occlusion and an area of focal dynamic spasm along the right superior temporal branch retinal artery, the arteriolar spastic cycle was about 2 sec in duration. Hematological (including complete blood count, thrombophilia screen, vasculitic screen and serum magnesium), carotid, and cardiac investigations were normal. He was given acetazolamide 500 mg orally, timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops once daily and sublingual amyl-nitrate 0.8 mg, and maintained on felodipine 10 mg/day and aspirin 100 mg/day. The area of focal arteriolar spasm in the right eye resolved over two months. To our knowledge there are no prior reports of photographically documented dynamic focal retinal vascular spasm on a MEDLINE and PUBMED search.

Abdul-Rahman Anmar; Gilhotra Jagjit; Selva Dinesh

2011-01-01

347

The role of PAF/PAFR signaling in zymosan-induced articular inflammatory hyperalgesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor (PAFR) have been shown to be involved in several inflammatory events, including neutrophil chemoattraction and nociception. The present study addressed the role of PAF in the genesis of articular hyperalgesia in a model of joint inflammation. Zymosan-induced articular hyperalgesia, oedema and neutrophil migration were dose-dependently reduced following pretreatment with selective PAFR antagonists, UK74505 (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and PCA4248 (3, 10, 30 mg/kg). These parameters were also reduced in PAF receptor-deficient mice (PAFR(-/-)). The hyperalgesic action of PAF was further confirmed by the demonstration that joint injection of PAF induces a dose- (0.3, 1 and 3 ?g/joint), time- and PAFR-dependent articular hyperalgesia and oedema. The PAF hyperalgesic mechanisms were dependent on prostaglandins, leukotrienes and neutrophils, as PAF-induced articular hyperalgesia was inhibited by indomethacin (COX inhibitor), MK886 (leukotrienes synthesis inhibitor) or fucoidan (leukocyte rolling inhibitor). Furthermore, PAF-induced hyperalgesia was reduced in 5-lypoxigenase-null mice. In corroboration of these findings, intra-articular injection of PAF promotes the production of LTB(4) as well as the recruitment of neutrophils to the joint. These results suggest that PAF may participate in the cascade of events involved in the genesis of articular inflammatory hyperalgesia via stimulation of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and neutrophil migration. Finally, targeting PAF action (e.g., with a PAFR antagonist) might provide a useful therapeutic approach to inhibit articular inflammatory hyperalgesia.

Guerrero AT; Zarpelon AC; Zaperlon AC; Vieira SM; Pinto LG; Ferreira SH; Cunha FQ; Verri WA Jr; Cunha TM

2013-01-01

348

Prevalence of naturally occurring cartilage defects in the ovine knee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, anatomical location and severity of cartilage defects in the stifle (knee) within a population of adult ewes (N = 65). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articular cartilage (AC) of the distal femur, proximal tibia and patella was assessed using Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) recommendations for macroscopic and microscopic scoring of ovine cartilage. Synovial fluid analysis and histology of the synovial membrane were performed. All limbs were examined by computed tomography. RESULTS: Twenty-eight sheep (n = 28; 43%) presented at least one score 2 or score 3 lesion. Twenty-two (n = 22; 34%) sheep were macroscopically normal. Most frequent localizations of lesions were: axial aspect of the central third of the medial tibial condyle (32.7% of the lesions), middle third of the medial femoral condyle (29.4%), middle third of the articular surface of the patella (9.8%), and axial aspect of the central third of the lateral tibial condyle (9.8%). Grade of macroscopic lesions was significantly (H (3) = 29.31, P 0.000) affected by age. Macroscopic score correlated well with histological changes that can be found in osteoarthritis (OA) (r 0.83; P 0.000). Neither clinical signs of OA, nor cytological and histological signs of inflammation were identified, while imaging abnormalities were very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Our data seem to indicate that naturally occurring OA exists in ageing sheep, at least subclinically. It might be useful to take into account prevalent cartilage defects at baseline in studies using ovine models.

Vandeweerd JM; Hontoir F; Kirschvink N; Clegg P; Nisolle JF; Antoine N; Gustin P

2013-08-01

349

Structural features of the focal adhesion kinase–paxillin complex give insight into the dynamics of focal adhesion assembly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The C-terminal region of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) consists of a right-turn, elongated, four-helix bundle termed the focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. The structure of this domain is maintained by hydrophobic interactions, and this domain is also the proposed binding site for the focal adhesi...

Bertolucci, Craig M.; Guibao, Cristina D.; Zheng, Jie

350

Cannulated percutaneous fixation of intra-articular hand fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Percutaneous fixation techniques minimize edema, scar formation, and stiffness from operative trauma when restoring position and stability of displaced and unstable hand fractures. Percutaneous Kirschner wires merely splint fractures and may migrate, disengage, or irritate soft tissues; may be associated with pin tract suppuration; and may require removal at 4 to 6 weeks after insertion. Percutaneous miniscrews may provide more secure fixation for larger articular and oblique diaphyseal fractures of the thumb and finger phalanges by means of bicortical fixation and compression, are less intrusive to adjacent tissues, retain the fracture throughout the healing process, and seldom require removal. Miniscrew canulation substantially simplifies the insertion process, and headless miniscrews are entirely unobtrusive to the adjacent tissues.

Geissler WB

2006-08-01

351

Current concepts in stem cell therapy for articular cartilage repair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Hyaline articular cartilage is the connective tissue responsible for frictionless joint movement. Its degeneration ultimately results in complete loss of joint function in the late stages of osteoarthritis. Intrinsic repair is compromised, and cartilage tissue regeneration is difficult. However, new options are available to repair cartilage tissue by applying ESCs, MSCs and CPCs. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors shed light on the different concepts currently under investigation for cartilage repair. EXPERT OPINION: So far, there is no way to derive a chondrogenic lineage from stem cells that forms functional hyaline cartilage tissue in vivo. One alternative might be to enhance the chondrogenic potential of repair cells, which are already present in diseased cartilage tissue. CPCs found in diseased cartilage tissue in situ are biologically driven toward the osteochondrogenic lineage and can be directed toward chondrogenesis at least in vitro.

Muhammad H; Schminke B; Miosge N

2013-04-01

352

Intra-articular hip injection using anatomic surface landmarks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intra-articular hip injection is a frequently used technique for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and is gaining more importance for the early diagnosis of hip disease. It is commonly performed with imaging guidance such as ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic control. We describe our technique of injection of the hip using relative distances from anatomic surface landmarks, with the needle insertion point at the site of the proximal anterolateral portal for hip arthroscopy, with a posterior direction of 30° and targeted toward a junctional point between 2 perpendicular lines, 1 distal from the anterior superior iliac spine and the second anterior from the tip of the greater trochanter. This technique can be used without imaging guidance in the outpatient clinic. Moreover, it minimizes the need for radiographic exposure for more critical injections, such as the injection of contrast material before conducting magnetic resonance arthrogaphy of the hip.

Masoud MA; Said HG

2013-05-01

353

Phenotypic modulation of human articular chondrocytes by bistratene A  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chondrocytes undergo phenotypic alterations following extended periods in monolayer culture, i.e., they become bipolar and flattened, proliferate, and synthesise type I as opposed to type II collagen. This process has been termed chondrocyte dedifferentiation. Bistratene A is a macrolide polyether that specifically activates the delta isoform of protein kinase C (PKCdelta) in some cell types. Here, we show that dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes became rounded and underwent cell growth arrest after treatment with bistratene A. In addition, bistratene A-treated chondrocytes became more immunopositive for type II collagen, but less immunopositive for type I collagen. These phenotypic changes were associated with a prior and extensive disruption of actin microfilaments and translocation of PKCdelta to the nuclear membrane. Concurrent treatments of chondrocytes with a specific inhibitor of PKCdelta, rottlerin, partially blocked the morphological effects of bistratene A

Gargiulo B. J.; Cragg P.

2002-01-01

354

Deficiency of PORCN, a regulator of Wnt signaling, is associated with focal dermal hypoplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked dominant multisystem birth defect affecting tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Using a stepwise approach of (i) genetic mapping of FDH, (ii) high-resolution comparative genome hybridization to seek deletions in candidate chromosome areas and (iii) point mutation analysis in candidate genes, we identified PORCN, encoding a putative O-acyltransferase and potentially crucial for cellular export of Wnt signaling proteins, as the gene mutated in FDH. The findings implicate FDH as a developmental disorder caused by a deficiency in PORCN.

Grzeschik KH; Bornholdt D; Oeffner F; König A; del Carmen Boente M; Enders H; Fritz B; Hertl M; Grasshoff U; Höfling K; Oji V; Paradisi M; Schuchardt C; Szalai Z; Tadini G; Traupe H; Happle R

2007-07-01

355

Deficiency of PORCN, a regulator of Wnt signaling, is associated with focal dermal hypoplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked dominant multisystem birth defect affecting tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Using a stepwise approach of (i) genetic mapping of FDH, (ii) high-resolution comparative genome hybridization to seek deletions in candidate chromosome areas and (iii) point mutation analysis in candidate genes, we identified PORCN, encoding a putative O-acyltransferase and potentially crucial for cellular export of Wnt signaling proteins, as the gene mutated in FDH. The findings implicate FDH as a developmental disorder caused by a deficiency in PORCN. PMID:17546031

Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz; Bornholdt, Dorothea; Oeffner, Frank; König, Arne; del Carmen Boente, María; Enders, Herbert; Fritz, Barbara; Hertl, Michael; Grasshoff, Ute; Höfling, Katja; Oji, Vinzenz; Paradisi, Mauro; Schuchardt, Christian; Szalai, Zsuzsanna; Tadini, Gianluca; Traupe, Heiko; Happle, Rudolf

2007-06-03

356

Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate two different textures of smectic A liquid crystals. These textures are particularly symmetric when they are observed at crossed polars optical microscopy. For both textures, a model has been made in order to examine the link between the defective macroscopic texture and the microscopic disposition of the layers. We present in particular in the case of some hexagonal tiling of circles (similar to the Apollonius tiling) some numeric simulation in order to visualize the smectic layers. We discuss of the nature of the smectic layers, which permit to assure their continuity from one focal conic domain to another adjacent one.

Claire Meyer; Loic Le Cunff; Malika Belloul; Guillaume Foyart

2009-01-01

357

Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR) pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA), relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP) son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987) mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM), which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint damage and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987) with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p < 0.01) and rheumatoid factor (108 vs. 34.5, p < 0.01). Independent association with current smoking habit (p = 0.02, OR = 3.78, 95%: 1.17-12.2), RF positive (p = 0.04, OR 3.23, CI 95%: 1.04 to 11.8) and ACCP antibody positive (p = 0.04, OR 3.23, 95% CI: 1.04-10) was found. The patients with xerostomia (109 vs. 34, p = 0.04), xerophthalmia (150 vs. 34, p < 0.01), subcutaneous nodules (141 vs. 34, p < 0.01) and pulmonary fibrosis (158 vs. 34, p = 0.04) had a higher degree of the ACCP antibody, than controls. In conclusion, ACCP antibody positive, RF positive and smoking were independent risk factors for the development of MEXA.

María Jezabel Haye Salinas; Soledad Retamozo; Lorena Vetorazzi; Natalia Peano; Patricia Ericka Díaz Cuiza; María Sol Castaños Menescardi; Evangelina María Miretti; Laura Mariela Encinas; Ana Cecilia Álvarez; Verónica Saurit; Alejandro Alvarellos; Francisco Caeiro

2013-01-01

358

Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss, osteoarthritis and HME.

Sgariglia F; Candela ME; Huegel J; Jacenko O; Koyama E; Yamaguchi Y; Pacifici M; Enomoto-Iwamoto M

2013-11-01

359

Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss, osteoarthritis and HME. PMID:23958822

Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

2013-08-17

360

MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Intra-articular corrective osteotomy for malunited Hoffa fracture: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hoffa fracture, an isolated coronal plane fracture of the posterior aspect of the femoral condyle, is known as an unstable, intra-articular fracture, and therefore, operative treatment is recommended. However, insufficient open reduction or failure of fixation may lead to malunion. We performed intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited Hoffa fracture in a 31-year-old man and obtained good functional and radiographic results. This report suggests that intra-articular corrective osteotomy for malunited Hoffa fracture offers a good outcome and should be considered as salvage treatment.

Iwai Takao; Hamada Masayuki; Miyama Takahide; Shino Konsei

2012-01-01