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Sample records for focal articular defects

  1. Articular cartilage defects of the knee: correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and gross pathology.

    Karvonen, R L; Negendank, W G; Fraser, S. M.; Mayes, M.D.; An, T.; Fernandez-Madrid, F

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee articular cartilage is possible owing to the contrast provided by different signal intensities of adjacent menisci and subchondral bone. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of MRI in quantitatively detecting thinning and focal defects of articular cartilage in vivo. High resolution MRI was performed followed by dissection of the knee within one hour of amputations above the knee of eight patients (62-89 years) with peripheral ...

  2. Particulated articular cartilage for symptomatic chondral defects of the knee.

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Cole, Brian J; Farr, Jack

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of focal cartilage defects in the knee remains a challenging clinical problem. One relatively new unique treatment option is particulated articular cartilage, which includes autograft and off-the-shelf allogeneic juvenile grafts. The use of particulated cartilage has the advantage of being a single-stage procedure. In the case of autograft, it is cost efficient, while in the juvenile allograft form, it may have increased proliferative and restorative potentials. Laboratory and clinical data are limited for particulated cartilage grafts; however, there are promising histologic and clinical outcomes. This review provides a summary of the indications, surgical technique, and most up-to-date research on particulated cartilage for the repair of symptomatic chondral defects in the knee. PMID:26371073

  3. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  4. Effects of manipulation therapy in repairing rabbit articular cartilage defects

    Ling-hui DAI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of manipulation therapy in repairing thin-layer and thick-layer articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Methods: Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into manipulation group and control group. Chondral defects in the center of condylus medialis femoris (punch diameter 2.0 mm, thin-layer defect, without damaging the subchondral bone and the center of facies patellaris femoris (punch diameter 3.0 mm, thick-layer defect, without damaging the subchondral bone were made in both side knee joints of the rabbits. Four weeks after chondral defect, the rabbits in the manipulation group were treated with manipulation therapy, while the rabbits in the control group didn’t take any therapeutic measure. The rabbits were sacrificed after 4-, 8- and 12-week manipulation treatment to obtain the distal femur. The appearance of the chondral defect was first assessed, and then regenerated tissues were stained respectively with hematoxylin and eosin (HE, safranin O and immunohistochemical methods to observe the changes in pathology. The regenerated tissue O’Driscoll score system was also used to evaluate the efficacy of manipulation therapy.Results: After manipulation treatment, although the thin-layer articular cartilage defects of the control group were partly repaired, a sharp gap between the regenerated tissue and the normal cartilage was visible. The range of the thick-layer articular cartilage defect in the control group became smaller, and the regenerated tissue only consisted of fiber tissue. On the contrary, both the thin-layer defects and the thick-layer defects in the manipulation group were well repaired. The appearance of the regenerated tissues was close to the normal cartilage. The gap between regenerated tissue and normal tissue was disappeared and the regenerated tissue was well integrated with around tissues. HE staining showed that the regenerated tissues in the manipulation group were similar to hyaline cartilage. Safranin O staining showed that matrix stain of the regenerated tissues in the manipulation group was similar to the normal cartilage, but no stain was observed in the control group. The type ? collagen immunohistochemical staining showed that the color of the regenerated tissues was a little darker than that of the normal cartilage in the two kinds of defects in the manipulation group, and the two kinds of defects in the control group were little stained. The O’Driscoll cartilage scores of the two kinds of defects in the manipulation group were higher than those in the control group at different time points (P?0.01, but there were no differences in O’Driscoll scores in the manipulation group among the different time points.Conclusion: Manipulation therapy is effective in repairing the thick-layer and thin-layer articular cartilage defects. The regenerated tissue is constructed with hyaline cartilage.

  5. Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering for Regenerative Repair of Articular Cartilage Defects

    Kâzım Tur

    2009-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects heal very poorly and lead to degenerative arthritis. Existing medications cannot promote healing process; cartilage defects eventually require surgical replacements with autografts. As there is not enough source of articular cartilage that can be donated for autografting, materials that promote cartilage regeneration are important in both research and clinical applications. Tissue engineering involves cell growth on biomaterial scaffolds in vitro. These cells are t...

  6. Transplantation of free tibial periosteal grafts for the repair of articular cartilage defect: An experimental study

    Singh Ravijot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular chondrocytes have got a long lifespan but rarely divides after maturity. Thus, an articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. Periosteal grafts have chondrogenic potential and have been used to repair defects in the articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differentiation of free periosteal grafts in the patellofemoral joint where the cambium layer faces the subchondral bone and to investigate the applicability of periosteal grafts in the reconstruction of articular surfaces. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of 1 year on 25 adult, male Indian rabbits after obtaining permission from the institutional animal ethical committee. A full-thickness osteochondral defect was created by shaving off the whole articular cartilage of the patella of the left knee. The defect thus created was grafted with free periosteal graft. The patella of the right knee was taken as a control where no grafting was done after shaving off the articular cartilage. The first animal was used to study the normal histology of the patellar articular cartilage and periosteum obtained from the medial surface of tibial condyle. Rest 24 animals were subjected to patellectomy, 4 each at serial intervals of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 weeks and the patellar articular surfaces were examined macroscopically and histologically. Results: The grafts got adherent to the underlying patellar articular surface at the end of 4 weeks. Microscopically, graft incorporation could be appreciated at 4 weeks. Mesenchymal cells of the cambium layer were seen differentiating into chondrocytes by the end of 4 weeks in four grafts (100% and they were arranged in a haphazard manner. Till the end of 8 weeks, the cellular arrangement was mostly wooly. At 16 weeks, one graft (25% had wooly arrangement of chondrocytes and three grafts (75% had columnar formation of cells. Same percentage was maintained at 32 weeks. Four grafts (100% at 48 weeks showed columnar orientation. The control side showed no changes over the shaved off articular surface in all the rabbits. One rabbit at 4 weeks had a dislocation of the patella on the control side. None of the rabbits developed any infection or wound dehiscence. Conclusion: Autologous periosteal graft transplantation can be a promising substitute for articular cartilaginous defects.

  7. Modeling of constrained articular cartilage growth in an intact knee with focal knee resurfacing metal implant.

    Manda, Krishnagoud; Eriksson, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to simulate the articular cartilage growth in an intact knee model with a metal implant replacing a degenerated portion of the femoral cartilage. The human knee joint was approximated with a simplified axisymmetric shape of the femoral condyle along with the cartilage, meniscus and bones. Two individually growing constituents (proteoglycans and collagen) bound to solid matrix were considered in the solid phase of the cartilage. The cartilage behavior was modeled with a nonlinear biphasic porohyperelastic material model, and meniscus with a transversely isotropic linear biphasic poroelastic material model. Two criteria (permeation and shear), both driven by mechanical loading, were considered to trigger the growth in the solid constituents. Mechanical loading with sixty heavy cycles was considered to represent daily walking activity. The growth algorithm was implemented for 90 days after implantation. The results from simulations show that both cartilage layers were more stimulated near the implant which lead to more growth of the cartilage near the defect. The method developed in the present work could be a powerful technique if more accurate material data and growth laws were available. PMID:23955432

  8. Repair of articular osteochondral defects of the knee joint using a composite lamellar scaffold

    Lv, Y. M.; Yu, Q. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The major problem with repair of an articular cartilage injury is the extensive difference in the structure and function of regenerated, compared with normal cartilage. Our work investigates the feasibility of repairing articular osteochondral defects in the canine knee joint using a composite lamellar scaffold of nano-ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP)/collagen (col) I and II with bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) and assesses its biological compatibility. Methods The bone–cartilage scaffold was prepared as a laminated composite, using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAP)/collagen I/copolymer of polylactic acid–hydroxyacetic acid as the bony scaffold, and sodium hyaluronate/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) as the cartilaginous scaffold. Ten-to 12-month-old hybrid canines were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. BMSCs were obtained from the iliac crest of each animal, and only those of the third generation were used in experiments. An articular osteochondral defect was created in the right knee of dogs in both groups. Those in the experimental group were treated by implanting the composites consisting of the lamellar scaffold of ß-TCP/col I/col II/BMSCs. Those in the control group were left untreated. Results After 12 weeks of implantation, defects in the experimental group were filled with white semi-translucent tissue, protruding slightly over the peripheral cartilage surface. After 24 weeks, the defect space in the experimental group was filled with new cartilage tissues, finely integrated into surrounding normal cartilage. The lamellar scaffold of ß-TCP/col I/col II was gradually degraded and absorbed, while new cartilage tissue formed. In the control group, the defects were not repaired. Conclusion This method can be used as a suitable scaffold material for the tissue-engineered repair of articular cartilage defects. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:56–64 PMID:25837672

  9. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  10. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia.

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  11. Selective water excitation for faster MR imaging of articular cartilage defects: initial clinical results

    Our objective was to compare a water-excitation (WE) 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR sequence for faster imaging of articular cartilage defects of the knee to a conventional fat-saturated (FS) 3D FLASH MR sequence. This prospective study included 16 knees of 16 patients with suspected cartilage lesions. The MR imaging in transverse and sagittal planes included (a) FS 3D FLASH (TR/TE: 45 ms/11 ms, scan time 8 min, flip angle 50 ), and (b) WE 3D FLASH (TR/TE: 28 ms/11 ms, scan time 4 min 58 s, flip angle 40 ). For each sequence signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were quantified. The detected cartilage lesions were evaluated using a semi-quantitative four-scale scoring system (grades 0-III). The data were compared between the sequences using the paired Student's t-test. No statistically significant differences between the sequences were found for SNR, CNR, and cartilage defect grading (p=0.14-0.8). The WE 3D FLASH MR imaging seems to be promising for fast imaging of articular cartilage lesions of the knee. (orig.)

  12. Strategies for improving the repair of focal cartilage defects

    Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Pioletti, Dominique P.

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage, together with skin, was predicted to be one of the first tissues to be successfully engineered. However cartilage repair remains nowadays still elusive, as we are still not able to overcome the hurdles of creating biomaterials corresponding to the native properties of the tissue, and which operate in joints environment that is not favorable for regeneration. In this review, we give an overview of the outcome of current cartilage treatment techniques. Furthermore we presen...

  13. Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit

    Amir Sotoudeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II. Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  14. Effect of tenascin-C on the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects of articular cartilage in rabbits.

    Ikemura, Shigeto; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Iino, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Sudo, Akihiro

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of tenascin-C (TNC) on the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects of articular cartilage in vivo. We used a gellan-gellan-sulfate sponge (Gellan-GS) to maintain a TNC-rich environment in the cartilage defects. We implanted Gellan-GS soaked in PBS only (Group 1), Gellan-GS soaked in 10?µg/ml of TNC (Group 2), and Gellan-GS soaked in 100?µg/ml of TNC (Group 3) into a full-thickness osteochondral defect of the patellar groove of rabbits. The defect area was examined grossly and histologically 4-12 weeks after surgery. Sections of synovium were also immunohistochemically investigated. Histologically as well as macroscopically, the defects in Group 2 showed better repair than the other groups at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Inflammation of the synovium tended to diminish over time in all groups, and the degree of synovitis was the same for all three groups at each time point. In conclusion, Gellan-GS soaked in TNC can be used as a novel scaffold for the repair of articular cartilage defects. This study also indicates that TNC promotes the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects in vivo. PMID:25428773

  15. Evaluation of the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects filled with autologous exogenous fibrin clot: An experimental study in the shoulder joint of dogs

    Avki S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the optimizing effect of an exogenous fibrin clot in the repair of full–thickness articular cartilage defects is valid when joint motions are restricted, standard osteochondral defects were constituted in the articular surface of the humeral head in 16 adult dogs. The defects in 8 dogs were packed with fibrin clots that had been prepared exogenously from each animal and the defects of the other animals were left empty. The operated limbs were inactivated for 2 weeks postoperatively and the healing response was then examined using routine histology at 2, 4, 8 and 12-week intervals. Although the clot-filled and control (empty defects initially healed through proliferation of fibrous connective tissue; the clot-filled defects finally modulated into fibrocartilage with completed subchondral bone formation. The clot-filled defects demonstrated a more advanced reparative tissue which was congruent with the intact articular surface from 4 weeks after the intervention.

  16. Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron™ implantation for treatment of articular cartilage defects of the knee

    Chun Chung-Woo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron™ implantations have been used for several years without using periosteum or membrane. This study involves evaluations of the clinical results of Chondron™ at many clinical centers at various time points during the postoperative patient follow-up. Methods Data from 98 patients with articular cartilage injury of the knee joint and who underwent Chondron™ implantation at ten Korean hospitals between January 2005 and November 2008, were included and were divided into two groups based on the patient follow-up period, i.e. 13~24-month follow-up and greater than 25-month follow-up. The telephone Knee Society Score obtained during telephone interviews with patients, was used as the evaluation tool. Results On the tKSS-A (telephone Knee Society Score-A, the score improved from 43.52 ± 20.20 to 89.71 ± 13.69 (P Conclusion Gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation for chondral knee defects appears to be a safe and effective method for both decreasing pain and improving knee function.

  17. Repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits through tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with chitosan hydrogel and chondrocytes*

    ZHAO, Ming; CHEN, Zhu; LIU, Kang; WAN, Yu-qing; LI, Xu-dong; Luo, Xu-wei; Bai, Yi-guang; Yang, Ze-long; Feng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In our previous work, we prepared a type of chitosan hydrogel with excellent biocompatibility. In this study, tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with this chitosan hydrogel and costal chondrocytes was used to repair the articular cartilage defects. Methods: Chitosan hydrogels were prepared with a crosslinker formed by combining 1,6-diisocyanatohexane and polyethylene glycol. Chitosan hydrogel scaffold was seeded with rabbit chondrocytes that had been cultured for one week in vitro to form the preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage. This preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage was then transplanted into the defective rabbit articular cartilage. There were three treatment groups: the experimental group received preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage; the blank group received pure chitosan hydrogels; and, the control group had received no implantation. The knee joints were harvested at predetermined time. The repaired cartilage was analyzed through gross morphology, histologically and immunohistochemically. The repairs were scored according to the international cartilage repair society (ICRS) standard. Results: The gross morphology results suggested that the defects were repaired completely in the experimental group after twelve weeks. The regenerated tissue connected closely with subchondral bone and the boundary with normal tissue was fuzzy. The cartilage lacuna in the regenerated tissue was similar to normal cartilage lacuna. The results of ICRS gross and histological grading showed that there were significant differences among the three groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: Chondrocytes implanted in the scaffold can adhere, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix. The novel tissue-engineered cartilage constructed in our research can completely repair the structure of damaged articular cartilage. PMID:26537209

  18. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory.

  19. Regeneration of articular cartilage of the knee.

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Cartilage therapy for focal articular lesions of the knee has been implemented for more than a decade, and it is becoming increasingly available. What do we know on the healing response of cartilage lesions? What do we know on the treatment of focal cartilage lesions of the knee and the prognostic factors involved? PubMed articles related to articular cartilage regeneration of the knee in clinical studies were searched from January 2006 to November 2012, using the following key words: articular cartilage, regeneration, clinical studies, and knee. A total of 44 reports were found. They showed the following possibilities for the treatment of focal lesions of the articular cartilage of the knee: cartilage regeneration and repair including cartilage reparation with gene-activated matrices, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and matrix-induced ACI (MACI), microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer (mosaicplasty), biological approaches (scaffolds, mesenchymal stem cells-MSCs, platelet-rich plasma, growing factors-GF, bone morphogenetic proteins-BMPs, magnetically labeled synovium-derived cells-M-SDCs, and elastic-like polypeptide gels), osteotomies, stem-cell-coated titanium implants, and chondroprotection with pulsed electromagnetic fields. Untreated cartilage lesions on the femoral condyles had a superior healing response compared to those on the tibial plateaus, and in the patellofemoral joint. Clinical outcome regarding the treatment of medial defects is better than that of the lateral defects. Improvement from baseline was better for patients or = 30 years. ACI, MACI, and mosaicplasty have shown similar results. The results of comparative clinical studies using ACI have shown some superiority over conventional microfracturing in medium or large defects and in long-term durability. Some biological methods such as scaffolds, MSCs, GF, M-SDCs, BMPs, and elastic-like polypeptide gels still need more research. PMID:23263546

  20. Intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyaluronic acid promote regeneration of massive cartilage defects in rabbits

    Vyacheslav Ogay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SD MSCs with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA could promote regeneration of massive cartilage in rabbits. Material and methods: The SD MSCs were harvested from the knees of 10 Flemish giant rabbits, expanded in culture, and characterized. A reproducible 4-mm cylindrical defect was created in the intercondylar groove area using a kit for the mosaic chondroplasty of femoral condyle COR (De Puy, Mitek. The defect was made within the cartilage layer without destruction of subchondral bone. Two weeks after the cartilage defect, SD MSCs (2 × 106 cell/0.15 ml were suspended in 0.5% low molecular weight HA (0.15 ml and injected into the left knee, and HA solution (0.30 ml alone was placed into the right knee. Cartilage regeneration in the experimental and control groups were evaluated by macroscopically and histologically at 10, 30, and 60 days. Results: On day 10, after intra-articular injection of SD MSCs, we observed an early process of cartilage regeneration in the defect area. Histological studies revealed that cartilage defect was covered by a thin layer of spindle-shaped undifferentiated cells and proliferated chodroblasts. In contrast, an injection of HA did not induce reparation of cartilage in the defect area. At 30 days, macroscopic observation showed that the size of cartilage defect after SD MSC injection was significantly smaller than after HA injection. Histological score was also better in the MSC- treated intercondylar defect. At 60 days after MSC treatment, cartilage defect was nearly nonexistent and looked similar to an intact cartilage. Conclusion: Thus, intra-articular injection of SD MSCs can adhere to the defect in the intercondylar area, and promote cartilage regeneration in rabbits.

  1. Cultured articular chondrocytes sheets for partial thickness cartilage defects utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes

    N Kaneshiro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of articular cartilage has several functions that are unique to joints. Although a technique for transplanting cultured chondrocytes has already been introduced, it is difficult to collect intact ECM when using enzymes to harvest samples. Temperature-responsive culture dishes have already been clinically applied in the fields of myocardial and corneal transplantation. Earlier studies have shown that a sheet of cultured cells with intact ECM and adhesive factors can be harvested using such culture dishes, which allow the surface properties of the dish to be reversibly altered by changing the temperature. Human chondrocytes were subjected to enzymatic digestion and then were seeded in temperature-responsive culture dishes. A sheet of chondrocytes was harvested by only reducing the temperature after the cultured cells reached confluency. A real-time PCR analysis of the chondrocyte sheets confirmed that type II collagen, aggrecan, and fibronectin were present. These results suggested that, although chondrocytes undergo dedifferentiation in a monolayer culture, multilayer chondrocyte sheets grown in a similar environment to that of three-dimensional culture may be able to maintain a normal phenotype. A histological examination suggested that multilayer chondrocyte sheets could thus prevent the loss of proteoglycans because the area covered by the sheets was well stained by safranin-O. The present experiments suggested that temperature-responsive culture dishes are useful for obtaining cultured chondrocytes, which may then be clinically employed as a substitute for periosteal patches because such sheets can be applied without a scaffold.

  2. Intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyaluronic acid promote regeneration of massive cartilage defects in rabbits

    Vyacheslav Ogay; Miras Karzhauov; Ainur Mukhambetova; Eric Raimagambetov; Nurlan Batpenov

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SD MSCs) with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) could promote regeneration of massive cartilage in rabbits. Material and methods: The SD MSCs were harvested from the knees of 10 Flemish giant rabbits, expanded in culture, and characterized. A reproducible 4-mm cylindrical defect was created in the intercondylar groove area using a kit for the mosaic ...

  3. Articular cartilage defect detectability in human knees with MR-arthrography

    Engel, A. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kramer, J. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Stiglbauer, R. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Hajek, P.C. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Imhof, H. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1993-04-01

    One hundred and thirteen knee joints were examined, of which 48 showed damage of the hyaline cartilage in one or more locations. For the evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) arthrographic images we used the macroscopic staging according to Outerbridge, the defect staging according to Bauer, as well as a new MR-arthrographic staging. The results of the evaluation were compared with the surgical findings in 61 knee joints. This revealed a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 90 %. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. (orig.)

  4. Tissue Engineering Based Therapy for Articular Cartilage Defects - A New Approach

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue in diarthrodial joints, when damaged due to trauma could lead to osteoarthritis. At present Autologous Cartilage Implantation is an established method in which patients own chondrocytes are isolated and then implanted after in vitro expansion over the affected area with bovine or porcine collagen matrix. This procedure results in more of Collagen Type I during in vitro expansion, which eventually becomes fibrocartilage. Also it requires growth factors. We have in this study tried growing human Chondrocytes without growth factors using synthetic scaffolds to grow more Collagen Type II Materials and Methods: Human cartilage specimens were harvested through arthroscopy from the non-weight bearing area of the knee joint from 13 patients who underwent surgical procedures of the knee joint after getting their informed consent. The tissues were transported in saline taking 1 hour to laboratory and subjected to digestion with Collagenase type II for 16~18 Hrs. The chondrocyte cells obtained after dissociation were divided into two groups for culture. Gr. I were embedded in a Thermogelation polymer (TGP and Gr. II in basal culture media (DMEM + Ascorbic Acid without using any growth factors. The Group II cells were viable only for 4 weeks and then started degenerating. The TGP-Chondrocytes scaffolds were grown for 16 weeks and the specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 and 16-week intervals and their morphology and molecular characteristics were studied by H&E staining, S-100 protein analysis and RT-PCR.Results: Human chondrocytes could be cultured in both TGP (group I and Basal culture media (group II. The Gr. I cells were viable upto the 16th week while the Group II chondrocytes started degenerating after the 4 week. Both the groups were proven positive for S-100 protein, a Chondrocyte specific marker protein; Gr. II specimens after 4 weeks, and Gr. I specimens after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. RT-PCR study of the cells of group I were positive for TGF beta 3 (Proliferation, differentiation, and other functions, GR beta, GR alpha (Development, metabolism and immune Response (glucocorticoid receptor alpha, AGGF (Apoptosis, VDR (Vitamin D3 Receptor, Col II (Type II Collagen. Conclusion: We have established a methodology by which Human chondrocytes could be cultured in vitro without any growth factors for a period of 16 weeks in a polymer-hydrogel scaffold. Upon further confirmation of their characteristics, the TGP grown chondrocytes can be used for autologous implantation to repair damaged cartilage area as the Collagen Type II which grows better without growth factors in the scaffold, eventually will become Hyaline cartilage is expected to give a longer disease free duration than the present method of ACI.

  5. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} gene

    Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu Kai [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Quan Daping [Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3}-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3} gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease.

  6. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor β1 gene

    Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-β1 that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-β1 gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA3-TGF-β1 gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA3 gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-β1 gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-β1 gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-β1 gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease

  7. The repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Immune responses to reparative tissue formed by allogeneic growth plate chondrocyte implants

    Growth plate cartilage cultivated in vitro was attached with a fibrin clot to a full-thickness articular cartilage defect on knee joints in allogeneic New Zealand rabbits. The healing of the defects was assessed by gross examination, light microscopy, and immunologic analysis for 24 weeks. Immunologic assessment of cell-mediated immunity, cytotoxicity of a humoral antibody by a 51 chromium release assay, and immunofluorescence studies were carried out. During the first two weeks following grafting, healing was excellent in 11 of the 17 defects. From three to 24 weeks, 11 of 42 defects examined had good results. Host lymphocytes had accumulated around the allograft at two to 12 weeks. Most of the implanted cartilage grown in vitro died and was replaced by fibrous tissue. The immunologic studies suggested that the implanted cartilage began to degenerate two to three weeks after implantation partially because of a humoral immune response but more importantly because of cell-mediated cytotoxicity

  8. Usefulness of the photoacoustic measurement method for monitoring the regenerative process of full-thickness defects in articular cartilage using tissue-engineering technology

    Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Masato; Sato, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Toshiyuki; Mitani, Genya; Kaneshiro, Nagatoshi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Mochida, Joji; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrated the capability of photoacoustic measurement for viscoelastic characterization. Since tissue viscoelasticity affects the propagation and attenuation of photoacoustic waves generated in the tissue, the relaxation times of the photoacoustic waves give the viscosity-elasticity ratio of the tissue. The relaxation times of photoacoustic waves of articular cartilage tissues engineered under various culture conditions were closely correlated with intrinsic viscosity-elasticity ratios measured by using a conventional viscoelastic analyzer (R > 0.98). In order to apply the photoacoustic measurement method to evaluation of the regeneration of articular cartilage as a method to validate the surgery, the method should enable not only evaluation of engineered tissue during cultivation in vitro but also evaluation after transplantation of engineered tissue in vivo. The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of the photoacoustic method for repeated measurement of viscoelastic properties in order to evaluate the process of regeneration of a full-thickness defect in rabbit articular cartilage using allografted tissue-engineered cartilage. Photoacoustic waves were induced by 266- and 355-nm, 5-7 ns, light pulses delivered through an optical silica fiber from an Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and were detected by a piezoelectric transducer, which we had designed. About a 40% difference between the viscosity-elasticity ratio of allografted cartilage that of tissue surrounding the defect was shown just after surgery. The difference was significantly reduced at 4 and 12 postoperative weeks. Therefore, since the photoacoustic measurement method enables assessment of the progress of restoration of the viscoelasticity of articular cartilage, its main function, this method would be useful as an evaluation method in regenerative medicine.

  9. Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica / PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization

    Sonia M, Malmonge; Cecília A. C, Zavaglia.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato) - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blenda [...] s do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN) de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis. Abstract in english The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA) as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose ac [...] etate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

  10. Hidrogéis de poliHEMA para reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular: 1 - síntese e caracterização mecânica PolyHEMA hydrogels for repairs or articular cartilage defects: 1 – systhesis and mechanical characterization

    Sonia M Malmonge

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a obtenção de hidrogéis de poli(2 hidróxi etil metacrilato - poliHEMA com propriedades mecânicas adequadas ao uso dos mesmos no reparo de defeitos da cartilagem articular. Para tanto, duas alternativas foram estudadas: a variação da densidade de reticulação e a obtenção de blendas do tipo redes semi interpenetrantes (sIPN de poliHEMA reticulado e diferentes polímeros como reforço. Amostras de hidrogéis foram obtidas por polimerização térmica e caracterizadas quanto à capacidade de absorção de água e de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 M e quanto ao comportamento mecânico, através de ensaios de fluência a indentação. Os resultados mostraram que a obtenção de blendas sIPN usando copolímero de MMA-AA como reforço é uma alternativa interessante para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas sem diminuir muito a capacidade de absorção de água dos hidrogéis.The purpose of this work was the study of poly-2-hydroxy-ethyl-metacrylate (polyHEMA as a biomaterial for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Improvement of mechanical properties were studied by two distincts routes: changes in cross-link density of the gels and the synthesis of cellulose acetate and poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers semi interpenetrating blends. The hydrogels were synthesized by thermal polymerization and characterized by swelling behaviour in 0.15 Mol.L-1 NaCl and by creep indentation tests. The results showed that the blending of PolyHEMA with poly-methyl metacrylate-acrylic acid copolymers significantly improved the mechanical properties of hydrogels without changes in their swelling behavior.

  11. Quality of Newly Formed Cartilaginous Tissue in Defects of Articular Surface after Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Composite Scaffold Based on Collagen I with Chitosan Micro- and Nanofibres

    Nečas, A.; Plánka, L.; Srnec, R.; Crha, M.; Hlučilová, Jana; Klíma, Jiří; Starý, L.; Křen, L.; Amler, Evžen; Vojtová, L.; Jančář, J.; Gál, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 605-614. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Cartilaginous Tissue * Defects of Articular Surface * Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  12. Intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid increases the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated in a large osteochondral defect by implantation of a double-network gel.

    Fukui, Takaaki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Yokota, Masashi; Kondo, Eiji; Gong, Jian Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2014-04-01

    Implantation of PAMPS/PDMAAm double-network (DN) gel can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in the osteochondral defect. However, it is a problem that the volume of the regenerated cartilage tissue is gradually reduced at 12 weeks. This study investigated whether intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) increases the volume of the cartilage regenerated with the DN gel at 12 weeks. A total of 48 rabbits were used in this study. A cylindrical osteochondral defect created in the bilateral femoral trochlea was treated with DN gel (Group DN) or left without any implantation (Group C). In both Groups, we injected 1.0 mL of HA in the left knee, and 1.0 mL of saline solution in the right knee. Quantitative histological evaluations were performed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks, and PCR analysis was performed at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. In Group DN, the proteoglycan-rich area was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 12 weeks (P = 0.0247), and expression of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 mRNAs was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 2 weeks (P = 0.0475, P = 0.0257, P = 0.0222, respectively). The intra-articular administration of HA significantly enhanced these gene expression at 2 weeks and significantly increased the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated by implantation of a DN gel at 12 weeks. This information is important to develop an additional method to increase the volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue in a potential cartilage regeneration strategy using the DN gel. PMID:24394983

  13. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus; Fischer, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing pr...

  14. Autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects: postoperative MR appearance with clinical correlation

    Objective: To describe the MR appearance following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects of the knee. Design and patients: Twenty-nine 1.5-T MR knee studies including dynamic gadolinium enhancement were performed on 21 patients following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed images to evaluate graft and donor site appearance and MR findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: MR images demonstrated graft protuberance (n=12/21; range 1-2 mm), depression (n=2/21; range 1 mm), and surface incongruity: mild (n=17/21), moderate (n=2/21), marked (n=1/21). The T2 signal of graft cartilage was similar to that of adjacent cartilage in 25 of 29 examinations, and increased in four. Graft cartilage thickness relative to adjacent cartilage was <50% in six patients, 50-100% in 15. Graft enhancement in bone was absent at 2 weeks, but present at between 4 and 6 weeks following surgery. All patients had clinical follow-up examinations and knee outcome survey scores were obtained in 15 patients with follow-up greater than 3 months after surgery. All patients demonstrated the expected short-term progressive clinical improvement. Conclusion: MR images reveal a wide range of appearances following osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Minor variations in graft orientation and surface congruity do not result in adverse clinical outcome in the short term. (orig.)

  15. Differentiation between grade 3 and grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the knee: Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted versus fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo MRI

    Background: Fat-suppressed (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FS three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo imaging such as spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence have been established as accurate methods for detecting articular cartilage defects. Purpose: To retrospectively compare the diagnostic efficacy between FS PD-weighted and FS 3D gradient-echo MRI for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects of the knee with arthroscopy as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: Twenty-one patients who had grade 3 or 4 cartilage defects in medial femoral condyle at arthroscopy and knee MRI were included in this study: grade 3, >50% cartilage defects; grade 4, full thickness cartilage defects exposed to the bone. Sagittal FS PD-weighted MR images and FS 3D gradient-echo images with 1.5 T MR images were independently graded for the cartilage abnormalities of medial femoral condyle by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. Inter-observer agreement in grading of cartilage was assessed using ? coefficients. Results: Arthroscopy revealed grade 3 defects in 17 patients and grade 4 defects in 4 patients in medial femoral condyles. For FS 3D gradient-echo images grade 3 defects were graded as grade 3 (n=15) and grade 4 (n=2), and all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. However, for FS PD-weighted MR images all grade 3 defects were misinterpreted as grade 1 (n=1) and grade 4 (n=16), whereas all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. FS 3D gradient-echo MRI could differentiate grade 3 from grade 4 defects (P=0.003), whereas FS PD-weighted imaging could not (P=1.0). Inter-observer agreement was substantial (?=0.70) for grading of cartilage using FS PD-weighted imaging, whereas it was moderate (?=0.46) using FS 3D gradient-echo imaging. Conclusion: FS 3D gradient-echo MRI is more helpful for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects than is FS PD-weighted imaging

  16. Differentiation between grade 3 and grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the knee: Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted versus fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo MRI

    Lee, So Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Sun Ki (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: whjee@catholic.ac.kr; Koh, In-Jun (Dept. of Joint Reconstruction Center, Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea)); Kim, Jung-Man (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Fat-suppressed (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FS three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo imaging such as spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence have been established as accurate methods for detecting articular cartilage defects. Purpose: To retrospectively compare the diagnostic efficacy between FS PD-weighted and FS 3D gradient-echo MRI for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects of the knee with arthroscopy as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: Twenty-one patients who had grade 3 or 4 cartilage defects in medial femoral condyle at arthroscopy and knee MRI were included in this study: grade 3, >50% cartilage defects; grade 4, full thickness cartilage defects exposed to the bone. Sagittal FS PD-weighted MR images and FS 3D gradient-echo images with 1.5 T MR images were independently graded for the cartilage abnormalities of medial femoral condyle by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. Inter-observer agreement in grading of cartilage was assessed using ? coefficients. Results: Arthroscopy revealed grade 3 defects in 17 patients and grade 4 defects in 4 patients in medial femoral condyles. For FS 3D gradient-echo images grade 3 defects were graded as grade 3 (n=15) and grade 4 (n=2), and all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. However, for FS PD-weighted MR images all grade 3 defects were misinterpreted as grade 1 (n=1) and grade 4 (n=16), whereas all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. FS 3D gradient-echo MRI could differentiate grade 3 from grade 4 defects (P=0.003), whereas FS PD-weighted imaging could not (P=1.0). Inter-observer agreement was substantial (?=0.70) for grading of cartilage using FS PD-weighted imaging, whereas it was moderate (?=0.46) using FS 3D gradient-echo imaging. Conclusion: FS 3D gradient-echo MRI is more helpful for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects than is FS PD-weighted imaging

  17. Osteochondral Autograft Transplantation Surgery for Metacarpal Head Defects.

    Kitay, Alison; Waters, Peter M; Bae, Donald S

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the metacarpal head is a challenging problem, particularly in younger patients in whom arthroplasty may not be a durable option. Although several osteochondral reconstructive options have been proposed, some are associated with considerable donor site morbidity and/or require the use of internal fixation. We present an application of osteochondral autograft transplantation surgery as a treatment option for focal metacarpal head lesions. An osteochondral plug from the non-weight-bearing articular surface of the knee is transferred and press-fit to resurface a focal metacarpal head defect. The technical pearls and pitfalls are reviewed, and an illustrative case is presented. PMID:26803571

  18. Combined effects of connective tissue growth factor-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and NaOH-treated PLGA scaffolds on the repair of articular cartilage defect in rabbits.

    Zhu, Songsong; Zhang, Bi; Man, Cheng; Ma, Yongqing; Liu, Xianwen; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-01

    In cartilage tissue engineering using stem cells, it is important to stimulate proliferation and control the differentiation of stem cells to specific lineages. Here we reported a combined technique for articular cartilage repair, consisting of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) transfected with connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene and NaOH-treated poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) scaffolds. In the present study, BMMSCs or CTGF-modified BMMSCs seeded on PLGA or NaOH-treated PLGA scaffolds were incubated in vitro and NaOH-treated PLGA significantly stimulated proliferation of BMMSCs, while CTGF gene transfer promoted chondrogenic differentiation. The effects of the composite on the repair of cartilage defects were evaluated in rabbit knee joints in vivo. Full-thickness cartilage defects (diameter: 5 mm; depth: 3 mm) were created unilaterally in the patellar groove. Defects were either left empty (n = 18) or implanted with BMMSCs/PLGA (n = 18), BMMSCs/NaOH-treated PLGA (n = 18), or CTGF-modified BMMSCs/NaOH-treated PLGA (n = 18). The defect area was examined grossly, histologically, and mechanically at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Implanted cells were tracked using adeno-LacZ labeling at 6 weeks after implantation. Overall, the CTGF-modified BMMSCs/NaOH-treated PLGA group showed successful hyaline-like cartilage regeneration similar to normal cartilage, which was superior to the other groups using gross examination, qualitative and quantitative histology, and mechanical assessment. The in vivo viability of the implanted cells was demonstrated by their retention for 6 weeks after implantation. These findings suggested that a combination of CTGF-modified BMMSCs and NaOH-treated PLGA may be an alternative treatment for large osteochondral defects in high-loading sites. PMID:24763260

  19. Imaging of articular cartilage

    Bhawan K Paunipagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

  20. Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage

    S.M., Malmonge; C.A.C., Zavaglia; W.D., Belangero.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remain [...] ed empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups with postoperative follow-up periods of 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Indentation tests were performed on the neoformed surfaces in the knee joint (with or without a hydrogel implant) and on adjacent articular cartilage in order to assess the mechanical properties of the newly formed surface. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the mechanical behavior of the neoformed surfaces was significantly different from that of normal cartilage. Histological analysis of the repaired defects showed that the hydrogel implant filled the defect with no signs of inflammation as it was well anchored to the surrounding tissues, resulting in a newly formed articular surface. In the case of empty control defects, osseous tissue grew inside the defects and fibrous tissue formed on the articular surface of the defects. The repaired surface of the hydrogel implant was more compliant than normal articular cartilage throughout the 16 weeks following the operation, whereas the fibrous tissue that formed postoperatively over the empty defect was stiffer than normal articular cartilage after 5 weeks. This stiffness started to decrease 16 weeks after the operation, probably due to tissue degeneration. Thus, from the biomechanical and histological point of view, the hydrogel implant improved the articular surface repair.

  1. Measurement of the migration of a focal knee resurfacing implant with radiostereometry

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Articular resurfacing metal implants have been developed to treat full-thickness localized articular cartilage defects. Evaluation of the fixation of these devices is mandatory. Standard radiostereometry (RSA) is a validated method for evaluation of prosthetic migration, but it requires that tantalum beads are inserted into the implant. For technical reasons, this is not possible for focal articular resurfacing components. In this study, we therefore modified the tip of an articular knee implant and used it as a marker for RSA, and then validated the method. Material and methods We modified the tip of a resurfacing component into a hemisphere with a radius of 3 mm, marked it with a 1.0-mm tantalum marker, and implanted it into a sawbone marked with 6 tantalum beads. Point-motion RSA of the “hemisphere bead” using standard automated RSA as the gold standard was compared to manual measurement of the tip hemisphere. 20 repeated stereograms with gradual shifts of position of the specimen between each double exposure were used for the analysis. The tip motion was compared to the point motion of the hemisphere bead to determine the accuracy and precision. Results The accuracy of the manual tip hemisphere method was 0.08–0.19 mm and the precision ranged from 0.12 mm to 0.33 mm. Interpretation The accuracy and precision for translations is acceptable when using a small hemisphere at the tip of a focal articular knee resurfacing implant instead of tantalum marker beads. Rotations of the implant cannot be evaluated. The method is accurate and precise enough to allow detection of relevant migration, and it will be used for future clinical trials with the new implant. PMID:24286562

  2. Autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects: postoperative MR appearance with clinical correlation

    Sanders, T.G. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas, San Antonio (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland AFB, Texas (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Mentzer, K.D. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Miller, M.D. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States); Morrison, W.B. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Campbell, S.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Penrod, B.J. [Musculoskeletal Radiology, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Objective: To describe the MR appearance following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects of the knee. Design and patients: Twenty-nine 1.5-T MR knee studies including dynamic gadolinium enhancement were performed on 21 patients following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed images to evaluate graft and donor site appearance and MR findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: MR images demonstrated graft protuberance (n=12/21; range 1-2 mm), depression (n=2/21; range 1 mm), and surface incongruity: mild (n=17/21), moderate (n=2/21), marked (n=1/21). The T2 signal of graft cartilage was similar to that of adjacent cartilage in 25 of 29 examinations, and increased in four. Graft cartilage thickness relative to adjacent cartilage was <50% in six patients, 50-100% in 15. Graft enhancement in bone was absent at 2 weeks, but present at between 4 and 6 weeks following surgery. All patients had clinical follow-up examinations and knee outcome survey scores were obtained in 15 patients with follow-up greater than 3 months after surgery. All patients demonstrated the expected short-term progressive clinical improvement. Conclusion: MR images reveal a wide range of appearances following osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Minor variations in graft orientation and surface congruity do not result in adverse clinical outcome in the short term. (orig.)

  3. A preliminary study comparing the use of allogenic chondrogenic pre-differentiated and undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of full thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

    Dashtdar, Havva; Rothan, Hussin A; Tay, Terence; Ahmad, Raja Elina; Ali, Razif; Tay, Liang Xin; Chong, Pan Pan; Kamarul, Tunku

    2011-09-01

    Chondrogenic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (CMSCs) have been shown to produce superior chondrogenic expression markers in vitro. However, the use of these cells in vivo has not been fully explored. In this study, in vivo assessment of cartilage repair potential between allogenic-derived chondrogenic pre-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and undifferentiated MSCs (MSCs) were compared. Bilateral full thickness cartilage defects were created on the medial femoral condyles of 12 rabbits (n?=?12). Rabbits were divided into two groups. In one group, the defects in the right knees were repaired using alginate encapsulated MSCs while in the second group, CMSCs were used. The animals were sacrificed and the repaired and control knees were assessed at 3 and 6 months after implantation. Quantitative analysis was performed by measuring the Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/total protein content. The mean Brittberg score was higher in the transplanted knees as compared to the untreated knee at 6 months (p??0.05). This study demonstrates that the use of either MSC or CMSC produced superior healing when compared to cartilage defects that were untreated. However, both cells produced comparable treatment outcomes. PMID:21445989

  4. Condrocalcinose articular familiar Familial articular chondrocalcinosis

    Mittermayer Barreto Santiago

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite intermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica.Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical features of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

  5. Current progress in stem cell-based gene therapy for articular cartilage repair.

    Frisch, Janina; Venkatesan, Jagadeesh K; Rey-Rico, Ana; Madry, Henning; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have a reliable potential for chondrogenic differentiation is a promising approach currently employed to treat articular cartilage lesions (focal defects and osteoarthritis) in patients as a mean to enhance the poor intrinsic capabilities of this specialized tissue for self-repair. However, there is still a critical need for improved designs, as reproduction of a native structural and functional unit in sites of cartilage damage is not occurring upon implantation of such cells. With the availability of optimized gene transfer systems, gene therapy offers powerful tools to stimulate the chondrogenic process in MSCs via the effective, safe, and durable delivery of candidate sequences with chondroprotective and/or chondroregenerative properties, both in vitro and in experimental models of cartilage lesions in vivo. In the present article, we provide an overview of the current advances in gene- and stem cell-based treatments employed to promote cartilage repair in focal defects and for osteoarthritis, and discuss the challenges that remain to be addressed for a safe translation of such procedures into the clinics. PMID:25245889

  6. Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair – the state of the art

    B Johnstone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach – combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

  7. Focal myositis

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Sweet, D.E. [Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

  8. Tuberculosis extrapulmonar: Forma articular

    Julio C Escarpanter Buliés; Yoel García Rodríguez; Marta A. Gutiérrez Guillén

    2008-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión del tema de la Tuberculosis extrapulmonar de forma articular, por haber encontrado un paciente con esta patología de presentación "pura" sin otras manifestaciones sistémicas. Se trata del primer paciente diagnosticado en el Hospital Comunitario Integral de "San Andrés", del municipio de Caracollo, provincia Cercado, en el departamento de Oruro, Bolivia. En la revisión del tema se demuestra la infrecuencia de esta forma de presentación de la enfermedad a pesar de ser la...

  9. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  10. First ex vivo study demonstrating that 99mTc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage

    Preclinical data pointed to 99mTc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify 99mTc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with 99mTc-NTP 15-5 and 99mTc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 ± 2.35 and 0.76 ± 0.24, respectively, for 99mTc-NTP 15-5 and 99mTc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense 99mTc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas 99mTc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of 99mTc-NTP 15-5. The tracer 99mTc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

  11. REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE UNDER THE IMPLANTATION OF BONE MATRIX

    Yuri M. Iryanov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Olga V. Dyuriagina , Tatiana Yu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The damage or loss of articular cartilage is costly medical problem. The purpose of this work – morphological analysis of reparative chondrogenesis when implanted in the area of the knee joint cartilage of granulated mineralized bone matrix. Material and Methods: The characteristic features of the knee cartilage regeneration studied experimentally in pubertal Wistar rats after modeling a marginal perforated defect and implantation of granulated mineralized bone matrix obtained according to original technology without heat and demineralizing processing into the injury zone. Results: This biomaterial established to have pronounced chondro- and osteoinductive properties, and to provide prolonged activation of reparative process, accelerated organotypical remodeling and restoration of the articular cartilage injured. Conclusion: The data obtained demonstrate the efficacy of МВМ in clinical practice for the treatment of diseases and injuries of the articular cartilage.

  12. Extra-Articular Endoscopy.

    Doral, Mahmut N; Huri, Gazi; Bohacek, Ivan; Turhan, Egemen; Bojanic, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of endoscopy in the last 2 decades, a number of procedures, and modifications to them, have been developed and have advanced exponentially. The list of indications was extended over time because of several reasons: better understanding of the pathophysiology, better diagnostics, and advances in endoscopic technology. In this review article, we summarize the most frequently performed extra-articular endoscopic procedures on the extremities. As there are several methods, some have been described briefly, whereas others have been described in greater detail, such as suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome and Achilles tendon disorders, as they present our area of interest and subspecialty domain. Recent advances in the treatment of versatile pathologic entities have been described, together with new methods, which currently lack sufficient clinical data but still represent promising techniques for the future. PMID:26752776

  13. Tuberculosis extrapulmonar: Forma articular

    Julio C. Escarpanter Buliés

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión del tema de la Tuberculosis extrapulmonar de forma articular, por haber encontrado un paciente con esta patología de presentación "pura" sin otras manifestaciones sistémicas. Se trata del primer paciente diagnosticado en el Hospital Comunitario Integral de "San Andrés", del municipio de Caracollo, provincia Cercado, en el departamento de Oruro, Bolivia. En la revisión del tema se demuestra la infrecuencia de esta forma de presentación de la enfermedad a pesar de ser la Tuberculosis pulmonar frecuente en la región por sumarse los factores: frío, altura con poco tenor de oxígeno, desnutrición, tormentas de polvo, muchos trabajadores mineros, etc. Se realiza la presentación del paciente, se muestra su evolución satisfactoria en cuanto a la patología de base y se arriban a conclusiones dentro de las que se destacan que la Tuberculosis en su forma articular es infrecuente en apariencia y su diagnóstico se hace difícil al no existir, por la misma razón, patrones ecográficos o radiográficos definidos. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico es el único que puede definir la etiología de la Tuberculosis de una lesión proliferativa de la sinovial y que la sinovectomía es una intervención generalmente invalidante por lo que un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento médico adecuado, a tiempo, evitaría limitaciones funcionales a posteriori. Se recomienda que en todo caso portador de una sinovitis de rodilla de larga evolución, se le realice una ecografía diagnóstica, y en los pacientes en los que se observen imágenes complejas de bordes regulares, del tipo "copos de nieve", se le efectúen estudios específicos para la detección de la Tuberculosis.

  14. Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Xiongbiao Chen; Zohreh Izadifar; William Kulyk

    2012-01-01

    Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE). Ov...

  15. Fracture of articular cartilage.

    Chin-Purcell, M V; Lewis, J L

    1996-11-01

    Crack formation and propagation is a significant element of the degeneration process in articular cartilage. In order to understand this process, and separate the relative importance of structural overload and material failure, methods for measuring the fracture toughness of cartilage are needed. In this paper, two such methods are described and used to measure fracture properties of cartilage from the canine patella. A modified single edge notch (MSEN) specimen was used to measure J, and a trouser tear test was used to measure T, both measures of fracture toughness with units of kN/m. A pseudo-elastic modulus was also obtained from the MSEN test. Several potential error sources were examined, and results for the MSEN test compared with another method for measuring the fracture parameter for urethane rubber. Good agreement was found. The two test methods were used to measure properties of cartilage from the patellae of 12 canines: 4-9 specimens from each of 12 patellae, with 5 right-left pairs were tested. Values of J ranged from 0.14-1.2 kN/m. J values correlated with T and were an average of 1.7 times larger than T. A variety of failure responses was seen in the MSEN tests, consequently a grade of 0 to 3 was assigned to each test, where 0 represented a brittle-like crack with minimal opening and 3 represented plastic flow with no crack formation. The initial cracks in 12/82 specimens did not propagate and were assigned to grade 3. The method for reducing data in the MSEN test assumed pseudo-elastic response and could not be used for the grade 3 specimens. Stiffness did not correlate with J. Neither J nor T was statistically different between right-left pairs, but varied between animals. The test methods appear useful for providing a quantitative measure of fracture toughness for cartilage and other soft materials. PMID:8950659

  16. First ex vivo study demonstrating that {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage

    Cachin, Florent; Culot, Damien [Jean Perrin Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Boisgard, Stephane [Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Vidal, Aurelien; Auzeloux, Philippe; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth [Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Filaire, Marc [Universite d' Auvergne, Anatomy Laboratory, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, Serge [Cyclopharma Laboratoire, Saint-Beauzire (France)

    2011-11-15

    Preclinical data pointed to {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 {+-} 2.35 and 0.76 {+-} 0.24, respectively, for {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. The tracer {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

  17. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase and glucose-regulated protein 78 increase the life span of articular chondrocytes and their repair potential

    Sato Masato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like all mammalian cells, normal adult chondrocytes have a limited replicative life span, which decreases with age. To facilitate the therapeutic use of chondrocytes from older donors, a method is needed to prolong their life span. Methods We transfected chondrocytes with hTERT or GRP78 and cultured them in a 3-dimensional atelocollagen honeycomb-shaped scaffold with a membrane seal. Then, we measured the amount of nuclear DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and the expression level of type II collagen as markers of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, respectively, in these cultures. In addition, we allografted this tissue-engineered cartilage into osteochondral defects in old rabbits to assess their repair activity in vivo. Results Our results showed different degrees of differentiation in terms of GAG content between chondrocytes from old and young rabbits. Chondrocytes that were cotransfected with hTERT and GRP78 showed higher cellular proliferation and expression of type II collagen than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of the age of the cartilage donor. In addition, the in vitro growth rates of hTERT- or GRP78-transfected chondrocytes were higher than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of donor age. In vivo, the tissue-engineered cartilage implants exhibited strong repairing activity, maintained a chondrocyte-specific phenotype, and produced extracellular matrix components. Conclusions Focal gene delivery to aged articular chondrocytes exhibited strong repairing activity and may be therapeutically useful for articular cartilage regeneration.

  18. Engineering lubrication in articular cartilage.

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-04-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage that begins to explore and incorporate methods of lubrication. PMID:21955119

  19. Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization

    L.S. Iamaguti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT; os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC. A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina.The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG, defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG, defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

  20. Autophagy modulates articular cartilage vesicle formation in primary articular chondrocytes.

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Gohr, Claudia M; Mitton-Fitzgerald, Elizabeth; Grewal, Rupinder; Ninomiya, James; Coyne, Carolyn B; Jackson, William T

    2015-05-22

    Chondrocyte-derived extracellular organelles known as articular cartilage vesicles (ACVs) participate in non-classical protein secretion, intercellular communication, and pathologic calcification. Factors affecting ACV formation and release remain poorly characterized; although in some cell types, the generation of extracellular vesicles is associated with up-regulation of autophagy. We sought to determine the role of autophagy in ACV production by primary articular chondrocytes. Using an innovative dynamic model with a light scatter nanoparticle counting apparatus, we determined the effects of autophagy modulators on ACV number and content in conditioned medium from normal adult porcine and human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Healthy articular chondrocytes release ACVs into conditioned medium and show significant levels of ongoing autophagy. Rapamycin, which promotes autophagy, increased ACV numbers in a dose- and time-dependent manner associated with increased levels of autophagy markers and autophagosome formation. These effects were suppressed by pharmacologic autophagy inhibitors and short interfering RNA for ATG5. Caspase-3 inhibition and a Rho/ROCK inhibitor prevented rapamycin-induced increases in ACV number. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which are deficient in autophagy, did not increase ACV number in response to rapamycin. SMER28, which induces autophagy via an mTOR-independent mechanism, also increased ACV number. ACVs induced under all conditions had similar ecto-enzyme specific activities and types of RNA, and all ACVs contained LC3, an autophagosome-resident protein. These findings identify autophagy as a critical participant in ACV formation, and augment our understanding of ACVs in cartilage disease and repair. PMID:25869133

  1. Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage

    McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Reddi, A. Hari

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints...

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells can survive on the extracellular matrix-derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold

    Amin Tavassoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective (s: The scarcity of articular cartilage defect to repair due to absence of blood vessels and tissue engineering is one of the promising approaches for cartilage regeneration. The objective of this study was to prepare an extracellular matrix derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold and investigate its interactions with seeded rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: Bovine articular cartilage that was cut into pieces with 2 mm thickness, were decellularized by combination of physical and chemical methods including snap freeze-thaw and treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The scaffolds were then seeded with 1, 1’-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3’, 3’-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI labeled BM-MSCs and cultured for up to two weeks. Results: Histological studies of decellularized bovine articular cartilage showed that using 5 cycles of snap freeze-thaw in liquid nitrogen and treatment with 2.5% SDS for 4 hr led to the best decellularization, while preserving the articular cartilage structure. Adherence and penetration of seeded BM-MSCs on to the scaffold were displayed by histological and florescence examinations and also confirmed by electron microscopy. Conclusion: ECM-derived decellularized articular cartilage scaffold provides a suitable environment to support adhesion and maintenance of cultured BM-MSCs and could be applied to investigate cellular behaviors in this system and may also be useful for studies of cartilage tissue engineering.

  3. Critical-size defect induces unicompartmental osteoarthritis in a stable ovine knee.

    Schinhan, Martina; Gruber, Martin; Vavken, Patrick; Dorotka, Ronald; Samouh, Leila; Chiari, Catharina; Gruebl-Barabas, Ruth; Nehrer, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Animal models simulating osteoarthritis are frequently associated with irreversible changes in biomechanics. Although these models successfully induce osteoarthritis, results of experimental repair procedures are impaired by biomechanical problems. The aim of this study was to define the critical size of a chondral lesion to induce unicompartmental osteoarthritis in a stable joint. Sixteen sheep were randomly divided into four treatment groups. A cartilage defect (7- or 14-mm diameter) was created in the weight-bearing zone of the medial femoral condyle. The sheep were mobilized for 6 or 12 weeks. Osteoarthritis was determined by gross assessment, India ink staining, histology (Mankin score), and analysis of COMP in the serum. In the 6-week group, only minor osteoarthritis was registered for either defect size. After 12 weeks, the 14-mm defect induced minor osteoarthritis at the femoral condyle and caused significant degenerative changes at the tibial articular cartilage and the meniscus. The 7-mm defect created focal unicompartmental osteoarthritis at the medial femoral condyle and minor degenerative changes at the corresponding tibia. A 7-mm full-thickness chondral defect with a weight-bearing regimen of 12 weeks induced local osteoarthritis at the medial compartment in an otherwise stable joint as aimed. PMID:21818770

  4. [Regenerative medicine for cartilage defect in rheumatic disease].

    Takahashi, Nobunori; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Persistent inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can lead to the profound degradation and defect of articular cartilage. We can treat or induce the regeneration for the partial cartilage defect using the autologous chondrocytes implantation (ACI) or the matrix-assisted ACI. However, these regenerative methods cannot be applicable for the large size defect due to their limitation of the formable size or available cell numbers. The cell sheet technology or the intra-articular injection technique using the mesenchymal stem cells or the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) could be applied for the large size cartilage defect in RA patients in the future after additional studies. PMID:26608855

  5. Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone

    A Boyde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration.Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected.Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

  6. Focal neurological deficits

    A focal neurologic deficit is a problem with nerve, spinal cord, or brain function. It affects a specific ... of the back, neck, or head Electromyogram (EMG)/ nerve conduction velocities (NCV) MRI of the back, neck, or head Spinal tap

  7. MRI of articular cartilaginous lesions. MRI findings in osteoarthritis of the knee joint

    An investigation was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for imaging of the knee joint, especially for detecting articular cartilaginous lesions associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 141 patients with osteoarthritis were examined (23 males, 118 females). Their age range was 40-93 (mean age 66.2). Using radiotherapy examinations, patients were classified according to Hokkaido University Classification Criteria; 22, 49, 46, 16, and 8 patients were classified as Type I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Articular cartilage defects were examined using MRI, and the number of such defects increased as the X-ray stage progressed. The appearance of a low signal intensity area in the bone marrow was examined using MRI, and the number of patients observed to have such areas increased as the x-ray stages progressed. JOA OA scores were significantly low for patients with meniscal tears. Patients were classified and results reviewed using MRI examinations. Classification by MRI of articular cartilage lesions correlated with the JOA OA scores. Low signal intensity areas in the bone marrow were frequently observed in advanced osteoarthritis cases, and there was correlation between FTA and MRI classifications of these areas. MRI is extremely valuable in detecting articular cartilage lesions in the knee joint, showing those lesions which cannot be detected by conventional radiography examinations. Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically useful method for diagnosis of osteoarthritis. (author)

  8. Childhood Focal Epilepsies

    Wael hayel khreisat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was done in order to obtain a baseline profile of childhood focal epilepsies Patient and methods: Subjects included in this study were children suffering from focal epilepsy with age above 2 y. They were attending pediatric neurology clinic in Queen Rania Hospital for children in Jordan . The study included 112 children with ages ranging from 2-14 years. The following data were obtained: age, sex, detailed of seizures type, age at first unprovoked seizure, family ...

  9. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  10. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    A. Hari Reddi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  11. Articular cartilage repair and the evolving role of regenerative medicine

    Pieter K Bos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pieter K Bos1, Marloes L van Melle1, Gerjo JVM van Osch1,21Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the NetherlandsAbstract: Among the growing applications of regenerative medicine, clinical articular cartilage repair has now been used for 2 decades and forms a successful example of translational medicine. Cartilage is characterized by a limited intrinsic repair capacity following injury. Articular cartilage defects cause symptoms, are not spontaneously repaired, and are generally believed to result in early osteoarthritis. Marrow stimulation techniques, osteochondral transplantation, and cell-based therapies, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI and use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are used for tissue regeneration, symptom relief, and prevention of further joint degeneration. The exact incidence of cartilage defects and the natural outcome of joints with these lesions are unclear. Currently available cartilage repair techniques are designed for defect treatment in otherwise healthy joints and limbs, mostly in young adults. The natural history studies presented in this review estimated that the prevalence of cartilage lesions in this patient group ranges from 5% to 11%. The background and results from currently available randomized clinical trials of the three mostly used cartilage repair techniques are outlined in this review. Osteochondral transplantation, marrow stimulation, and ACI show improvement of symptoms with an advantage for cell-based techniques, but only a suggestion that risk for joint degeneration can be reduced. MSCs, characterized by their good proliferative capacity and the potential to differentiate into different mesenchymal lineages, form an attractive alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. Moreover, MSCs provide a regenerative microenvironment by the secretion of bioactive factors. This trophic activity is believed to limit damage and stimulate intrinsic regenerative responses. Finally, important clinical issues are discussed, including techniques to study the role of implanted cells in tissue regeneration using cell labeling and cell tracking, the improvement of cartilage integration, the use of delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage for early judgment of joint degeneration/regeneration, and the influence of regulatory rules for therapeutic application development.Keywords: articular cartilage, repair, imaging, techniques

  12. A Novel Biomaterial for Cartilage Repair Generated by Self-Assembly: Creation of a Self-Organized Articular Cartilage-Like Tissue

    Rie Karasawa; Kazuo Yudoh

    2012-01-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn to tissue engineering and other novel techniques aimed at reconstruction of the joint. Regarding articular cartilage tissue engineering, three-dimensional materials created in vitro by cultivation of autologous chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells with a collagen gel have been implanted to replace defective parts of the articular cartilage in limited cases with the diseases such as trauma or arthritis. However, several passages of chondrocyte culture are r...

  13. BMP Receptor Signaling Is Required for Postnatal Maintenance of Articular Cartilage

    Rountree Ryan B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression specifically in this tissue have not been available. Here we use regulatory information from the mouse Gdf5 gene (a bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] family member to develop new mouse lines that can be used to either activate or inactivate genes specifically in developing joints. Expression of Cre recombinase from Gdf5 bacterial artificial chromosome clones leads to specific activation or inactivation of floxed target genes in developing joints, including early joint interzones, adult articular cartilage, and the joint capsule. We have used this system to test the role of BMP receptor signaling in joint development. Mice with null mutations in Bmpr1a are known to die early in embryogenesis with multiple defects. However, combining a floxed Bmpr1a allele with the Gdf5-Cre driver bypasses this embryonic lethality, and leads to birth and postnatal development of mice missing the Bmpr1a gene in articular regions. Most joints in the body form normally in the absence of Bmpr1a receptor function. However, articular cartilage within the joints gradually wears away in receptor-deficient mice after birth in a process resembling human osteoarthritis. Gdf5-Cre mice provide a general system that can be used to test the role of genes in articular regions. BMP receptor signaling is required not only for early development and creation of multiple tissues, but also for ongoing maintenance of articular cartilage after birth. Genetic variation in the strength of BMP receptor signaling may be an important risk factor in human osteoarthritis, and treatments that mimic or augment BMP receptor signaling should be investigated as a possible therapeutic strategy for maintaining the health of joint linings.

  14. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... ischemic focus are irreversibly damaged after only 15-30 minutes of ischemia. In contrast, cells in the penumbra may – although threatened and functionally impaired – remain viable for several hours following arterial occlusion but will eventually also succumb if ischemia persists. In this way the...... homeostasis and accelerated generation of damaging free oxygen radiacals. The overall aim of the studies was to elucidate the pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in recruitment of the penumbra in the acute phase of focal ischemia. In the three first studies, it was specifically addressed...

  15. The Periosteal Autografts Transplantation for Cartilage Defects of the Hip in Older Children With Developmental Dysplasia as an Adjunctive Procedure.

    Du, Ming-Hua; Ding, Yu; Shi, Xian; Xu, Rui-Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Cartilage lesions are at a high prevalence in dysplastic hips and may relate to arthritic changes and hip joint dysfunction. To date, the effectiveness of repair of articular cartilage defects in the dysplastic hips has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. Here we retrospectively reviewed the effects of acetabuloplasty procedures with/without concomitant autologous tibial periosteal transplantation (ATPT) for articular cartilage defects of the hip in older children with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).Older DDH children with focal cartilage defects of the acetabular or femoral cartilage or both in the hip joint were treated by acetabuloplasty procedures with (Group I) or without (Group II) concomitant ATPT to evaluate the improvements in range of motion (ROM), pain relief of hip, walking tolerability (WL), radiologic evaluations, and outcomes in the long-term follow-up.More satisfactory functional outcome is readily achieved among patients treated with combined acetabuloplasty and ATPT, evidenced by marked pain relief and improved ROM and WL. The latest favorable radiologic evaluation was 70.6% in Group I and 60.0% in Group II, respectively. More hips exhibited congruency between the femoral head and the shell, with less deformity of femoral head and acetabulum or narrowed joint space in Group I. Few major complications were recorded in Group I.Application of periosteal autograft for repair of cartilage defects within the hip joint might be an effective adjunctive treatment for acetabuloplasty in preventing stiffness, reducing pain, and improving ROM and outcomes in hip rehabilitation in the long-term follow-up in older children with DDH. PMID:27124031

  16. Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis

    The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of 35S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate

  17. Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos / Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs

    Ana Carolina S., Faria; João X. de, Oliveira Filho; Daphine A.J. de, Paula; Laila Natasha S., Brandão; Danny Franciele S., Dias; Luciano, Nakazato; Valéria, Dutra.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica [...] e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%), Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13%) e Escherichia coli (12,68%) os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%). Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45%) e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%). Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69%) de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação. Abstract in english In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%), nursery (44.35%) and growing-finishing (25.22%) phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs) for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total o [...] f 57 (49.5%) samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13%) and Escherichia coli (12.68%), and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%). In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45%) and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%). Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%). Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

  18. Focal conic faceting in smectic-A liquid crystals

    Fournier, J.; Durand, G.

    1991-01-01

    Smectic-A nucleating in the isotropic phase presents various bulk focal conic defects close to the interface, within the “bâtonnets” first described by Friedel and Grandjean in 1910. We experimentally study the stability of the “bâtonnets” in a high-frequency aligning electrical field. Although the external shape appears out-of-equilibrium, the focal conic texture is found stable. We build a model explaining the general interfacial focal conic texture : it participates in the minimization of ...

  19. Acute focal bacterial nephritis.

    Lawson, G R; White, F E; Alexander, F W

    1985-01-01

    In the kidney, acute focal parenchymal infection without liquefaction can produce a 'mass lesion' that may mimic an abscess or tumour, both clinically and radiologically. Ultrasound and computed tomography can differentiate between these lesions and allow appropriate antibiotic treatment to be used safely, avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention.

  20. Focal nodular hyperplasia

    Vilgrain, Valerie [Department of Radiology, Hopital Beaujon, 100 Bd du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France)]. E-mail: valerie.vilgrain@bjn.aphp.fr

    2006-05-15

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign liver tumor after hemangioma and occurs predominantly in young women. Imaging techniques are crucial in the diagnosis of this lesion. In this article, we will present the imaging findings of the classic and non-classic FNHs. The role of percutaneous biopsy will also be detailed.

  1. Joint surface defects: clinical course and cellular response in spontaneous and experimental lesions

    F Dell’accio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint surface defects (JSD involving the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone are a common clinical problem in rheumatology and orthopaedics. The recent availability of accurate imaging for diagnosis and efficacious therapeutic options has stirred new interest in their natural history and biology. The evidence that some of these lesions can heal spontaneously whereas others precipitate osteoarthritis has raised important questions as to which lesions should be treated, when, and how. Evidence of repair of some of these lesions has also stimulated research into which factors contribute to successful healing and which ones determine chronic evolution and development of osteoarthritis (OA. Older anatomical observations, together with novel molecular tools and experimental models, have revealed a complex cellular and molecular response of cartilage to focal defects, which could explain differences in healing responses between individuals, and may provide clues to stimulating intrinsic tissue repair. In the first part of this review we will discuss clinical aspects of these lesions in the patient, with particular emphasis on their biology and natural history. In the second part we will summarize the data coming from in vitro and in vivo models of cartilage injury and regeneration, focussing on the molecular control of cartilage homeostasis after creation of cartilage surface defects.

  2. The Application of Polysaccharide Biocomposites to Repair Cartilage Defects

    Feng Zhao; Wei He; Yueling Yan; Hongjuan Zhang; Guoping Zhang; Dehu Tian; Hongyang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Owing to own nature of articular cartilage, it almost has no self-healing ability once damaged. Despite lots of restore technologies having been raised in the past decades, no repair technology has smoothly substituted for damaged cartilage using regenerated cartilage tissue. The approach of tissue engineering opens a door to successfully repairing articular cartilage defects. For instance, grafting of isolated chondrocytes has huge clinical potential for restoration of cartilage tissue and c...

  3. Development of artificial articular cartilage

    Biswajit Bera

    2009-10-01

    The present study describes the development of artificial articular cartilage on the basis of mimicking structural gel properties and mechanical gel properties of natural articular cartilage. It is synthesized from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 20% Tetra ethoxy silane (TEOS) by sol–gel method. Mechanical strength of Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA is improved up to 35 MPa. Manufacturing method is adopted considering colloidal stability of nano silica particle in PVA sol at specific pH = 1. An adhesive is also prepared from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 40% TEOS for firm attachment of artificial articular cartilage on underlying bone with high bond strength.

  4. Tissue engineering techniques to regenerate articular cartilage using polymeric scaffolds.

    PÉREZ OLMEDILLA, MARCOS

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Articular cartilage is a tissue that consists of chondrocytes surrounded by a dense extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is mainly composed of type II collagen and proteoglycans. The main function of articular cartilage is to provide a lubricated surface for articulation. Articular cartilage damage is common and may lead to osteoarthritis. Articular cartilage does not have blood vessels, nerves or lymphatic vessels and therefore has limited capacity for intrinsic healing and repair. ...

  5. Childhood Focal Epilepsies

    Wael hayel khreisat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done in order to obtain a baseline profile of childhood focal epilepsies Patient and methods: Subjects included in this study were children suffering from focal epilepsy with age above 2 y. They were attending pediatric neurology clinic in Queen Rania Hospital for children in Jordan . The study included 112 children with ages ranging from 2-14 years. The following data were obtained: age, sex, detailed of seizures type, age at first unprovoked seizure, family history of seizure disorders, history and type of febrile seizures, etiological factors, socioeconomic class, history of consanguinity, additional neuro -impairment, Electroencephalography and brain imaging finding and the use of antiepileptic drugs, the results were recorded for further study. Results: A total of 112 consecutive cases of focal epilepsy were enrolled , 59 were male. The commonest partial seizure recorded was simple partial type 52 (46.4% while simple partial with secondary generalization had 17 (16.9% and complex partial seizure formed 36.8 %. , In partial onset seizures the peak age was between 11-14 years and complex partial seizures plateau was seen between ages 6-10 years. Twenty six (23.2% patients reported a family history of epilepsy, 91% of low socioeconomic class .11.5 % of cases have history of febrile seizures, idiopathic epilepsy was 53.5 % . In most of epileptic patients have accessory neurological impairment, the most common were learning difficulties Electroencephalography was normal in 20.4 %, mono-therapy was used in 68.8 % Conclusion: the pattern of focal epilepsies in our country do not differ from that of developed countries, further population ­based epidemiological research is indicated to confirm the prevalence of seizure disorders in this locality

  6. FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENCE OF SPINOUS PROCESS, LAMINAE AND INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES. – CASE REPORT

    Prathap Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vertebral disorders are the ones which lead to disability and lot of health problems. Since the lumbar part of the vertebral column is the main weight bearing and weight transmitting region, if there is a defective development, the area for muscle attachment and the strong bony structure for the transmission of weight would be missing leading to instability at an early age. In the present case dry and processed fifth lumbar vertebra, of unknown sex which presented the features with absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes on both sides which were obtained for teaching the medical undergraduate students in M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore. There was absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes of fifth lumbar vertebra leading to a wide spina bifida with absence of laminae, inferior articular processes on both sides and spinous process of fifth lumbar vertebra which could be a developmental anomaly.

  7. Congenital Malformations of Vertebral Articular Processes in Dogs.

    Bouma, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Articular process anomalies are considered congenital. Their occurrence in specific breeds may be indicative of undetermined genetics. Clinical significance varies and is interdependent upon location, function and anatomy. Etiology, uniform nomenclature and classification of vertebral articular process anomalies in the dog are lacking; however recent efforts are beginning to address this deficit. This author proposes that the term articular process dysplasia appropriately encompasses the spectrum of anomalies in severity as well as including those affecting both the cranial and caudal articular processes. The general category description of articular process dypslasia doesn't preclude, but rather allows for more specific designations. PMID:26851714

  8. Focal conic faceting in smectic-A liquid crystals

    Fournier, J. B.; Durand, G.

    1991-07-01

    Smectic-A nucleating in the isotropic phase presents various bulk focal conic defects close to the interface, within the “bâtonnets” first described by Friedel and Grandjean in 1910. We experimentally study the stability of the “bâtonnets” in a high-frequency aligning electrical field. Although the external shape appears out-of-equilibrium, the focal conic texture is found stable. We build a model explaining the general interfacial focal conic texture : it participates in the minimization of the interfacial energy by orienting the smectic layers almost perpendicular to the interface, above a critical size ell_0 comparing layer curvature and surface energies. This model explains new arborescent textures that we observe inside capillary tubes. We then discuss equilibrium shapes of size sim L. We discuss three regimes : L ll ell_0 yields 3D-cristal-like “Wulf” shapes. For L > ell_0, equilibrium shapes must contains focal conics, although we cannot solve the general solution. In the asymptotic limit L to infty, we predict fractal textures of dimension 1 liquids. Finally focal conics can be considered as “bulk facets” which pile up to decorate “bâtonnet” and more general interfacial textures. Focal conics appear then an intrinsic defects of Smectic-A materials in contact with their isotropic phase.

  9. [Chondrocalcinosis. Clinical impact of intra-articular calcium phosphate crystals].

    Fuerst, M

    2014-06-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are known to cause acute attacks of pseudogout in joints but crystal deposition has also been reported to be associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Aside from CPPD crystals, basic calcium phosphates (BCPs), consisting of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, have been found in synovial fluid, synovium and cartilage of patients with OA. Although CPPD crystals have been found to be associated with OA and are an important factor in joint disease, this has also recently been associated with a genetic defect. However, according to the most recent findings, the association of BCP crystals, such as apatite with OA is much stronger, as their presence significantly correlates with the severity of cartilage degeneration. Identification of BCP crystals in OA joints remains problematic due to a lack of simple and reliable methods of detection. The clinical and pathological relevance of cartilage mineralization in patients with OA is not completely understood. It is well established that mineralization of articular cartilage is often found close to hypertrophic chondrocytes. A significant correlation between the expression of type X collagen, a marker for chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage mineralization was observed. In the process of endochondral ossification, the link between hypertrophy and matrix mineralization is particularly well described. Hypertrophic chondrocytes in OA cartilage and at the growth line share certain features, not only hypertrophy but also a capability to mineralize the matrix. Recent data indicate that chondrocyte hypertrophy is a key factor in articular cartilage mineralization strongly linked to OA and does not characterize a specific subset of OA patients, which has important consequences for therapeutic strategies for OA. PMID:24924727

  10. INCIDENCE AND TREATMENT OF INTRA-ARTICULAR LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TEARS

    Adrian Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to retrospectively review the patients admitted and treated in the “Alexandru Rădulescu” Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Cluj-Napoca for an anterior cruciate ligament tear over a 2-year period and document the intra-articular lesions found at arthroscopy as well as the treatment used for these associated lesions.Patients and methods. The case records of 88 patients operated for anterior cruciate ligament tear over a period of 2 years were reviewed. There were 67 males and 21 females with a mean age of 28.9 years, ranging from 14 to 49 years. After recording the patient demographics, we documented all the intra-articular lesions found during knee arthroscopy, as well as all procedures undertaken concomitant with the ACL reconstruction.Results. 50 of the 88 patients (56.8% had associated intra-articular lesions at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The most common injury found was a meniscus tear, 48 patients (54.5% had a meniscal pathology at the time of ligament reconstruction, medial meniscus being the most frequent injured one, found in 37 patients. Meniscectomy and meniscus suture were the procedures performed for these lesions, meniscectomy being more frequent. Chondral defects were the next associated injuries found with an incidence of 15.9% of the cases. The medial side of the knee was the most common site of chondral pathology.Conclusions. ACL tears are frequently associated with other intra-articular lesions, especially medial meniscus tears and chondral defects affecting the medial compartment. Such pathology most often needs surgical attention during the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  11. Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos

    Ana Carolina S. Faria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%, creche (44,35% e crescimento/terminação (25,22% de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs para avaliação microbiológica e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5% amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%, Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13% e Escherichia coli (12,68% os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%. Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%, Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45% e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%. Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69% de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação.

  12. Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?

    D R Eyre

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia syndromes. Here we review what is known of the collagen assembly and present new evidence that collagen type III becomes covalently added to the polymeric fabric of adult human articular cartilage, perhaps as part of a matrix repair or remodelling process.

  13. New trends in articular cartilage repair

    Cucchiarini, Magali; Henrionnet, Christel; Mainard, Didier; Pinzano, Astrid; Madry, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the articular cartilage is an important, prevalent, and unsolved clinical issue for the orthopaedic surgeon. This review summarizes innovative basic research approaches that may improve the current understanding of cartilage repair processes and lead to novel therapeutic options. In this regard, new aspects of cartilage tissue engineering with a focus on the choice of the best-suited cell source are presented. The importance of non-destructive cartilage imaging is highlighted with t...

  14. OSTEOPONTIN PROMOTES PATHOLOGIC MINERALIZATION IN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Gohr, Claudia M; Uzuki, Miwa; Masuda, Ikuko

    2006-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritic joint tissues, where they predict severe disease. Unlike other types of calcium phosphate crystals, CPPD crystals form almost exclusively in the pericellular matrix of damaged articular cartilage, suggesting a key role for the extracellular matrix milieu in their development. Osteopontin is a matricellular protein found in increased quantities in the pericellular matrix of osteoarthritic cartilage. Osteoponti...

  15. Pure waterjet drilling of articular bone

    Biskup, Christian; Dunnen, Steven den; Kraaij, Gert; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.M.J.; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical application of waterjet technology for machining tough human tissues, such as articular bone, has advantages, as it produces clean sharp cuts without tissue heating. Additionally, water supply is possible via flexible tubing, which enables minimally invasive surgical access. This pilot study investigates whether drilling bony tissue with pure waterjets is feasible. Water pressures between 20 and 120 MPa with an orifice of 0.6 mm were used to create waterjets to drill blind boring...

  16. Articular Cartilage Changes in Maturing Athletes

    Luria, Ayala; CHU, CONSTANCE R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Articular cartilage has a unique functional architecture capable of providing a lifetime of pain-free joint motion. This tissue, however, undergoes substantial age-related physiologic, mechanical, biochemical, and functional changes that reduce its ability to overcome the effects of mechanical stress and injury. Many factors affect joint function in the maturing athlete—from chondrocyte survival and metabolism to structural composition and genetic/epigenetic factors governing cartila...

  17. Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?

    Eyre, D. R.; Weis, M A; J-J Wu

    2006-01-01

    Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia ...

  18. New trends in articular cartilage repair.

    Cucchiarini, Magali; Henrionnet, Christel; Mainard, Didier; Pinzano, Astrid; Madry, Henning

    2015-12-01

    Damage to the articular cartilage is an important, prevalent, and unsolved clinical issue for the orthopaedic surgeon. This review summarizes innovative basic research approaches that may improve the current understanding of cartilage repair processes and lead to novel therapeutic options. In this regard, new aspects of cartilage tissue engineering with a focus on the choice of the best-suited cell source are presented. The importance of non-destructive cartilage imaging is highlighted with the recent availability of adapted experimental tools such as Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging. Novel insights into cartilage pathophysiology based on the involvement of the infrapatellar fat pad in osteoarthritis are also described. Also, recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors are discussed as clinically adapted, efficient tools for potential gene-based medicines in a variety of articular cartilage disorders. Taken as a whole, such advances in basic research in diverse fields of articular cartilage repair may lead to the development of improved therapies in the clinics for an improved, effective treatment of cartilage lesions in a close future. PMID:26914876

  19. Systemic focal epileptogenesis

    Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

  20. Focal dermal hypoplasia: updates.

    Wang, L; Jin, X; Zhao, X; Liu, D; Hu, T; Li, W; Jiang, L; Dan, H; Zeng, X; Chen, Q

    2014-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is a rare syndrome and may result in multisystem disorders. Several reviews of FDH have been published. However, the last comprehensive review of this disorder appeared more than 20 years ago. To date, a number of new clinical manifestations have been reported and considerable knowledge has accumulated regarding etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to gather these more recent data and to provide organized and reliable information. So we reviewed 159 cases of FDH that had been reported from 1990 to 2012, summarized the new discoveries, and suggested a potential standard for the diagnosis of FDH. We also reported on a Chinese girl with FDH, who was clinically and histologically in accord with FDH, as an example. PMID:23463902

  1. Intra-articular depot forming drug delivery system for osteoarthritis

    Freddi, Matthew James

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of the joint. Current treatments for this disease (such as glucocorticoid steroids) aim to reduce pain and increase mobility. Intra-articular injection is used in OA as treatment can be targeted to affected joints only. There is currently a lack of sustained release formulations for intra-articular injection. The aim of this thesis was to produce and characterise an injectable intra-articular drug delivery system capable of providing d...

  2. Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Xiongbiao Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA, a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE. Over the past two decades, different designs and fabrication techniques have been investigated for developing TE scaffolds suitable for the construction of transplantable artificial cartilage tissue substitutes. Advances in fabrication technologies now enable the strategic design of scaffolds with complex, biomimetic structures and properties. In particular, scaffolds with hybrid and/or biomimetic zonal designs have recently been developed for cartilage tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews critical aspects of the design of engineered scaffolds for articular cartilage repair as well as the available advanced fabrication techniques. In addition, recent studies on the design of hybrid and zonal scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue repair are highlighted.

  3. Depth-dependent biomechanical and biochemical properties of fetal, newborn, and tissue-engineered articular cartilage.

    Klein, Travis J; Chaudhry, Manu; Bae, Won C; Sah, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    Adult articular cartilage has depth-dependent mechanical and biochemical properties which contribute to zone-specific functions. The compressive moduli of immature cartilage and tissue-engineered cartilage are known to be lower than those of adult cartilage. The objective of this study was to determine if such tissues exhibit depth-dependent compressive properties, and how these depth-varying properties were correlated with cell and matrix composition of the tissue. The compressive moduli of fetal and newborn bovine articular cartilage increased with depth (pengineered cartilage formed by either layering or mixing cells from the superficial and middle zone of articular cartilage exhibited similarly soft regions at both construct surfaces, as exemplified by large equilibrium strains. The properties of immature cartilage may provide a template for developing tissue-engineered cartilage which aims to repair cartilage defects by recapitulating the natural development and growth processes. These results suggest that while depth-dependent properties may be important to engineer into cartilage constructs, issues other than cell heterogeneity must be addressed to generate such tissues. PMID:16387310

  4. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2013-01-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75 to +75 degrees, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalog. In the new forecasts we've improved the spatial resolution to 0.1 degree and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each grid point. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method ...

  5. Phosphorylation of proteoglycans from human articular cartilage

    Previous studies have shown that sulfated proteoglycans from human articular and epiphyseal cartilage were phosphorylated. These macromolecules contribute to the stiffness and resiliency of this tissue. We demonstrate here that the phosphate moieties are an integral part of proteoglycan subunits. Specifically, evidence is presented which indicates that proteoglycan monomers contain 3 to 4 phosphate moieties per core protein and that these appear to exist as phosphoserine residues. Furthermore, the data illustrate that human articular cartilage also contains more than 20 different phosphoproteins, some of which are closely associated with proteoglycan aggregates. Proteoglycan subunits were purified from extracts of articular cartilage or from media fractions which had been used to label tissue specimens with 32P-orthophosphate. Chemical and radiographic analyses revealed that the phosphate concentration with respect to sulfate and uronic acid content remained constant when purified proteoglycan monomers were subjected to equilibrium ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography. That the phosphate moieties were bound to proteoglycan monomers via monoester linkages was indicated by the release of 32P-orthophosphate from proteoglycan subunits incubated under mild alkaline conditions or reacted with acid or alkaline phosphatases. Identification of serine residues in the core protein as the sites of phosphorylation was made by autoradiography of thin layer plates on which hydrolyzed samples of purified 32P-proteoglycan subunits had been subjected to 2-dimensional electrophoresis/chromatography. Quantification of 3 to 4 phosphate moieties per core protein of 200,000 daltons was made by chemical analysis of inorganic phosphate released from proteoglycans by acid hydrolysis

  6. Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries

    Yuan-cheng LI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

  7. Viral articular deformations in a goat

    A goat belonging to an animal aid association was presented for bilateral deformation of the tarsus and carpus and signs of high-grade pain. ELISA serology was positive for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus. Radiography revealed marked osseous remodelling of the tarsus. The blood fibrinogen concentration was very elevated. On infected commercial farms, it is recommended that both seropositive animals and their offspring are culled when the level of infected is low, or to separate the kids from the mothers at an early age. In this case, palliative treatment was prescribed based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and articular puncture-lavages

  8. Outcomes following microfracture of full-thickness articular cartilage lesions of the knee in adolescent patients.

    Steadman, J Richard; Briggs, Karen K; Matheny, Lauren M; Guillet, Alyson; Hanson, Chad M; Willimon, S Clifton

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to document outcomes following microfracture for full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee in adolescents. Our hypothesis was that patients aged 18 years or less would have excellent outcomes and function following microfracture of full-thickness knee articular cartilage defects. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Patients thickness knee articular cartilage defects treated with microfracture between January 1992 and June 2008 were identified. Surgical, demographic data, Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction were collected prospectively. A total of 26 patients (14 females, 12 males) met inclusion criteria. Average age was 16.6 years (range: 12-18.9 years). Ninety-six percent of lesions were patellar (37%) or femoral condyle defects (medial 26%, lateral 33%). Minimum 2-year follow-up was obtained in 22/26 patients (85%) with average follow-up of 5.8 years (range: 2.0-13.3 years). Average postoperative Lysholm score was 90 (range: 50-100). Median Tegner scale was 6 (range: 2-10). Median patient satisfaction with outcome was 10 (range: 1-10). Lysholm correlated with Tegner scale (rho = 0.586; p = 0.011) and patient satisfaction (rho = 0.70; p = 0.001). Average postoperative Lysholm score in males was 93 and 86 in females (p = 0.22). One patient underwent revision microfracture. This study showed that adolescent patients who underwent microfracture for treatment of full-thickness knee chondral defects demonstrated increased activity levels and excellent function following surgery. PMID:24764229

  9. FOCAL MOTOR SEIZURES WITH TYPICAL AUTOMATISMS (FOCAL AUTOMOTOR SEIZURES

    M. B. Mironov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of a group of patients with focal automotor seizures, by taking into consideration their nosological, anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features.

  10. [Long fingers articular fractures treatment by glued traction].

    Dupond, M; Baudoin, Y; Guilhem, K; Butin, C; Gaillard, C; Levadoux, M; Nguyen, M K

    2012-01-01

    Comminuted articular fractures of the fingers are a real surgical challenge. Many surgical treatments are proposed, but despite their complexity, their results are often unsatisfactory. We describe a simple and functional treatment intended to ensure these articular fractures heal in the right position. The material used in this technique is inexpensive and easily available. PMID:23174133

  11. Blends and Nanocomposite Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Azadehsadat Hashemi Doulabi; Kibret Mequanint; Hadi Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive assessment on polymer blends and nanocomposite systems for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. Classification of various types of blends including natural/natural, synthetic/synthetic systems, their combination and nanocomposite biomaterials are studied. Additionally, an inclusive study on their characteristics, cell responses ability to mimic tissue and regenerate damaged articular cartilage with respect to have functionality and composit...

  12. Focal adhesion kinase and cancer

    Golubovskaya, Vita M.; Kweh, Frederick A.; Cance, William G

    2009-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that resides at the sites of integrin clustering, known as focal adhesions. The FAK protein has a molecular mass of 125kDa and is encoded by the FAK gene located on human chromosome 8q24. Structurally, FAK consists of an amino-terminal regulatory FERM domain, a central catalytic kinase domain, two proline-rich motifs, and a carboxy-terminal focal adhesion targeting domain. FAK has been shown to be an importan...

  13. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  14. Focal Rigidity of Flat Tori

    Kwakkel, Ferry; Peixoto, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g), there is a partition \\Sigma_i of its tangent bundle TM called the focal decomposition. The sets \\Sigma_i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g), i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that the flat n-tori are focally rigid, in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent, then the tori are isometric up to rescaling.

  15. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last...

  16. Imaging diagnosis of the articular cartilage disorders

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis among the chronic osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic cartilage lesions on the plain films and MR images. Methods: Eighty-nine cases, including 115 joints, underwent plain film and MRI examination, and enhanced MRI scan was performed on 32 of them, including 44 joints. MRI scan sequences consisted of T1WI, T2WI + PDWI, STIR, and 3D FS SPGR. There were 90 knee joints in this group and each of the articular cartilage was divided into four parts: patella, femoral medial condyle, femoral lateral condyle, and tibia facet on MR images. The cartilage disorders were classified according to the outerbridge method. In addition, 61 cases including 75 joints were observed as a control group on the plain films and MR images. Results: 115 cartilage lesions were found on MR images, in which thinness of the cartilage (58 cases, 50.4%), bone changes under the cartilage (22 cases, 19.7%), medullar edema (22 cases, 19.7%), and synovial hyperplasia (52 cases, 45.2%) were seen. The patella cartilage was the most likely affected part (81/90, 90%). So the patellar cartilage lesions were divided as group 1 (grade I-II) and group 2 (grade III-IV) on MR images, which were compared with the plain film signs. The narrowing of the joint space and saccules under the articular surface were statistically significant with each other, and ?2 values were 9.349 and 9.885, respectively (P=0.002). Conclusion: No constant signs could be seen on the plain films with grade I-II cartilage disorders. While the narrowing joint space and saccules under the joint surface could be seen on them with grade III-IV cartilage disorders, which were mainly correlated with the cartilage disorders and bone changes under the articular cartilages. A combination of the plain films and MR images is the best imaging method for examining the joints and joint cartilages. Enhanced MRI scan is very helpful on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the synovial lesions

  17. Articular cartilage repair: are the intrinsic biological constraints undermining this process insuperable?

    Hunziker, E B

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the experimental and clinical strategies currently in use or under development for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions. The vast majority of protocols under investigation pertain to the treatment of full-thickness defects (i.e., those which penetrate the subchondral bone and trabecular-bone spaces) rather than partial-thickness ones (i.e., those which are confined to the substance of articular cartilage tissue itself). This bias probably reflects the circumstance that partial-thickness defects do not heal spontaneously whereas full-thickness ones below a critical size do, albeit transiently. And it is, of course, a seemingly easier task to manipulate a process which is readily set in train than it is to overcome an induction-problem which Nature herself has not solved. Indeed, the reasons for this inert state of partial-thickness defects have only recently been elucidated, and these are briefly discussed. However, the main body of this review deals with the various transplantation concepts implemented for the repair of full-thickness defects. These fall into two broad categories: tissue-based (entailing the grafting of perichondrial, periosteal, cartilage or bone-cartilage material) and cell-based (utilizing chondroblasts, chondrocytes, periochondrial cells or mesenchymal stem cells). Cell-based systems are further subdivided according to whether cells are transplanted within a matrix (biodegradable, non-biodegradable or synthetic) or free in suspension. Thus far, the application of cell suspensions has always been combined with the grafting of a periosteal flap. The strengths and weaknesses of each concept are discussed. PMID:10367012

  18. The minipig model for experimental chondral and osteochondral defect repair in tissue engineering: retrospective analysis of 180 defects.

    Gotterbarm, T; Breusch, S J; Schneider, U; Jung, M

    2008-01-01

    Articular cartilage repair is still a challenge in orthopaedic surgery. Although many treatment options have been developed in the last decade, true regeneration of hyaline articular cartilage is yet to be accomplished. In vitro experiments are useful for evaluating cell-matrix interactions under controlled parameters. When introducing new treatment options into clinical routine, adequate animal models are capable of closing the gap between in vitro experiments and the clinical use in human beings. We developed an animal model in the Göttingen minipig (GMP) to evaluate the healing of osteochondral or full-thickness cartilage defects. The defects were located in the middle third of the medial portion of the patellofemoral joint at both distal femurs. Chondral defects were 6.3 mm, osteochondral defects either 5.4 or 6.3 mm in diameter and 8 or 10 mm deep. In both defects the endogenous repair response showed incomplete repair tissue formation up to 12 months postoperatively. Based on its limited capability for endogenous repair of chondral and osteochondral defects, the GMP is a useful model for critical assessment of new treatment strategies in articular cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:18348768

  19. Effects of intra articular tramadol on articular cartilage and synovium of rats

    Musa Kola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of intra articular tramadol injection on articular cartilage and synovium in rat knee joint. Methods: After Animal Ethical Committee approval, a total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into 4 groups. Each group was composed of 5 rats. 0.2 ml of tramadol HCl was injected into the right knee joints and left knee joints of all the rats were considered as control. Control side joints received saline injection. Rats were sacrificed with ketamin on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days and knee joints were removed. Obtained tissue samples were decalcified and were dyed with Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s trichrome stain and examined by light microscopy for the presence of inflammation in periarticular area and synovia. Results: Congestion of synovial veins and perivascular cell infiltration were observed in tramadol group on days 1 and 7 (P < 0.05. The inflammation process was replaced by fibrosis on day 14 and fibrosis was significantly decreased on day 21. Conclusion: Intra articular tramadol should be used cautiously, keeping in mind that it may cause synovial inflammation in early phases and fibrosis in late phases. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 337-342

  20. Fisiología del condrocito articular Physiology of articular cartilage

    Julio César Sánchez Naranjo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El condrocito es la única célula presente en el cartílago articular, por lo que es de gran importancia el conocimiento de los mecanismos que regulan sus funciones, en particular los mecanismos de transporte de membrana que le permiten a esta célula enfrentar los continuos cambios de la osmolaridad externa a que están sometidos como consecuencia de las variaciones en la carga mecánica. Los mecanismos implicados en la regulaciín del volumen intracelular, el pH intracelular, la concentraciín citoplásmica de calcio y el potencial de membrana son claves para la comprensiín de los procesos que se afectan con el desarrollo de la enfermedad, puesto que cualquier alteraciín de la homeostasis del condrocito articular afecta el metabolismo de los componentes de la matriz extracelular y por ende, las características funcionales del tejido. El presente artículo revisa los principales elementos funcionales del condrocito articular y su entorno en el contexto del transporte de membrana y su regulaciín.

  1. Focal plane electronics for the GAIA focal plane demonstrator

    Michaelis, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Lichopoj, Alexander; Solbrig, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The GAIA mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) comprises two Astro telescopes with a very large common focal plane. The focal plane assembly consist of about 180 CCDs and accompanying video chains. The CCDs are operating in a TDI mode with complex windowing- and binning modes. Low noise, large dynamic range, linearity are mandatory for success of the Mission. Therefore, ESA has initiated a technology demonstrator, which should demonstrate the technical feasibility. Astrium-SAS in Toulouse and DLR-IPF in Berlin have successfully performed the study, in which DLR has developed the CCD- video electronics and the Interconnection Modules for the Focal Plane Demonstrator. The requirements, the conceptional design and the results are presented in this paper.

  2. Defect modelling

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  3. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  4. Effects of recombination human bone morphogenetic protein 2 on articular cartilage repair in rabbits

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is one of the growth factors capable of inducing the new cartilage or bone formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reparative effect of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on articular cartilage defects in rabbits. rhBMP-2 and polylactic acid-polyglycol acid copolymers (PLGA) were from Genetics Institute, (Cambridge, America). The implants consisted of rhBMP-2 and 100 mg of PLGA as a carrier and 0.6 ml of autologous peripheral blood. An Osteochondral defect (6 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth) was made on each femoral groove of rabbit knees. Then, rhBMP-2 composites were implanted into the defects. Rabbits were divided into following 3 groups based on implanted materials. For group 1, the implants without rhBMP-2 were implanted into the defects. For group 11, the implants including I 00 pg of rhBMP-2, and for group 111, those including 200 pg of rhBMP-2 were implanted. These animals were killed at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after implantation. Sections from each osteochondral defect were examined histologically with H and E stain and Safranin-0 stain. The depth of new cartilage formation was measured at the center of the defect area. Some extent of cartilage formation was observed in all groups from 4 weeks, although it was particularly poor in group 1. Group 11 and III had more white surface of newborn cartilage. The surface of new cartilage could be distinguished from adjacent cartilage by its color. Group I showed osteochondral conduction from the surrounding tissue. Group 11 and III had chondrocytes and matrix stained well with Safranin-0. Columnar cell alignment was observed on week 12 of Group 11 and 111. The depth of new cartilage increased by 200 % on week 4 of group III and by 150 % on week 8 of group 11, compared with that of the adjacent cartilage, and decreased by 40-60 % on week 12. The result revealed that 200 pg of rhBMP-2 with 100 mg of PLGA is an effective implant to repair the articular cartilage defects

  5. Stressing the limits of focal adhesion mechanosensitivity

    Oakes, Patrick W.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion assembly and maturation often occurs concomitantly with changes in force generated within the cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix. To coordinate focal adhesion dynamics with force, it has been suggested that focal adhesion dynamics are mechanosensitive. This review discusses current understanding of the regulation of focal adhesion assembly and force transmission, and the limits to which we can consider focal adhesion plaques as mechanosensitive entities.

  6. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  7. The Role of Tissue Engineering in Articular Cartilage Repair and Regeneration

    Zhang, Lijie; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2009-01-01

    Articular cartilage repair and regeneration continue to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased articular cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving articular cartilage therapy. This review provides an overall description of the current state and progress in articular cartilage repair ...

  8. Focal length and focal depth of metallic superlens

    Cao, Pengfei; Cheng, Lin; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoping; Kong, Weijie; Gong, Li; Zhao, Xining

    2012-10-01

    We consider the problems of focal length and focal depth of subwavelength imaging via a silver slab of metallic superlens. The performance limit of the metallic superlens was associated with the losses in the metallic film. The transmittance through a metal film is quite low and decreases exponentially with the thickness of the metal film. In the visible wavelength region, the permittivity of Ag can be approximated by the Drude model, so it can be described as the plural permittivity. The real part ( ɛ' ) of permittivity of the metal slab has been preferably index matched to the host material, and the imaginary part ( ɛ'' ) is considered to prevent ideal reconstruction of the image. Because superlens are usually made of metals with significant intrinsic loss ( ɛ''>0 ), the image is blurred and it is regarded as an ultimate limitation to a near field perfect lens. The real part ( ɛ' )and the imaginary part ( ɛ'' ) of permittivity of the metal slab is the function of the incident wavelength, so we discuss the relationship of the focal length, focal depth and the incident wavelength. We also derive the expression for the resolution limit of metallic lens and demonstrate that the area of its subwavelength performance is usually limited to the near-field zone.

  9. Insight into osteo-articular digital tomosynthesis: a pictorial essay

    The objectives of this pictorial essay are to describe osteo-articular imaging using digital tomosynthesis. We provide characteristic examples in eight patients. Digital tomosynthesis allows easy, fast and low-dose imaging, with excellent spatial resolution.

  10. Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments

    Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments are associated with non-specific clinical signs and symptoms. Familiarity with the MR appearances in particular is important to make an accurate diagnosis, exclude associated abnormalities, and avoid misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage.

    Jazrawi, Laith M; Alaia, Michael J; Chang, Gregory; Fitzgerald, Erin F; Recht, Michael P

    2011-07-01

    The pathology, assessment, and management of articular cartilage lesions of the hip and knee have been the subject of considerable attention in the recent orthopaedic literature. MRI has long been an important tool in the diagnosis and management of articular cartilage pathology, but detecting and interpreting early cartilaginous degeneration with this technology has been difficult. Biochemical-based MRI has been advocated to detect early cartilaginous degenerative changes and assess cartilage repair. Techniques such as T2 mapping, T1rho (ie, T1 in the rotating frame), sodium MRI, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) take advantage of changes in the complex biochemical composition of articular cartilage and may help detect morphologic cartilaginous changes earlier than does conventional MRI. Although the newer modalities have been used primarily in the research setting, their ability to assess the microstructure of articular cartilage may eventually enhance the diagnosis and management of osteoarthritis. PMID:21724921

  12. Sex prevalence of focal dystonias.

    Soland, V L; Bhatia, K. P.; Marsden, C. D.

    1996-01-01

    The sex prevalence of idiopathic focal dystonia is reported from a data base review of all patients seen at the National Hospital of Neurology, Queen Square and King's College, London up to 1993. There was a higher prevalence of females to males in all categories of focal dystonia involving the craniocervical region. The female to male ratio for cranial dystonia was 1.92:1 (P < 0.01) and 1.6:1 (P < 0.001) for spasmodic torticollis. On the other hand, twice as many men than women had writer's ...

  13. Focal Rigidity of Flat Tori

    Ferry Kwakkel; Marco Martens; Mauricio Peixoto

    2011-01-01

    Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g), i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ∪iΣi called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets Σi are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g), i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the m...

  14. Management and evaluation of extra-articular manifestations in spondyloarthritis

    Van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Nurmohamed, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with either predominantly axial symptoms of the spine and sacroiliac joints (axial SpA, including ankylosing spondylitis) or predominantly arthritis (peripheral SpA). Next to these spinal and articular symptoms, many patients with SpA also have extra-articular manifestations (EAMs). EAMs associated with SpA include anterior uveitis (25–30%), psoriasis (10–25%) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (5–10%) and cardiovascular manifestation...

  15. Análise termogravimétrica da cartilagem articular de ratos exercitados após imobilização

    Guilherme Akio Tamura Ozaki; Fábio Yoshikazu Kodama; Regina Celi Trindade Camargo; Aldo Eloizo Job; Tatiana Emy Koike; Adriana Yukie Watanabe; José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A imobilização articular é uma técnica de tratamento frequentemente utilizada na ortopedia e, associada ao processo de senescência, promove alterações tanto na estrutura quanto na síntese e biomecânica do tecido cartilaginoso. OBJETIVO: Descrever os efeitos da imobilização, da remobilização livre e por meio de exercício físico sobre a cartilagem articular de ratos situados em duas faixas etárias. MÉTODOS: Trinta e nove ratos Wistar divididos em dois grupos etários, um grupo adulto...

  16. Friction and wear behaviour of bacterial cellulose against articular cartilage

    Lopes, J.L.; Machado, João Manuel Martins; Castanheira, L.; Granja, P. L.; Gama, F. M.; Dourado, Fernando; Gomes, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural and biocompatible material with unique properties, such as high water holding capacity, ultra-fine fibre network and high strength that makes it an attractive material for the repair of articular cartilage lesions. However, data on the tribological properties of BC is very scarce, particularly if natural articular cartilage is involved in the contact. In this work, unmodified BC pellicles were grown from Gluconacetobacter xylinus in order to be used as tr...

  17. Biomechanical Properties of Peripheral Layer in Articular Cartilage

    Petrtyl, M.; Danesova, J.; Lisal, J.; Sejkotova, J.

    2010-05-01

    Articular cartilage as a complex viscohyperelastic biomaterial possessing supporting and protective functions. It transfers dynamic effects into subchondral and spongious bone and protects chondrocytes (and the matrix material) from their destruction. Under cyclic loads, it also ensures regulated long-term protection of articular cartilage plateaus. The viscoelastic properties of the peripheral zone of articular cartilage and its molecular structure ensure the regulation of the transport and accumulation of synovial fluid between articular plateaus. The viscoelastic properties of articular cartilage in the peripheral zone ensure that during cyclic loading some amount of synovial fluid is always retained accumulated between articular plateaus, which were presupplemented with it in the previous loading cycle. During long-term harmonic cyclic loading and unloading, the strains stabilize at limit values. Shortly after loading, the strain rate is always greater than before unloading. In this way, the hydrodynamic lubrication biomechanism quickly presupplements the surface localities with lubrication material. Shortly after unloading, the strain rate is high. During strain relaxation, it slows down.

  18. Focal glomerulosclerosis treated with heparin.

    Lines, D R; Coleman, M.; Gallus, A.

    1989-01-01

    A boy with focal glomerulosclerosis as a result of nephrotic syndrome became unresponsive to corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. He was given prolonged subcutaneous heparin with reduction in proteinuria, return of corticosteroid sensitivity, and no further deterioration (possibly improvement) in histological appearance. He remained completely well after five years.

  19. Focal glomerulosclerosis treated with heparin.

    Lines, D R; Coleman, M; Gallus, A

    1989-01-01

    A boy with focal glomerulosclerosis as a result of nephrotic syndrome became unresponsive to corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. He was given prolonged subcutaneous heparin with reduction in proteinuria, return of corticosteroid sensitivity, and no further deterioration (possibly improvement) in histological appearance. He remained completely well after five years. PMID:2774618

  20. Focal lesions of the patella

    Hedayati, B. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

  1. Arthoscopy La artroscopia y las lesiones articulares

    Raúl J. Naranjo

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A general view is presented on arthroscopy; its history, indications and limitations are described and analyzed; its advantages in comparison with open surgery are emphasized.

    La artroscopia es un procedimiento que permite, mediante un instrumento óptico, evaluar el Interior de las cavidades articulares. Comenzó a desarrollarse como un procedimiento diagnóstico y pronto sus grandes ventajas frente a las exploraciones abiertas aceleraron el desarrollo de las técnicas y del instrumental. La minimización del trauma a los tejidos y la menor morbilidad posoperatoria permiten que la deambulación y la recuperación funcional sean precoces lo cual, sumado a un mejor resultado estético, ha colocado a la artroscopia como procedimiento de elección para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de múltiples estados patológicos intraarticulares.

  2. Articular cartilage: from formation to tissue engineering.

    Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2016-05-26

    Hyaline cartilage is the nonlinear, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, poro-viscoelastic connective tissue that serves as friction-reducing and load-bearing cushion in synovial joints and is vital for mammalian skeletal movements. Due to its avascular nature, low cell density, low proliferative activity and the tendency of chondrocytes to de-differentiate, cartilage cannot regenerate after injury, wear and tear, or degeneration through common diseases such as osteoarthritis. Therefore severe damage usually requires surgical intervention. Current clinical strategies to generate new tissue include debridement, microfracture, autologous chondrocyte transplantation, and mosaicplasty. While articular cartilage was predicted to be one of the first tissues to be successfully engineered, it proved to be challenging to reproduce the complex architecture and biomechanical properties of the native tissue. Despite significant research efforts, only a limited number of studies have evolved up to the clinical trial stage. This review article summarizes the current state of cartilage tissue engineering in the context of relevant biological aspects, such as the formation and growth of hyaline cartilage, its composition, structure and biomechanical properties. Special attention is given to materials development, scaffold designs, fabrication methods, and template-cell interactions, which are of great importance to the structure and functionality of the engineered tissue. PMID:26923076

  3. Chondrocytes, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and Their Combination in Articular Cartilage Regenerative Medicine.

    Nazempour, A; Van Wie, B J

    2016-05-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is a highly organized connective tissue lining, covering the ends of bones within articulating joints. Its highly ordered structure is essential for stable motion and provides a frictionless surface easing load transfer. AC is vulnerable to lesions and, because it is aneural and avascular, it has limited self-repair potential which often leads to osteoarthritis. To date, no fully successful treatment for osteoarthritis has been reported. Thus, the development of innovative therapeutic approaches is desperately needed. Autologous chondrocyte implantation, the only cell-based surgical intervention approved in the United States for treating cartilage defects, has limitations because of de-differentiation of articular chondrocytes (AChs) upon in vitro expansion. De-differentiation can be abated if initial populations of AChs are co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which not only undergo chondrogenesis themselves but also support chondrocyte vitality. In this review we summarize studies utilizing AChs, non-AChs, and MSCs and compare associated outcomes. Moreover, a comprehensive set of recent human studies using chondrocytes to direct MSC differentiation, MSCs to support chondrocyte re-differentiation and proliferation in co-culture environments, and exploratory animal intra- and inter-species studies are systematically reviewed and discussed in an innovative manner allowing side-by-side comparisons of protocols and outcomes. Finally, a comprehensive set of recommendations are made for future studies. PMID:26987846

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees

    The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees

    Muhle, Claus [Marienhospital Vechta, Department of Radiology, Vechta (Germany); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Mo Ahn, Joong [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

  6. In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Oriented Scaffold-BMSC Construct for Enhancing Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Model

    Jia, Shuaijun; Zhang, Ting; Xiong, Zhuo; Pan, Weimin; Liu, Jian; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has been proven usefulness in cartilage defect repair. For effective cartilage repair, the structural orientation of the cartilage scaffold should mimic that of native articular cartilage, as this orientation is closely linked to cartilage mechanical functions. Using thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS) technology, we have fabricated an oriented cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived scaffold with a Young's modulus value 3 times higher than that of a random sc...

  7. Focal rigidity of flat tori

    Ferry Kwakkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ∪iΣi called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets Σi are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ∪iΣi chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos Σi estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

  8. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  9. Unconventional treatment of focal shift

    Vokinger, Urs; Dändliker, René; Blattner, Peter; Herzig, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present an unconventional approach for the explanation of focal shift behind a lens. It is based on the fact that, within the approximation of Fresnel diffraction, the intensity distributions in the conjugate planes of a lens are equal to their geometrical images. We show that the focus (position of highest intensity) is always shifted towards the lens. The results for a Gaussian beam and a uniform converging spherical wave are presented.

  10. Animal Models of Focal Dystonia

    Evinger, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Animal models indicate that the abnormal movements of focal dystonia result from disordered sensorimotor integration. Sensorimotor integration involves a comparison of sensory information resulting from a movement with the sensory information expected from the movement. Unanticipated sensory signals identified by sensorimotor processing serve as signals to modify the ongoing movement or the planning for subsequent movements. Normally, this process is an effective mechanism to modify ...

  11. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

  12. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized. Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe. Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes. New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life. Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias. The most common findings on MRI imaging include: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also in both types the lesion seen on MRI may be smaller than the seizure-generating region seen in the EEG. The abnormalities may also involve vital for life brain parts, where curative surgery will not be an option. Therefore, other diagnostic imaging techniques such as FDG PET, MEG, DTI and intra-cranial EEG are widely used to establish the diagnosis and to decide on management. With advances in both genetics and neuroimaging, we may develop a better understanding of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, which will help us to provide more successful pharmacological and/or surgical treatment in the future

  13. Ventricular Septal Defect

    ... in adults Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Tetralogy of Fallot Atrioventricular Canal Defect Transposition of the Great Arteries ... Select Topic Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Tetralogy of Fallot Atrioventricular Canal Defect Transposition of the Great Arteries ...

  14. Surface modified PLGA/carbon nanofiber composite enhances articular chondrocyte functions

    Park, Grace Eunseung

    Since articular cartilage has a limited self regeneration capability, alternative methods are needed for repairing cartilage defects. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to explore the effects of material surface properties and external stimulation on chondrocyte (cartilage-synthesizing cell) functions. Based on this information, a goal of this research was to propose a scaffold composite material for enhancing articular chondrocyte function. To improve functions of chondrocytes, material (namely, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); PLGA) surfaces were modified via chemical (NaOH) etching techniques. Chondrocytes were cultured on surface-modified 2-D PLGA films and 3-D PLGA tissue engineering scaffolds, which were created by a salt-leaching method. Carbon nanofibers were imprinted on PLGA matrices in an aligned pattern for controlled electrically-active surface features. Electrical stimulation was applied to expedite and enhance chondrocyte functions. Results demonstrated that both NaOH-treated 2-D and 3-D substrates enhanced chondrocyte functions (cell numbers as well as extracellular matrix production) compared to non-treated PLGA substrates. Furthermore, chondrocytes preferred to attach along the carbon nanofiber patterns imprinted on PLGA. Electrical stimulation also enhanced chondrocyte functions on carbon nanofiber/PLGA composites. Underlying material properties that may have enhanced chondrocyte functions include a more hydrophilic surface, surface energy differences due to the presence of carbon nanofibers, increased surface area, altered porosity, and a greater degree of nanometer roughness. Moreover, these altered surface properties positively influenced select protein adsorption that controlled subsequent chondrocyte adhesion. Collectively, this study provided a scaffold model for osteochondral defects that can be synthesized using the above techniques and a layer by layer approach to accommodate the property differences in each layer of natural cartilage. Specifically, these results suggest that the superficial zone, middle zone, and deep zone of cartilage should be composed of carbon nanofibers aligned parallel to the surface in PLGA, randomly oriented carbon nanofibers in PLGA, and carbon nanofibers aligned perpendicular to the surface in PLGA, respectively. Clearly, such scaffolds may ultimately enhance the efficacy of scaffolds used for articular cartilage repair.

  15. Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares Update on infections in articular prosthesis

    Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infectadas, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-positivas são predominantes nas contaminações das próteses articulares, em especial o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus epidermidis. As infecções causadas por bacilos gram-negativos e fungos como Candida sp vêm sendo relatadas com maior frequência em todo o mundo. As infecções de próteses articulares apresentam sinais característicos que podem ser divididos em manifestações agudas (dor severa, febre alta, toxemia, calor, rubor e secreção na ferida operatória e crônicas (dor progressiva, formação de fístulas cutâneas, com drenagem de secreção purulenta, sem febre. O diagnóstico definitivo da infecção deve ser realizado através do isolamento em cultura do micro-organismo obtido a partir da punção do líquido articular, secreção da ferida cirúrgica e materiais colhidos durante desbridamento cirúrgico. É fundamental a cobertura de S.aureus meticilino-resistente, visto a importância epidemiológica deste agente nessas infecções. O tempo total da antibioticoterapia varia de seis semanas a seis meses, sendo que o tratamento deve ser readequado quando necessário, com base nos resultados das culturas colhidas.The implantation of artificial joints, especially the hip and knee, is becoming increasingly common, representing a significant reduction in discomfort and an immeasurable improvement in patient mobility. Reviews of the global literature indicate that 1-5% of these grafts become infected, though it is important to remember that, as the number of surgeries for implantation of these prosthesis grows, so will the number of cases of this type of infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the contamination of joint prosthesis, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections caused by gram-negative bacilli and fungi such as Candida sp have been reported with increased frequency throughout the world. Infections of joint prosthesis have characteristic signals that can be divided into acute (severe pain, high fever, toxemia, heat, redness, and wound secretion and chronic (progressive pain, cutaneous fistula formation, with pus drainage, no fever manifestations. The definitive diagnosis of the infection should be made through the isolation in culture of the micro-organism obtained from the puncture of the joint fluid, surgical wound secretion, and material collected during surgical debridement. It is essential to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, given the epidemiological importance of this agent in these infections. The total time of antibiotic therapy varies from six weeks to six months, and that treatment should be adjusted as needed, based on the results of culturing.

  16. How to 'visualize' lattice defects

    Methods to recognize objects are discussed. In case of optics, lenses are used, and light from objects passing through the lenses focuses on focal planes. The amplitude of light on the focal planes in given as a function of the structure factor of scattering light from objects, images of objects are made on image planes. In case of X-ray or neutron diffraction, lenses which make images by X-ray or neutrons can not be made, accordingly images cannot be obtained. Images can be seen with electron microscopes. By X-ray or thermal neutron diffraction, intensity on focal planes in observed, and the defects to be studied are recognized as diffuse scattering. Since it is necessary to minimize aberration in case of image observation with electron microscopes, slits are used to utilize electron beam near optical axis exclusively. Therefore large resolving power cannot be expected. The information concerning structure obtained from focal planes is of statistical nature, and that from image planes is local information. The principle of neutron topography, by which the informations concerning local points are obtained, is explained. A photograph of LiF irradiated by 0.5 MeV proton beam was taken by the topographic method, and shown in this paper. (Kato, T.)

  17. A method for measuring contact pressures instantaneously in articular joints.

    Inaba, H; Arai, M

    1989-01-01

    A method whereby instrumented pipes are inserted part of the way into articular cartilage from the underlying subchondral bone has been developed for measuring instantaneous contact pressures acting within articular joints. Contact pressures developed between two specimens cut from fresh cadaveric knee joints were measured with this technique and then subsequently with pressure-sensitive paper. Average contact pressures (load/contact area) were also calculated. Comparisons of the three sets of data show that contact pressures measured with the pressure pipe system are linearly related (p less than 0.001) to both the contact pressures measured with the pressure-sensitive paper and the calculated average contact pressures. PMID:2625431

  18. Articular scintiscanning and thermography as diagnostic aids in rheumatoid arthritis

    The two methods of articular scintiscanning and thermography are valuable diagnostic aids in chromical polyarthritis. Their value is not in the nice pictures obtained but in the possibility to make a quantitative statement on the degree of joint inflammation. At the moment, the expenditure in technics, equipment and time is relatively high. If the method of measurement were to become more simple, the clinician would be able to obtain new aspects to judge articular diseases and their prognosis. To those working in research, there is the future possibility that the effect of drugs may be observed directly in the joint or in the bone. (orig.)

  19. Corrective Osteotomies for Malunited Extra-Articular Calcaneal Fractures.

    Ketz, John; Clare, Michael; Sanders, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The most effective way to treat calcaneal malunions is avoidance. With any articular fracture, progressive arthrosis and dysfunction are common. By restoring the anatomy initially through reduction, late reconstructive options become less complicated. Numerous studies have shown that restoration of the anatomic alignment either through percutaneous or open techniques is effective. In patients with no or minimal articular degeneration, extrarticular joint-sparing procedures can be performed. This represents a small select group who may benefit from simple osteotomy procedures with associated soft tissue reconstruction, if needed. PMID:26915784

  20. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone. PMID:22282105

  1. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging

    Murphy, B.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

  3. Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of articular surfaces of joint replacement

    Pavlova, Ewa; Dybal, Jiří; Schmidt, Pavel; Brunclíková, Miroslava; Pokorný, D.; Sosna, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    Praha : Československá mikroskopická společnost, 2006. s. 40. [Konference Mikroskopie 2006. 16.02.2006-17.02.2006, Nové Město na Moravě] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/1118 Keywords : UHMWPE * articular surfaces Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  4. Early micromovement of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) femoral component

    Penny, J O; Ding, M; Varmarken, J E; Ovesen, O; Overgaard, S

    2012-01-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovemen...

  5. Focal axis resolver for offset reflector antennas

    Schmidt, R. F. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the focal axis of an asymmetrical antenna such as an offset paraboloid reflector whose physical rim is not coincident with the boundary of the electrical aperture but whose focal point is known is provided. A transmitting feed horn array consisting of at least two feed horn elements is positioned asymmetrically on either side of an estimated focal axis which is generally inclined with respect to the boresight axis of the antenna. The feed horn array is aligned with the estimated focal axis so that the phase centers (CP sub 1, CP sub 2) of the two feed horn elements are located on a common line running through the focal point (F) orthogonally with respect to the estimated focal axis.

  6. Defect branes

    Bergshoeff, Eric A., E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.nl [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Ortin, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Ortin@csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, C/Nicolas Cabrera, 13-15, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Riccioni, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.riccioni@roma1.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2012-03-11

    We discuss some general properties of 'defect branes', i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 3 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To D Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 10 as well as their higher-dimensional string and M-theory origin as branes and a set of 'generalized' Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed-symmetry tensors. These mixed-symmetry tensors can be defined at the linearized level as duals of the supergravity potentials that describe propagating degrees of freedom. It is noted that the number of supersymmetric defect branes is always twice the number of corresponding central charges in the supersymmetry algebra.

  7. RTG diagnostics of dental focal infection

    The theory of focal infection has always been and still is a controversial issue for many dentists and scientists. Even though the focal infection does not occupy the first place in modern medicine, its understanding is imperative. The authors summarized the knowledge about dental focal infection and its relationship to systemic the diseases of the whole body in their publication and they also focused on the radiodiagnostics of this disease. (authors)

  8. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Alexandrova Е.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  9. The Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Steroid Injection for Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison between the Extra-Articular and Intra-Articular Approaches

    To assess the effectiveness of pain control using ultrasound-guided steroid injection by the extra-articular and intra-articular approaches to femoroacetabular impingement patients. From September through December 2010, 18 patients with clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided steroid and local anesthetics injection: a total of 20 cases, including 16 cases of ipsilateral and 2 cases of bilateral injection. Extra-articular or intra-articular approach was selected for each patient, randomly and alternately. Nine cases were performed by extra-articular approach and 11 cases were performed by intra-articular approach. Every patient was observed in the outpatient clinic and visual analogue scale (VAS) was taken and compared before and after the procedure in all patients. Pre-injection average VAS value of extra-articular approached cases was 5.22 ± 1.99 and post-injection average VAS value was 4.11 ± 1.96, which is statistically insignificant (p < 0.156). The average VAS value of intra-articular approached cases was decreased from 5.72 ± 2.15 to 2.91 ± 2.30 after injection, which is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Ultrasound guided intra-articular approached steroid and local anesthetics injection could be effective in controlling pain for patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

  10. The Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Steroid Injection for Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison between the Extra-Articular and Intra-Articular Approaches

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Lee, Joon Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    To assess the effectiveness of pain control using ultrasound-guided steroid injection by the extra-articular and intra-articular approaches to femoroacetabular impingement patients. From September through December 2010, 18 patients with clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided steroid and local anesthetics injection: a total of 20 cases, including 16 cases of ipsilateral and 2 cases of bilateral injection. Extra-articular or intra-articular approach was selected for each patient, randomly and alternately. Nine cases were performed by extra-articular approach and 11 cases were performed by intra-articular approach. Every patient was observed in the outpatient clinic and visual analogue scale (VAS) was taken and compared before and after the procedure in all patients. Pre-injection average VAS value of extra-articular approached cases was 5.22 {+-} 1.99 and post-injection average VAS value was 4.11 {+-} 1.96, which is statistically insignificant (p < 0.156). The average VAS value of intra-articular approached cases was decreased from 5.72 {+-} 2.15 to 2.91 {+-} 2.30 after injection, which is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Ultrasound guided intra-articular approached steroid and local anesthetics injection could be effective in controlling pain for patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

  11. Defect Branes

    Bergshoeff, E.; Ortin, T.; Riccioni, F.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss some general properties of "defect branes", i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 2 < D < 11 as well as their higher-dimensionalstring and M-theory origin as branes and a set of "generalized" Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed-symmetry tensors....

  12. Use of a chronic model of articular cartilage and meniscal injury for the assessment of long-term effects after autologous mesenchymal stromal cell treatment in sheep.

    Caminal, Marta; Fonseca, Carla; Peris, David; Moll, Xavier; Rabanal, Rosa M; Barrachina, Josep; Codina, David; García, Félix; Cairó, Jordi J; Gòdia, Francesc; Pla, Arnau; Vives, Joaquim

    2014-09-25

    Regenerative therapies using adult stem cells have attracted great interest in the recent years and offer a promising alternative to current surgical practices. In this report, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of an autologous cell-based treatment of osteoarthritis using mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from bone marrow aspirates that were administered intra-articularly. Ten 2-year old ewes were divided in two groups (for analysis at 6 and 12 months, respectively). Full thickness articular cartilage defects of approximately 60mm(2) were created arthroscopically in the medial femorotibial condyles and a meniscal tear in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in the 20 hind legs. Intra-articular injection of 4 mL of either treatment (a suspension of cells) or control (same as treatment, without cells) were applied one month after generating a chronic condition similar to human pathology. Animals were monitored radiographically, by MRI and ultrasound scanning; and macroscopic and histological analyses were conducted at 6 and 12 months. Furthermore a full necropsy was performed at 12 months post-treatment. The intra-articular injection of autologous MSC was safe, as judged by the lack of local or systemic adverse effects during the clinical follow-up and by a full necropsy performed at 12 months post-treatment. Evidence of regeneration of articular cartilage and meniscus was case-dependent but statistically significant improvement was found in specific macroscopic and histological parameters. Such parameters included colour, rigidity, cell distribution and hyaline quality of the refill tissue as well as the structure of subchondral bone. PMID:25063342

  13. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  14. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia

  15. Influence of Exercise and Intra-articular Site on Canals in Articular Calcified Cartilage of Equine Third Carpal Bones.

    Herdan, C L; Nicholson, C L; Firth, E C

    2016-05-01

    The third carpal bone (C3) responds to exercise by adaptive modeling of bone and articular calcified cartilage along the dorsal load path. Canals penetrating articular calcified cartilage, thought to contain vascular tissue, are reported in numerous species. Their significance remains unclear. Our objective was to determine if the number of canals was significantly different in strenuously exercised and control young horses and in a site of intermittent high loading compared to sites sustaining lower habitual loads. Volumetric bone mineral density in the radial facet of C3 of strenuously exercised and gently exercised (control) 19-month-old thoroughbred horses (n= 6/group) was determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The hyaline cartilage was corroded to expose the surface of articular calcified cartilage. The number of canals penetrating the articular calcified cartilage surface in en face scanning electron microscopy images was compared in 4 regions. Volumetric bone mineral density of C3 was significantly greater (P= .004) in strenuously exercised horses. There were 2 morphologically distinct groups of canals and significantly fewer (P= .006) large canals in the dorsal than in the palmar aspect of C3 in control but not in exercised horses. Roughly circular depressions in the articular calcified cartilage surface around apparently forming canals were visible in some samples and have not been previously described in the literature. The canals may be evidence of chondroclastic activity reaching the interface of hyaline and calcified cartilage. Further work is needed to elucidate the relationships between presence of canals and the responses to exercise and to joint disease. PMID:26169383

  16. Pneumatized Articular Eminence and Assessment of Its Prevalence and Features on Panoramic Radiographs

    Leila Khojastepour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pneumatized articular eminence or tubercle (PAT is an air cell cavity in the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. Pneumatization of articular eminence may be seen incidentally on panoramic radiographs (PR as a unilocular or multilocular, radiolucent defect. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and the pattern of PAT on PR in an Iranian population.Materials and Methods: A total of 3,098 PRs belonging to 1,735 females and 1,363 males were retrospectively investigated for the presence and radiographic features of PAT. All PRs were taken for routine dental examination. Chi-square test, univariate odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI and binary lo- gistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results: PAT was found in 2.1 % of cases including 41 females and 23 males   (with a mean age of 33.23±12.43 and 35.64±13.24 years, respectively, range 19-69 years. There were 40 unilateral and 24 bilateral cases (total: 88 PAT in this study including 49 unilocular and 39 multilocular cases. There was no significant difference in PATbetween males and females or different age groups. (P>0.05 and all 95% CI included1. Binary logistic regression indicated that there was no relationship between the pres- ence of PAT and age or sex.Conclusion: Knowledge about this anatomical variation is helpful for clinicians who are planning to perform temporomandibular joint surgery. They should asses the radio- graphic imaging thoroughly before the surgery. It can also provide valuable information to understand the differential diagnosis of pathological entities in this region.

  17. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A benign, non-neoplastic, reactive growth of the liver, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH of the liver was first clearly described by Edmondson in the 1950’s, although there are various prior reports that likely represent the same lesion. A variety of synonyms have been applied including focal cirrhosis, pedunculated adenoma, solitary hyperplastic nodule, mixed adenoma, hamartoma and hamartomatous cholangeiohepatoma.

  18. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  19. In vivo bone tunnel remodeling in symptomatic patients after ACL reconstruction: a retrospective comparison of articular and extra-articular fixation

    Mathis, Dominic T.; Rasch, Helmut; Hirschmann, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background there is only a paucity of studies dealing with bone remodeling within the tunnels after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tendon graft type and surgical fixation technique on bone tunnel remodeling in patients with symptomatic knees after ACL reconstruction. Methods in a retrospective study 99mTc-HDP bone tracer uptake (BTU) in SPECT/CT of 57 knees with symptoms of pain and/or instability after ACL reconstruction was investigated. All 57 knees were subdivided according their anatomy (femur and tibia), fixation (articular versus extra-articular fixation) and graft types into eight groups: femoral-articular versus extra-articular fixation using bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and hamstring autografts; tibial-articular versus extra-articular fixation using patellar tendon and hamstring autografts; BTU grading for each area of the localisation scheme were recorded. Tunnel diameter and length was measured in the CT scans. Results BTU was higher for the articular fixation in the femur and for the extra-articular fixation in the tibial tunnel. Patellar tendon graft fixation showed a significantly higher BTU in the superior-lateral and posterior-central area of the tibia, meaning the areas of the tibial tunnel near the entrance into the joint. Tunnel enlargement correlated significantly with increased BTU (preconstruction revealed different patterns of BTU with regards to graft and fixation method.

  20. [Intra-articular fractures of the elbow in childhood].

    Engelhardt, P

    1988-06-01

    Correct assessment of the prognosis is a special problem in intra-articular fractures of the elbow in children. Pseudarthrosis, which is other-wise not seen in children, is often observed in fractures of the radial condyle but, together with other post-traumatic dislocations (fishtail deformity), is of little functional significance. In principle, an operation should be performed even on slightly dislocated fragments at the distal humeral joint surface. Intra-articular fractures of the proximal ulna also tend to result in persistent dislocations and therefore require exact repositioning. Fractures of the head of the radius can usually be expected to reduce spontaneously with astonishingly good results and only seldom require open repositioning. Growth disturbances can occur many years after the original injury - even if the treatment is correct. PMID:3405605

  1. Intra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint

    Al-Shraim Mubarak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-articular lipoma arborescens (LA is a rare entity that can present with monoarticular or polyarticular involvement of joints such as knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, and elbows. We describe a case in a 26-year-old man who presented with intermittent pain and swelling of the left knee joint for the previous 2 years. Physical examination showed only tenderness over the medial line of the left knee joint. MRI found only joint effusion; therefore, the patient was referred to the orthopedic clinic where he underwent arthroscopy, which revealed a diffuse yellow soft tissue synovial papillary growth involving both medial and lateral gutters of the suprapatellar pouch. A biopsy reported intra-articular LA. This is the first case of LA reported in Saudi Arabia. LA should be included in the clinical and radiologic differential diagnosis of cases with persistent knee joint effusion.

  2. Early vision and focal attention

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  3. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  4. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

  5. Outcome of ACL Reconstruction and Concomitant Articular Injury Treatment

    Seyed Mohammad Tahami; Seyed Mohammad Derakhshan rad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage injuries are a common clinical problem at the time of ACL reconstruction with an incidence rate of 16-46%. Good results of ACL reconstruction combined with the treatment of chondral lesions have been published in some studies. Method: After statistical analysis 30 patients were selected and divided in 2 groups. TheFfirst group consisted of 15 patients wite isolated ACL tear without any other concomitant injuries and the second group consisted of 15 patients wit...

  6. Resurfacing Damaged Articular Cartilage to Restore Compressive Properties

    Grenier, Stephanie; Donnelly, Patrick E; Gittens, Jamila; Torzilli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Surface damage to articular cartilage is recognized as the initial underlying process causing the loss of mechanical function in early-stage osteoarthritis. In this study, we developed structure-modifying treatments to potentially prevent, stabilize or reverse the loss in mechanical function. Various polymers (chondroitin sulfate, carboxymethylcellulose, sodium hyaluronate) and photoinitiators (riboflavin, irgacure 2959) were applied to the surface of collagenase-degraded cartilage and crossl...

  7. Intra-Articular Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Injections Are Not Innocent

    Murat Tonbul; Mujdat Adas; Taner Bekmezci; Ahmet Duran Kara

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic disorder characterized by joint cartilage degeneration with concomitant changes in the synovium and subchondral bone metabolism. Many conservative treatment modalities, one of which is intra-articular injections, have been described for the treatment of this disorder. Traditionally, hyaluranic acid and corticosteroids are the agents that have been used for this purpose. Recently, polyacrylamide hydrogels are being used widely. Biocompatibility, nonbioabsorbability,...

  8. Use magnetic resonance imaging to assess articular cartilage

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E.; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables a noninvasive, three-dimensional assessment of the entire joint, simultaneously allowing the direct visualization of articular cartilage. Thus, MRI has become the imaging modality of choice in both clinical and research settings of musculoskeletal diseases, particular for osteoarthritis (OA). Although radiography, the current gold standard for the assessment of OA, has had recent significant technical advances, radiographic methods have significant lim...

  9. Combinatorial scaffold morphologies for zonal articular cartilage engineering ☆

    Steele, J.A.M.; McCullen, S.D.; Callanan, A.; Autefage, H.; Accardi, M.A.; Dini, D.; Stevens, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine strategies as cartilage function stems from a complex depth-dependent organization. Tissue engineering scaffolds that vary in morphology and function offer a template for zone-specific cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical properties. We fabricated multi-zone cartilage scaffolds by the electrostatic deposition of polymer microfibres onto particulate-templated scaffolds produced with 0.03 ...

  10. Tissue Engineering of Articular Cartilage with Biomimetic Zones

    Klein, Travis J; MALDA, Jos; Sah, Robert L.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

    2009-01-01

    Articular cartilage damage is a persistent and increasing problem with the aging population, and treatments to achieve biological repair or restoration remain a challenge. Cartilage tissue engineering approaches have been investigated for over 20 years, but have yet to achieve the consistency and effectiveness for widespread clinical use. One of the potential reasons for this is that the engineered tissues do not have or establish the normal zonal organization of cells and extracellular matri...

  11. Particulated Juvenile Articular Cartilage Implantation in the Knee

    Stevens, Hazel Y; Shockley, Blake E.; Willett, Nick J.; Lin, Angela S.P.; Raji, Yazdan; Guldberg, Robert E.; Labib, Sameh A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this report is to describe the outcome of sequential particulated cartilage allograft and autologous osteochondral transfer treatments for an osteochondral lesion of the medial femoral condyle. Methods: A 44-year-old woman was treated with a particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft (DeNovo NT) for a chondral lesion of the knee. As a result of continued pain, she had 2 further surgeries, including an autologous osteochondral transfer system procedure and final...

  12. Tribological evaluation of hydrogels for artificial articular cartilage

    Lopes, J.L.; Machado, João Manuel Martins; Castanheira, L.; Granja, P. L.; Gama, F. M.; Dourado, Fernando; Gomes, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural and biocompatible gel with unique properties, such as high water holding capacity, ultra-fine fibre network and high strength that make it an interesting material for biotribological purposes. In this work, unmodified BC pellicles were grown from Gluconacetobacter xylinus in order to be used as tribological samples against bovine articular cartilage (BAC) in the presence of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The tribological assessment was accomplished usin...

  13. Engineering articular cartilage using newly developed carrageenan basedhydrogels

    Popa, Elena Geta

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage holds specific functionality in the human body creating smooth gliding areas and allowing the joints to move easily without pain. However, due to its avascular nature and to the low metabolic activity of the constituent cells-the chondrocytes, cartilage has a low regenerative potential. The current surgical options to treat damaged cartilage are not long lasting and involve frequent revisions. Tissue engineering may provide an alternative approach for cartilage...

  14. Effect of donor age on DNA repair by articular chondrocytes

    The hypothesis that aging of articular chondrocytes at a cellular level results from loss of DNA repair capability was studied by two different measures: unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and O6-methylguanine acceptor protein (MGAP) activity. UDS following damage by 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation (20J/m2) was examined in intact articular cartilage from rabbits of different ages. Semiconservative DNA synthesis was suppressed with hydroxurea and repair followed by the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine ([3H]-dThd). After repair the cartilage was digested in proteinase K (0.5mg/ml) with dodecyl sodium sulfate (0.2%) and DNA determined with Hoechst 33258 dye. UDS (dpm [3H]-dThd/?g DNA) was greater in articular cartilage from 3- than 39-month-old rabbits. MGAP was studied in cell extracts of cultured human and rabbit chondrocytes by transfer of [3H] O6-methyl groups from exogenous DNA to protein. It was significantly less in rabbit than in human cells on a per protein or DNA basis. There was no decline in this activity in human chondrocytes from newborn to 60 years of age; and rabbits from 3- to 36-months-old. The data indicate that in the two different repair mechanisms, age differences are found with resting but not dividing chondrocytes

  15. A vision on the future of articular cartilage repair

    M Cucchiarini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An AO Foundation (Davos, Switzerland sponsored workshop "Cell Therapy in Cartilage Repair" from the Symposium "Where Science meets Clinics" (September 5-7, 2013, Davos gathered leaders from medicine, science, industry, and regulatory organisations to debate the vision of cell therapy in articular cartilage repair and the measures that could be taken to narrow the gap between vision and current practice. Cell-based therapy is already in clinical use to enhance the repair of cartilage lesions, with procedures such as microfracture and articular chondrocyte implantation. However, even though long term follow up is good from a clinical perspective and some of the most rigorous randomised controlled trials in the regenerative medicine/orthopaedics field show beneficial effect, none of these options have proved successful in restoring the original articular cartilage structure and functionality in patients so far. With the remarkable recent advances in experimental research in cell biology (new sources for chondrocytes, stem cells, molecular biology (growth factors, genes, biomaterials, biomechanics, and translational science, a combined effort between scientists and clinicians with broad expertise may allow development of an improved cell therapy for cartilage repair. This position paper describes the current state of the art in the field to help define a procedure adapted to the clinical situation for upcoming translation in the patient.

  16. Flavonoid Compound Icariin Activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1? in Chondrocytes and Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair

    He, Qiling; Wang, Jianqi; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Shu, Yinglan; Tsang, Wing Pui; Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Kai; Wan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage has poor capability for repair following trauma or degenerative pathology due to avascular property, low cell density and migratory ability. Discovery of novel therapeutic approaches for articular cartilage repair remains a significant clinical need. Hypoxia is a hallmark for cartilage development and pathology. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1?) has been identified as a key mediator for chondrocytes to response to fluctuations of oxygen availability during cartilage development or repair. This suggests that HIF-1? may serve as a target for modulating chondrocyte functions. In this study, using phenotypic cellular screen assays, we identify that Icariin, an active flavonoid component from Herba Epimedii, activates HIF-1? expression in chondrocytes. We performed systemic in vitro and in vivo analysis to determine the roles of Icariin in regulation of chondrogenesis. Our results show that Icariin significantly increases hypoxia responsive element luciferase reporter activity, which is accompanied by increased accumulation and nuclear translocation of HIF-1? in murine chondrocytes. The phenotype is associated with inhibiting PHD activity through interaction between Icariin and iron ions. The upregulation of HIF-1? mRNA levels in chondrocytes persists during chondrogenic differentiation for 7 and 14 days. Icariin (10?6 M) increases the proliferation of chondrocytes or chondroprogenitors examined by MTT, BrdU incorporation or colony formation assays. Icariin enhances chondrogenic marker expression in a micromass culture including Sox9, collagen type 2 (Col2?1) and aggrecan as determined by real-time PCR and promotes extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis indicated by Alcian blue staining. ELISA assays show dramatically increased production of aggrecan and hydroxyproline in Icariin-treated cultures at day 14 of chondrogenic differentiation as compared with the controls. Meanwhile, the expression of chondrocyte catabolic marker genes including Mmp2, Mmp9, Mmp13, Adamts4 and Adamts5 was downregulated following Icariin treatment for 14 days. In a differentiation assay using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) carrying HIF-1? floxed allele, the promotive effect of Icariin on chondrogenic differentiation is largely decreased following Cre recombinase-mediated deletion of HIF-1? in MSCs as indicated by Alcian blue staining for proteoglycan synthesis. In an alginate hydrogel 3D culture system, Icariin increases Safranin O positive (SO+) cartilage area. This phenotype is accompanied by upregulation of HIF-1?, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive (PCNA+) cell numbers, SOX9+ chondrogenic cell numbers, and Col2 expression in the newly formed cartilage. Coincide with the micromass culture, Icariin treatment upregulates mRNA levels of Sox9, Col2?1, aggrecan and Col10?1 in the 3D cultures. We then generated alginate hydrogel 3D complexes incorporated with Icariin. The 3D complexes were transplanted in a mouse osteochondral defect model. ICRS II histological scoring at 6 and 12 weeks post-transplantation shows that 3D complexes incorporated with Icariin significantly enhance articular cartilage repair with higher scores particularly in selected parameters including SO+ cartilage area, subchondral bone and overall assessment than that of the controls. The results suggest that Icariin may inhibit PHD activity likely through competition for cellular iron ions and therefore it may serve as an HIF-1? activator to promote articular cartilage repair through regulating chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and integration with subchondral bone formation. PMID:26841115

  17. Flavonoid Compound Icariin Activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1? in Chondrocytes and Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Wang, Pengzhen; Zhang, Fengjie; He, Qiling; Wang, Jianqi; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Shu, Yinglan; Tsang, Wing Pui; Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Kai; Wan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage has poor capability for repair following trauma or degenerative pathology due to avascular property, low cell density and migratory ability. Discovery of novel therapeutic approaches for articular cartilage repair remains a significant clinical need. Hypoxia is a hallmark for cartilage development and pathology. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1?) has been identified as a key mediator for chondrocytes to response to fluctuations of oxygen availability during cartilage development or repair. This suggests that HIF-1? may serve as a target for modulating chondrocyte functions. In this study, using phenotypic cellular screen assays, we identify that Icariin, an active flavonoid component from Herba Epimedii, activates HIF-1? expression in chondrocytes. We performed systemic in vitro and in vivo analysis to determine the roles of Icariin in regulation of chondrogenesis. Our results show that Icariin significantly increases hypoxia responsive element luciferase reporter activity, which is accompanied by increased accumulation and nuclear translocation of HIF-1? in murine chondrocytes. The phenotype is associated with inhibiting PHD activity through interaction between Icariin and iron ions. The upregulation of HIF-1? mRNA levels in chondrocytes persists during chondrogenic differentiation for 7 and 14 days. Icariin (10-6 M) increases the proliferation of chondrocytes or chondroprogenitors examined by MTT, BrdU incorporation or colony formation assays. Icariin enhances chondrogenic marker expression in a micromass culture including Sox9, collagen type 2 (Col2?1) and aggrecan as determined by real-time PCR and promotes extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis indicated by Alcian blue staining. ELISA assays show dramatically increased production of aggrecan and hydroxyproline in Icariin-treated cultures at day 14 of chondrogenic differentiation as compared with the controls. Meanwhile, the expression of chondrocyte catabolic marker genes including Mmp2, Mmp9, Mmp13, Adamts4 and Adamts5 was downregulated following Icariin treatment for 14 days. In a differentiation assay using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) carrying HIF-1? floxed allele, the promotive effect of Icariin on chondrogenic differentiation is largely decreased following Cre recombinase-mediated deletion of HIF-1? in MSCs as indicated by Alcian blue staining for proteoglycan synthesis. In an alginate hydrogel 3D culture system, Icariin increases Safranin O positive (SO+) cartilage area. This phenotype is accompanied by upregulation of HIF-1?, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive (PCNA+) cell numbers, SOX9+ chondrogenic cell numbers, and Col2 expression in the newly formed cartilage. Coincide with the micromass culture, Icariin treatment upregulates mRNA levels of Sox9, Col2?1, aggrecan and Col10?1 in the 3D cultures. We then generated alginate hydrogel 3D complexes incorporated with Icariin. The 3D complexes were transplanted in a mouse osteochondral defect model. ICRS II histological scoring at 6 and 12 weeks post-transplantation shows that 3D complexes incorporated with Icariin significantly enhance articular cartilage repair with higher scores particularly in selected parameters including SO+ cartilage area, subchondral bone and overall assessment than that of the controls. The results suggest that Icariin may inhibit PHD activity likely through competition for cellular iron ions and therefore it may serve as an HIF-1? activator to promote articular cartilage repair through regulating chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and integration with subchondral bone formation. PMID:26841115

  18. Intra-articular injection of synovial mesenchymal stem cells improves cartilage repair in a mouse injury model.

    Mak, J; Jablonski, C L; Leonard, C A; Dunn, J F; Raharjo, E; Matyas, J R; Biernaskie, J; Krawetz, R J

    2016-01-01

    Controversy remains whether articular cartilage has an endogenous stem/progenitor cell population, since its poor healing capacity after injury can lead to diseases such as osteoarthritis. In the joint environment there are mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) in the synovial membrane and synovial fluid that can differentiate into cartilage, but it is still under debate if these cells contribute to cartilage repair in vivo. In this study, we isolated a Sca-1 positive, chondrogenesis capable population of mouse synovial MSCs from C57BL6 and MRL/MpJ "super-healer" strains. Intra-articular injection of Sca-1 + GFP + synovial cells from C57BL6 or MRL/MpJ into C57BL6 mice following cartilage injury led to increased cartilage repair by 4 weeks after injury. GFP expression was detected in the injury site at 2 weeks, but not 4 weeks after injury. These results suggest that synovial stem/progenitor cells, regardless of strain background, have beneficial effects when injected into an injured joint. MSCs derived from MRL/MpJ mice did not promote an increased repair capacity compared to MSCs derived from non-healing C57BL6 controls; however, MRL/MpJ MSCs were observed within the defect area at the time points examined, while C57BL6 MSCs were not. PMID:26983696

  19. Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and 12 months after the procedure. High-resolution imaging was obtained with a surface phased array coil placed over the knee compartment of interest and adapted sequences were used on a 1 T MRI scanner. The analysis of the repair tissue included the definition and rating of nine pertinent variables: the degree of filling of the defect, the integration to the border zone, the description of the surface and structure, the signal intensity, the status of the subchondral lamina and subchondral bone, the appearance of adhesions and the presence of synovitis. High-resolution MRI, using a surface phased array coil and specific sequences, can be used on every standard 1 or 1.5 T MRI scanner according to the in-house standard protocols for knee imaging in patients who have had cartilage repair procedures without substantially prolonging the total imaging time. The new classification and grading system allows a subtle description and suitable assessment of the articular cartilage repair tissue

  20. Genetics Home Reference: task-specific focal dystonia

    ... Conditions task-specific focal dystonia task-specific focal dystonia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that interferes with the ...

  1. Blood supply of the articular disc of the antebrachiocarpal joint in dogs.

    Mikić, Z D

    1992-01-01

    The normal vascular anatomy of the articular disc of 48 antebrachiocarpal joints was studied in 24 dogs (12 puppies and 12 adult animals) using an India ink vascular injection technique. It was found that the articular disc receives its blood supply mainly from the palmar and dorsal branches of the palmar interosseous artery. Branches of these 2 arteries arborise and give direct peridiscal vessels to the dorsal, proximal and palmar sides of the articular disc. The peridiscal vessels ramify an...

  2. Modelado matemático del comportamiento mecánico de un fragmento de cartílago articular

    NANCY STELLA LANDÍNEZ; JUAN CARLOS VANEGAS; DIEGO ALEXANDER GARZÓN

    2009-01-01

    El cartílago articular es un material biológico poroelástico que permite la distribución de las cargas mecánicas y el movimiento de las articulaciones. Como material bifásico, en presencia de carga, el cartílago articular deforma su matriz sólida y modifica la presión hidrostática del fluido en su interior. El objetivo del presente trabajo es implementar numéricamente un modelo matemático que predice el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular teniendo en cuenta la dualidad entre la ma...

  3. Mineralization of Articular Cartilage in the Sprague-Dawley Rat: Characterization and Mechanical Analysis

    Roemhildt, M. L.; Beynnon, B. D.; Gardner-Morse, M

    2012-01-01

    The formation of mineralized deposits in human articular cartilage is a common occurrence [1–4]; however, the relationship between mineral deposition and material properties of the articular cartilage is not well understood nor the relationship between mineral deposition and the development of degenerative joint disease. Several different crystalline structures have been identified in articular cartilage and synovial fluid including monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), an...

  4. Three-dimensional CT imaging usefulness in distal radial intra-articular fracture

    Kato, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Ryogo; Horii, Emiko; Imaeda, Toshihiko; Sakuma, Masayuki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    Detailed information on articular damage in distal radial intra-articular fracture in provided by three-dimensional CT imaging of intra-articular distal radius fracture. We conducted this procedure in 16 patients. Eliminated axial views of intra-articular fracture revealed details of joint surface damage. These images were then compared to those of plain radiographs. Three-dimensional CT was very useful in detecting fracture displacement and distal radioulnar joint fracture, and also useful in evaluating the distal radio-carpal joint compression and fragmentation. (author)

  5. Extra-articular triplane fracture of the distal tibia: a case report

    O`Connor, D.K.; Mulligan, M.E. [Department of Radiology, University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The triplane fracture of the distal tibia is anatomically complex. It typically consists of a coronal fracture of the metaphysis, a transverse fracture of the physis, and a sagittal, intra-articular fracture of the epiphysis. We report an unusual variation of the triplane fracture which includes an extra-articular epiphyseal component involving the medial malleolus. This is an important variant to recognize because it does not disrupt the distal tibial articular surface. This lack of articular involvement allows for non-surgical management in contrast to the usual triplane fracture which often requires open reduction and internal fixation. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Extra-articular triplane fracture of the distal tibia: a case report

    The triplane fracture of the distal tibia is anatomically complex. It typically consists of a coronal fracture of the metaphysis, a transverse fracture of the physis, and a sagittal, intra-articular fracture of the epiphysis. We report an unusual variation of the triplane fracture which includes an extra-articular epiphyseal component involving the medial malleolus. This is an important variant to recognize because it does not disrupt the distal tibial articular surface. This lack of articular involvement allows for non-surgical management in contrast to the usual triplane fracture which often requires open reduction and internal fixation. (orig.)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    ... enamel). Less commonly, abnormalities of the kidneys and gastrointestinal system are present. The kidneys may be fused together, which predisposes affected individuals to kidney infections but does not ... gastrointestinal abnormality that occurs in people with focal dermal ...

  8. Focal Mechanism determination of local M

    Vales, Dina; Custório, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    We determine the focal mechanisms of local small (MLISOLA) software (Sokos and Zahradník, 2008, 2013) is used in this second step. We applied this method to weak events recorded by a network of 30 broadband seismic stations that transmit data in real-time to Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. We interpret the obtained fault plane solutions in light of active faults and regional tectonics, and in comparison with focal mechanisms previously inferred for events in the region. The focal mechanisms obtained for small earthquakes allow us to significantly expand the database of available focal mechanisms in mainland Portugal, contributing to the understanding of active deformation in the region.

  9. CT signs of hepatic focal lesions

    Computed tomography (CT) semiotics has been analysed for 288 patients with focal lesions of the liver. Most frequently occurring symptoms served the basis for establishing characteristic CT symptom complexes typical of various diseases

  10. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  11. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  12. Evaluation of the effects of the health subsidy focalization policy on the population without

    Vega R., Román; Hernández B., Amparo; Barajas S., Cristina; Conversa, Luigi; Cantor M., Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the problems of the focalization policy and the characteristics of decisionmaking to assign health subsidies for the population of Sisben levels 3 and 4 of 4 localities in Bogotá, in order to propose criteria for transforming the processes of policy formulation and correct its defects on marginalization and exclusion. Methods: A critical, participative and pluralist methodological approach, which combined multiple research methods and techniques from a systemic and post...

  13. THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN

    Ana Elisa Toscano; Silvia Regina Arruda Moraes; Katiúcia Samara da Silva Almeida

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed...

  14. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  15. Long-term storage and preservation of tissue engineered articular cartilage.

    Nover, Adam B; Stefani, Robert M; Lee, Stephanie L; Ateshian, Gerard A; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, James L; Hung, Clark T

    2016-01-01

    With limited availability of osteochondral allografts, tissue engineered cartilage grafts may provide an alternative treatment for large cartilage defects. An effective storage protocol will be critical for translating this technology to clinical use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Missouri Osteochondral Allograft Preservation System (MOPS) for room temperature storage of mature tissue engineered grafts, focusing on tissue property maintenance during the current allograft storage window (28 days). Additional research compares MOPS to continued culture, investigates temperature influence, and examines longer-term storage. Articular cartilage constructs were cultured to maturity using adult canine chondrocytes, then preserved with MOPS at room temperature, in refrigeration, or kept in culture for an additional 56 days. MOPS storage maintained desired chondrocyte viability for 28 days of room temperature storage, retaining 75% of the maturity point Young's modulus without significant decline in biochemical content. Properties dropped past this time point. Refrigeration maintained properties similar to room temperature at 28 days, but proved better at 56 days. For engineered grafts, MOPS maintained the majority of tissue properties for the 28-day window without clearly extending that period as it had for native grafts. These results are the first evaluating engineered cartilage storage. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:141-148, 2016. PMID:26296185

  16. Biochemical composition of the superficial layer of articular cartilage.

    Crockett, R; Grubelnik, A; Roos, S; Dora, C; Born, W; Troxler, H

    2007-09-15

    To gain more information on the mechanism of lubrication in articular joints, the superficial layer of bovine articular cartilage was mechanically removed in a sheet of ice that formed on freezing the cartilage. Freeze-dried samples contained low concentrations of chondroitin sulphate and protein. Analysis of the protein by SDS PAGE showed that the composition of the sample was comparable to that of synovial fluid (SF). Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy of the dried residue indicated that the sample contained mostly hyaluronan. Moreover, ATR-IR spectroscopy of the upper layer of the superficial layer, adsorbed onto silicon, showed the presence of phospholipids. A gel could be formed by mixing hyaluronan and phosphatidylcholine in water with mechanical properties similar to those of the superficial layer on cartilage. Much like the superficial layer of natural cartilage, the surface of this gel became hydrophobic on drying out. Thus, it is proposed that the superficial layer forms from hyaluronan and phospholipids, which associate by hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the phospholipids and the hydrophobic faces of the disaccharide units in hyaluronan. This layer is permeable to material from the SF and the cartilage, as shown by the presence of SF proteins and chondroitin sulphate. As the cartilage dries out after removal from the joint, the phospholipids migrate towards the surface of the superficial layer to reduce the surface tension. It is also proposed that the highly efficient lubrication in articular joints can, at least in part, be attributed to the ability of the superficial layer to adsorb and hold water on the cartilage surface, thus creating a highly viscous boundary protection. PMID:17335032

  17. Optical clearing of articular cartilage: a comparison of clearing agents

    Bykov, Alexander; Hautala, Tapio; Kinnunen, Matti; Popov, Alexey; Karhula, Sakari; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T.; Tuchin, Valery

    2015-07-01

    Optical clearing technique was applied to the problem of OCT imaging of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. We show that optical clearing significantly enhances visualization of articular cartilage and cartilage-bone interface. The effect of different clearing agents was analyzed. For the clearing, iohexol solution and propylene glycol (PG) were used. Clearing was performed in vitro at room temperature by immersion method. Cylindrical osteochondral samples (d=4.8mm) were drilled from bovine lateral femur and stored in phosphate-buffered saline at -20°C until clearing. Monitoring of clearing process was performed using high-speed spectral-domain OCT system providing axial resolution of 5.8?m at 930nm. Total duration of experiment was 90-100min to ensure saturation of clearing. We have shown that iohexol solution and PG are capable to optically clear articular cartilage enabling reliable characterization of cartilagebone interface with OCT. Being a low osmolarity agent, iohexol provides minimal changes to the thickness of cartilage sample. Clearing saturation time for the cartilage sample with the thickness of 0.9 mm measured with OCT is of 50 min. However, less than 15 min is enough to reliably detect the rear cartilage boundary. Alternatively, PG significantly (60%) reduces the cartilage thickness enabling better visualization of subchondral bone. It was observed that PG has higher clearing rate. The clearing saturation time is of 30 min, however less than 5 min is enough to detect cartilage-bone interface. We conclude that iohexol solution is superior for OCT imaging of cartilage and cartilage-bone interface, while PG suits better for subhondral bone visualization.

  18. ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes

    Matsumoto, Emi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

  19. Biochemical analysis of normal articular cartilage in horses.

    Vachon, A M; Keeley, F W; McIlwraith, C W; Chapman, P

    1990-12-01

    Articular cartilage specimens from the distal articular surface of 32 radiocarpal bones from 24 2- to 5-year-old horses were analyzed. The total collagen content was determined on the basis of the 4-hydroxyproline content, using a colorimetric method. A method for estimating the proportions of types-I and -II collagen by measuring spectrophotometric densities of specific cyanogen bromide peptide bands from mixtures of types-I and -II collagen on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels was used. The cyanogen bromide peptides representative of each collagen types-I and -II were identified. The peptide ratios were then computed for each of several standards of type-I and -II mixtures. A standard curve was derived from the correlation between these ratios and the corresponding proportions of type-II collagen in standard mixtures. Galactosamine and glucosamine content (hexosamines) were measured by ion chromatography. The galactosamine-to-glucosamine ratio, chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate values, and total glycosaminoglycan content were derived from the measured hexosamine content. The total collagen content averaged 556 mg/g (55.6 mg/100 mg) of tissue (dry weight, [dw]). Type-II collagen was the major collagen type in normal articular cartilage specimens. The ratio of the area under the alpha 1 (II)CB10 peak to the area under the alpha 1 (I)CB 7,8 + alpha 1 (II)CB11 peak was a second-order polynomial function of the proportion of type-II collagen in the specimens. The mean galactosamine and glucosamine content were 20.6 mg/g and 7.9 mg/g (dw), respectively. The mean galactosamine-to-glucosamine ratio was 3.74 +/- 0.62.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2085215

  20. Pediatric and adolescent intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus

    Marcel Dudda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcaneal fractures in childhood are very rare, whereas particularly intra-articular displaced fractures are not typical in skeletally immature children. Various techniques of osteosynthesis have been described. This study aimed to determine clinical and radiological outcome after surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Fourteen intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus were included in this retrospective study. Eleven children (2 girls and 9 boys aged 6-16 years (average age 11.5 years underwent surgical treatment. One child sustained a Type II open fracture of both calcanei. All injuries occurred after a high-energy trauma; 3 patients had multiple additional fractures. The clinical and radiological postoperative follow up was an average 44 months. In 4 cases, a reduction through a minimally invasive approach and fixation with K-wires or screws could be achieved. Eleven fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis, K-wires or screws. In one case with open fractures of both heel bones, an additional external fixator was applied. The surgical treatment approach adopted enabled the pre-operative Boehler’s angle (average 16° to be improved to an average 30°. In all cases, except for the patient with open fractures, a good functional result and outcome could be achieved. In calcaneal fractures in childhood, anatomical reduction is the determining factor, as in fractures in adults, whereas the surgical technique seems to have no influence on clinical outcome in children. The wound healing problems that have often been described were not observed in this age group.

  1. I Focalize, You Focalize, We All Focalize Together: Audience Participation in Persepolis

    Lizzie Nixon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: This article combines theories of cognition and empathy with focalization theory to examine how and why different forms of audience engagement in fictional worlds are cued. The article argues that critics should examine the differences between engagement that encourages audiences to apply their own frames to the world presented and type engagement cued by means of point-of-view shots and close-ups of facial expressions.

    Abstract (F: Cet article combine les théories de la cognition et de l’empathie avec la théorie de la focalisation afin d’analyser comment et pourquoi certaines œuvres construisent la manière dont le public est invité à s’investir dans des mondes fictionnels. Il défend l’idée que les critiques devraient examiner avant tout les différences entre un type d’investissement qui encourage les publics à appliquer leurs propres schémas de référence au monde de la fiction et un type d’investissement qui passe surtout par des techniques de point de vue et de plans rapprochés d’expressions faciles.

  2. Relation between shape of the articular eminence and disc displacement in the temporomandibular joint

    Lee, Heung Ki; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyung Hee Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    To investigate the hypothesis that the morphology of the articular eminence of the temporomandibular joint is a predisposing factor for disc displacement. MR images of 126 temporomandibular joints in 94 patients were analyzed to assess for morphology of the articular eminence and disc displacement. The displaced disc was further categorized as disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) and disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). The morphology of the articular eminence was classified into four types; box, sigmoid, flattened, and deformed. The relationship between the four types of shape of the articular eminence and the two types of disc position was assessed. In the DDWR and DDWOR groups, the morphology of articular eminence were a box type in 40.5%, a sigmoid type in 30.2%, a flattened type in 24.6%, and a deformed type in 4.7%. The box type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 42.9% in the DDWOR group. The sigmoid type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 28.6% in the DDWOR group. The flattened type of the articular eminence were 28.6% in the DDWR group and 23.1% in the DDWOR group. The deformed type of the articular eminence were 2.9% in the DDWR group and 5.5% in the DDWOR group. Disc displacement in more likely to be found in the temporomandibular joints with a box-shaped articular eminence. It can be considered that shape of the articular eminence is related to the development of disc displacement.

  3. Relation between shape of the articular eminence and disc displacement in the temporomandibular joint

    To investigate the hypothesis that the morphology of the articular eminence of the temporomandibular joint is a predisposing factor for disc displacement. MR images of 126 temporomandibular joints in 94 patients were analyzed to assess for morphology of the articular eminence and disc displacement. The displaced disc was further categorized as disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) and disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). The morphology of the articular eminence was classified into four types; box, sigmoid, flattened, and deformed. The relationship between the four types of shape of the articular eminence and the two types of disc position was assessed. In the DDWR and DDWOR groups, the morphology of articular eminence were a box type in 40.5%, a sigmoid type in 30.2%, a flattened type in 24.6%, and a deformed type in 4.7%. The box type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 42.9% in the DDWOR group. The sigmoid type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 28.6% in the DDWOR group. The flattened type of the articular eminence were 28.6% in the DDWR group and 23.1% in the DDWOR group. The deformed type of the articular eminence were 2.9% in the DDWR group and 5.5% in the DDWOR group. Disc displacement in more likely to be found in the temporomandibular joints with a box-shaped articular eminence. It can be considered that shape of the articular eminence is related to the development of disc displacement

  4. “Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  5. Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea / Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis

    María Jezabel, Haye Salinas; Soledad, Retamozo; Lorena, Vetorazzi; Natalia, Peano; Patricia Ericka, Díaz Cuiza; María Sol, Castaños Menescardi; Evangelina María, Miretti; Laura Mariela, Encinas; Ana Cecilia, Álvarez; Verónica, Saurit; Alejandro, Alvarellos; Francisco, Caeiro.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR) pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA), relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP) son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico [...] en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987) mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p Abstract in english A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM), which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint dam [...] age and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987) with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p

  6. Unusual complication of soft tissue calcifications in chronic renal disease. The articular erosions

    Meneghello, A.; Bertoli, M.; Romagnoli, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    A rare complication, articular bone erosions adjacent to peri-articular calcifications, was observed in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis. Three cases are described and the discussion describes the pathogenesis of the lesion, which, as far as is known by the authors, has not yet been reported in the literature.

  7. Articular Cartilage Increases Transition Zone Regeneration in Bone-tendon Junction Healing

    Wong, Margaret Wan Nar; Qin, Ling; Lee, Kwong Man; Leung, Kwok Sui

    2008-01-01

    The fibrocartilage transition zone in the direct bone-tendon junction reduces stress concentration and protects the junction from failure. Unfortunately, bone-tendon junctions often heal without fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. We hypothesized articular cartilage grafts could increase fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. Using a goat partial patellectomy repair model, autologous articular cartilage was harvested from the excised distal third patella and interposed between ...

  8. Strong reducing of the laser focal volume

    Many applications of lasers seek nowadays for focal spots whose corresponding volume is getting smaller and smaller in order to ensure high spatial resolution. This problem, studied by many research groups around the world, is the core of this research work which deals with controlling the focal volume of a focused laser beam. Indeed, our objective is to develop a new method based on spatial treatment of laser beams, allowing to solve, in an original and efficient manner, two fundamental issues that have not been treated satisfactorily yet, i.e.: (i) The generation of a special laser beam, which has the ability to produce a focal volume smaller than the one resulting from a more common Gaussian beam, when focused by an ordinary lens. The expected reduction factor of the focal volume is in the order of several hundreds, when the existing methods do not exceed few tenths. (ii) The decoupling between transversal and longitudinal resolutions within the focal volume, contrary to Gaussian beams whose depth of field is proportional to the square of its beam-waist radius. The method that it is developed is based on two steps: First, the laser is forced to oscillate on a high-order but single transversal mode TEMp0, which is secondly spatially beam-shaped thanks a proper Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) that allocates the super-resolution feature A2. (authors)

  9. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  10. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  11. Surgery for extra-articular trismus: a systematic review.

    Bouman, M A; Dijkstra, P U; Reintsema, H; Roodenburg, J L N; Werker, P M N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and the Cochrane collaboration, and then systematically selected papers before we assessed their quality, extracted the data, and did a meta-analysis. We analysed 32 studies that included 651 patients, the median (IQR) size of which was 11 (7-26). The quality of the methods used and of reporting were relatively low. Median (IQR) duration of follow-up was 12 (8-22) months. Operations resulted in a weighted mean (SD) increase in mouth opening of 19.3 (6.3) mm. None of the operations was better than the others for the improvement of mouth opening. We conclude that operations can improve mouth opening in extra-articular trismus, but the evidence is of moderate quality and there is a need for further research. PMID:26455659

  12. Menisectomized miniature Vietnamese pigs develop articular cartilage pathology resembling osteoarthritis.

    Cruz, Raymundo; Ramírez, Carmen; Rojas, Oscar I; Casas-Mejía, Oscar; Kouri, Juan B; Vega-López, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    Animal models have been used to understand the basic biology of osteoarthritis (OA) and have helped to identify new candidate biomarkers for the early diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Small animals cannot sufficiently mimic human diseases; therefore, large animal models are needed. Pigs have been used as models for human diseases because they are similar to humans in terms of their anatomy, physiology and genome. Hence, we analyzed articular cartilage and synovial membrane pathology in miniature Vietnamese pigs after a unilateral partial menisectomy and 20-day exercise regimen to determine if the pigs developed pathological characteristics similar to human OA. Histological and protein expression analysis of articular cartilage from menisectomized pigs revealed the following pathologic changes resembling OA: fibrillation, fissures, chondrocyte cluster formation, decrease in proteoglycan content and upregulation of the OA-associated proteins MMP-3, MMP-13, procaspase-3 and IL-1β. Moreover, histological analysis of synovial membrane revealed mild synovitis, characterized by hyperplasia, cell infiltration and neoangiogenesis. Pathological changes were not observed in the contralateral joints or the joints of sham-operated pigs. Further studies are required to validate such an OA model; however, our results can encourage the use of pigs to study early stages of OA physiopathology. Based on their similarities to humans, pigs may be useful for preclinical studies to identify new candidate biomarkers and novel treatments for OA. PMID:26296921

  13. Articular contact at the tibiotalar joint in passive flexion.

    Corazza, Federico; Stagni, Rita; Castelli, Vincenzo Parenti; Leardini, Alberto

    2005-06-01

    The knowledge of the contact areas at the tibiotalar articulating surfaces during passive flexion is fundamental for the understanding of ankle joint mobility. Traditional contact area reports are limited by the invasive measuring techniques used and by the complicated loading conditions applied. In the present study, passive flexion tests were performed on three anatomical preparations from lower leg amputation. Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis was used to accurately reconstruct the position of the tibia and the talus at a number of unconstrained flexion positions. A large number of points was collected on the surface of the tibial mortise and on the trochlea tali by a 3-D digitiser. Articular surfaces were modelled by thin plate splines approximating these points. Relative positions of these surfaces in all the flexion positions were obtained from corresponding bone position data. A distance threshold was chosen to define contact areas. A consistent pattern of contact was found on the articulating surfaces. The area moved anteriorly on both articular surfaces with dorsiflexion. The average position of the contact area centroid along the tibial mortise at maximum plantarflexion and at maximum dorsiflexion was respectively 58% posterior and 40% anterior of the entire antero-posterior length. For increasing dorsiflexion, the contact area moved from medial to lateral in all the specimens. PMID:15863104

  14. Combinatorial scaffold morphologies for zonal articular cartilage engineering.

    Steele, J A M; McCullen, S D; Callanan, A; Autefage, H; Accardi, M A; Dini, D; Stevens, M M

    2014-05-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine strategies as cartilage function stems from a complex depth-dependent organization. Tissue engineering scaffolds that vary in morphology and function offer a template for zone-specific cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical properties. We fabricated multi-zone cartilage scaffolds by the electrostatic deposition of polymer microfibres onto particulate-templated scaffolds produced with 0.03 or 1.0mm(3) porogens. The scaffolds allowed ample space for chondrocyte ECM production within the bulk while also mimicking the structural organization and functional interface of cartilage's superficial zone. Addition of aligned fibre membranes enhanced the mechanical and surface properties of particulate-templated scaffolds. Zonal analysis of scaffolds demonstrated region-specific variations in chondrocyte number, sulfated GAG-rich ECM, and chondrocytic gene expression. Specifically, smaller porogens (0.03mm(3)) yielded significantly higher sGAG accumulation and aggrecan gene expression. Our results demonstrate that bilayered scaffolds mimic some key structural characteristics of native cartilage, support in vitro cartilage formation, and have superior features to homogeneous particulate-templated scaffolds. We propose that these scaffolds offer promise for regenerative medicine strategies to repair articular cartilage lesions. PMID:24370641

  15. Combinatorial scaffold morphologies for zonal articular cartilage engineering☆

    Steele, J.A.M.; McCullen, S.D.; Callanan, A.; Autefage, H.; Accardi, M.A.; Dini, D.; Stevens, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine strategies as cartilage function stems from a complex depth-dependent organization. Tissue engineering scaffolds that vary in morphology and function offer a template for zone-specific cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical properties. We fabricated multi-zone cartilage scaffolds by the electrostatic deposition of polymer microfibres onto particulate-templated scaffolds produced with 0.03 or 1.0 mm3 porogens. The scaffolds allowed ample space for chondrocyte ECM production within the bulk while also mimicking the structural organization and functional interface of cartilage’s superficial zone. Addition of aligned fibre membranes enhanced the mechanical and surface properties of particulate-templated scaffolds. Zonal analysis of scaffolds demonstrated region-specific variations in chondrocyte number, sulfated GAG-rich ECM, and chondrocytic gene expression. Specifically, smaller porogens (0.03 mm3) yielded significantly higher sGAG accumulation and aggrecan gene expression. Our results demonstrate that bilayered scaffolds mimic some key structural characteristics of native cartilage, support in vitro cartilage formation, and have superior features to homogeneous particulate-templated scaffolds. We propose that these scaffolds offer promise for regenerative medicine strategies to repair articular cartilage lesions. PMID:24370641

  16. Outcome of ACL Reconstruction and Concomitant Articular Injury Treatment

    Seyed Mohammad Tahami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage injuries are a common clinical problem at the time of ACL reconstruction with an incidence rate of 16-46%. Good results of ACL reconstruction combined with the treatment of chondral lesions have been published in some studies. Method: After statistical analysis 30 patients were selected and divided in 2 groups. TheFfirst group consisted of 15 patients wite isolated ACL tear without any other concomitant injuries and the second group consisted of 15 patients with ACL tear and concomitant high grade (grade 3 or 4 of outerbridge classification contained articular cartilage injuries during arthroscopy. Group 1 underwent ACL reconstruction and group 2 underwent ACL reconstruction combined with chondroplasty via the drilling and microfracture technique. For each patient the Lysholm knee score questionnaire was completed before surgery, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Results: The mean Lysholm knee score in both groups improves: 9.6 points after 6 months and 16.06 points after 1 year in group 1 and 23.26 points after 6 months and 30.66 after 1 year in group 2, whict was statistically significant (Pvalue

  17. Delivering Agents Locally into Articular Cartilage by Intense MHz Ultrasound.

    Nieminen, Heikki J; Ylitalo, Tuomo; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri; Rahunen, Krista; Salmi, Ari; Saarakkala, Simo; Serimaa, Ritva; Hæggström, Edward

    2015-08-01

    There is no cure for osteoarthritis. Current drug delivery relies on systemic delivery or injections into the joint. Because articular cartilage (AC) degeneration can be local and drug exposure outside the lesion can cause adverse effects, localized drug delivery could permit new drug treatment strategies. We investigated whether intense megahertz ultrasound (frequency: 1.138 MHz, peak positive pressure: 2.7 MPa, Ispta: 5 W/cm(2), beam width: 5.7 mm at -6 dB, duty cycle: 5%, pulse repetition frequency: 285 Hz, mechanical index: 1.1) can deliver agents into AC without damaging it. Using ultrasound, we delivered a drug surrogate down to a depth corresponding to 53% depth of the AC thickness without causing histologically detectable damage to the AC. This may be important because early osteoarthritis typically exhibits histopathologic changes in the superficial AC. In conclusion, we identify intense megahertz ultrasound as a technique that potentially enables localized non-destructive delivery of osteoarthritis drugs or drug carriers into articular cartilage. PMID:25922135

  18. Extra-articular hip impingement: a narrative review of the literature

    Cheatham, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing subgroup of patients with poor outcomes after hip arthroscopy for intra-articular pathology suggesting unrecognized cause(s) of impingement may exist. Extra-articular hip impingement (EHI) is an emerging group of conditions that have been associated with intra-articular causes of impingement and may be an unrecognized source of pain. EHI is caused by abnormal contact between the extra-articular regions of the proximal femur and pelvis. This review discusses the most common forms for EHI including: central iliopsoas impingement, subspine impingement, ischiofemoral impingement, and greater trochanteric-pelvic impingement. The clinical presentation of each pathology will be discussed since EHI conditions share similar clinical features as the intra-articular pathology but also contain some unique characteristics. PMID:27069266

  19. A concurrent computer aided detection (CAD) tool for articular cartilage disease of the knee on MR imaging using active shape models

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Safdar, Nabile; Siddiqui, Khan; Chang, Chein-I.; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and a major cause of morbidity affecting millions of adults in the US and world wide. In the knee, OA begins with the degeneration of joint articular cartilage, eventually resulting in the femur and tibia coming in contact, and leading to severe pain and stiffness. There has been extensive research examining 3D MR imaging sequences and automatic/semi-automatic techniques for 2D/3D articular cartilage extraction. However, in routine clinical practice the most popular technique still remain radiographic examination and qualitative assessment of the joint space. This may be in large part because of a lack of tools that can provide clinically relevant diagnosis in adjunct (in near real time fashion) with the radiologist and which can serve the needs of the radiologists and reduce inter-observer variation. Our work aims to fill this void by developing a CAD application that can generate clinically relevant diagnosis of the articular cartilage damage in near real time fashion. The algorithm features a 2D Active Shape Model (ASM) for modeling the bone-cartilage interface on all the slices of a Double Echo Steady State (DESS) MR sequence, followed by measurement of the cartilage thickness from the surface of the bone, and finally by the identification of regions of abnormal thinness and focal/degenerative lesions. A preliminary evaluation of CAD tool was carried out on 10 cases taken from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) database. When compared with 2 board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists, the automatic CAD application was able to get segmentation/thickness maps in little over 60 seconds for all of the cases. This observation poses interesting possibilities for increasing radiologist productivity and confidence, improving patient outcomes, and applying more sophisticated CAD algorithms to routine orthopedic imaging tasks.

  20. Secondary knee instability caused by fracture of the stabilizing insert in a dual-articular total knee

    Boesen, Morten P; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard; Husted, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A case of a fractured polyethylene stabilizing insert causing secondary knee instability in a Dual-articular total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is presented. A 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery with a Dual-articular TKA 4 years earlier had a well-functioning prosthesis until a fall, after which......-articular knee....

  1. Neural Tube Defects

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, ...

  2. Facts about Birth Defects

    ... Lip and Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta ... grow and develop. For some birth defects, like fetal alcohol syndrome, we know the cause. But for most birth ...

  3. Focal splenic masses of the extramedullary hematopoiesis

    Full text: Extramedullary hematopoiesis arises from pleuripotential stem cells distributed throughout the body. It is most common in patients with congenital hemolytic anemia, such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and hereditary spherocytosis as a response to ineffective red blood cell formation. Although microscopic foci of Extramedullary hematopoiesis are commonly seen in the spleen and liver parenchyma, focal mass-like lesion of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and spleen are rare. We report a case of intrasplenic focal extramedullary hematopoiesis lesions and the imaging features of extramedullary hematopoiesis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should always be considered as a diagnosis in a patient with a known hematological disorder

  4. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

  5. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions. PMID:22653180

  6. Case report 333: Osteochondral fracture of the right patella without an osteochondral defect

    In summary, a case is presented of a 14-year-old male who presented with pain in the right knee with a history which suggested the possibility that an injury of the knee had occurred during a summer in camp. Radiological studies showed a large defect in the articular surface of the right patella, but no loose body could be identified. (orig./WU)

  7. Joint surface defects: clinical course and cellular response in spontaneous and experimental lesions

    Dell’Accio, F.; TL Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Joint surface defects (JSD) involving the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone are a common clinical problem in rheumatology and orthopaedics. The recent availability of accurate imaging for diagnosis and efficacious therapeutic options has stirred new interest in their natural history and biology. The evidence that some of these lesions can heal spontaneously whereas others precipitate osteoarthritis has raised important questions as to which lesions should be treated, when, and how....

  8. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally degraded articular cartilage in vitro. As high resolution imaging of e.g. the knee joint is possible with pQCT, the present technique may be further developed for in vivo quantification of PG depletion in osteoarthritic cartilage. However, careful in vitro and in vivo characterization of diffusion mechanics and optimal contrast agent concentrations are needed before diagnostic applications are feasible

  9. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  10. Ataxia and focal dystonia in Kallmann syndrome.

    Hernando-Quintana, Natalia; Playán-Usón, Jesús; Crespo-Burillo, José Antonio; Marín-Cárdenas, Miguel Ángel; Gazulla, José

    2016-02-01

    A case of Kallmann syndrome (KS) associated with rare neurological manifestations is presented. Cerebellar ataxia probably caused by a small posterior fossa and a focal dystonia affecting the left lower limb expand the spectrum of neurological manifestations occurring in KS. Further studies are needed to better understand these manifestations. PMID:26862419

  11. Ataxia and focal dystonia in Kallmann syndrome

    Hernando‐Quintana, Natalia; Playán‐Usón, Jesús; Crespo‐Burillo, José Antonio; Marín‐Cárdenas, Miguel Ángel; Gazulla, José

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A case of Kallmann syndrome (KS) associated with rare neurological manifestations is presented. Cerebellar ataxia probably caused by a small posterior fossa and a focal dystonia affecting the left lower limb expand the spectrum of neurological manifestations occurring in KS. Further studies are needed to better understand these manifestations.

  12. Focal myasthenia gravis in a dog.

    Webb, A A; S. M. & Taylor; McPhee, L

    1997-01-01

    A 10-month-old American cocker spaniel was evaluated for megaesophagus, aspiration pneumonia, but no appendicular muscle weakness. During hospitalization, weakness of the facial muscles developed, this resolved with anticholinesterase administration. Serum antibodies against acetylcholine receptors were documented, confirming the diagnosis of focal myasthenia gravis. Diagnosis, management, and medical treatment are discussed.

  13. Toward 16 megapixel focal plane arrays

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2007-09-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. It is well known that III-V compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP, etc. are easy to grow and process into devices. In addition, III-V compound semiconductors are available in large diameter wafers, up to 8-inches. Thus, III-V compound semiconductor based infrared focal plane technologies such as QWIP, InSb, and strain layer superlattices (SLS) are potential candidates for the development of large format focal planes such as 4096x4096 pixels and larger. In this paper, we will discuss the possibility of extending the infrared detector array size up to 16 megapixels.

  14. Towards dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2007-04-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 × 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE?T, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 × 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  15. Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2007-04-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. It is well known that III-V compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP, etc. are easy to grow and process into devices. In addition, III-V compound semiconductors are available in large diameter wafers, up to 8-inches. Thus, III-V compound semiconductor based infrared focal plane technologies such as QWIP, InSb, and strain layer superlattices (SLS) are potential candidates for the development of large format focal planes such as 4096x4096 pixels and larger. In this paper, we will discuss the possibility of extending the infrared detector array size up to 16 megapixels.

  16. Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes

    Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

  17. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  18. PET Scan and Autoimmune Focal Encephalitis

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The value of the PET scan in the diagnosis of autoimmune focal encephalitis is reported in a 22-month-old girl who presented with involuntary movements, hemiparesis, and behavioral changes at Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Japan.

  19. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26164472

  20. Focal adhesions and cell-matrix interactions

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    Focal adhesions are areas of cell surfaces where specializations of cytoskeletal, membrane and extracellular components combine to produce stable cell-matrix interactions. The morphology of these adhesions and the components identified in them are discussed together with possible mechanisms of...

  1. Contact mechanics of articular cartilage layers asymptotic models

    Argatov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and unifying approach to articular contact mechanics with an emphasis on frictionless contact interaction of thin cartilage layers. The first part of the book (Chapters 1–4) reviews the results of asymptotic analysis of the deformational behavior of thin elastic and viscoelastic layers. A comprehensive review of the literature is combined with the authors’ original contributions. The compressible and incompressible cases are treated separately with a focus on exact solutions for asymptotic models of frictionless contact for thin transversely isotropic layers bonded to rigid substrates shaped like elliptic paraboloids. The second part (Chapters 5, 6, and 7) deals with the non-axisymmetric contact of thin transversely isotropic biphasic layers and presents the asymptotic modelling methodology for tibio-femoral contact. The third part of the book consists of Chapter 8, which covers contact problems for thin bonded inhomogeneous transversely isotropic elastic layers, and Cha...

  2. Articular cartilage tissue engineering: the role of signaling molecules.

    Kwon, Heenam; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    2016-03-01

    Effective early disease modifying options for osteoarthritis remain lacking. Tissue engineering approach to generate cartilage in vitro has emerged as a promising option for articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Signaling molecules and matrix modifying agents, derived from knowledge of cartilage development and homeostasis, have been used as biochemical stimuli toward cartilage tissue engineering and have led to improvements in the functionality of engineered cartilage. Clinical translation of neocartilage faces challenges, such as phenotypic instability of the engineered cartilage, poor integration, inflammation, and catabolic factors in the arthritic environment; these can all contribute to failure of implanted neocartilage. A comprehensive understanding of signaling molecules involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis and their actions on engineered cartilage will be crucial. Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasingly necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:26811234

  3. Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage

    ap Gwynn I.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly repeating patterns. This organization existed in the regions surrounding the columns of chondrocytes, known as chondrons. The load bearing property of the tissue was explained by the directed flow and containment of the interstitial fluid, modulated by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, along these collagen bounded tubular structures. The reason why such a structure has not been described previously may be that it is not retained by aldehyde fixation followed by dehydration, the method commonly used for tissue preparation for electron microscopy.

  4. Segmentation, surface extraction, and thickness computation of articular cartilage

    Pakin, S. Kubilay; Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Totterman, Saara; Parker, Kevin J.

    2002-05-01

    Accurate computation of the thickness of articular cartilage in 3D is crucial in diagnosis of joint diseases. The purpose of this research project is to develop an unsupervised method to produce three-dimensional (3D) thickness map of articular cartilage with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method consists of two main parts, cartilage extraction and thickness map computation. The initial segmentation for cartilage extraction is achieved using a recently proposed algorithm which depends on region-growing. The regions produced during this process are labeled as cartilage or non-cartilage using a voting procedure which essentially depends on local 2-class clustering and makes use of prior knowledge about cartilage regions. Following cartilage extraction, femoral and tibial cartilages are separated by detecting the interface between them using a deformable model. After the separation, the cartilage surfaces are reconstructed as a triangular mesh and divided into two plates according to the relation between surface normal at each vertex and principal axes of the structure. For surface reconstruction, we propose an algorithm which incorporates a simple MR imaging model which allows surface representations with sub-voxel accuracy. Our thickness computation algorithm treats each plate separately as a deformable model while considering the other plate as the target surface towards which it is deformed. At the end of deformation, the thickness values at each vertex is defined as the distance between the locations at pre and post-deformation instances. The performance of the cartilage segmentation is compared to manual tracing. Also, the performance evaluation of the thickness computation algorithm on phantoms resulted in RMS errors on the order of 1%.

  5. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media

    Thibault Lemaire

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.

  6. Extra-Articular Manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Now

    Paloma Vela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease, characterised by polyarthritis and extra-articular organ disease, including rheumatoid nodules, ophthalmologic manifestations, cardiopulmonary disease, vasculitis, neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, Felty’s syndrome, and amyloidosis. Extra-articular manifestations of RA (ExRA occur in 17.8–40.9% of RA patients, 1.5–21.5% of them presenting as severe forms and usually associated with increased morbidity and mortality. They can develop at any time during the course of the disease, even in the early stages, and are associated with certain predisposing factors, such as the presence of rheumatoid factor, smoking, and long-standing severe disease. Rheumatoid nodules, the most common ExRA, have been found to be associated with the development of severe features, such as vasculitis, rheumatoid lung disease, pericarditis, and pleuritis, especially in those patients who develop them within 2 years from RA diagnosis. There is no uniformity in the definition of the term ExRA, which limits comparability between different studies. Several recent surveys suggest a lower frequency, probably due to a better control of disease activity. Diagnosis of ExRA is a challenge for clinicians, given its variable and complex presentation, and the lack of specific diagnostic tests; it must be based on clinical recognition and exclusion of other causes of the signs and symptoms. Furthermore, management continues to be difficult with a bad prognosis in many conditions. This article reviews the clinical aspects of major ExRA, focusing on incidence, clinical features, and therapeutic approaches, and how modern immunosuppressive therapy can change the outcome.

  7. CT dose optimisation and reduction in osteo-articular disease

    With an improvement in the temporal and spatial resolution, computed tomography (CT) is indicated in the evaluation of a great many osteo-articular diseases. New exploration techniques such as the dynamic CT and CT bone perfusion also provide new indications. However, CT is still an irradiating imaging technique and dose optimisation and reduction remains primordial. In this paper, the authors first present the typical doses delivered during CT in osteo-articular disease. They then discuss the different ways to optimise and reduce these doses by distinguishing the behavioural factors from the technical factors. Among the latter, the optimisation of the milli-amps and kilo-voltage is indispensable and should be adapted to the type of exploration and the morpho-type of each individual. These technical factors also benefit from recent technological evolutions with the distribution of iterative reconstructions. In this way, the dose may be divided by two and provide an image of equal quality. With these dose optimisation and reduction techniques, it is now possible, while maintaining an excellent quality of the image, to obtain low-dose or even very low-dose acquisitions with a dose sometimes similar that of a standard X-ray assessment. Nevertheless, although these technical factors provide a major reduction in the dose delivered, behavioural factors, such as compliance with the indications, remain fundamental. Finally, the authors describe how to optimise and reduce the dose with specific applications in musculoskeletal imaging such as the dynamic CT, CT bone perfusion and dual energy CT. (authors)

  8. Current concepts review: intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus.

    Epstein, Noah; Chandran, Sheena; Chou, Loretta

    2012-01-01

    1) Intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus are associated with severe long-term consequences for function and pain. The condition of the soft tissues is of paramount importance when determining the method of treatment,the timing of surgery, and the post-injury rehabilitation.2) Intra-articular fractures are difficult to fully evaluate with plain radiographs. Computed tomography may assist in assessing the fracture pattern and planning for surgery. The likelihood of a good to excellent outcome is increased when an anatomic reduction is obtained.3) The outcome after operative management is difficult to characterize and appears to be influenced by factors related to the fracture, the patient, and the experience of the institution where the patient obtains treatment.All these factors should be factors in the decision to operate, but no single factor reliably determines the most appropriate treatment.4) Open reduction and internal fixation through an extensile approach achieves acceptable results in carefully selected patients. The use of a limited exposure with minimally invasive techniques may decrease the incidence of wound complications. However, this option is technically demanding and the quality of the reduction achieved may be more difficult to obtain and determine intraoperatively. Open fractures should be promptly debrided. The choice of fixation after reduction is based on the surgeons assessment of the soft tissue and the risk of infection.5) Post-traumatic arthritis of the subtalar joint is a common complication. Successful salvage can be achieved with a subtalar arthrodesis. However, these results may be influenced by the institution at which the initial management was rendered. PMID:22381241

  9. Luxación intra-articular de rótula Intra-articular dislocation of patella

    S. García-Mata

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se realizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones.The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

  10. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    Stenhamre, Hanna [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Thorvaldsson, Anna, E-mail: anna.thorvaldsson@swerea.se [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Enochson, Lars [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Walkenström, Pernilla [Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Lindahl, Anders [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brittberg, Mats [Cartilage Research Unit, University of Gothenburg, Department Orthopaedics, Kungsbacka Hospital, Kungsbacka (Sweden); Gatenholm, Paul [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum.

  11. Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance

    The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

  12. Now approaches to the treatment of articular cartilage lesions

    M. Coviello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches to the treatment of cartilage defects have been proposed in the literature; reparative and regenerative methods and, more recently, the Maioregen technique are currently available.

  13. Conditional Deletion of Fgfr3 in Chondrocytes leads to Osteoarthritis-like Defects in Temporomandibular Joint of Adult Mice.

    Zhou, Siru; Xie, Yangli; Li, Wei; Huang, Junlan; Wang, Zuqiang; Tang, Junzhou; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xianding; Tan, Qiaoyan; Huang, Shuo; Luo, Fengtao; Xu, Meng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Liang; Chen, Hangang; Su, Nan; Du, Xiaolan; Shen, Yue; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a common degenerative disease in adult, which is characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage. To investigate the role of FGFR3 in the homeostasis of TMJ cartilage during adult stage, we generated Fgfr3(f/f); Col2a1-CreER(T2) (Fgfr3 cKO) mice, in which Fgfr3 was deleted in chondrocytes at 2 months of age. OA-like defects were observed in Fgfr3 cKO TMJ cartilage. Immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant increase in expressions of COL10, MMP13 and AMAMTS5. In addition, there was a sharp increase in chondrocyte apoptosis at the Fgfr3 cKO articular surface, which was accompanied by a down-regulation of lubricin expression. Importantly, the expressions of RUNX2 and Indian hedgehog (IHH) were up-regulated in Fgfr3 cKO TMJ. Primary Fgfr3 cKO chondrocytes were treated with IHH signaling inhibitor, which significantly reduced expressions of Runx2, Col10, Mmp13 and Adamts5. Furthermore, the IHH signaling inhibitor partially alleviated OA-like defects in the TMJ of Fgfr3 cKO mice, including restoration of lubricin expression and improvement of the integrity of the articular surface. In conclusion, our study proposes that FGFR3/IHH signaling pathway plays a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis of TMJ articular cartilage during adult stage. PMID:27041063

  14. Focal plane array optical proximity sensor

    Johnston, A. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An optical proximity sensor for optically detecting an object within a predetermined detection volume is described. More specifically, an optical proximity sensor is disclosed having an illuminator assembly including lens and a plurality of light-emitting diodes located at first predetermined positions along the focal plane of the illuminator lens. A detector assembly including a detector lens and a plurality of photodiodes located at second predetermined positions along the focal plane of the detector lens is also provided. The two lenses are spaced apart a predetermined distance in order to define a predetermined detection volume. Additionally, a combination of optical proximity sensors, according to the invention, is disclosed wherein the sensors can be used in conjunction with a vehicle to provide a safety system for warning an operator when an object is within a volume defined by the proximity sensor combination.

  15. Aerogel detector with a Fresnel lens focalization

    The use of threshold Cherenkov detectors for the identification of high momentum particles in high energy physics experiments is connected with the efficiency of detection of light in the aerogel. As one goes lower in the refractive index, less photons are emitted, and more attention should be paid to the improvements of the detection efficiency. The light integration box method relies on photomultipliers of large size and requires even two of them. We have studied the possibility to use a thin focalizing element (Fresnel lens) between the aerogel and the photomultiplier to focalize the light onto a smaller diameter photomultiplier. The results show that for good aerogel and low indices of refraction (<1.01) the scheme with the aerogel and the Fresnel lens may be superior and less costly than the conventional set-up.

  16. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    Kagan, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random. For double-couple source orientation the random probability distribution function is not uniform, which complicates the calculation of the likelihood value. To better understand the resulting complexities we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two rota...

  17. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  18. Estimation of inflammation by Doppler ultrasound: quantitative changes after intra-articular treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    Terslev, L; TORP-PEDERSEN, S; Qvistgaard, E; Danneskiold-Samso..., B; Bliddal, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of ultrasound, including quantitative Doppler analysis of synovial vascularisation, before and after intra-articular treatment with glucocorticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  19. The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice

    Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics. (orig.)

  20. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  1. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  2. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    Ryniewicz, A. M; Ryniewicz, W. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, University of Mining and Metallurgy, A. Mickiewicz Av. 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A., E-mail: anna@ryniewicz.p, E-mail: andrzej@ryniewicz.p [Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, Jana Pawla II Av. 37, 31-864 Cracow (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  3. Localization of Estrogen Receptors α and β in the Articular Surface of the Rat Femur

    It has been suggested that the degradation of the articular cartilage and osteoarthritis (OA) are associated with gender and the estrogen hormone. Although many investigators have reported the presence of the estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β in the articular cartilage, the localization of these receptors and the difference in their in vivo expression have not yet been clearly demonstrated. We performed immunofluorescence staining of ERα and ERβ to elucidate the localization of the ERs and to note the effects of gender and the aging process on these receptors. The results revealed that ERα and ERβ were expressed in the articular cartilage and subchondral bone layers of adult rats of both sexes. We also observed the high expression of these receptors in immature rats. In contrast, their expression levels decreased in an ovariectomised model, as a simulation of postmenopause, and in aged female rats. Therefore, this study suggests the direct effects of estrogen and ER expression on articular surface metabolism

  4. Ultrastructural study of the extra-articular Leeds-Keio ligament prosthesis

    Nomura, E.; Inoue, M.; Sugiura, H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: There have been several histological studies of the Leeds-Keio ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, but there have been few of the Leeds-Keio ligament in the extra-articular portion.

  5. A practical approach to management of focal hand dystonia

    Sanjay Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia can be focal, segmental, multifocal, generalized, or hemidystonia. Focal dystonia is localized to a specific part of the body. Overall upper limb is more commonly involved in focal dystonia than lower limb and since it starts from hand, focal hand dystonia (FHD) is a more accepted terminology. Writer′s cramp and musician dystonia are commonest types of FHD. Typically this dystonia is task specific, but in some patients this specificity may be lost over a period of time. Segmental or ...

  6. Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report

    Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

  7. The pathophysiology of focal hand dystonia

    Lin, Peter T; Hallett, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Focal hand dystonia is a disabling movement disorder, often task-specific, that leads to impaired hand use. In addition to a genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors including repetitive use and musculoskeletal constraints are contributory. Although the underlying cause is unknown, recent studies have identified several key mechanisms that may play a part in its genesis. Failure of inhibition, abnormal sensorimotor integration, and maladaptive plasticity seem to be important. Unders...

  8. Atypical presentation of focal nodular hyperplasia

    Ho, Cheng-Maw; Lee, Po-Huang

    2010-01-01

    A 27-year-old man, previously healthy, had an enlarging liver mass incidentally noted at a health check-up 6 months earlier. There were no known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatic tumour seen on magnetic resonance imaging had characteristics of high T2 and low T1 signals, early hyper-enhancement and mild delayed enhancement, which was atypical for focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). An atypical hepatectomy was performed smoothly and the pathologic confirmation of FNH was fina...

  9. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Sakata, Mayu; Syoji, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Taniguchi, Masami; Yamazaki, Masanori; Higashi, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Kunihito; Kawamura, Takahumi; Yonekawa, Hajime; Maruo, Hirotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a...

  10. Focal approximation on the complex plane

    Rakcheeva, T. A.

    2011-11-01

    The problem of analytic approximation of a smooth closed curve specified by a set of its points on the complex plane is proposed. An algorithmic method for constructing an approximating lemniscate is proposed and investigated. This method is based on a mapping of the curve to be approximated onto the phase circle; the convergence of the method is proved. The location of the lemniscate foci inside the curve provides the degrees of freedom for the focal approximation.

  11. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2015-06-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. We apply a conventional likelihood method to measure the skill of earthquake focal mechanism orientation forecasts. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. We measure the difference between two double-couple sources as the minimum rotation angle that transforms one into the other. We measure the uncertainty of a focal mechanism forecast (the variability), and the difference between observed and forecasted orientations (the prediction error), in terms of these minimum rotation angles. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random (or equally probable). For 3-D rotation the random rotation angle distribution is not uniform. To better understand the resulting complexities, we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two theoretical rotational distributions (Cauchy and von Mises-Fisher), which are used to approximate earthquake source orientation pattern. We then calculate the likelihood score for earthquake source forecasts and for their validation by future seismicity data. Several issues need to be explored when analyzing observational results: their dependence on forecast and data resolution, internal dependence of scores on forecasted angle and random variability of likelihood scores. Here, we propose a simple tentative solution but extensive theoretical and statistical analysis is needed.

  12. Corneal damage following focal laser intervention

    Corneal endothelial damage caused by two levels of laser energy was studied in albino rats. Observations indicate that focal, non-invasive destruction of the endothelium can be consistently generated by laser treatment following anterior chamber localization of fluorescein. The dose related effects of this described protocol will make it possible to study different aspects of posterior corneal function without generating invasive, inflammatory side effects. (author)

  13. Syndecan-4 and focal adhesion function

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Two groups have now reported the viability of mice that lack syndecan-4. These mice have wound healing/angiogenesis problems, and fibroblasts from these animals differ in adhesion and migration from normal. This is consistent with recent in vitro data indicating a need for signaling via syndecan-4...... for focal adhesion formation, and reports that overexpression of proteins that bind syndecan-4 can modify cell adhesion and migration....

  14. Defects in metals

    The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to the study of defects in metals has led to increased knowledge on lattice-defect properties during the past decade in two areas: the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation and post-quench annealing. The study of defects in metals by PAS is reviewed within the context of the other available techniques for defect studies. The strengths and weaknesses of PAS as a method for the characterization of defect microstructures are considered. The additional possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the atomic and electronic structures of atomic defects are discussed, based upon theoretical calculations of the annihilation characteristics of defect-trapped positrons and experimental observations. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals is considered. 71 references, 9 figures

  15. Uncooled infrared detectors and focal plane arrays

    Tidrow, Meimei Z.; Clark, William W.; Tipton, W.; Hoffman, R.; Beck, William A.; Tidrow, S. C.; Robertson, D. N.; Pollehn, Herbert K.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Beratan, Howard R.; Soch, Kevin L.; Hanson, Charles M.; Wigdor, Marc

    1998-08-01

    Over the past several years, uncooled IR detectors and focal plane arrays have been rapidly developed. Impressive progress has been made in both resistive microbolometers and pyroelectric thin-film detectors with noise equivalent temperature differences projected to be 10 to 20 mK with F/1 optics for such structures. Noise equivalent temperature of 50 mK bulk pyroelectric detectors and thin film resistive microbolometers are already demonstrated and in production. Other novel schemes, such as bimaterial capacitors, are also promising for uncooled IR detection. The US Army Research Laboratory is involved in developing ferroelectric materials to take advantage of the pyroelectric properties. The goal is to develop crystal oriented thin films to further improve detector performance. In this presentation, the operating principle of resistive microbolometers and pyroelectric detectors, and recent progress of uncooled RI focal plane arrays are discussed. In addition, the uncooled RI detector program at the Army Research Laboratory, that includes research facilities for and research efforts toward uncooled detectors and focal plane arrays is presented.

  16. Protein-based injectable hydrogels towards the regeneration of articular cartilage

    Poveda Reyes, Sara

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Articular cartilage is a tissue with low capacity for self-restoration due to its avascularity and low cell population. It is located on the surface of the subchondral bone covering the diarthrodial joints. Degeneration of articular cartilage can appear in athletes, in people with genetic degenerative processes (osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis) or due to a trauma; what produces pain, difficulties in mobility and progressive degeneration that finally leads to joint failure. Self-re...

  17. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Synovial Joint and Articular Cartilage Formation

    Pacifici, Maurizio; Koyama, Eiki; Shibukawa, Yoshihiro; Wu, Changshan; Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Iwamoto, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Synovial joints and articular cartilage play crucial roles in skeletal function, but relatively little is actually known about their embryonic development. Here we first focused on the interzone, a thin mesenchymal cell layer forming at future joint sites that is widely thought to be critical for joint and articular cartilage development. To determine interzone cell origin and fate, we microinjected the vital fluorescent dye DiI at several peri-joint sites in chick limbs and monitored behavio...

  18. Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee: clinical and MR imaging features

    The purpose of this study was to present clinical and MR imaging features of intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee. Retrospective review of 1685 consecutive medical records and MR examinations of the knee performed at three imaging centers allowed identification of 20 patients (13 men and 7 women; mean age 35 years), in whom evidence of intra-articular ganglion cyst was seen. Of the 20 ganglion cysts, 5 were found in the infrapatellar fat pad, 10 arose from the posterior cruciate ligament, and 5 from the anterior cruciate ligament. Three of five patients with ganglion cyst in the infrapatellar fat pad had a palpable mass. In 7 of 15 patients with ganglion cyst in the intercondylar notch, exacerbation of pain occurred in a squatting position. On four MR arthrographies, ganglion cysts were an intra-articular round, lobulated, low signal intensity lesion. Five cases of fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted SE images demonstrated peripheral thin rim enhancement. The clinical presentation of intra-articular ganglion cyst is varied according to its intra-articular location. The MR appearance of intra-articular ganglion cyst is characteristic and usually associated with the cruciate ligament or the infrapatellar fat pad. Magnetic resonance arthrography has no definite advantage over conventional MR in the evaluation of the lesion. For intra-articular ganglion cyst in the infrapatellar fat pad, fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced MR imaging could be useful, because a thin, rim-enhancing feature of intra-articular ganglion cyst allows it to be distinguished from synovial hemangioma and synovial sarcoma. (orig.)

  19. Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.

    Mulhall, K J

    2002-10-01

    We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

  20. Development of a Valid and Reliable Knee Articular Cartilage Condition–Specific Study Methodological Quality Score

    Harris, Joshua D.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Gupta, Anil K; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Condition-specific questionnaires are important components in evaluation of outcomes of surgical interventions. No condition-specific study methodological quality questionnaire exists for evaluation of outcomes of articular cartilage surgery in the knee. Purpose: To develop a reliable and valid knee articular cartilage–specific study methodological quality questionnaire. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A stepwise, a priori–designed framework was created for developme...

  1. New perspectives for articular cartilage repair treatment through tissue engineering: A contemporary review

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Leonardi, Rosalia; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Giunta, Angelo; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper review we describe benefits and disadvantages of the established methods of cartilage regeneration that seem to have a better long-term effectiveness. We illustrated the anatomical aspect of the knee joint cartilage, the current state of cartilage tissue engineering, through mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials, and in conclusion we provide a short overview on the rehabilitation after articular cartilage repair procedures. Adult articular cartilage has low capacity to repair ...

  2. Effects of Initial Cell Seeding in Self Assembly of Articular Cartilage

    Revell, Christopher M.; Reynolds, Catherine E.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2008-01-01

    Current forays into tissue engineering of articular cartilage in vitro using the self-assembling method have produced constructs possessing significant extracellular matrix and resulting mechanical properties. However, large numbers of native articular chondrocytes are necessary to produce functional engineered cartilage; all previous work with the self-assembling process has used 5.5×106 cells/construct. In this study, the effects of initial cell seeding (0.25 – 11×106 cells/construct) on ti...

  3. Operative treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures with calcaneal plates and its complications

    Rak Vaclav; Ira Daniel; Masek Michal

    2009-01-01

    Background: In a retrospective study we analysed intra-articular calcaneal fracture treatment by comparing results and complications related to fracture stabilization with nonlocking calcaneal plates and locking compression plates. Materials and Methods: We performed 76 osteosynthesis (67 patients) of intra-articular calcaneal fractures using the standard extended lateral approach from February 2004 to October 2007. Forty-two operations using nonlocking calcaneal plates (group A) were perf...

  4. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  5. Elastin fibers display a versatile microfibril network in articular cartilage depending on the mechanical microenvironments.

    He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Chen, Hong Hui; Kirk, Thomas Brett; Xu, Jiake

    2013-09-01

    Elastin fibers are major extracellular matrix macromolecules that are critical in maintaining the elasticity and resilience of tissues such as blood vessels, lungs and skins. However, the role of elastin in articular cartilage is poorly defined. The present study investigated the organization of elastin fiber in articular cartilage, its relationship to collagen fibers and the architecture of elastin fibers from different mechanical environments by using a kangaroo model. Five morphologies of elastin fibers were identified: Straight fiber, straight fiber with branches, branching fibers directly associated with chondrocyte, wave fiber and fine elastin. The architecture of the elastin network varied significantly with cartilage depth. In the most superficial layer of tibial plateau articular cartilage, dense elastin fibers formed a distinctive cobweb-like meshwork which was parallel to the cartilage surface. In the superficial zone, elastin fibers were well organized in a preferred orientation which was parallel to collagen fibers. In the deep zone, no detectable elastin fiber was found. Moreover, differences in the organization of elastin fibers were also observed between articular cartilage from the tibial plateau, femoral condyle, and distal humerus. This study unravels the detailed microarchitecture of elastin fibers which display a well-organized three-dimensional versatile network in articular cartilage. Our findings imply that elastin fibers may play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity, elasticity, and the mechanical properties of articular cartilage, and that the local mechanical environment affects the architectural development of elastin fibers. PMID:23649803

  6. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Engraft into Rabbit Articular Cartilage

    Wen Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA. Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals.

  7. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  8. Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea

    María Jezabel Haye Salinas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA, relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987 mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ≤ 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p < 0.01 y de factor reumatoideo (FR (108 vs. 34.5, p < 0.01. En el análisis multivariado hubo asociación entre la presencia de MExA y tabaquismo activo (p = 0.02, OR: 3.78, IC 95%: 1.17-12.2, FR positivo (p = 0.04, OR: 3.23, IC95%: 1.04-11.8 y anticuerpo ACCP positivo (p = 0.04, OR: 3.23, IC 95%: 1.04-10. Presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP que los controles los pacientes con xerostomía (109 vs. 34, p = 0.04, xeroftalmia (150 vs. 34, p < 0.01, nódulos sub-cutáneos (NSC (141 vs. 34, p < 0.01 y fibrosis pulmonar (158 vs. 34, p = 0.04. En conclusión, el anticuerpo ACCP positivo, el FR positivo y el tabaquismo activo fueron factores de riesgo independientes para el desarrollo de MExA.

  9. Correlation of laminated MR apperance of articular cartilage with histology

    To determine the correlation of laminae of different signal intensities (SI) of articular cartilage, as seen on magnetic resonance(MR) imaging with histologic layers, using artificially constructed landmarks. For a landmark that can exactly correlate the cartilage specimen with the MR image, five 'V'-shaped markings of different depths were made on the surface of bovine patella. Both T1-weighted (TR/TE : 300/14) and FSE T2-weighted images (TR/TE : 2000/53) were obtained on a 1.5T system with high gradient echo strength (25mT/m) and a voxel size of 78X78X2000μm. Images were obtained with 1) changed frequency-encoding directions on T1-weighted study, and 2) changed readout gradient strength ( X2, X1/2) on T2-weighted sequence. Raw image data were transferred to a workstation and signal intensity profile was generated for each image. 1 : 1 correlation of histologic specimens and MR images was performed. Line profile through the cartilage showed few peaks, suggesting changes in signal intensity profile in the cartilage. On the basis of artificial landmarks, the histologic zone was accurately identified. The histologic tangential and transitional zones correlated with superficial high SI on T1WI, as well as high and low SI on T2WI. On T1WI, the radial zone correlated with a lamina of intermediate SI, and on T2WI, with a lamina for which SI gradually decreased from high to low. Additional well-defined low and intermediate SI bands were noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radial zone. In both T1 and T2 studies, calcified cartilage layers were of low SI. On T1-weighted study, changes in the direction of frequency gradient did not lead to changes in the laminae. The alteration of readout gradient strengths did not result in an inversely proportional difference in the thickness of the laminae. These became more distinct thus ruling out chemical shift and susceptibility artifacts. The laminated appearance of articular cartilage, as seen on spin echo and fast spin-echo MR images, correlated with histologic layers rather than susceptibility or chemical shift artifacts

  10. Correlation of laminated MR apperance of articular cartilage with histology

    Kim, Dong Joon; Suh, Jin Suck; Jeong, Eun Kee; Shin, Kyu Ho; Yang, Woo Ick [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To determine the correlation of laminae of different signal intensities (SI) of articular cartilage, as seen on magnetic resonance(MR) imaging with histologic layers, using artificially constructed landmarks. For a landmark that can exactly correlate the cartilage specimen with the MR image, five 'V'-shaped markings of different depths were made on the surface of bovine patella. Both T1-weighted (TR/TE : 300/14) and FSE T2-weighted images (TR/TE : 2000/53) were obtained on a 1.5T system with high gradient echo strength (25mT/m) and a voxel size of 78X78X2000{mu}m. Images were obtained with 1) changed frequency-encoding directions on T1-weighted study, and 2) changed readout gradient strength ( X2, X1/2) on T2-weighted sequence. Raw image data were transferred to a workstation and signal intensity profile was generated for each image. 1 : 1 correlation of histologic specimens and MR images was performed. Line profile through the cartilage showed few peaks, suggesting changes in signal intensity profile in the cartilage. On the basis of artificial landmarks, the histologic zone was accurately identified. The histologic tangential and transitional zones correlated with superficial high SI on T1WI, as well as high and low SI on T2WI. On T1WI, the radial zone correlated with a lamina of intermediate SI, and on T2WI, with a lamina for which SI gradually decreased from high to low. Additional well-defined low and intermediate SI bands were noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radial zone. In both T1 and T2 studies, calcified cartilage layers were of low SI. On T1-weighted study, changes in the direction of frequency gradient did not lead to changes in the laminae. The alteration of readout gradient strengths did not result in an inversely proportional difference in the thickness of the laminae. These became more distinct thus ruling out chemical shift and susceptibility artifacts. The laminated appearance of articular cartilage, as seen on spin echo and fast spin-echo MR images, correlated with histologic layers rather than susceptibility or chemical shift artifacts.

  11. Diagnosing, planning and evaluating osteochondral ankle defects with imaging modalities.

    van Bergen, Christiaan Ja; Gerards, Rogier M; Opdam, Kim Tm; Terra, Maaike P; Kerkhoffs, Gino Mmj

    2015-12-18

    This current concepts review outlines the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnosis, preoperative planning, and follow-up of osteochondral ankle defects. An osteochondral ankle defect involves the articular cartilage and subchondral bone (usually of the talus) and is mostly caused by an ankle supination trauma. Conventional radiographs are useful as an initial imaging tool in the diagnostic process, but have only moderate sensitivity for the detection of osteochondral defects. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more accurate imaging modalities. Recently, ultrasonography and single photon emission CT have been described for the evaluation of osteochondral talar defects. CT is the most valuable modality for assessing the exact location and size of bony lesions. Cartilage and subchondral bone damage can be visualized using MRI, but the defect size tends to be overestimated due to bone edema. CT with the ankle in full plantar flexion has been shown a reliable tool for preoperative planning of the surgical approach. Postoperative imaging is useful for objective assessment of repair tissue or degenerative changes of the ankle joint. Plain radiography, CT and MRI have been used in outcome studies, and different scoring systems are available. PMID:26716090

  12. THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavityCon el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron analizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular

  13. Conformal constraints on defects

    Gadde, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the constraints imposed by conformal invariance on extended objects a.k.a defects in a conformal field theory. We identify a particularly nice class of defects that is closed under conformal transformations. Correlation function of the defect with a bulk local operator is fixed by conformal invariance up to an overall constant. This gives rise to the notion of defect expansion, where the defect itself is expanded in terms of local operators. This expansion generalizes the idea of the boundary state. We will show how one can fix the correlation function of two defects from the knowledge of the defect expansion. The defect correlator admits a number of conformal cross-ratios depending on their dimensionality. We find the differential equation obeyed by the conformal block and solve them in certain special cases.

  14. Congenital platelet function defects

    Platelet storage pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that cause ... function, even though there are normal platelet numbers. ...

  15. MRI demonstration of hypertrophic articular cartilage repair in osteoarthritis

    Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog produces changes in the unstable joint typical of osteoarthritis, although full-thickness catilage ulceration is rare. Information concerning the late fate of the cartilage after transection is meager. In the present study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate cartilage abnormalities 3 years after transection. Plain radiographs of the osteoarthritic and contralateral knees were obtained serially. MRI was performed 3 years after anterior cruciate ligament transection, at which time all three animals exhibited knee instability. Radiographs of the osteoarthritic knees showed osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis with progression between 2 and 3 years. On MRI, articular cartilage margins in the knee were indistinct, and the cartilage was thicker than that in the contralateral knee (maximum difference = 2.7 mm). This increase in thickness is consistent with biochemical data from dogs killed up to 64 weeks after creation of knee instability, which showed marked increases in cartilage bulk and in proteoglycan synthesis and concentration. The findings emphasize that increased matrix synthesis after anterior cruciate ligament transection leads to functional cartilage repair sustained even in the presence of persistent alteration of joint mechanics. (orig.)

  16. Intracortical chondroblastoma mimicking intra-articular osteoid osteoma

    We report a case of intra-articular intracortical chondroblastoma of the femoral condyle which radiologically appeared to be osteoid osteoma. A 19-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of gradually increasing pain in the right knee and had been on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief. Laboratory data were within normal limits. Radiographs showed a well-demarcated lucent lesion in the medial condyle of the right femur. A nidus-like lesion with calcifications and a sclerotic rim located in the cortex was imaged by computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and soft tissue swelling around the lesion, with low signal intensity of the nidus-like lesion on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was excised en bloc and the histological diagnosis of chondroblastoma was made. A mild inflammatory reaction was observed in the bone marrow and synovium around the tumor. The chondroblastoma cells were shown to express cyclooxygenase-2 with immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

  17. Intracortical chondroblastoma mimicking intra-articular osteoid osteoma

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Mukai, Kiyoshi [First Department of Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku 6-1-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Goto, Takahiro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Motoi, Noriko [Department of Pathology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We report a case of intra-articular intracortical chondroblastoma of the femoral condyle which radiologically appeared to be osteoid osteoma. A 19-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of gradually increasing pain in the right knee and had been on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief. Laboratory data were within normal limits. Radiographs showed a well-demarcated lucent lesion in the medial condyle of the right femur. A nidus-like lesion with calcifications and a sclerotic rim located in the cortex was imaged by computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and soft tissue swelling around the lesion, with low signal intensity of the nidus-like lesion on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was excised en bloc and the histological diagnosis of chondroblastoma was made. A mild inflammatory reaction was observed in the bone marrow and synovium around the tumor. The chondroblastoma cells were shown to express cyclooxygenase-2 with immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

  18. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    Gross-Aviv, Talia [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: taliag@bgu.ac.il; DiCarlo, Bryan B. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: bdicarlo@rice.edu; French, Margaret M. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: mmfrench@rice.edu; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: athanasiou@rice.edu; Vago, Razi [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: rvago@bgu.ac.il

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications.

  19. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications

  20. Particulated Juvenile Articular Cartilage Implantation in the Knee

    Stevens, Hazel Y.; Shockley, Blake E.; Willett, Nick J.; Lin, Angela S.P.; Raji, Yazdan; Labib, Sameh A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this report is to describe the outcome of sequential particulated cartilage allograft and autologous osteochondral transfer treatments for an osteochondral lesion of the medial femoral condyle. Methods: A 44-year-old woman was treated with a particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft (DeNovo NT) for a chondral lesion of the knee. As a result of continued pain, she had 2 further surgeries, including an autologous osteochondral transfer system procedure and finally a unicondylar knee arthroplasty. At the final procedure, the areas of the allograft and autograft tissue were biopsied for histological evaluation. The quality of the residual cartilage tissue was assessed first by equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent via micro–computed tomography (EPIC-µCT), and then by hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O staining, and polarized light microscopy. Results: Despite showing good healing at 7 months postsurgery by MRI, at 28 months post DeNovo NT tissue implantation the excised cartilage tissue was heterogeneous, with some regions of hyaline-like cartilage and some regions of fibrocartilage. The later mosaicplasty may have helped maintain hyaline-like cartilage of the DeNovo NT tissue in its vicinity. Conclusion: This case report describes the cartilage repair tissue produced by DeNovo NT implantation and compares it with autologous osteochondral plug tissue. PMID:26069686

  1. Measurement of diffusion in articular cartilage using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Ushida Kiminori

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS provides information about translational diffusion of fluorescent molecules in tiny detection volumes at the single-molecule level. In normal states, cartilage tissue lacks vascularity, so chondrocyte metabolism depends on diffusion for molecular exchanges. The abundant extracellular matrix (ECM of cartilage is maintained by a limited number of chondrocytes. ECM plays an important role in the regulation of chondrocyte functions. In this study, FCS was used to measure diffusion behaviors of albumin, the major protein of the intra-articular space, using normal and degenerated cartilage. Preliminary investigation of fluorescence dyes including Alexa 488, Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine 123 was conducted to evaluate their properties in cartilage. Results The results indicate that the diffusion behaviors of fluorescently lableded albumin can be observed using FCS in both normal and chemically degenerated cartilage. Conclusions This work demonstrates the capability of FCS for direct measurement of diffusion in cartilaginous ECM. When the diffusion characteristics of fluorescent probes in ECM are clarified using FCS evaluation, FCS will be applicable as a method for early diagnosis of osteoarthritis, which is accompanied by increased abnormalities of ECM and also as tool for evaluating bio-engineered artificial cartilage for autologous chondrocyte implantation.

  2. Oral focal mucinosis: report of two cases = Mucinose oral focal: relato de dois casos

    BS, Manjunatha et al.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Mucinose oral focal (MOF), uma lesão equivalente à mucinose cutânea focal, é uma doença rara de etiologia desconhecida. Sua patogênese pode ser devido a superprodução de ácido hialurônico pelo fibroblasto às expensas de produção de colágeno, resultando em degeneração mixoide focal de tecido conjuntivo primariamente afetando a mucosa sobre o osso. Não tem características clínicas distintas e o diagnóstico é baseado somente em características histopatológicas. Este artigo relata dois ...

  3. A CMOS image sensor method of focal spot size measurement.

    Tuchyna, T; Paix, D

    2004-06-01

    A phosphor opto-coupled monochrome CMOS image sensor with a slit diaphragm was used to investigate focal spot characteristics. Images were captured during x-ray exposure with a triggered frame grabber and subsequently enhanced. Dimensions of the focal spot width (1.39mm) and length (1.92mm) were determined from the focal spot intensity profiles and their corresponding Full Width at Half Maxima (FWHM) in two orthogonal orientations. The CMOS image sensor measurements demonstrated differences in the measured width and length dimensions when compared to film measurements. The obtained nominal focal spot values however showed that image-sensor determined focal spot dimensions agreed with the direct film and film-screen methods when based on the AS/NZS defined nominal focal spot values. The CMOS image sensor tested appears to lack the measurement accuracy required for the measurement of small focal spot sizes due in part to its limited camera sensitivity. PMID:15462588

  4. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesi...

  5. Point defects in solids

    The principal properties of point defects are studied: thermodynamics, electronic structure, interactions with etended defects, production by irradiation. Some measuring methods are presented: atomic diffusion, spectroscopic methods, diffuse scattering of neutron and X rays, positron annihilation, molecular dynamics. Then points defects in various materials are investigated: ionic crystals, oxides, semiconductor materials, metals, intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides

  6. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

    Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment. PMID:25082395

  7. Advantages of the Ilizarov external fixation in the management of intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia

    Kaspiris Angelos; Papavasileiou Evangelos; Psarakis Spyridon A; Grivas Theodoros B; Vasiliadis Elias S; Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Treatment of distal tibial intra-articular fractures is challenging due to the difficulties in achieving anatomical reduction of the articular surface and the instability which may occur due to ligamentous and soft tissue injury. The purpose of this study is to present an algorithm in the application of external fixation in the management of intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia either from axial compression or from torsional forces. Materials and methods Thirty tw...

  8. Sulfato de condroitina e hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da doença articular degenerativa experimental em cães: aspectos clínicos e radiológicos

    Melo E.G.; Rezende C.M.F.; Gomes M.G.; Freitas P.M.; Arias S. S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Avaliaram-se clínica e radiograficamente os efeitos do sulfato de condroitina e do hialuronato de sódio no tratamento da articulação femorotibiopatelar de cães com doença articular degenerativa (DAD) induzida experimentalmente. Foram utilizados 15 cães, sem raça definida, de ambos os sexos, pesando entre 18 e 25 kg, submetidos à secção artroscópica do ligamento cruzado cranial (LCCr) para desestabilização articular e indução da DAD. Após três semanas de instabilidade articular, o LCCr foi sub...

  9. The effect of intra-articular hydrocortisone injections on healthy rat joints. Pt. 1. Incorporation of 35S sulphates into glucosaminoglycans of articular connective tissue

    Using 35S sodium sulphate the changes in connective tissue glucosaminoglycans were studied in knee joints of rats after topical injections of hydrocortisone. It was demonstrated that the incorporation of sodium sulphate into articular connective tissue glucosaminoglycans was raised in relation to control animals. The possible mechanisms responsible for the increase in the content of glucosaminoglycans after intraaricular injections of hydrocortisone are discussed. (author)

  10. Incidencia de las extracciones del primer molar inferior permanente en los ruidos articulares / Permanent lower first molar extraction incidence in articular noises

    María Julia, López Vallejos; Carlos Eduardo, Buffil; María Mercedes, González.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ruidos articulares se presentan frecuentemente en la práctica diaria odontológica, algunos son audibles a simple oído y en otros casos es necesario tener entrenado el oído ya que pueden resultar imperceptibles. Mediante un examen clínico y desarrollo de un protocolo destinado especialmente para [...] la articulación temporomandibular (ATM), los odontólogos registraron los datos en fichas individuales. Además se registraron los datos relacionados con la frecuencia de aparición según el sexo y la edad. Los resultados demostraron que la extracción prematura del primer molar inferior permanente no incide en la aparición de ruidos articulares. Abstract in english Articular noises are frequently present in the daily dental practice. Some are easily discernible, nevertheless, in some other cases a trained ear might be necessary to perceive them since they might be imperceptible. In the present study, by means of a physical examination and development of a spec [...] ifically TMJ-designed (temporomandibular joint) protocol dentists recorded data in individual files. Data related to onset frequency according to age and gender were equally recorded. Results revealed the fact that premature extraction of the permanent lower first molar did not bear influence on the onset of articular noises.

  11. Análise termogravimétrica da cartilagem articular de ratos exercitados após imobilização / Thermogravimetric analysis of articular cartilage of exercised rats after immobilization / Análisis termogravimétrico del cartílago articular de ratones ejercitados después de inmovilización

    Guilherme Akio Tamura, Ozaki; Fábio Yoshikazu, Kodama; Regina Celi Trindade, Camargo; Aldo Eloizo, Job; Tatiana Emy, Koike; Adriana Yukie, Watanabe; José Carlos Silva, Camargo Filho.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A imobilização articular é uma técnica de tratamento frequentemente utilizada na ortopedia e, associada ao processo de senescência, promove alterações tanto na estrutura quanto na síntese e biomecânica do tecido cartilaginoso. OBJETIVO: Descrever os efeitos da imobilização, da remobiliz [...] ação livre e por meio de exercício físico sobre a cartilagem articular de ratos situados em duas faixas etárias. MÉTODOS: Trinta e nove ratos Wistar divididos em dois grupos etários, um grupo adulto (cinco meses de idade) e um idoso (15 meses de idade), subdivididos em: controle, imobilizado, remobilizado livre e remobilizado por meio de exercício físico. Os membros posteriores dos ratos foram imobilizados por sete dias. O protocolo de exercícios foi composto por cinco sessões diárias de natação, de 25 minutos cada. A cartilagem articular do quadril foi submetida à análise termogravimétrica, tendo sido avaliado seu conteúdo de água. RESULTADOS: Nos animais adultos a imobilização reduziu a quantidade de água presente no tecido cartilaginoso, e os protocolos de remobilização foram eficazes para restabelecer a condição inicial do tecido. Nos animais idosos não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos, porém o grupo idoso controle obteve resultado significantemente menor que o grupo adulto controle (X: 13,10 ± 5,24 vs 10,70 ± 1,95). CONCLUSÕES: A imobilização e o processo de senescência induzem a diminuição do conteúdo de água da cartilagem articular e os protocolos de remobilização foram eficientes para restabelecer esta propriedade apenas nos animais adultos. Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: La inmovilización articular es una técnica de tratamiento frecuentemente utilizada en ortopedia y asociada al proceso de senescencia, que promueve alteraciones tanto en la estructura como en la síntesis y la biomecánica del tejido cartilaginoso. OBJETIVO: Describir los efectos de la i [...] nmovilización, de la removilización libre y mediante el ejercicio físico sobre el cartílago articular de ratones de dos grupos de edad. MÉTODOS: Treinta y nueve ratones Wistar divididos en dos grupos de edad, un grupo adulto (cinco meses) y un grupo anciano (15 meses), y subdividos en control, inmovilizado, removilizado libre y removilizado a través de ejercicio físico. Los miembros posteriores de los ratones fueron inmovilizados durante un período de siete días. El protocolo de ejercicios fue compuesto por cinco sesiones diarias de natación, de 25 minutos cada una. El cartílago articular de la cadera fue sometido a análisis termogravimétrico, siendo evaluado su contenido de agua. RESULTADOS: En los animales adultos la inmovilización redujo la cantidad de agua presente en el tejido cartilaginoso, y los protocolos de removilización fueron eficaces para restablecer la condición inicial del tejido. En los animales ancianos no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos, aunque el grupo anciano control obtuvo resultado significativamente menor que el grupo adulto control (X: 13,10 ± 5,24 vs 10,70 ± 1,95). CONCLUSIONES: La inmovilización y el proceso de senescencia inducen la disminución en el contenido de agua de cartílago articular y los protocolos de removilización fueron eficientes para restablecer esta propiedad sólo en los animales adultos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Joint immobilization is a technique often used in orthopedic treatment and, associated with the aging process, promotes changes in both the structure and synthesis and biomechanics of cartilage tissue. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of immobilization, free remobilization and remob [...] ilization by physical exercise over articular cartilage of rats of two age groups. METHODS: Thirty nine Wistar rats divided into two groups according to age, an adult group (five months old) and an elderly group (15 months old), and subdivided into: control, immobilized, free remobilized and remobilized by physical exercise. The pelvic limb of rats was immobilized for seven days. The

  12. Focal-plane sensor-processor chips

    Zarandy, Kos

    2011-01-01

    Focal-plane sensor-processor imager devices are sensor arrays and processor arrays embedded in each other on the same silicon chip. This close coupling enables ultra-fast processing even on tiny, low power devices, because the slow and energetically expensive transfer of the large amount of sensory data is eliminated. This technology also makes it possible to produce locally adaptive sensor arrays, which can (similarly to the human retina) adapt to the large dynamics of the illumination in a single scene This book focuses on the implementation and application of state-of-the-art vision chips.

  13. Congenital and acquired focal lung disease

    The topics in this chapter encompass some of the rarest and conversely most common diseases seen in the thorax. The techniques for imaging these diseases are in general well understood and have been established for many years. A review of the much relied upon chest radiographic findings as well as the recently described ultrasound, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings for the processes is the purpose of this chapter. The topics covered in this chapter are discussed individually within the major subject headings congenital and acquired focal lung disease

  14. Focal hepatic infarction with bile lake formation

    Venous thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives is a well recognized phenomenon. Arterial thrombosis, while less common, is also a known risk, as evidenced by the increased incidence of cerebral vascular accidents and myocardial ischemia or infarction. The liver is relatively protected from the usual consequences of arterial thrombosis because of its dual blood supply. The authors present an unusual case of a young woman with a history of oral contraceptive and cigarette use who developed hepatic artery thrombosis and had focal liver lesions on computed tomography (CT) due to hepatic infarction and bile lake formation despite an intact portal venous system

  15. Psychiatric Symptoms Associated with Focal Hand Dystonia

    Voon, Valerie; Butler, Tracy R.; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Murphy, Dennis L; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Myoclonus dystonia and idiopathic dystonia are associated with a greater frequency of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depression. We investigated the frequency of OCD in 39 patients with primary focal hand dystonia (FHD) using a semistructured interview. OCD and subsyndromal OCD was diagnosed in 5 of 39 (12.82%) patients with FHD, whereas OCD occurs in 2.3% of the general population. Recurrent depression occurred in (7 of 39) 17.95% of patients with FHD along with a family histo...

  16. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  17. Lavado articular por punción versus artroscopia en el tratamiento de la osteoartritis de rodilla Articular lavage by puncture versus arthroscopy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    Araceli Chico Capote

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe que el lavado articular y el debridamiento son opciones en el tratamiento de la osteoartritis de rodilla. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, abierto y aleatorizado que incluyó 100 pacientes con OA de rodilla (criterio ACR en estadios II y III de Kellgren y Lawrence para evaluar la utilidad y la eficacia del lavado articular por punción en comparación con el lavado y debridamiento artroscópico. Se distribuyeron en: grupo A (lavado por punción y grupo B (lavado y debridamiento artroscópico. Se consideraron variables relacionadas con el dolor y la función articular que fueron analizadas al inicio del tratamiento y 90 d después; se realizó un análisis estadístico con el empleo del test de Chi cuadrado y el de t-Student, significación estadística pIt is known that the articular lavage and débridement are options for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A prospective, open and randomized study that included 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis (criterion of the American College of Rheumatology at stages II and III of Kellgren and Lawrence was conducted to evaluate the usefulness and efficiency of the articular lavage by puncture compared with lavage and arthroscopic débridement. They were distributed into: group A (lavage by puncture and group B (lavage and arthroscopic débridement. Variables related to pain and articular function that were analyzed at the beginning of the treatment and 90 days later, were considered. A statistical analysis was made by using Chi square test and Student's t test with a statistical significance of p<0.05. It was observed that both groups of patients improved in all the variables analyzed with the treatment variants.There were no statistically significant differences between one group and the other. Approximately 90 % of the cases felt satisfied with the procedure. No complications were reported. It was concluded that the articular lavage by puncture and the lavage and arthroscopic débridement proved to be useful for the relief of symptoms in patients with mild and moderate osteoarthritis after 3 months.

  18. Focal dermal hypoplasia: report of a case with myelomeningocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation and hydrocephalus with a review of neurologic manifestations of Goltz syndrome.

    Peters, Tess; Perrier, Renee; Haber, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 305600) is a rare X-linked dominant congenital disorder involving defects of mesodermal- and ectodermal-derived structures. It is associated with mutations in the PORCN gene, a regulator of Wnt signaling proteins. The phenotype is highly variable, although all describe characteristic skin findings as a primary diagnostic feature. To date there are few case reports of focal dermal hypoplasia associated with central nervous system abnormalities. We report the second case of focal dermal hypoplasia associated with myelomenigocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation and hydrocephalus and the first in a male. Genetic testing identified a novel mosaic three base pair deletion within the PORCN gene (c.853_855delACG). This case highlights the importance of neurological evaluation in focal dermal hypoplasia and consideration of other syndromes more commonly associated with central nervous system abnormalities. In this report we summarize the literature on neurological manifestations in Goltz syndrome. PMID:24387693

  19. Usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection of the knee

    Myung, Jae Sung; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yeon [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    To determine the accuracy of the intra-articular location of hyaluronic acid injection using a blind approach and to establish the usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection. A fluoroscopy unit was used for 368 intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid to 93 knees in 65 patients. Initially, blind needle positioning was conducted on the fluoroscopy table. The failure rate of the blind approach among the 368 injections was evaluated, and a relationship between the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade) and the incidence of repeated failures using the blind approach was determined for injections to 52 knees in 37 patients who received a complete cycle of injections (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections). Using a blind approach, 298 of 368 trials (81.2%) resulted in a needle tip being placed in an intra-articular location, while 70 of 368 trials resulted in an extra-articular placement of the needle tip. Among 52 knees to which a complete cycle of injection (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections) was administered, repeated failure of intra-articular placement using the blind approach was seen for 18 knees (34.6%); a more severe K-L grade assigned was associated with a higher rate of repeated failure. However, the trend was not statistically significant based on the Chi-squared test ({rho} value = 0.14). Fluoroscopy-guided needle placement may be helpful to ensure therapeutic intra-articular injection of the knee.

  20. OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF INTRA-ARTICULAR DISTAL HUMERAL FRACTURES WITH LOCKING PLATES

    Abhilekh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra-articular distal humeral fractures are common, but complex elbow injuries. To obtain good results, anatomical reduction with rigid fixation and early range of mobilization is required. Treatment of these fractures with conventional plates is associated with many complications such as non-anatomic reduction of articular surfaces, malunion, non-union, loosening of implant, residual stiffness of the elbow and post-traumatic osteoarthrosis. In this situation the application of locking plates having a fixed angle plate screw construct can minimise most of the above complications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate radiological and functional outcome of locking plate application for the management of intra-articular distal humeral fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. We operated 20 patients of AO type-C intra-articular distal humeral fractures. Fracture was exposed using modified Campbell’s posterior approach in less comminuted fractures and a V-shaped Olecranon osteotomy was done to get better exposure of the articular surface in cases with severe articular comminution. The fracture was stabilized using an intercondylar screw, pre-contoured locking compression plates and/or locking reconstruction plates as per preoperative planning. Patients were reviewed at monthly interval for clinical-radiological evaluation. Final outcome measures included radiological assessment, range of motion and Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS. RESULTS: All the fractures were united at an average 12 weeks. Two patients developed numbness in the distribution of ulnar nerve and one patient developed superficial infection in immediate postoperative period. None of the patients had malunion and loosening of implant. The average arc of flexion-extension was 105`, although no patient had loss of supination/pronation. Mayo Elbow Performance Score was excellent in 15 (75%, good in 3 (15%, fair in 1 (5% and poor in 1 (5%. CONCLUSION: The locking plate is a useful implant for the treatment of complete articular (type-c distal humeral fractures.

  1. Defect production in ceramics

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AlN and Si3N4), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  2. Defect production in ceramics

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  3. Dorsal defect of the patella: Concept of its origin and relationship with bipartite and multipartite patella

    Holsbeeck, M. van; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.L.; Vandamme, B.; Martens, M.; Victor, J.

    1987-06-01

    In a series of 2286 single radiographic examinations of the knee in 1985, 6 dorsal defects of the patella (DDP) were detected. The diagnosis was made if a round lucent lesion of the dorsal superolateral surface of the patella was found abutting against articular cartilage. In four of our patients, an association with a multipartite patella (MP) was found. Biopsy of one lesion showed dense connective tissue and areas of bone necrosis. In one patient, the pattern of reossification of the lesion could be demonstrated. Our observations provide further evidence that the DDP is a stress-induced anomaly of ossification rather than a post-traumatic subarticular cyst of the patella, a diagnosis sometimes suggested by the clinical context. The initial lesion is probably a traction lesion at the insertion of the vastus lateralis muscle rather than ulceration of articular cartilage. We suggest a possible relationship between dysfunction of the quadriceps mechanism, patellar subluxation, and the genesis of the DDP.

  4. Dorsal defect of the patella: Concept of its origin and relationship with bipartite and multipartite patella

    In a series of 2286 single radiographic examinations of the knee in 1985, 6 dorsal defects of the patella (DDP) were detected. The diagnosis was made if a round lucent lesion of the dorsal superolateral surface of the patella was found abutting against articular cartilage. In four of our patients, an association with a multipartite patella (MP) was found. Biopsy of one lesion showed dense connective tissue and areas of bone necrosis. In one patient, the pattern of reossification of the lesion could be demonstrated. Our observations provide further evidence that the DDP is a stress-induced anomaly of ossification rather than a post-traumatic subarticular cyst of the patella, a diagnosis sometimes suggested by the clinical context. The initial lesion is probably a traction lesion at the insertion of the vastus lateralis muscle rather than ulceration of articular cartilage. We suggest a possible relationship between dysfunction of the quadriceps mechanism, patellar subluxation, and the genesis of the DDP. (orig.)

  5. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes

  6. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Keller, Christoph U.; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-07-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

  7. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  8. Ultrasound diagnostic value in focal hashimoto thyroiditis

    Objective: To explore the ultrasound diagnostic value in focal hashimoto thyroiditis (FHT). Methods: Gray-scale and color Doppler flow images (CDFI) of 15 FHT patients confirmed by surgery pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Fifteen single lesions in the thyroids of 15 FTH patients were detected by gray-scale ultrasound scan. The around parenchyma was well-distributed. Eleven (73.3% ) of 15 lesions were of well-defined margin. Twelve (80% ) of 15 lesions were regular and 12 (80% ) lesions were hypoechoic. Eight lesions with uneven echogenicity were like the 'map' and were of no significant occupation effect. Hyperechoic calcification was detected in 2 (13.3% ) lesions. Extremely abundant blood flow sign as 'focal inferno' was showed in CDFIs of 4 (26.7% ) lesions. Ten (66.7% ) of 15 lesions showed mildly abundant blood flow sign and 1 (6.7% ) lesion had no blood flow sign. Conclusion: The FHT has characterized ultrasound appearance and ultrasound is helpful to the clinical diagnosis of FHT. (authors)

  9. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

  10. Calreticulin and focal-contact-dependent adhesion.

    Villagomez, Maria; Szabo, Eva; Podcheko, Alexey; Feng, Tianshu; Papp, Sylvia; Opas, Michal

    2009-08-01

    Cell adhesion is regulated by a variety of Ca2+-regulated pathways that depend on Ca2+-binding proteins. One such protein is calreticulin, an ER-resident protein. Calreticulin signalling from within the ER can affect processes outside the ER, such as expression of several adhesion-related genes, most notably vinculin and fibronectin. In addition, changes in the expression level of calreticulin strongly affect tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is known to affect many adhesion-related functions. While calreticulin has been localized to cellular compartments other than the ER, it appears that only the ER-resident calreticulin affects focal-contact-dependent adhesion. In contrast, calreticulin residing outside the ER may be involved in contact disassembly and other adhesion phenomena. Here, we review the role of calreticulin in focal contact initiation, stabilization, and turnover. We propose that calreticulin may regulate cell-substratum adhesion by participating in an "ER-to-nucleus" signalling and in parallel "ER-to-cell surface" signalling based on posttranslational events. PMID:19767819

  11. MRI characteristics of focal cortical dysplasia

    Objective: To summarize the MRI characteristics of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Methods: Patients with FCD proved histopathologically underwent MR imaging and surgical resection for intractable epilepsy. MRI characteristics of FCD were summarized according to the Palmini classification. Results: There were 14 patients with type I FCD and 14 with type II FCD. In type I FCD patients, 8 patients had abnormal MRI appearances such as cortical-white matter junction blurring and focal cortical thickening, and the temporal lobe was the most frequently affected area (9/14). Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS) was seen in 6 type I FCD patients. The MRI abnormalities can be seen in 11 type II FCD patients, of which 7 cases with frontal lobe seizure. Only 2 cases of HS were foud in type II FCD. Cortical thickening, high signal of white matter on T2WI and FLAIR, high signal band in the white matter from the surface to the ventricle were the most common MRI characteristics of type II FCD. Conclusion: Two types of FCD have different MRI features which is helpful to improve the accuracy of presurgical planning and determine the prognosis of epilepsy surgery. (authors)

  12. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  13. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    ... Lip and Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta ... some birth defects, such as Down syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome . However, for many birth defects, the causes are ...

  14. Cartilage tissue engineering using pre-aggregated human articular chondrocytes

    F Wolf

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we first aimed at determining whether human articular chondrocytes (HAC proliferate in aggregates in the presence of strong chondrocyte mitogens. We then investigated if the aggregated cells have an enhanced chondrogenic capacity as compared to cells cultured in monolayer. HAC from four donors were cultured in tissue culture dishes either untreated or coated with 1% agarose in the presence of TGFb-1, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Proliferation and stage of differentiation were assessed by measuring respectively DNA contents and type II collagen mRNA. Expanded cells were induced to differentiate in pellets or in Hyaff®-11 meshes and the formed tissues were analysed biochemically for glycosaminoglycans (GAG and DNA, and histologically by Safranin O staining. The amount of DNA in aggregate cultures increased significantly from day 2 to day 6 (by 3.2-fold, but did not further increase with additional culture time. Expression of type II collagen mRNA was about two orders of magnitude higher in aggregated HAC as compared to monolayer expanded cells. Pellets generated by aggregated HAC were generally more intensely stained for GAG than those generated by monolayer-expanded cells. Scaffolds seeded with aggregates accumulated more GAG (1.3-fold than scaffolds seeded with monolayer expanded HAC. In conclusion, this study showed that HAC culture in aggregates does not support a relevant degree of expansion. However, aggregation of expanded HAC prior to loading into a porous scaffold enhances the quality of the resulting tissues and could thus be introduced as an intermediate culture phase in the manufacture of engineered cartilage grafts.

  15. Modeling IL-1 induced degradation of articular cartilage.

    Kar, Saptarshi; Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Li, Yang; Wang, Yang; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we develop a computational model to simulate the in vitro biochemical degradation of articular cartilage explants sourced from the femoropatellar grooves of bovine calves. Cartilage explants were incubated in culture medium with and without the inflammatory cytokine IL-1α. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cartilage explant's extracellular matrix components is modelled. Key variables in the model include chondrocytes, aggrecan, collagen, aggrecanase, collagenase and IL-1α. The model is first calibrated for aggrecan homeostasis of cartilage in vivo, then for data on (explant) controls, and finally for data on the IL-1α driven proteolysis of aggrecan and collagen over a 4-week period. The model was found to fit the experimental data best when: (i) chondrocytes continue to synthesize aggrecan during the cytokine challenge, (ii) a one to two day delay is introduced between the addition of IL-1α to the culture medium and subsequent aggrecanolysis, (iii) collagen degradation does not commence until the total concentration of aggrecan (i.e. both intact and degraded aggrecan) at any specific location within the explant becomes ≤1.5 mg/ml and (iv) degraded aggrecan formed due to the IL-1α induced proteolysis of intact aggrecan protects the collagen network while collagen degrades in a two-step process which, together, significantly modulate the collagen network degradation. Under simulated in vivo conditions, the model predicts increased aggrecan turnover rates in the presence of synovial IL-1α, consistent with experimental observations. Such models may help to infer the course of events in vivo following traumatic joint injury, and may also prove useful in quantitatively evaluating the efficiency of various therapeutic molecules that could be employed to avoid or modify the course of cartilage disease states. PMID:26874194

  16. MR diffusion weighted imaging experimental study on early stages of articular cartilage degeneration of knee

    Objective: To study the appearance of MR diffusion weighted imaging in early stages of cartilage degeneration and to detect its values. Methods: In 20 goat left knees, intra- articular injection of 5 units of papain was performed causing a loss of cartilage proteoglycan. Twenty right knees were used as control group. MR diffusion weighted imaging was performed at 24 hours after intra-articular injection of papain. ADC of each part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. The proteoglycan content was measured biochemically and histochemically. Routine MRI and DWI were performed in 100 patients with osteoarthritis and 20 healthy people. The ADC of each interested part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. Results: In experimental control group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (14.2±2.3) x 10-4 mm2/s. In early stages of cartilage degeneration group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (17.5±4.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. The ADCav of the control group was lower than that of the early stages of cartilage degeneration group (t=2.709; P=0.016). The proteloglycan content of articular cartilage was 4.22 x 106 μg/kg in control group, and 0.82 x 106 μg/kg in experimental group at 24 hours after injection of papain. The difference between control group and experimental group was significant (t=2.705, P=0.018). In healthy people, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (7.6±2.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. In osteoarthritis group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (10.3±4.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. The ADCav in the healthy group was significantly lower than that in the osteoarthritis group (t=2.609,P=0.014). Conclusion: DWI is an useful method in detecting early stages of cartilage degeneration which can not be showed on routine sequences. (authors)

  17. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    Kunisada, Toshiyuki [Department of Medical Materials for Musculoskeletal Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)], E-mail: toshi-kunisada@umin.ac.jp; Shimao, Daisuke [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki 300-2394 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiroshi [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takeda, Ken; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Ando, Masami [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis.

  18. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.

    Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR), are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a) as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging. PMID:25749104

  19. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis

  20. Intra-Articular Synovial Sarcomas: Incidence and Differentiating Features from Localized Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis.

    Nordemar, D; Öberg, J; Brosjö, O; Skorpil, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the incidence of intra-articular synovial sarcomas and investigate if any radiological variables can differentiate them from localized (unifocal) pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and if multivariate data analysis could be used as a complementary clinical tool. Methods. Magnetic resonance images and radiographs of 7 cases of intra-articular synovial sarcomas and 14 cases of localized PVNS were blindedly reviewed. Variables analyzed were size, extra-articular growth, tumor border, blooming, calcification, contrast media enhancement, effusion, bowl of grapes sign, triple signal intensity sign, synovial low signal intensity, synovitis, age, and gender. Univariate and multivariate data analysis, the method of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used. Register data on all synovial sarcomas were extracted for comparison. Results. The incidence of intra-articular synovial sarcomas was 3%. PLS-DA showed that age, effusion, size, and gender were the most important factors for discrimination between sarcomas and localized PVNS. No sarcomas were misclassified as PVNS with PLS-DA, while some PVNS were misclassified as sarcomas. Conclusions. The most important variables in differentiating intra-articular sarcomas from localized PVNS were age, effusion, size, and gender. Multivariate data analysis can be helpful as additive information to avoid a biopsy, if the tumor is classified as most likely being PVNS. PMID:26819567

  1. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  2. The focal length control method for optical remote sensor

    Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xiting; Jiao, Wenchun; Wei, Xuemin

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of the optical remote sensor technology, it puts forward higher requirements to the sensor's index. For space camera with large field of view, long focal distance, the image quality and the focal length of the various parameters of the optical system puts forward higher requirements. Therefore how to meet the control index of the sensors put forward new problems for the alignment. The present reports on focal length mainly around the focal length calculation and accurate measurement, but there is no report about how to accurately control the focal length. This article proposed a method for combinatorial optimization based on the focal length and image quality evaluation, geometrical parameter error of the iterative optimization to obtain the best mirror distance compensation combination, that establish mirror-distance compensation control curve to guide the camera alignment process. The focus control precision is less than 1%, the field of view system surface shape is better than 0.08 λ.

  3. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

    Knapmeyer, Martin; Weber, Renee C.

    2011-01-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation. We will examine the extent to which shear (S) and compression (P) wave amplitude ratios can constrain moonquake fault geometry by determining whether, for a given cluster, there exists a focal mechanism that can produce a radiation pattern consistent with the amplitudes measured by the Apollo instruments. Amplitudes are read in the ray coordinate frame, directly from seismograms for which the P and S arrivals are clearly identifiable on all long-period channels of the four Apollo stations. We apply an empirical station correction to account for site effects and the differences between P- and S-wave attenuation. Instead of focusing on the best fitting solution only, we formulate the inverse problem using a falsification criterion: all source orientations that do not reproduce the observed SV/P ratios within an error margin derived from the uncertainty of amplitude readings are rejected. All others are accepted as possible solutions. The inversion is carried out using an exhaustive grid search on a regular grid with predefined step size, encompassing all possible combinations of strike, dip and slip. To assess the sensitivity of the inversion for the uncertainty of the lunar interior structure, we carry out repeated inversions with different velocity structures. Our data set consist of a total of 106 events from 25 deep moonquake clusters. The largest contribution of 37 events originates from the most active cluster, A001, while other clusters are represented by 1 to 9 events. Since the definition of a cluster implies that all events share the same source orientation, a comparison of the inversion results of all events from one cluster will reduce ambiguities of the inversion. Once we obtain a suite of fault parameters for a given source, we can attempt to further constrain the focal mechanism with refined analyses of tidal stresses and predictions based on synthetic seismograms.

  4. Deep moonquake focal mechanisms: recovery and implications

    Knapmeyer, M.; Weber, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation. We will examine the extent to which shear (S) and compression (P) wave amplitude ratios can constrain moonquake fault geometry by determining whether, for a given cluster, there exists a focal mechanism that can produce a radiation pattern consistent with the amplitudes measured by the Apollo instruments. Amplitudes are read in the ray coordinate frame, directly from seismograms for which the P and S arrivals are clearly identifiable on all long-period channels of the four Apollo stations. We apply an empirical station correction to account for site effects and the differences between P- and S-wave attenuation. Instead of focusing on the best fitting solution only, we formulate the inverse problem using a falsification criterion: all source orientations that do not reproduce the observed SV/P ratios within an error margin derived from the uncertainty of amplitude readings are rejected. All others are accepted as possible solutions. The inversion is carried out using an exhaustive grid search on a regular grid with predefined step size, encompassing all possible combinations of strike, dip and slip. To assess the sensitivity of the inversion for the uncertainty of the lunar interior structure, we carry out repeated inversions with different velocity structures. Our data set consist of a total of 106 events from 25 deep moonquake clusters. The largest contribution of 37 events originates from the most active cluster, A001, while other clusters are represented by 1 to 9 events. Since the definition of a cluster implies that all events share the same source orientation, a comparison of the inversion results of all events from one cluster will reduce ambiguities of the inversion. Once we obtain a suite of fault parameters for a given source, we can attempt to further constrain the focal mechanism with refined analyses of tidal stresses and predictions based on synthetic seismograms.

  5. Altered development of the brain after focal herpesvirus infection of the central nervous system

    Koontz, Thad; Bralic, Marina; Tomac, Jelena; Pernjak-Pugel, Ester; Bantug, Glen; Jonjic, Stipan; Britt, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus infection of the developing central nervous system (CNS) is a major cause of neurological damage in newborn infants and children. To investigate the pathogenesis of this human infection, we developed a mouse model of infection in the developing CNS. Intraperitoneal inoculation of newborn animals with murine cytomegalovirus resulted in virus replication in the liver followed by virus spread to the brain. Virus infection of the CNS was associated with the induction of inflammatory responses, including the induction of a large number of interferon-stimulated genes and histological evidence of focal encephalitis with recruitment of mononuclear cells to foci containing virus-infected cells. The morphogenesis of the cerebellum was delayed in infected animals. The defects in cerebellar development in infected animals were generalized and, although correlated temporally with virus replication and CNS inflammation, spatially unrelated to foci of virus-infected cells. Specific defects included decreased granular neuron proliferation and migration, expression of differentiation markers, and activation of neurotrophin receptors. These findings suggested that in the developing CNS, focal virus infection and induction of inflammatory responses in resident and infiltrating mononuclear cells resulted in delayed cerebellar morphogenesis. PMID:18268036

  6. Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal…

  7. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia

    Barbara Illowsky Karp

    2012-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities an...

  8. Development of megapixel dual-band QWIP focal plane array

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2008-04-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes and a 320x256 pixel dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array have been demonstrated as pathfinders. In this paper, we discuss the development of 1024x1024 MWIR/LWIR dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array.

  9. Focal adhesion: Physics of a Biological Mechano-Sensor

    Bickel, T; Bickel, Thomas; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical coupling between a cell and substrate relies on focal adhesions, clusters of adhesion proteins linking stress fibers (bundles of actin proteins) inside the cell with surrounding tissue. Focal adhesions have been demonstrated to both measure and regulate the mechanical traction along the stress fibers. We present a quantitative model for focal adhesion mechano-sensing and stress regulation based on stress amplification at the critical point of a condensation transition of the adhesion proteins.

  10. Multi-focal Vision and Gaze Control Improve Navigation Performance

    Kolja Ku?hnlenz; Martin Buss

    2012-01-01

    Multi-focal vision systems comprise cameras with various fields of view and measurement accuracies. This article presents a multi-focal approach to localization and mapping of mobile robots with active vision. An implementation of the novel concept is done considering a humanoid robot navigation scenario where the robot is visually guided through a structured environment with several landmarks. Various embodiments of multi-focal vision systems are investigated and the impact on navigation per...

  11. Análise da sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular Analysis of symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint

    Sílvio Henrique de Paula DONEGÁ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo analisando a sintomatologia em pacientes com disfunções intra-articulares da articulação temporomandibular. A queixa mais citada foi de dor na região pré-auricular (40,7%. Sintomatologia dolorosa articular (63,2% e ruídos articulares (83,3% foram os achados mais comuns ao exame clínico. Os ruídos articulares mais freqüentes foram os estalos (66,6%. Dor muscular ocorreu, em especial, nos músculos pterigóideo medial e lateral e na inserção do temporal. Houve decréscimo na amplitude para a protrusão dentre os movimentos mandibulares máximosThe study analyzed the symptomatology in patients with intra-articular disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The most frequent complaint was pain in the preauricular region (40.7%. Articular pain (63.2% and articular sounds (83.3% were the most common findings during clinical examination. Muscular pain occurred particularly in the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles and at the insertion of the temporalis muscle. The most frequent articular sound was clicking (66.6%. There was a decrease in extent of protrusion among the mandibular border positions.

  12. Relationship between synovial fluid biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism and the patient's perspective of outcome depends on the severity of articular cartilage damage following ACL trauma.

    Wasilko, Scott M; Tourville, Timothy W; DeSarno, Michael J; Slauterbeck, James R; Johnson, Robert J; Struglics, André; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2016-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) trauma often occurs in combination with injury to the articular cartilage of the knee, this can result in earlier radiographic evidence of post traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee compared to the contralateral, ACL intact knee; however, the biomechanical and biological mechanisms associated with the onset and progression of this disease are not understood. We sought to gain insight into the mechanisms by determining the relationship between articular cartilage injury associated with ACL trauma and the expression of synovial fluid biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism, and to evaluate the relationship between these biomarkers and the patient's perspective of the outcomes. Synovial fluid samples were acquired from 39 ACL injured subjects at an average of 10 weeks after injury, and 32 control subjects with normal knees (documented with clinical exam and MRI assessment). Subjects in the ACL-injured group were classified as low-risk for future OA if they displayed an International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Grade 2 articular cartilage lesion or less and high-risk for future OA if they had an ICRS Grade 3A articular cartilage lesion. The patient's perspective of the injury was evaluated with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score (KOOS). There were no significant differences in mean concentrations of the markers of type II collagen metabolism (CPII, C2C, and C1,2C) or the aggrecan breakdown Alanine-Arginine-Glycine-Serine (ARGS) -fragment between control subjects and the subjects in the low- and high-risk groups (p-value range: 0.80-0.43). Associations between ARGS-aggrecan concentration and KOOS subscales of symptoms and pain were significantly different between the low- and high-risk groups (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively). Likewise, there was strong evidence in support of an association between the markers of type II collagen metabolism (C1,2C and CPII concentrations) and the KOOS subscale of pain between the low- and high-risk groups (p = 0.051 and 0.077, correspondingly). In ACL injured subjects with concomitant Grade 3A articular cartilage injuries, concentrations of synovial fluid ARGS-aggrecan were directly associated with improvements in KOOS symptoms and pain. These findings suggest the possible involvement of ARGS-aggrecan in a localized tissue repair response involving an increase in aggrecan turnover following severe knee trauma. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:820-827, 2016. PMID:26497486

  13. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia

    Barbara Illowsky Karp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  14. Focal shift of silicon microlens in mid-infrared regime

    Zuo, Haijie; Ying, Leiying; Zhang, Baoping; Hou, Zhijin; Chen, Hongxu; Si, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, rigorous numerical calculation was utilized to characterize the focal properties of mid-infrared silicon microlens with the size about tens of micrometers. It is found that the focal shift phenomenon also exists in mid-infrared regime, which behaves differently from that of visual and near-infrared wavelength. Focal properties of silicon microlens were also measured experimentally, showing well coherence with simulation results. Our results provide systemic understanding of focal shift in mid-infrared regime, at that wavelength special consideration should be paid in micro-nano optics, especially with the integration between infrared optical system and other devices.

  15. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  16. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living and...... deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...

  17. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    M. Gerbase-DeLima

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

  18. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  19. Mercury Cadmium Telluride Hybrid Mosaic Focal Planes

    Koehler, T.; Martineau, , R.; Wong, T.; Rotolante, R.

    1981-02-01

    A unique process for fabricating HgCdTe photodiodes directly on a variety of substrate materials has been developed. This process, which can achieve fill factors in excess of 90%, has the advantages of minimal thermal mismatch, less than 1% crosstalk and scaling to large array sizes. This structure consists of thin, fully delineated HgCdTe detector ele-ments bonded to a substrate which contains CCD's or individual lead-outs for each detector. The junctions are connected with a common grid electrode. D* (4.5?m) of 1.3 x 1010cmHz2/w has been achieved in 4 x 4 element arrays fabricated directly on silicon substrates. These arrays have immediate applications in mosaic sizes up to 4000 detectors and future development potential of 128 x 128 electronically scanned focal planes.

  20. Grossly apparent cartilage erosion of the patellar articular surface in dogs with congenital medial patellar luxation.

    Daems, R; Janssens, L A; Béosier, Y M

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and forty-five stifles of client-owned dogs that underwent corrective surgery for congenital medial patellar luxation were inspected for cartilage erosion on the articular surface of the patella. The lesions were mapped in surface percentage ranges of 20% and by location. Two-thirds of the patellae had cartilage erosion. Cartilage erosion varied between 0 and 100% of the total patellar articular surface and was localised mainly on the medial and distal side of the patella. Dogs with Grade IV patellar luxations and heavier dogs were more affected. The majority of dogs in our study with congenital medial patellar luxation had grossly apparent cartilage erosion on the articular surface of the patella, which may help to explain why certain patients do not function well clinically after technically successful corrective surgery. PMID:19448865

  1. Couple Control Model Implementation on Antagonistic Mono- and Bi-Articular Actuators

    Prattico, Flavio; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh

    2014-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, a couple control model for lower-limb orthosis of a body weight support gait training system is proposed. The developed leg orthosis implements the use of pneumatic artificial muscle as an actuation system. The pneumatic muscle was arranged antagonistically to form two pair of mono-articular muscles (i.e., hip and knee joints), and a pair of bi-articular actuators (i.e., rectus femoris and hamstring). The results of the proposed couple control model showed that, it was able to simultaneously control the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators and sufficiently performed walking motion of the leg orthosis.

  2. Validating Phasing and Geometry of Large Focal Plane Arrays

    Standley, Shaun P.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Rabbette, Maura

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-sized and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The Kepler photometer is an array of 42 CCDs (charge-coupled devices) in the focal plane of a 95-cm Schmidt camera onboard the Kepler spacecraft. Each 50x25-mm CCD has 2,200 x 1,024 pixels. The CCDs accumulate photons and are read out every six seconds to prevent saturation. The data is integrated for 30 minutes, and then the pixel data is transferred to onboard storage. The data is subsequently encoded and transmitted to the ground. During End-to-End Information System (EEIS) testing of the Kepler Mission System (KMS), there was a need to verify that the pixels requested by the science team operationally were correctly collected, encoded, compressed, stored, and transmitted by the FS, and subsequently received, decoded, uncompressed, and displayed by the Ground Segment (GS) without the outputs of any CCD modules being flipped, mirrored, or otherwise corrupted during the extensive FS and GS processing. This would normally be done by projecting an image on the focal plane array (FPA), collecting the data in a flight-like way, and making a comparison between the original data and the data reconstructed by the science data system. Projecting a focused image onto the FPA through the telescope would normally involve using a collimator suspended over the telescope opening. There were several problems with this approach: the collimation equipment is elaborate and expensive; as conceived, it could only illuminate a limited section of the FPA (.25 percent) during a given test; the telescope cover would have to be deployed during testing to allow the image to be projected into the telescope; the equipment was bulky and difficult to situate in temperature-controlled environments; and given all the above, test setup, execution, and repeatability were significant concerns. Instead of using this complicated approach of projecting an optical image on the FPA, the Kepler project developed a method using known defect features in the CCDs to verify proper collection and reassembly of the pixels, thereby avoiding the costs and risks of the optical projection approach. The CCDs composing the Kepler FPA, as all CCDs, had minor defects. At ambient temperature, some pixels look far brighter than they should. These ghot h pixels have a higher rate of charge leakage than the others due to manufacturing variations. They are usually stable over time, and appear at temperatures above 5 oC. The hot pixels on the Kepler FPA were mapped before photometer assembly during module testing. Selected hot pixels were used as target gstars h for the purposes of EEIS testing. gDead h pixels are permanently off, producing a permanently black pixel. These can also be used if there is some illumination of the FPA. During EEIS testing, Dark Current Full Frame Images (FFIs) taken at room temperature were used to create the hot pixel maps for all 84 Kepler photometer CCD channels. Data from two separate nights were used to create two hot pixel maps per channel, which were cross-correlated to remove cosmic ray events which appear to be hot pixels. These hot pixel maps obtained during EEIS testing were compared to the maps made during module testing to verify that the end-to-end data flow was correct.

  3. FOCAL EPILEPTIC MYOCLONUS: DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS

    N. E. Kvaskova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG, and neuroimaging features of focal epileptic myoclonus (FEM and the results of therapy in patients with this type of seizure. The latter was identified in 2.5 % of the cases of epilepsy with onset beyond the age of 18 years (n = 1261. The age of onset of F?? was from 5 months to 23 years (mean 8.1 ± 1.6 years. The addition of secondary generalized seizures was stated in 90.3% of cases; that of focal motor seizures, epileptic aura, and negative F?? was seen in 64.5, 25.8, and 12.8 %, respectively. F?? was most commonly located in the flexor muscles of the upper extremities (22.6 % and facial and upper limb muscles (25.6 %. The regional epileptoformactivity maximally located in the frontocentroparietal leads is a typical EEG pattern of F?? in all the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging most frequently revealed diffuse cortical and subcortical atrophy (29 % and total cortical hemiatrophy (32 %. There was no case of complete remission of F??. Monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs resulted in reduction of F?? in only 6.4 % of cases. During duo therapy, there was more than a 50 % reduction in F?? in 67.7 %. Our investigation has indicated that active F?? is a seizure type resistant to AEDs. This fact necessitates the detection of F?? at its early stages in order to predict the course of the disease and search for new therapies for epileptic syndromes associated with this type of seizures.

  4. CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia

    Focal organizing pneumonia (FOP) is a benign condition which is often difficult to differentiate from bronchogenic carcinoma, and many patients with FOP undergo invasive procedures. We tried to determine which CT features might help provide a confident diagnosis of FOP. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, chest radiographs and CT scans of 13 patients with histopathologically proven FOP. Initial chest radiographs in all 13 suggested bronchogenic carcinoma. The CT scans were reviewed by three radiologists, and final decisions were reached by consensus. They were analyzed in terms of the size, shape, contour and localization of the lesion, interior characteristics of the nodule, changes in surrounding structures, and changes in any of these findings, as revealed by follow-up chest CT scanning. FOP lesions were oval or triangular in shape and between 1.8 and 6.5cm in their largest diameter. All had irregular margins and all but one were peripherally located. Eight (61.5%) were in contact with the pleura and five (38.5%) were located along the peripheral bronchovascular bundle, with pleural indentation; in eight (61.5%), post-contrast CT scanning revealed inhomogeneous enhancement, and four (30.8%) had pleural tags. In five (38.5%), there was coarse spiculation; for six (46.2%), air bronchograms were available, and in four (30.8%), satellite nodules were present. Spotty calcification and lymph node enlargement were each evident in one case only. Follow-up CT scanning, available in four cases, showed that the mass decreased in size in three and disappeared completely in one. Although there were no consistent CT features for differentiating focal organizing pneumonia from lung cancer, the possibility of the former should be considered when a peripherally-located oval or triangular-shaped mass is in broad contact with the pleura or is located along the bronchovascular bundle, and satellite nodules are also present

  5. CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia

    Park, Jun Gyun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Nam, Ji Eun; Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Du Yon; Kim, Sang Jin [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hoon [Gil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Suk Jong [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    Focal organizing pneumonia (FOP) is a benign condition which is often difficult to differentiate from bronchogenic carcinoma, and many patients with FOP undergo invasive procedures. We tried to determine which CT features might help provide a confident diagnosis of FOP. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, chest radiographs and CT scans of 13 patients with histopathologically proven FOP. Initial chest radiographs in all 13 suggested bronchogenic carcinoma. The CT scans were reviewed by three radiologists, and final decisions were reached by consensus. They were analyzed in terms of the size, shape, contour and localization of the lesion, interior characteristics of the nodule, changes in surrounding structures, and changes in any of these findings, as revealed by follow-up chest CT scanning. FOP lesions were oval or triangular in shape and between 1.8 and 6.5cm in their largest diameter. All had irregular margins and all but one were peripherally located. Eight (61.5%) were in contact with the pleura and five (38.5%) were located along the peripheral bronchovascular bundle, with pleural indentation; in eight (61.5%), post-contrast CT scanning revealed inhomogeneous enhancement, and four (30.8%) had pleural tags. In five (38.5%), there was coarse spiculation; for six (46.2%), air bronchograms were available, and in four (30.8%), satellite nodules were present. Spotty calcification and lymph node enlargement were each evident in one case only. Follow-up CT scanning, available in four cases, showed that the mass decreased in size in three and disappeared completely in one. Although there were no consistent CT features for differentiating focal organizing pneumonia from lung cancer, the possibility of the former should be considered when a peripherally-located oval or triangular-shaped mass is in broad contact with the pleura or is located along the bronchovascular bundle, and satellite nodules are also present.

  6. Imaging defects and dopants

    H.Philipp Ebert

    2003-06-01

    With the invention of the transistor, a revolution in the development of semiconductor-based electronic devices began. However, even in the very early stages, the importance of defects and dopant atoms became obvious. In fact, if one incorporates the right defects and dopant atoms into semiconductor materials, one can tune their electrical properties such that optimal device characteristics are achieved. Unfortunately, counteractive defects are often also formed unintentionally during semiconductor processing, leading to unfavorable electronic properties. Considerable research efforts have, therefore, focused on understanding the nanoscale physics that governs the formation of point defects, the incorporation behavior of impurities, and their respective electronic properties.

  7. Defects in semiconductors

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  8. Treatment of adhesive capsulitis with intra-articular hyaluronate: A systematic review

    Joshua D Harris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hyaluronate injection into the glenohumeral joint is a treatment option in the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. We hypothesized that a systematic review would demonstrate that intra-articular sodium hyaluronate injections would result in significant improvements in passive range-of-motion, shoulder and general clinical outcome measures, and pain scales at short- and mid-term follow-up. Multiple medical databases were searched for levels I-IV evidence with a priori defined specific inclusion and exclusion study criteria. Clinical outcome measures used included Constant score, VAS pain scores, Cho functional scores, JOA scores, and range-of-motion measurements. Seven studies were included (four Level I and three Level IV; 292 subjects, 297 shoulders. Mean subject age was 59.1 years and mean pre-treatment duration of symptoms was 7.3 months. 140 subjects underwent one or multiple hyaluronate injections (120 glenohumeral joint; 20 subacromial bursa. Clinical follow-up was mean 9.0 weeks. Sodium hyaluronate injection into the glenohumeral joint has significantly improved shoulder range-of-motion, constant scores, and pain at short-term follow-up following treatment of adhesive capsulitis. Isolated intra-articular hyaluronate injection has significantly better constant scores than control. Isolated intra-articular hyaluronate injection has equivalent clinical outcomes and range-of-motion compared to intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Intra-articular hyaluronate injection was safe, with no reported complications within the studies in this review. Sodium hyaluronate injection into the glenohumeral joint is a safe, effective treatment in the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Short-term evidence indicates that clinical outcomes are better than control and equivalent to intra-articular corticosteroid injection.

  9. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ARTICULAR FACETS OF THE THORACOLUMBAR VERTEBRAL COLUMN IN NORTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Rimpi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The articular processes of thoracolumbar vertebral column play an important role in weight transmission and determining the range and direction of movements between any two vertebrae. Size of these facets has been correlated with the magnitude of stress imposed on them. Purpose of study: The present study has been conducted on the articular processes of 510 vertebrae (thoracic: 360; lumbar:150 with the aim to provide high quality data sets for constructing the models of spine to study mechanics of spinal instrumentation. The length , width and the distance between the right & left superior & inferior articular processes have been measured with the vernier callipers. The presence/ absence of mamillary tubercle has been observed in the present study. Results: The length of thoracic SAFs was almost same at all levels whereas that of the lumbar SAFs increased gradually from L1-L5. However the width showed a variable trend. In case of thoracic IAFs both these parameters showed a variable trend. Whereas in lumbar region, these increased gradually from L1-L5. The distance between two inferior articular processes was more than that between two superior articular processes at almost all levels except T1-T3 & L1-L4 where reverse was true. The mamillary tubercle/process was altogether absent from T-1 to T-8. From T-9 to T-11, the number of vertebral column showing mamillary tubercle increased from 4-19. However at T-12, it was seen in 29 Vertebral columns. In lumbar region, it was well developed in all vertebrae and termed as mamillary process. Conclusion: The measurements obtained by present study reveals the importance of articular facets in understanding basic spinal mechanics and its application with respect to weight transmission.

  10. Oral phenotype and variation in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    Wright, John Timothy; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Farrington, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz Syndrome (OMIM# 305600) is an X-linked dominant ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein that is involved in processing the embryonically critical WNT signaling proteins. Individuals diagnosed with FDH were recruited to participate in the study through the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Individuals were evaluated to characterize the FDH phenotype. Each participant completed a brief dental survey and oral evaluation using artificial light. To identify the oral soft and hard tissue findings 19 individuals (16 female and 3 male) participated with a median age of 10 years (range 2-56 years). Soft and hard tissue defects were present in 68% (13) and 94% (18) of the patients, respectively. Dental anomalies were highly prevalent with 68% (13) demonstrating vertical enamel grooving, 52% (10) having peg shaped tooth deformities, and 78% (15) having enamel hypoplasia with or without discoloration. Cleft lip and cleft palate presented in 15% (3) of the participants. Other findings included 57% (11) having intra-oral lipoma or papilloma with no site predilection. Dental malocclusions were common with 63% (12) having some degree of malocclusion with 15% (3) of participants having class III malocclusion with an anterior dental cross bite. Participants frequently reported speech problems or difficulty with chewing (73%; N = 14). This study shows there is marked variation in the oral phenotype of individuals with FDH and underscores the important role of WNT signaling in oro-facial development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26843121

  11. MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study

    Kan, J.H. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States)], E-mail: herman.kan@vanderbilt.edu; Hernanz-Schulman, M. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States); Damon, B.M.; Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Connolly, S.A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, IL (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Aim: To determine reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features differentiating three paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions that contain blood products, from post-traumatic or haemorrhagic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of MRI findings of 22 paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions, including venous malformation (VM) (n = 12), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; n = 8), and synovial sarcoma (SS; n = 2). These MRI features were compared with 22 paediatric post-traumatic or inflammatory intra-articular processes containing blood products and producing mass effect. The following imaging features were assessed: presence of a discrete mass, extension, extra-articular oedema, susceptibility, joint effusion, and size. Fisher's exact test was used and results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: The three intra-articular synovial lesions, compared with controls, were more likely to directly invade osseous structures when a discrete mass was present (13/16, 81.3% versus 1/9, 11.1%; p < 0.002) and extend into extra-articular soft tissues (13/21, 61.9% versus 2/17, 11.8%; p < 0.003), but were less likely to show extra-articular oedema (3/22, 13.6% versus 13/22, 59.1%; p < 0.004), a joint effusion (10/22,45.5% versus 19/22, 86.4%, p < 0.01), susceptibility within a joint effusion (0/22, 0% versus 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema (3/16, 18.8% versus 7/9, 77.8%; p < 0.009), and synovial enhancement (8/21, 38.1% versus 14/16, 87.5%; p < 0.003). VMs had characteristic tubular vessels with internal fluid-fluid levels (11/12) that extended into bone (10/12) and extracapsular soft tissues (11/12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, despite the overlapping presence of haemorrhagic products, intra-articular VM, PVNS, and SS show MRI features that permit distinction from acquired post-traumatic and haemorrhagic inflammatory lesions.

  12. MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study

    Aim: To determine reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features differentiating three paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions that contain blood products, from post-traumatic or haemorrhagic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of MRI findings of 22 paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions, including venous malformation (VM) (n = 12), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; n = 8), and synovial sarcoma (SS; n = 2). These MRI features were compared with 22 paediatric post-traumatic or inflammatory intra-articular processes containing blood products and producing mass effect. The following imaging features were assessed: presence of a discrete mass, extension, extra-articular oedema, susceptibility, joint effusion, and size. Fisher's exact test was used and results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: The three intra-articular synovial lesions, compared with controls, were more likely to directly invade osseous structures when a discrete mass was present (13/16, 81.3% versus 1/9, 11.1%; p < 0.002) and extend into extra-articular soft tissues (13/21, 61.9% versus 2/17, 11.8%; p < 0.003), but were less likely to show extra-articular oedema (3/22, 13.6% versus 13/22, 59.1%; p < 0.004), a joint effusion (10/22,45.5% versus 19/22, 86.4%, p < 0.01), susceptibility within a joint effusion (0/22, 0% versus 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema (3/16, 18.8% versus 7/9, 77.8%; p < 0.009), and synovial enhancement (8/21, 38.1% versus 14/16, 87.5%; p < 0.003). VMs had characteristic tubular vessels with internal fluid-fluid levels (11/12) that extended into bone (10/12) and extracapsular soft tissues (11/12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, despite the overlapping presence of haemorrhagic products, intra-articular VM, PVNS, and SS show MRI features that permit distinction from acquired post-traumatic and haemorrhagic inflammatory lesions

  13. Evaluation of X-ray dark-field imaging in visualization of nearly clinical articular cartilage

    Angular dependence of visibility at articular cartilage of an intact human finger and knee by X-ray dark-field imaging (DFI) and bright-field imaging (BFI) was tested. These specimens were fixed by formalin. Good contrast of the articular cartilage has been obtained, as a preliminary result, not only by DFI but also by pseudo-DFI and BFI around the just Bragg angle of the angular analyzing crystal. This may indicate that it is useful for clinical purpose to use both DFI and BFI not only at just Bragg angle but also around it

  14. Analgesic efficacy of intra-articular morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery in sport injury patients

    Mitra Yari; Morteza Saeb; Parisa Golfam; Zahra Makhloogh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tearing is a common injury among football players. The present study aims to determine the best single-dose of intra-articular morphine for pain relief after arthroscopic knee surgery that, in addition to adequate and long-term analgesia, leads to fewer systemic side effects. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 40 ASA-I athletes. After surgery, all participants received an injection of 20cc of 0.5% intra-articular bupivacaine. I...

  15. Diagnosis of articular cartilage using 3-D visualization and correlation with patient data.

    Gaddipati, D; Stewart, T; Zwicky, G

    2004-01-01

    Arthritis is a generic condition indicating inflammation of a joint. The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis. In this condition, the articular cartilage, the smooth gliding surface of the joint, is worn away. Image processing algorithms and advanced graphics techniques have been combined to detect wear in the articular cartilage. The cartilage was separated from the MRI data and image segmentation and thresholding algorithms have isolated the area of wear. A binary gradient masking technique was used to draw contours around the abnormality. A virtual three-dimensional model was developed showing different views, including a transparent view that enables one to see lesion inside the cartilage. PMID:17272063

  16. A Case of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Due to Intra-Articular Corticosteroid Injection

    Patompong Ungprasert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Corticosteroid is a well-established cause of drug-induced pancreatitis. However, acute pancreatitis from intraarticularinjection of corticosteroid has never been described. Case report A 69-year-old male presented with acuteabdominal pain and was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The patient had one episode of acute pancreatitis two yearearlier. Both episodes occurred after intra-articular cortisone injection. Investigations for other causes of pancreatitis werenegative. Conclusion We report the first case of acute pancreatitis from intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Physiciansshould be aware of this adverse reaction of corticosteroid that can even occur with local administration.

  17. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose regulates dedifferentiation through β-catenin pathway in rabbit articular chondrocytes

    YU, SEON-MI; Kim, Hyun Ah; Kim, Song-Ja

    2010-01-01

    2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) is known as a synthetic inhibitor of glucose. 2DG regulates various cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation by regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. However, the effects of 2DG in normal cells, including chondrocytes, are not clear yet. We examined the effects of 2DG on dedifferentiation with a focus on the β-catenin pathway in rabbit articular chondrocytes. The rabbit articular chondrocytes were treated with 5 mM 2DG for t...

  18. Incidencia de la cervicalgia de origen no articular en las actividades de la vida diaria.

    Prioletto, Matías

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación se refiere a la “Incidencia de la cervicalgia de origen no articular en las actividades de la vida diaria”. La cervicalgia de origen no articular es una manifestación de dolor en las partes posterior y posteroloaterales del cuello, con o sin irradiación a las zonas y segmentos adyacentes, que encuentra su origen en las alteraciones de las partes blandas extraarticulares del raquis cervical. Considerando las relaciones entre las diferente...

  19. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  20. Long-Term Follow-Up of 24.5 Years After Intra-Articular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Lateral Extra-Articular Augmentation

    PERNIN, Jérôme; Verdonk, Peter C. M.; AIT SI SELMI, Tarik; Massin, Philippe; Neyret, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many studies have reported successful outcomes 10 to 15 years after ACL reconstruction. However, few authors report results at ultra long-term follow-up (more than 20 years of follow-up). Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine how the status of the medial meniscus and the medial compartment articular cartilage observed at the time of ACL reconstruction affects results more than 24 years after surgery. This article examines longterm outcome of ACL reconstruction with extra...

  1. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of analgesia using intrathecal morphine, intra-articular morphine and intra-articular levobupivacaine☆

    Leandro Queiroz Pinheiro; Edmundo Neri Junior; Reginaldo Mendonça Fernandes; Rodrigo Tavares Cardozo; Priscila Rodrigues Rezende

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the analgesic effect of intra-articular administration of morphine and levobupivacaine (separately or in combination) with intrathecal administration of morphine in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autologous grafts from the patellar tendon.METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis on data gathered from the medical files of 60 patients aged 20 to 50 years who underwent knee video arthroscopy for ACL reconstruction. The patients w...

  2. Atomic structure of defects in GaN:Mg grown with Ga polarity

    Electron microscope phase images, produced by direct reconstruction of the scattered electron wave from a focal series of high-resolution images, were used to determine the nature of defects formed in GaN:Mg crystals. We studied bulk crystals grown from dilute solutions of atomic nitrogen in liquid gallium at high pressure and thin films grown by the MOCVD method. All the crystals were grown with Ga-polarity. In both types of samples the majority of defects were three dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids with bases on the (0001) plane and six walls on {11(und 2)3} planes seen in cross-section as triangulars. Some other defects appear in cross-section as trapezoidal (rectangular) defects as a result of presence of truncated pyramids. Both type of defects have hollow centers. They are decorated by Mg on all six side walls and a base. The GaN which grows inside on the defect walls shows polarity inversion. It is shown that change of polarity starts from the defect tip and propagates to the base, and that the stacking sequence changes from ab in the matrix to bc inside the defect. Exchange of the Ga sublattice with the N sublattice within the defect leads to 0.6 ± 0.2(angstrom) displacement between Ga sublattices outside and inside the defects. It is proposed that lateral overgrowth of the cavities formed within the defect takes place to restore matrix polarity on the defect base

  3. Defects in dilute nitrides

    We provide a brief review our recent results from optically detected magnetic resonance studies of grown-in non-radiative defects in dilute nitrides, i.e. Ga(In)NAs and Ga(Al,In)NP. Defect complexes involving intrinsic defects such as AsGa antisites and Gai self interstitials were positively identified.Effects of growth conditions, chemical compositions and post-growth treatments on formation of the defects are closely examined. These grown-in defects are shown to play an important role in non-radiative carrier recombination and thus in degrading optical quality of the alloys, harmful to performance of potential optoelectronic and photonic devices based on these dilute nitrides. (author)

  4. Defects at oxide surfaces

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  5. Defects in implanted Si

    Defect formation, accumulation, annealing and defect-impurity interactions as well as more specific defect-related problems have been extensively studied in ion implanted Si. Defect formation has been measured at RT as well as at elevated temperature and the results are compared to TRIM simulations. A problem of special relevance to industrial applications is the formation of dislocation (open-quotes breakdownclose quotes) in the top layer of structures such as SIMOX formed by implantation at elevated temperature. The role of small vacancy clusters has been examined and it is observed that these clusters can be detected with positrons at doses seven orders of magnitude below that of open-quotes breakdown.close quotes Dislocations were observed using TEM and RBS, whereas vacancy clusters could be detected only by the use of positrons. Defect-oxygen interactions and its relation to oxygen diffusion have been studied

  6. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    Olsen, T S; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hype...

  7. Oral focal mucinosis arising on the gingiva of orthodontic patient

    Alexandre Simões Garcia; Diego Mauricio Bravo-Calderón; Milena Souza Gomes da Costa; Denise Tostes Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is an uncommon non-neoplastic lesion of unknown etiology. We presented a unique case of a sessile, well-demarcated gingival nodule adjacent to the right mandibular first molar of a young girl submitted to orthodontic treatment that was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis. The probably etiopathogenesis of this lesion in orthodontic patient is discussed.

  8. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a rough border value. Values of DPI (Doppler perfusion index) over 0.3 and tumor index over 1.0 characterize primary, and lower values characterize secondary liver malignancies. In differentiation of benign and malign tumors of kidneys, besides the aspect of vascularisation, the maximal frequency altitude in tumor artery (the limit around 2.5 kHz) is very important. However, peripheral and penetrating blood vessels are most usually seen in RCC, less often in AML and bigger oncocytomas. CDS with contrast agent is very useful in making differential diagnosis of the focal lesions with 95% specificity for some lesions. PMID:15137225

  9. Evaluation of an injectable thermoresponsive hyaluronan hydrogel in a rabbit osteochondral defect model.

    D'Este, Matteo; Sprecher, Christoph Martin; Milz, Stefan; Nehrbass, Dirk; Dresing, Iska; Zeiter, Stephan; Alini, Mauro; Eglin, David

    2016-06-01

    Articular cartilage displays very little self-healing capabilities, generating a major clinical need. Here, we introduce a thermoresponsive hyaluronan hydrogel for cartilage repair obtained by covalently grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to hyaluronan, to give a brush co-polymer HpN. The gel is fluid at room temperature and becomes gel at body temperature. In this pilot study HpN safety and repair response were evaluated in an osteochondral defect model in rabbit. Follow-up was of 1 week and 12 weeks and the empty defect served as a control, for a total of four experimental groups. At 12 weeks the defect sites were evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Local lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and kidneys were analyzed for histopathological evaluation. HpN could be easily injected and remained into the defect throughout the study. The macroscopic score was statistically superior for HpN versus empty. Histological score gave opposite trend but not statistically significant. A slight tissue reaction was observed around HpN, however, vascularization and subchondral bone formation were not impeded. An upper proteoglycans rich fibro-cartilaginous tissue with fairly good continuity and lateral integration into the existing articular cartilage was observed in all cases. No signs of local or systemic acute or subacute toxicity were observed. In conclusion, HpN is easily injectable, remains into an osteochondral defect within a moving synovial joint, is biocompatible and does not interfere with the intrinsic healing response of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1469-1478, 2016. PMID:26833870

  10. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  11. Classification of positive convex functions according to focal equivalence

    Simon, Peter L.

    2006-08-01

    The number of solutions of the differential equation [graphic: see PDF] subject to the boundary conditions x(t1) = x1, x(t2) = x2 is studied. The set of the points (t1, t2, x1, x2) for which the boundary value problem has i solutions is denoted by {Sigma}i(g). These sets for i = 0, 1, 2, E.. form a partition of [graphic: see PDF] which is called a focal decomposition. Two differential equations are called focally equivalent if there is a homeomorphism of [graphic: see PDF] mapping their focal decompositions into each other. Here the equations with convex positive g are classified according to focal equivalence. It is shown that there are at least four classes, and the focal decomposition is determined by the asymptotic properties of g at infinity.

  12. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages. PMID:25048948

  13. Diagnosis and treatment for focal cortical dysplasia

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is defined as circumscribed malformation of cortical development, and it often causes medically refractory epilepsy. Palmini et al. (2004) have classified FCD into 2 types (I and II) and 2 subtypes (A and B) each. Of our 42 patients with FCD diagnosed pathologically, patients with type IIB had significantly more frequent seizures than patients with other types. In all patients with type IIB and 2 of 13 patients with type IIA, FCD was identified as a high signal intensity lesion on MRI; proton-dense weighted images were more sensitive than T2 weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. However, FCD type IA/IB could not be identified on MRI. Chronic electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of subdural and depth electrodes disclosed frequent interictal spikes and electrical seizure onsets within FCD lesions, and these findings suggest that FCD itself has intrinsic epileptogenicity. The basic procedure of surgical treatment for FCD is multiple gyrectomy including the whole FCD lesion. In cases with negative MRI, chronic intracranial EEG recording is necessary to tailor multiple gyrectomy. In our series, all patients with FCD type IIB and 10 (76.9%) of 13 patients with FCD type IIA achieved seizure freedom (Engel class I), whereas 9 (47.4%) of 19 patients with FCD type I were free from seizures. In conclusion, patients with MRI negative-FCD should have multimodal presurgical evaluations to more precisely delineate the lesions. (author)

  14. Focal Points on Constructing News Stories

    Elena Yuryevna Ilyinova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues stated in the article line with the current interest to pragmatic value of news releases in modern media. The news is thought to be a verbalized focal reflection of some event that was chosen by media professionals for setting the current information agenda. Having generated the opinions on the newsworthiness the authors present a set of values that may be used for measurement of relevance and clarity of an event reflection in the news content with frequency, clarity, predictability, unexpectedness, amplitude, cultural proximity, elite nations, elite people, personification, negativity among them. The novelty of the research is that the newsworthiness is checked with the focus to lexical (thematic representation of the news in a diachronic approach: the empirical base of the research was taken from the archives of UK national and local media sources (18–20th cent. and implied comparison of lexical means that reflected an event itself and some values of human interest potential in the news stories written in defined periods. The article states the trend for dynamics in the way the event is reflected in the news stories – the information core of the story is merged with detailed reporting parts, and their content is conditioned by social and moral values.

  15. Accuracy of ultrasound-guided injections of thoracolumbar articular process joints in horses

    Fuglbjerg, Vibeke; Nielsen, J.V.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Berg, Lise Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    literature. Objectives: To evaluate factors of affecting the accuracy of intra-articular injections of the APJs in the caudal thoracolumbar region. Method: One-hundred-and-fifty-four injections with blue dye were performed on APJs including the T14-L6 region in 12 horses subjected to euthanasia for reasons...

  16. Evaluation of the influence of orthognathic surgery on articular in skeletal class II patients

    GH Firoozeai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of orthognathic surgery is to correct facial deformity and dental malocclusion and to obtain normal orofacial function. However, there are controversies of whether orthognathic surgery might have any negative influence on temporomandibular joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of orthognathic surgery on articular disc position and temporomandibular joint symptoms of skeletal CI II patients by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (10 women and 5 men with skeletal CI II malocclusion, aged 19-32 years (mean 23 years, from the Isfahan Department of Maxillofacial surgery were studied. All received lefort I & bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO and all patients received pre- and post surgical orthodontic treatment, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed 1 day preoperatively and 3 month post operatively. Statistical analysis of the positional change of the disk was done by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: The change of articular disc position after mandibular advancement surgery by means of sagittal split ramus osteotomy was not statistically significant, but it tended to be positioned anteriorly. Conclusion: It can be suggested that orthognathic surgery dose not significantly change the position of the articular disc.Key words: MRI, Articular disk, Orthognatic surgery.

  17. Decontamination by electron beams of liposomes used in the treatment of human articular diseases

    Irradiation under 100 Krad allows decontamination of liposomes carrying gold salts, prepared in the condition of a usual research laboratory. Such liposomes can be injected in the intra-articular space with no risks of infection. Electron beams from a linear accelerator were used. Experimental details are given. The results are presented and discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Surface fissures in articular cartilage: Effect of pathologicalchanges in synovial fluid

    Kafka, Vratislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, 9-10 (2002), s. 713-715. ISSN 0268-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/00/0008 Keywords : articular cartilage * fissures Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.996, year: 2002

  19. Cycloolefin-Copolymer/Polyethylene (COC/PE) Blend Assists with the Creation of New Articular Cartilage

    Petrtýl, M.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Hulejová, H.; Polanská, M.; Lísal, J.; Danešová, J.; Černý, P.

    294-I, - (2010), s. 120-132. ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : articular cartilage * biomaterials * cycloolefin-copolymer blend Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  1. Articular cartilage thickness measured with US is not as easy as it appears

    Torp-Pedersen, S; Bartels, E M; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Bliddal, H

    2011-01-01

    Theoretically, the high spatial resolution of US makes it well suited to monitor the decrease in articular cartilage thickness in osteoarthritis. A requirement is, however, that the borders of the cartilage are correctly identified and that the cartilage is measured under orthogonal insonation. I...

  2. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University Hospital, and College of Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  3. THE FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF A CELL-ENGINEERED CONSTRUCT FOR THE REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    V. I. Sevastianov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is an analysis of the functional effectiveness of a biomedical cell product consisting of a biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADMSCs, and chondrogenic induction medium in the regeneration of articular cartilage. Materials and methods. The test model of the adjuvant arthritis was used (female Soviet Chinchilla rabbits with the further development into osteoarthrosis (OA combined with the clinical, biochemical, radiological, and histochemical trials. Results. On Day 92 of the OA model it has been found that the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH with hADMSCs into the left knee joint (n = 3 30 days after the OA modeling, as opposed to the right joint (negative control, n = 3, stimulates the regenerative processes of the cartilaginous tissue structure characterized by the formation of chondrocyte «columns», the emergence of isogenic groups in the intracellular matrix and the regeneration of its structure. Upon the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH (n = 3 such effects are markedly less pronounced. Conclusions. A significant regenerative potential of a cell-engineered construct of human articular tissue (CEC ATh has been proven. It is possible to presume that biostimulating properties of CEC ATh are due to the activating effect of a biomedical cell product on the stem cell migration processes from the surrounding tissue into the injured area with their subsequent differentiation. 

  4. Effect of corticosteroids on articular cartilage: have animal studies said everything?

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Zhao, Yang; Nisolle, Jean-François; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhihong, Liu; Clegg, Peter; Gustin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroids (CS) have been used in the treatment of osteoarthritis for many years, although their effects on articular cartilage are not fully understood. To identify whether previous animal studies have provided enough evidence about the effects of CS, we undertook a systematic review that identified 35 relevant in vivo animal experimental studies between 1965 and 2014 assessing the effects of CS on either normal cartilage, or in either induced osteoarthritis (OA) or synovitis. The quality of the methodology was assessed. Deleterious effects, both structural and biochemical, have mainly been reported in rabbits and are associated with frequent administration of CS, sometimes at high dose and with systemic side effects. In dogs, four identified studies concluded that there were beneficial effects with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and triamcinolone hexacetonide therapy. In horses, MPA was mostly deleterious, while triamcinolone acetonide had positive effects in one study highly rated at quality assessment. However, many methodological weaknesses have been identified, such as the lack of pharmacokinetic and pharmocodynamics data and the large variation in doses between studies, the limited selection criteria at baseline, the absence of blinding, and the lack of statistics or appropriate controls for testing the effects of the vehicle of the drug. Those methodological weaknesses weaken the conclusions of numerous studies that assess beneficial or deleterious effects of CS on articular cartilage. Animal studies have not yet provided definitive data, and further research is required into the role of CS in articular pathobiology. PMID:26211421

  5. Evaluation of influence of proteoglycans on hydration of articular cartilage with the use of ultrasound

    Yi-yi YANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To monitor the changes in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage induced by degradation of proteoglycans, and to explore the effect of proteoglycans on hydration behaviour of articular cartilage by using high-frequency ultrasound. Methods Twelve porcine patellae with smooth cartilage surface were prepared and equally divided into two groups: normal group without any enzyme treatment, and trypsin group they were treated with 0.25% trypsin for 8h to digest proteoglycan in the cartilage. The hydration behaviour of the cartilage tissue was scanned by high-frequency ultrasound system with a central frequency of 25MHz. Parameters including cartilage hydration strain and cartilage thickness were measured. The histopathological changes in the articular cartilage were observed under a light microscope. Results It took approximately 20min to reach equilibrium during the hydration process in the normal cartilages, while proteoglycan-degraded cartilage took only about 5min to achieve equilibrium. The equilibrium strain of normal cartilage was 3.5%±0.5%. The degradation of proteoglycans induced a significant decrease in equilibrium strain (1.8%±0.2%, P0.05. Conclusion Proteoglycans play an important role in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage. The degradation of proteoglycans could induce degeneration of cartilage structure and decrease in hydration behaviour after dehydration. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.03

  6. Surgical treatment of a comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone in a thoroughbred horse

    The clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in a case ofa comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone of a thoroughbred chaser are described, and its surgical treatment and aftercare are detailed. The horse made an uneventful recovery and successfully returned to racing

  7. A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author)

  8. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  9. Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Focal Steatosis and Focal Spared Lesion of the Liver Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with Sonazoid

    We aim to investigate the hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesion of the liver using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid. The subjects were 47 patients with focal steatosis and focal spared lesion. We evaluated enhancement patterns (hyper enhancement, iso enhancement, and hypo enhancement) in the vascular phase and the presence or absence of a hypoechoic area in the post vascular phase for these lesions using CEUS. Of the 24 patients with focal steatosis, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 19 and hypo enhancement in 5. Hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in 3 patients. Of the 23 patients with focal spared lesions, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 18 and hyper enhancement in 5. No hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in any patient. The hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesions in non diffuse fatty liver can be observed using low-invasive procedures in real-time by CEUS. It was suggested that differences in the dynamics of enhancement in the vascular phase of CEUS were influenced by the fat deposits in the target lesion, the surrounding liver parenchyma, and the third inflow.

  10. Displasia cortical focal, aspectos neurofisiológicos, imaginológicos e histológicos Focal cortical dysplasia, aspects of neurophysiologic, imaginological and histological

    Daiane Piccolotto Carvalho Camargo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Displasia cortical focal é uma das formas mais frequentes de malformações do desenvolvimento cortical, estando intimamente relacionada com epilepsia de difícil controle em crianças e adultos. Caracterizam-se por alterações histológicas, imaginológicas e eletrofisiológicas peculiares. OBJETIVO: Fazer uma revisão sucinta dos principais aspectos imaginológicos, histológicos e neurofisiológicos das displasias corticais focais. MÉTODOS: Revisão bibliografia. CONCLUSÃO: As displasias corticais focais têm características clínicas peculiares, A prevalência de epilepsia refrataria entre pacientes com displasia cortical focal é bastante elevada. A RM de crânio apresenta alterações distintas a doença, podendo em muitos casos ser normal e se correlaciona com os achados histológicos. Descargas contínuas e surtos paroxísticos de alta frequência são altamente sugestivos de epilepsia devido à displasia cortical focal.INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common ways of malformation of the cortical development where they are intimate related among hard control epilepsy on children and adults. It's characterized by peculiar histological, imaginological and electrophysiological amendment. PURPOSE: To make a succinct review of the main aspects of imaginological, histological and neurophysiologic focal cortical dysplasias. METHOD: Bibliographic review. CONCLUSION: The focal cortical dysplasias have peculiar clinical features. The prevalence of refractory epilepsy among focal cortical dysplasia patients is highly elevated. The skull magnetic resonance image (MRI presents specific amendments to the disease that could be normal in many cases and correlates with histological results. Continuous discharges and high frequency paroxistic bursts are highly pointed as epilepsy due the Focal cortical dysplasia.

  11. Defect Chemistry of Nanocarbon

    Wang, Yuhuang

    2015-03-01

    Defects can rule the properties of a crystal. This effect is particularly intriguing in atom-thick materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene, where electrons, excitons, phonons, and spin may strongly couple at the defect sites due to reduced dimensionality. In this talk, we will discuss our recent progress in fundamental understanding and molecular control of sp3 defects in sp2 carbon lattices, and their applications. An sp3 defect (tetrahedral bonding, diamond-like) is created by covalently attaching a functional group to the sp2 carbon lattice (trigonal planar, honeycomb-like) of a carbon nanotube or graphene. The beauty of this type of defect is its well-defined structure and chemical tunability at the molecular level. Our experimental results have unraveled a series of intriguing and surprising roles of defects. Specific examples will be given to illustrate how defects may be used to drive reaction propagation on sp2 carbon lattices, brighten carbon nanotube photoluminescence, and create selective chemical sensors.

  12. Outcomes after knee microfracture of chondral defects in alpine ski racers.

    Steadman, J Richard; Hanson, Chad M; Briggs, Karen K; Matheny, Lauren M; James, Evan W; Guillet, Alyson

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage defects of the knee have been shown to cause pain, swelling, decreased function, and suboptimal athletic performance. Treatment of elite-level athletes presenting with full-thickness chondral defects of the knee continues to be a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. The purpose of this study was to document outcomes in elite professional alpine ski racers after microfracture surgery. This study was approved by an institutional review board. All patients who competed in professional ski races recognized by International Ski Federation and had a full-thickness knee articular cartilage defect, treated with microfracture, by a single surgeon, were included in the study. All data were collected prospectively. At minimum 2 years following microfracture, all patients completed a questionnaire, including Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction with outcome. Minimum 2-year follow-up was available for 18 of 20 skiers (90%) at an average follow-up of 77 months (range, 24-255 months). Size of knee articular cartilage defect was larger in males (195 mm(2)) compared with females (155 mm(2)); however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Median postoperative Tegner activity scale was 10 (range, 4-10). Mean postoperative Lysholm score was 86 (range, 41-100). Median postoperative patient satisfaction score was 10 (range, 9-10). Out of the 20 skiers, 19 (95%) returned to competitive skiing. The age of the skier who did not return was 28 years. The average time from surgery to return to competition was 13.4 months (range, 0.5-25.3 months). Average end-of-season overall World Cup ranking was calculated for the nine skiers before and after surgery. Of these nine skiers, six had an improved average overall World Cup ranking after microfracture. In this study, patient satisfaction with outcome and function were high following microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of the knee. Nearly all skiers returned to full competition. Microfracture is an acceptable treatment option for elite skiers who have full thickness articular cartilage lesions of the knee. PMID:24854291

  13. Defects in amorphous silicon

    In crystals, vacancies and self-interstitials have long been recognized as the primitive intrinsic defects. In amorphous Si, dangling bonds have universally been considered the only intrinsic defect. It is shown, that there are in principle two primitive intrinsic defects, namely dangling bonds (threefold-coordinated atoms) and floating bonds (fivefold-coordinated atoms) and that the later are mobile. This mobility is shown to be the key property which leads to a systematic and elegant description of a broad range of observed phenomena. (author) 33 refs., 3 figs

  14. Neural tube defects

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have bee...

  15. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  16. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Neural Tube Defects (NTDs): Condition Information Skip sharing on ... media links Share this: Page Content What are neural tube defects? Neural (pronounced NOOR-uhl ) tube defects ...

  17. Defect forces, defect couples and path integrals

    Definition and meaning of concepts like 'J integral' are given without any assumption about material behaviour. The key of the work is the field of 'defect forces' and 'defect couples' in a continuous media. These forces and couples, which can also be called 'material forces' and 'material couples' are related to the work done by a particle moving through a solid. It is shown that the resultant of all the defect forces included in a volume is the Jsub(k) integral computer on the surface surrounding this volume. A similar result is obtained about the moment resultant. Conventional form of the principle of virtual work is not applicable to fractures mechanics because equations of compatibility are not satisfied. A generalized form is given, which is valid when (virtual) crack propagation is considered. The virtual work of 'material' forces is included in the generalized form, and can be used as a new definition of J concept. As an illustration application, a simple procedure is described which allows to obtain the curve J-Δa (the so called J-R curve) from only one experimental test

  18. Differences in articular-eminence inclination between medieval and contemporary human populations.

    Kranjčić, Josip; Vojvodić, Denis; Žabarović, Domagoj; Vodanović, Marin; Komar, Daniel; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-08-01

    The articular-eminence inclination is an important element in the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint and the entire masticatory system; however, very little is known about this inclination in archaeological human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the values of, in addition to the differences between, the articular-eminence inclination in medieval and contemporary human populations. The study was carried out on two dry skull groups. The first group consisted of 14 dry skulls from the medieval culture group Bijelo Brdo (BB) of East Croatia, and the other consisted of 137 recent dry skulls from the osteologic collection of the Institute of Anatomy (IA) in Zagreb. All BB skulls were dentulous, whereas the IA skulls were divided into dentulous and edentulous groups. The articular-eminence inclination was measured in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane on digital images of the skull's two lateral views using AutoCAD computer software. The mean value of the articular-eminence inclination in the BB sample group (49.57°) was lower, with a statistical significance (p<0.01), than those of the IA dentulous (61.56°), the IA edentulous (62.54°), and all the combined IA (61.99°) specimens. Because the values of the articular-eminence inclination can vary a lot with reference to the number of specimens and the different methods used for measuring, the obtained values yield only orientational information. Further investigations including a larger number of medieval specimens are needed to confirm the results obtained from this study. PMID:22721644

  19. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage

    McCulloch Ryan S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Results Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted porcine articular cartilage. The genes evaluated were: beta actin, beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A, ribosomal protein L4, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit A, TATA box binding protein, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein—zeta polypeptide. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder software. The four most stable genes measured via geNorm were (most to least stable succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin; the four most stable genes measured via BestKeeper were glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, beta actin, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A; and the four most stable genes measured via NormFinder were peptidylprolyl isomerase A, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin. Conclusions BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder all generated similar results for the most stable genes in porcine articular cartilage. The use of these appropriate reference genes will facilitate accurate gene expression studies of porcine articular cartilage and suggest appropriate housekeeping genes for articular cartilage studies in other species.

  20. Regeneration of Articular Cartilage in Lizard Knee from Resident Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Lorenzo Alibardi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The epiphysis of femur and tibia in the lizard Podarcis muralis can extensively regenerate after injury. The process involves the articular cartilage and metaphyseal (growth plate after damage. The secondary ossification center present between the articular cartilage and the growth plate is replaced by cartilaginous epiphyses after about one month of regeneration at high temperature. The present study analyzes the origin of the chondrogenic cells from putative stem cells located in the growing centers of the epiphyses. The study is carried out using immunocytochemistry for the detection of 5BrdU-labeled long retaining cells and for the localization of telomerase, an enzyme that indicates stemness. The observations show that putative stem cells retaining 5BrdU and positive for telomerase are present in the superficial articular cartilage and metaphyseal growth plate located in the epiphyses. This observation suggests that these areas represent stem cell niches lasting for most of the lifetime of lizards. In healthy long bones of adult lizards, the addition of new chondrocytes from the stem cells population in the articular cartilage and the metaphyseal growth plate likely allows for slow, continuous longitudinal growth. When the knee is injured in the adult lizard, new populations of chondrocytes actively producing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan are derived from these stem cells to allow for the formation of completely new cartilaginous epiphyses, possibly anticipating the re-formation of secondary centers in later stages. The study suggests that in this lizard species, the regenerative ability of the epiphyses is a pre-adaptation to the regeneration of the articular cartilage.

  1. The determination of apoptosis rates on articular cartilages of ovariectomized rats with and without alendronate treatment.

    Acar, Nuray; Balkarli, Huseyin; Soyuncu, Yetkin; Ozbey, Ozlem; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Korkusuz, Petek; Ustunel, Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a major health problem characterized by compromised bone strength. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease that progresses slowly and is characterized by breakdown of the cartilage matrix. Alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BIS), inhibits bone loss and increases bone mineralization, and has been used clinically for the treatment of OP. It is still controversial whether BIS is effective in inhibiting the progression of OA. Chondrocyte apoptosis has been described in both human and experimentally induced OA models. In our study we aimed to detect whether ALN could protect articular cartilage from degeneration and reduce apoptosis rates in experimentally OA induced rats. For this rats were ovariectomized (ovex), nine weeks after operation rats were injected 30 µg/kg/week ALN subcutaneously for six weeks. After six weeks articular cartilages were obtained. We did Safranin O staining and Mankin and Pritzker scorings to evaluate degeneration and investigated the expressions of p53, cleaved caspase 3, Poly ADP-ribose (PAR), Poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP 1), and applied TUNEL technique to determine apoptotis rates. We found a significant decrease in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) amount and increased apoptosis which indicates damage on articular cartilages of ovex rats. GAG amount was higher and apoptosis rate was lower on articular cartilages of ALN treated ovex rats compared to the ovex group. In contrary to studies showing that early ALN treatment has a protective effect, our study shows late ALN treatment has a chondroprotective effect on articular cartilage since we treated rats nine weeks after ovariectomy. PMID:26631351

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

    Shokri, Abbas; Noruzi-Gangachin, Marruf [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Maryam; Mortazavi, Hamed [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  4. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  5. Biomaterial and mesenchymal stem cell for articular cartilage reconstruction.

    Shen, Yun; Fu, Yao; Wang, Jing; Li, Guo; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yuanzhi; Lin, Yunfeng

    2014-05-01

    Cartilage has poor ability of spontaneous repair. Traditional treatments such as microfracture, bone drilling and autologous osteochondral graft were not fully satisfactory to fulfill the clinical needs. The idea of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs-based cartilage regeneration has been put forward for decades. Large number of studies have been conducted on the biological properties of MSCs, the factors which might facilitate chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, as well as the scaffold materials for tissue engineering. Promising results have been reported for cartilage repair in animal models. But before massive clinical application of MSCs, more efforts are needed on: differentiation improvement toward mature cartilage chondrocytes instead of hypertrophic chondrocyes and in vitro/in vivo phenotype maintenance; engineering an ideal biomaterial, which can meet the needs of the cartilage regeneration; and performing more studies on critical defects of large animals. PMID:24524788

  6. Evaluation of Articular Eminence Morphology and Inclination in TMJ Internal Derangement Patients with MRI Evaluación de la Morfología e Inclinación de la Eminencia Articular en Pacientes con Trastorno Interno de ATM con MRI

    Aydin Ozkan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Articular eminence morphology and inclination are reported to be two predisposing factors for the internal derangement (ID. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the inclination and morphology of the articular eminence and ID. The study included 70 temporomandibular joints with ID in 35 patients: 51 joints had disc displacements with reduction (DDWR and 19 joints had disc displacements without reduction (DDWOR. All subjects underwent bilateral high resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans which were performed in the sagittal and coronal planes with mouths closed and opened. Articular eminence morphology was characterized as box, sigmoid, flattened, or deformed. Articular eminence inclination was measured at three positions: steep (from 60° to 90°, moderate (from 30° to 60° and shallow (from 15° to 30°. The images were divided into two; DDWR and DDWOR, and these two criteria were compared. The images of the two groups were compared; while flattened form was occurred with the highest incidence in the DDWOR group, sigmoid form was the most frequent in the DDWR group and articular eminence inclination was found steeper than it was for the DDWOR group. The steepness of the articular eminence may not have a predisposing effect on the development of disc displacements.La morfología e inclinación de la eminencia articular son reportados como dos factores predisponentes para el trastorno interno (TI. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la inclinación y la morfología de la eminencia articular y el TI. El estudio incluyó a 70 articulaciones temporomandibulares, con TI en 35 pacientes: 51 articulaciones con desplazamiento discal con reducción (DDCR y 19 de las articulaciones tuvieron desplazamiento discal sin reducción (DDSR. Todos los sujetos fueron sometidos a imágenes de resonancia magnética bilaterales de alta resolución que se realizaron en los planos sagital y coronal con la boca cerrada y abierta. La morfología articular la eminencia se caracterizó como una caja, sigmoide, aplanada, o deforme. La inclinación de la eminencia articular se midió en tres posiciones: empinada (de 60 ° a 90 °, moderada (entre 30 ° a 60 ° y poco profunda (entre 15 ° y 30 °. Las imágenes fueron divididos en dos; DDCR y DDSOR, y estos criterios fueron comparados. Al comparar las imágenes de ambos grupos, la forma aplanada se observó con mayor incidencia en el grupo de DDSR, la forma sigmoide fue la más frecuente en el grupo de DDCR y la inclinación de la eminencia articular se encontró más pronunciada que en el grupo DDSR. La inclinación de la eminencia articular puede no tener un efecto predisponente en el desarrollo de los desplazamientos de disco.

  7. Symposium: evidence for the use of intra-articular cortisone or hyaluronic acid injection in the hip.

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Lodhia, Parth; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S Pavan; Martin, Timothy J; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this review article is to discuss the role of diagnostic, corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) and femoroacetabular impingement (FIA). These treatments play an important biological role in the non-operative management of these conditions. Two independent reviewers performed an search of PubMed for articles that contained at least one of the following search terms pertaining to intra-articular hip injection-local anaesthetic, diagnostic, ultrasound, fluoroscopic, image guided, corticosteroid, HA, PRP, OA, labral tears and FAI. Seventy-two full text articles were suitable for inclusion. There were 18 articles addressing the efficacy of diagnostic intra-articular hip injections. With respect to efficacy in OA there were 25 articles pertaining to efficacy of corticosteroid, 22 of HA and 4 of PRP. There were three articles addressing the efficacy of biologics in FAI. Diagnostic intra-articular hip injections are sensitive and specific for differentiating between intra-articular, extra-articular and spinal causes of hip symptoms. Ultrasound and fluoroscopy improves the precision of intra-articular positioning of diagnostic injections. Corticosteroids are more effective than HA and PRP in alleviating pain from hip OA. A higher dose of corticosteroids produces a longer benefit but volume of injection has no significant effect. Intra-articular corticosteroids do not increase infection rates of subsequent arthroplasty. There is currently limited evidence to warrant the routine use of therapeutic injections in the management of labral tears and FIA. PMID:27026814

  8. Symposium: evidence for the use of intra-articular cortisone or hyaluronic acid injection in the hip

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Lodhia, Parth; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S. Pavan; Martin, Timothy J.; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this review article is to discuss the role of diagnostic, corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) and femoroacetabular impingement (FIA). These treatments play an important biological role in the non-operative management of these conditions. Two independent reviewers performed an search of PubMed for articles that contained at least one of the following search terms pertaining to intra-articular hip injection—local anaesthetic, diagnostic, ultrasound, fluoroscopic, image guided, corticosteroid, HA, PRP, OA, labral tears and FAI. Seventy-two full text articles were suitable for inclusion. There were 18 articles addressing the efficacy of diagnostic intra-articular hip injections. With respect to efficacy in OA there were 25 articles pertaining to efficacy of corticosteroid, 22 of HA and 4 of PRP. There were three articles addressing the efficacy of biologics in FAI. Diagnostic intra-articular hip injections are sensitive and specific for differentiating between intra-articular, extra-articular and spinal causes of hip symptoms. Ultrasound and fluoroscopy improves the precision of intra-articular positioning of diagnostic injections. Corticosteroids are more effective than HA and PRP in alleviating pain from hip OA. A higher dose of corticosteroids produces a longer benefit but volume of injection has no significant effect. Intra-articular corticosteroids do not increase infection rates of subsequent arthroplasty. There is currently limited evidence to warrant the routine use of therapeutic injections in the management of labral tears and FIA.

  9. Hiperhidrosis focal primaria asociada a eritromelalgia primaria / Primary focal hyperhidrosis associated to primary erythromelalgia

    MB, Leroux; CR, Lashak.

    2014-03-30

    Full Text Available Paciente femenina de 30 años de edad que consulta por un cuadro de hiperhidrosis, asociado a sensación de calor desde su niñez. Sufre crisis de calor en cara, cuello, parte superior del tronco y los cuatro miembros, que la inducen a transpirar. Durante estos episodios nota sensación de calor, dolor [...] y con aparición de rubor en manos y pies. Los síntomas ceden con aplicación de frío. Estos síntomas que presenta desde su adolescencia, dificultan el sueño, sus tareas habituales y el trato social. Sus antecedentes familiares respecto del mismo cuadro son floridos. Los estudios hematológicos, inmunológicos, la electromiografía y el ecodoppler de miembros superiores, resultaron dentro de límites normales. En el video sobre capilaroscopía periungueal de manos, se constata cambios micro vasculares inespecíficos. En la prueba de provocación mediante aumento de la temperatura, se obtiene resultado positivo a 39°C para miembros superiores. La paciente presenta signo-sintomatología compatible con hiperhidrosis focal primaria. Los episodios de calor, rubor y dolor de los cuatro miembros, que ceden a la exposición al frío fueron interpretados como eritromelalgia, en base a la clínica y los antecedentes familiares. Para la hiperhidrosis se indica solución de cloruro de aluminio hexa-hidratado al 20%, de aplicación tópica y para la eritromelalgia citrato de magnesio en grageas 528 mg, de dos a cuatro por día. Según la bibliografía por nosotros revisada, la asociación de hiperhidrosis focal primaria y eritromelalgia primaria familiar, no se ha registrado en la literatura. Abstract in english Female patient, aged 30 years-old, attending a medical consultation with hyperhidrosis associated with episodes of warmth and sweating since childhood, located in face, neck, upper thorax and extremities. These episodes are accompanied by heat, pain and reddening in hands and feet. The symptoms disa [...] ppear to cold exposure. These symptoms altered sleep, daily activities and social life. A positive family history with similar clinical characteristics was obtained. Hematological and immunological studies, as well as upper limbs electromyography and ecodoppler are within normal parameters. Unspecific microvascular alterations were observed with finger-periungueal video capillaroscopy. A provoking test yielded positive results when rising temperature to 39°C in upper limbs. The patient symptoms are compatible with focal primary hyperhidrosis. Heat, reddening and pain in the upper and low extremities responding to cold exposure and the positive family history led us to diagnose erythromelalgia. The hyperhidrosis treatment consisted of a topical application of 20% hexhydrate aluminum chloride. For erythromelalgia treatment 528 mg magnesium citrate pills, 2-4 daily were administered. Literature review to find out association of primary focal hyperhidrosis with primary familiar erythromelalgia was negative.

  10. Terapia Interpessoal: um modelo breve e focal Interpersonal Therapy: a brief and focal model

    Marcelo Feijó de Mello

    2004-01-01

    A psicoterapia é uma forma particular de tratamento em psiquiatria. Seu uso é amplamente difundido e conta com várias linhas de abordagem. OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho, o autor faz considerações a respeito da terapia interpessoal (TIP), uma forma breve e focal de psicoterapia. Inicialmente usada para o tratamento da depressão, teve seu espectro de ação ampliado para outros transtornos. A TIP pode ser dividida em 3 fases: inicial, quando é feito um diagnóstico do transtorno nomeando os sintomas ao...

  11. The dispersion-focalization theory of sound systems

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Abry, Christian; Boë, Louis-Jean; Vallée, Nathalie; Ménard, Lucie

    2005-04-01

    The Dispersion-Focalization Theory states that sound systems in human languages are shaped by two major perceptual constraints: dispersion driving auditory contrast towards maximal or sufficient values [B. Lindblom, J. Phonetics 18, 135-152 (1990)] and focalization driving auditory spectra towards patterns with close neighboring formants. Dispersion is computed from the sum of the inverse squared inter-spectra distances in the (F1, F2, F3, F4) space, using a non-linear process based on the 3.5 Bark critical distance to estimate F2'. Focalization is based on the idea that close neighboring formants produce vowel spectra with marked peaks, easier to process and memorize in the auditory system. Evidence for increased stability of focal vowels in short-term memory was provided in a discrimination experiment on adult French subjects [J. L. Schwartz and P. Escudier, Speech Comm. 8, 235-259 (1989)]. A reanalysis of infant discrimination data shows that focalization could well be the responsible for recurrent discrimination asymmetries [J. L. Schwartz et al., Speech Comm. (in press)]. Recent data about children vowel production indicate that focalization seems to be part of the perceptual templates driving speech development. The Dispersion-Focalization Theory produces valid predictions for both vowel and consonant systems, in relation with available databases of human languages inventories.

  12. Rac function is crucial for cell migration but is not required for spreading and focal adhesion formation

    Steffen, Anika; Ladwein, Markus; Dimchev, Georgi A; Hein, Anke; Schwenkmezger, Lisa; Arens, Stefan; Ladwein, Kathrin I; Margit Holleboom, J; Schur, Florian; Victor Small, J; Schwarz, Janett; Gerhard, Ralf; Faix, Jan; Stradal, Theresia E B; Brakebusch, Cord Herbert; Rottner, Klemens

    can be potently stimulated by Rho GTPases of the Rac subfamily, but also by RhoG or Cdc42. Here we describe viable fibroblast cell lines genetically deficient for Rac1 that lack detectable levels of Rac2 and Rac3. Rac-deficient cells were devoid of apparent lamellipodia, but these structures were...... restored by expression of either Rac subfamily member, but not by Cdc42 or RhoG. Cells deficient in Rac showed strong reduction in wound closure and random cell migration and a notable loss of sensitivity to a chemotactic gradient. Despite these defects, Rac-deficient cells were able to spread, formed...... deficiency increased the mobility of different components in focal adhesions, potentially explaining how Rac - although not essential - can contribute to focal adhesion assembly. Together, our data demonstrate that Rac signaling is essential for lamellipodium protrusion and for efficient cell migration, but...

  13. Defect Prevention Based on 5 Dimensions of Defect Origin

    Sakthi Kumaresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available “Discovering the unexpected is more important than confirming the known [7]. In software development,the “unexpected” one relates to defects. These defects when unattended would cause failure to the productand risk to the users. The increasing dependency of society on software and the crucial consequences that afailure can cause requires the need to find out the defects at the origin itself. Based on the lessons learntfrom the earlier set of projects, a defect framework highlighting the 5 Dimensions (Ds of defect origin isproposed in this work. The defect framework is based on analyzing the defects that had emerged fromvarious stages of software development like Requirements, Design, Coding, Testing and Timeline (defectsdue to lack of time during development. This study is not limited to just identifying the origin of defects atvarious phases of software development but also finds out the reasons for such defects, and defectpreventive (DP measures are proposed for each type of defect. This work can help practitioners chooseeffective defect avoidance measures.In addition to arriving at defect framework, this work also proposes a defect injection metric based onseverity of the defect rather than just defect count, which gives the number of adjusted defects produced bya project at various phases. The defect injection metric value, once calculated, serves as a yardstick tomake a comparison in the improvements made in the software process development between similar set ofprojects

  14. Point defects in platinum

    An investigation was made of the mobility and types of point defect introduced in platinum by deformation in liquid nitrogen, quenching into water from 1600oC, or reactor irradiation at 50oC. In all cases the activation energy for motion of the defect was determined from measurements of electrical resistivity. Measurements of density, hardness, and x-ray line broadening were also made there applicable. These experiments indicated that the principal defects remaining in platinum after irradiation were single vacant lattice sites and after quenching were pairs of vacant lattice sites. Those present after deformation In liquid nitrogen were single vacant lattice sites and another type of defect, perhaps interstitial atoms. (author)

  15. Single Ventricle Defects

    ... heart defects along with pulmonary atresia. (Children with tetralogy of Fallot who also have pulmonary atresia may have treatment similar to others with tetralogy of Fallot.) How does it affect the heart? An opening ...

  16. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    ... the Aorta Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of Fallot Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Transposition of the ... Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy of Fallot Other types of heart defects Omphalocele Spina Bifida ...

  17. Neural tube defects

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  18. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    ... structural defect. Others include spina bifida , cleft palate , clubfoot, and congenital dislocated hip . When there is a ... to 4 babies in every 1,000 born. Clubfoot is a term used to describe a group ...

  19. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  20. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject’s facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  1. Mucinosis bucal focal: Reporte de un caso

    Lorena, Dávila Barrios; Susana, Arteaga Altuve; Belkis, Quiñónez Márquez; Manuel, Molina Barreto; Leonel, Castillo Cáceres.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las mucinosis son dermatosis caracterizadas por el depósito de mucina en la dermis. La mucinosis en la cavidad bucal es poco frecuente y hasta la fecha se han reportado en la literatura 38 casos. Clínicamente se presenta como una elevación asintomática, de consistencia firme, localizada con mayor fr [...] ecuencia en la encía y en la mucosa alveolar. Se reporta el caso de una paciente de 19 años de edad que presentaba una masa voluminosa de aspecto edematoso, superficie lisa, localizada en la encía vestibular entre 23 y 24, de consistencia firma, indolora y de tres años de evolución, con diagnóstico presuntivo de granuloma piógeno o hiperplasia gingival. El estudio de la biopsia reveló procesos fibrilares de aspecto mixoide y acúmulos de células inflamatorias consistentes en neutrófilos, linfocitos, plasmocitos y leucocitos polimorfonucleares. Se estableció el diagnóstico definitivo de mucinosis bucal focal y gingivitis. No se ha observado recurrencia un año después de su remoción Abstract in english Mucinosis are dermatosis characterised by mucin deposit on the dermis. Mucinosis in the oral cavity are not frequent and until this date 38 cases have been reported in literature. Clinically it is presented as an asymptomatic elevation, of firm consistency, more frequently localized in the gum or al [...] veolar mucous. A 19 year old patient case was reported. He had a voluminous mass with an edema aspect, a smooth surface, localized on the vestibular gum between 23 and 24, firm consistency, painless and with three years evolution, with a pyogenic granuloma or gingival hyperplasia alleged diagnose. After the biopsy sample was taken, the hystopatological study revealed fibrillar processes of a mixoid aspect and inflammatory cell accumulations consisting of neutrophiles, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes. A focused oral mucinosis and gingivitis was definitively diagnosed. No recurrence was observed after it was removed

  2. Recovery of Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms

    Weber, R. C.; Knapmeyer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Deep moonquakes are clustered not only in space but also in time: their recurrence times correspond to the durations of the anomalistic and draconic months, with some clusters preferring one of the two periods, while others are active with both periods. A key constraint for the understanding of the connection between the orbital motion of the Moon and its seismic activity is the focal mechanism: the orientation of the fault surface on which failure occurs during the quake. Due to the small aperture of the Apollo seismic network and the strong scattering of seismic waves within the lunar crust, the evaluation of P wave first motions to constrain the strike and dip of the fault planes is not feasible. Instead we evaluate the amplitude ratios of P and S waves. Seismograms are rotated into the P-SV-SH coordinate frame and amplitudes are determined as averages over short time windows after the arrival to reduce the impact of the scattering coda, which is independent of the source orientation. We allow for reversals of the fault motion, as observed for some clusters in previous studies, by taking into account the absolute amplitude only, without sign. An empirical site correction factor is applied to correct for amplitude distortions in the crust. We construct ensembles of fault plane solutions using an exhaustive grid search by accepting all orientations that reproduce the measured amplitude ratios within the observed standard deviations. Since all events of a given cluster are supposed to share the same fault plane, the combination of the individual inversion results further constrains the orientation. We evaluate 106 events from 25 different moonquake clusters. The most active cluster A001 contributes 37 events, while others contribute 1 to 9 events per cluster. Comparison of fault orientations with the variation of the tidal stress results in preferred orientations.

  3. Signatures of Topological Defects

    Berezinsky, V. S.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Vilenkin, A.

    1998-01-01

    We argue that due to various restrictions cosmic strings and monopole-string networks are not likely to produce the observed flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). Among the topological defects studied so far, the most promising UHECR sources are necklaces and monopolonia. Other viable sources which are similar to topological defects are relic superheavy particles. All these sources have an excess of pions (and thus photons) over nucleons at production. We demonstrate that in the case...

  4. Neural Tube Defects

    Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechani...

  5. Secondary knee instability caused by fracture of the stabilizing insert in a dual-articular total knee

    Boesen, Morten P; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard; Husted, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A case of a fractured polyethylene stabilizing insert causing secondary knee instability in a Dual-articular total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is presented. A 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery with a Dual-articular TKA 4 years earlier had a well-functioning prosthesis until a fall, after which...... she began complaining of an intermittent, audible clicking; pain; and instability. At surgery, a fractured polyethylene peg was discovered, and the tibial insert was replaced. At follow-up, she remains asymptomatic. This is the first description of a fractured stabilizing insert in a Dual-articular...

  6. A Case Report of Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture for Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex

    Lee, Kwangho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case was to report a case of Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. Methods: The patient was treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. The Effect of Treatment was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale(VAS and Modified Mayo Wrist Score(Wrist Score. Results & Conclusions: After Treatment, Patient's VAS decreased and Wrist Score increased. For this results, Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture may be effective for Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex.

  7. MR imaging of focal liver lesions at high field strength

    Benign and malignant liver tumors manifest a spectrum of overlapping features on MR images obtained at 1.5 T. Occasionally a specific diagnosis can be made. A well-defined homogeneous lesion with a contrast-to-noise ratio above 25 on spin-echo 2,000/70 images can be confidently diagnosed as hemangioma. A focal lesion with intensity similar to adjacent liver and a stellate central scar is characteristic of focal modular hyperplasia. The presence of fat within a lesion can be identified and suggests a diagnosis of adenoma, hepatoma, hamartoma, or focal fatty infiltration. MR imaging may complement CT in delineating the extent of malignant lesions

  8. Micromass co-culture of human articular chondrocytes and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to investigate stable neocartilage tissue formation in vitro

    S Giovannini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies for articular cartilage defects rely on expanded chondrocytes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC represent an alternative cell source should their hypertrophic differentiation pathway be prevented. Possible cellular instruction between human articular chondrocytes (HAC and human bone marrow MSC was investigated in micromass pellets. HAC and MSC were mixed in different percentages or incubated individually in pellets for 3 or 6 weeks with and without TGF-beta1 and dexamethasone (±T±D as chondrogenic factors. Collagen II, collagen X and S100 protein expression were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Proteoglycan synthesis was evaluated applying the Bern score and quantified using dimethylmethylene blue dye binding assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP was detected on cryosections and soluble ALP measured in pellet supernatants. HAC alone generated hyaline-like discs, while MSC formed spheroid pellets in ±T±D. Co-cultured pellets changed from disc to spheroid shape with decreasing number of HAC, and displayed random cell distribution. In -T-D, HAC expressed S100, produced GAG and collagen II, and formed lacunae, while MSC did not produce any cartilage-specific proteins. Based on GAG, collagen type II and S100 expression chondrogenic differentiation occurred in -T-D MSC co-cultures. However, quantitative experimental GAG and DNA values did not differ from predicted values, suggesting only HAC contribution to GAG production. MSC produced cartilage-specific matrix only in +T+D but underwent hypertrophy in all pellet cultures. In summary, influence of HAC on MSC was restricted to early signs of neochondrogenesis. However, MSC did not contribute to the proteoglycan deposition, and HAC could not prevent hypertrophy of MSC induced by chondrogenic stimuli.

  9. Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type IIB and Human Papillomavirus

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA tested the hypothesis that human papillomavirus type 16 oncoprotein E6 (HPV16 E6) is present in human focal cortical dysplasia type IIB (FCDIIB) specimens.

  10. A practical approach to management of focal hand dystonia.

    Pandey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia can be focal, segmental, multifocal, generalized, or hemidystonia. Focal dystonia is localized to a specific part of the body. Overall upper limb is more commonly involved in focal dystonia than lower limb and since it starts from hand, focal hand dystonia (FHD) is a more accepted terminology. Writer's cramp and musician dystonia are commonest types of FHD. Typically this dystonia is task specific, but in some patients this specificity may be lost over a period of time. Segmental or generalized dystonia may also start as FHD, so a detailed clinical assessment is required, which should be supplemented by relevant investigations. Treatment includes oral medications, injection botulinum toxin, neurosurgery including neurostimulation, and rehabilitation. Role of injection botulinum toxin has been extensively studied in writer's cramp patients and found to be effective; however, selection of muscles and techniques of injection are crucial in getting best results. PMID:26019409

  11. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis.

  12. Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type IIB and Human Papillomavirus

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA tested the hypothesis that human papillomavirus type 16 oncoprotein E6 (HPV16 E6 is present in human focal cortical dysplasia type IIB (FCDIIB specimens.

  13. MWIR and LWIR megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Liu, John K.; Hill, Cory J.; Rafol, B., Sir; Mumolo, Jason M.; Thang, J.; Tidrow, Meimei Z.; LeVan, Paul D.

    2004-10-01

    A mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array has been demonstrated with excellent imagery. MWIR focal plane has given noise equivalent differential temperature (NETD) of 19 mK at 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and LWIR focal plane has given NEDT of 13 mK at 70K operating temperature with same optical and background conditions as MWIR array. Both of these focal plane arrays have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures with the same optics and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss their performance in quantum efficiency, NETD, uniformity, and operability.

  14. A practical approach to management of focal hand dystonia

    Sanjay Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia can be focal, segmental, multifocal, generalized, or hemidystonia. Focal dystonia is localized to a specific part of the body. Overall upper limb is more commonly involved in focal dystonia than lower limb and since it starts from hand, focal hand dystonia (FHD is a more accepted terminology. Writer′s cramp and musician dystonia are commonest types of FHD. Typically this dystonia is task specific, but in some patients this specificity may be lost over a period of time. Segmental or generalized dystonia may also start as FHD, so a detailed clinical assessment is required, which should be supplemented by relevant investigations. Treatment includes oral medications, injection botulinum toxin, neurosurgery including neurostimulation, and rehabilitation. Role of injection botulinum toxin has been extensively studied in writer′s cramp patients and found to be effective; however, selection of muscles and techniques of injection are crucial in getting best results.

  15. Focal Therapy of Prostate Cancer Using Irreversible Electroporation.

    Valerio, Massimo; Ahmed, Hashim U; Emberton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Focal therapy is a novel strategy that attempts to enhance the therapeutic ratio of standard radical treatment in prostate cancer. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has some inherent characteristics that may be ideal for focal therapy. Precise confined ablation in the treatment area obtained via nonthermal damage with potential for minimal toxicity to surrounding structures may lead to optimal treatment with improved preservation of continence and erectile function. Initial data of focal IRE of the prostate are encouraging although further assessment is awaited to confirm these findings using robust methodology. In this article, we provide a comprehensive step-by-step description of our technique to deliver focal IRE in selected men with localized prostate cancer located in a discrete area of the prostate. PMID:26365544

  16. X-ray tube having an adjustable focal spot

    An X-ray tube with an adjustable focal spot is provided wherein the focal-spot position can be moved along the anode and the focal-spot width can be changed by applying a small voltage to the cathode-bias cup. The cathode includes means integral with the cathode for deflecting the flow of electrons to selectable focal-spot areas on the anode in response to an external drive circuit. The cathode includes a filament for emitting electrons to impinge on the anode, and a cathode cup having first and second parts electrically insulated from each other. The device includes biasing means for applying a voltage between the filament and the cathode to control the size and position of the region of impingement of the electron beam on the anode. The anode can be rotatable with respect to the cathode. (Auth.)

  17. Speech and Language Dysfunction and Focal Epileptiform Activity

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The medical history, EEG recordings, and developmental milestones of 19 children with speech and language dysfunction, and focal epileptiform activity were analyzed for prognostic risk factors in a study at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

  18. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution.

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis. PMID:26424051

  19. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF INTRA - ARTICULAR DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES TREATED WITH PLATE AND SCREWS

    Girish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Incidence of fractures of distal radius are increasing due to more geriatric population and road traffic accidents. The fundamental goal of distal radius fractures treatment is restoration of normal or near normal alignment and articular congruity. Restoration of the anatomy and articular surface may prevent the onset of arthritis and improve function. AIMS: To determine clinical outcome of intra - articular distal radius fractures treated with plate and screws. METHOD: 20 patients of intra - articular distal radius fracture treated with open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws between November 2012 and October 2014 were evaluated. Clinical and radiological evaluation was done at 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and one year after surgery. Fractures were cla ssified according to Melone fracture classification. There were 8 type - 2 fractures, 5 type - 3 fractures,4 type - 4 fractures, 2 type - 5 and 1 type - 1 fracture. There were 19 (95% males and 1 (5% females. Age range was between 24 to 50 years with average of 34 years. Fracture was stabilized with the plate and screws at an average of 5 to 7 days post trauma. RESULTS: All fractures had sound clinical and radiological union with an average radiological union time of 14 weeks (range between 2.5 – 6 months. Average palmar flexion of wrist was 56deg, dorsi - flexion was 59deg, radial deviation was17deg, ulnar deviation was 23deg, pronation was 65deg and supination was 72degrees. Gartland and Werley system was used to evaluate the function, 80% of patients had excellent to good results out of which 20% were excellent and 60% were good results, and 15% had fair results and poor results were found in 5%. Average radial inclination was 21 degrees and palmar tilt was 9.5 degrees . CONCLUSION: Open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws is an excellent, and effective technique in management of intra - articular distal radius fractures in terms of high union rate, anatomical reduction, maintenance of articular congruity and early mobilization and best functional outcome.

  20. Clinical utility of ultrasound guidance for intra-articular knee injections: a review

    Berkoff DJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available David J Berkoff1, Larry E Miller2,3, Jon E Block31Department of Orthopedics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Miller Scientific Consulting Inc, Arden, NC; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Intra-articular corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections provide short-term symptom amelioration for arthritic conditions involving structural damage or degenerative changes in the knee. Conventional palpation-guided anatomical injections frequently result in inaccurate needle placement into extra-articular tissue and adjacent structures. The purpose of this review was to determine the effect of ultrasound guidance on the accuracy of needle placement, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness in comparison with anatomical landmark-guided intra-articular large joint injections, with particular emphasis on the knee. A total of 13 relevant studies were identified; five studied the knee, seven studied the shoulder, one used both the knee and shoulder, and none studied the hip. Ultrasound was used in seven studies; the remaining studies utilized air arthrography, fluoroscopy, magnetic resonance arthrography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Across all studies (using all imaging modalities and all joints, needle placement accuracy ranged from 63% to 100% with ultrasound and from 39% to 100% with conventional anatomical guidance. Imaging guidance improved the accuracy of intra-articular injections of the knee (96.7% versus 81.0%, P < 0.001 and shoulder (97.3% versus 65.4%, P < 0.001. In particular, ultrasound guidance of knee injections resulted in better accuracy than anatomical guidance (95.8% versus 77.8%, P < 0.001, yielding an odds ratio of 6.4 (95% confidence interval 2.9–14. Ultrasound guidance notably improves injection accuracy in the target intra-articular joint space of large joints including the knee. The enhanced injection accuracy achieved with ultrasound needle guidance directly improves patient-reported clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness.Keywords: injection, intra-articular, knee, ultrasound

  1. Syntelencephaly associated with connected transhemispheric cleft of focal cortical dysplasia.

    Fujimoto, S; Togari, H; Banno, T; Wada, Y

    1999-05-01

    The authors report a female with syntelencephaly associated with a connected transhemispheric cleft of focal cortical dysplasia. Syntelencephaly is a rare anomaly characterized by fusion of the hemispheres in the posterior frontal and parietal regions and is considered a new variant of holoprosencephaly. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging of the patient revealed syntelencephaly associated with bilateral fused clefts of focal cortical dysplasia without the pial-ependymal seam, which was regarded as an incomplete type of schizencephaly. The underlying mechanism is discussed. PMID:10371387

  2. Focal Hand Dystonia Secondary to Basal Ganglia Germinoma

    Kim, Joong-Seok; Han, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Woojun; Kim, Bum-Soo; Kim, Yeong-In; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2007-01-01

    Descriptions of symptomatic focal dystonia caused by focal lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare in the literature. We report a 9-year-old child who experienced sudden-onset left-hand dystonia for 6 months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion involving the putamen, globus pallidus, head of caudate, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Histopathological and immunocytochemical examinations of the mass revealed features characteristic of malignant germi...

  3. Limited regional cerebellar dysfunction induces focal dystonia in mice

    Raike, Robert S.; Pizoli, Carolyn E.; Weisz, Catherine; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Jinnah, H. A.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Dystonia is a complex neurological syndrome broadly characterized by involuntary twisting movements and abnormal postures. The anatomical distribution of the motor symptoms varies among dystonia patients and can range from focal, involving an isolated part of the body, to generalized, involving many body parts. Functional imaging studies of both focal and generalized dystonia in humans often implicate the cerebellum suggesting that similar pathological processes may underlie both. To test thi...

  4. Focal therapy for prostate cancer: The current status

    Marshall, Susan; Taneja, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In an era of increasing prostate cancer incidence and earlier detection, the assessment of clinical significance of prostate cancer is critical. Minimally invasive therapies are increasingly being investigated in localized prostate cancer. Methods and results In this review, we discuss the current status of magnetic resonance imaging targeted fusion prostate biopsy and focal therapy for prostate cancer, its rationale, and techniques. Conclusion Focal therapy offers a promising outlook...

  5. Self-calibration of Antenna Errors Using Focal Plane Arrays

    Napier, P. J.; Cornwell, T. J.

    The thery of focal-plane correlation is reviewed and applied to the problem of the self-calibration and self-correction of a radio telescope with errors in its reflecting surface. Curves are presented which allow the estimation of focal-plane array size and integration time needed for telescopes with varying amounts of error. It is suggested that the technique may have application to the problem of the construction of large telescopes in space.

  6. Measurement of the effective focal shift in an optical trap

    Neuman, Keir C.; Abbondanzieri, Elio A.; Block, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of an oil-immersion microscope objective is shifted because of the refractive-index mismatch between the cover glass and the aqueous sample. We present a procedure with which to determine the focal shift by use of an inverted microscope equipped with optical tweezers. As the position of the sample chamber is scanned vertically, we measure the axial displacement of an optically trapped bead; the relative motion of the bead with respect to the surface supplies the effective focal shif...

  7. Evaluation using MRI T2 mapping of the articular cartilage after anterior cruciate ligament injury in young athletes

    Articular cartilage damage coexisting in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in young athletes is not rare. We evaluated the conditions of the articular cartilage using MRI T2 mapping method and compared the vesults with the findings of arthroscopy. From June to August in 2010, we performed ACL reconstruction in 31 patients. We selected 17 cases (eleven men and six women, mean age 19.1 years old), all of whom were athletes and the under 29 years old. Articular cartilage damage was observed in six out of 10 cases, and their T2 values were high on MRI T2 mapping. On the other hand, damage was observed only in one out of seven cases, and T2 values were in the normal level of the mapping. Using MRI T2 mapping, we can evaluate the articular cartilage at an early phase noninvasively. MRI T2 mapping is useful and effective for athletes. (author)

  8. All-in-quartz optics for low focal shifts

    Blomqvist, Mats; Blomster, Ola; Pålsson, Magnus; Campbell, Stuart; Becker, Frank; Rath, Wolfram

    2011-02-01

    High laser power levels in combination with increasing beam quality bring optics performance into focus, particularly with regard to systems with low focal shifts along the optical axis. In industrial applications, this often influences the overall performance of the process, especially if the focal shift is comparable to or in excess of the Rayleigh length. It is commonly accepted that the focal shifts are of thermal nature where lens material, lens coating, geometry and surface contamination all contribute to the direction and extent of the focal shifts. In this paper we will present a novel design of lens packages where a patented all-in-quartz concept is explored. By mounting quartz lenses in hermetically sealed quartz tubes and applying water cooling on the perimeter of the quartz tubes we will reduce or eliminate a number of contributing factors to focal shift problems. The hermetic sealing, carried out in a clean-room environment, will minimize lens surface contamination. Differences in thermal expansion between lens and housing are eliminated as the lens and housing will be of the same material. Absorption of scattered laser light will be efficient as the energy is removed quickly by cooling water and not absorbed by fixed surroundings. Finally, indirect heating from the housing transmitted by radiation and convection to the lenses is avoided. Values of the normalized System Focal Shift Factors (SFSF) for the all-in-quartz optics will be compared to standard lens assemblies at multi-kW laser power levels.

  9. Focal osteolysis in total hip replacement: CT findings

    To describe the CT findings of focal osteolysis following total hip replacement (THR). CT imaging features of 30 THRs with focal osteolysis visualized on follow-up radiographs and undertaken revision surgery were reviewed. On CT scans, the shape and anatomic location of osteolytic lesions was recorded, as well as their size and number. The presence of cortical disruption or expansion, liner wear, metallosis, and heterotopic ossification was also noted. In each case, surgical and histologic findings were correlated with imaging features. Focal osteolysis was common in the superior part of acetabular and femoral components. CT features of focal osteolysis were multiple, expansile, oval, or round radiolucencies, which were conglomerated into multilobular shape. The cortex adjacent to the osteolytic lesions revealed irregular thinning and discontinuity (29/30, 97%) accompanied by a few tiny fragments. Liner wear was common (27/30, 90%), and metallosis was frequent (8/30, 26.7%). Pathologic results were foreign body reaction in 20 patients, chronic inflammation in eight, and fibrosis in two. CT appearances of focal osteolysis following THR are multilobulated lucent areas with expansile periosteal reaction and cortical abnormalities, mimicking infection or tumor. We consider that CT is useful for the prediction and assessment of the nature and extent of focal osteolysis. (orig.)

  10. Focal and multifocal diabetic neuropathies Neuropatia diabética focal e multifocal

    Gérard Said

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is the most common neuropathy in industrialized countries, with a remarkable range of clinical manifestations. The vast majority of the patients with clinical diabetic neuropathy have a distal symmetrical form that progress following a fiber-length dependent pattern, with predominant sensory and autonomic manifestations. This pattern of neuropathy is associated with a progressive distal axonopathy. Patients are exposed to trophic changes in the feet, pains and autonomic disturbances. Less often, diabetic patients may develop focal and multifocal neuropathy that includes cranial nerve involvement, limb and truncal neuropathies. This neuropathic pattern tends to occur after 50 years of age, mostly in patients with longstanding diabetes mellitus. The LDDP does not show any trend to improvement and either relentlessly progresses or remain relatively stable over years. Conversely the focal diabetic neuropathies, which are often associated with inflammatory vasculopathy on nerve biopsies, remain self limited, sometimes after a relapsing course.A neuropatia diabética é a mais predominante das neuropatias nos países industrializados apresentando uma gama variável de manifestações clinicas. A maioria dos pacientes com neuropatia diabética apresenta uma forma simétrica distal que progride para um padrão fibra comprimento dependente com manifestações sensitivas e autonomicas. Este tipo de neuropatia é associado com uma axonopatia distal progressiva. Os pacientes apresentam modificações tróficas nos pés, dores e distúrbios autonômicos. Menos freqüentemente os pacientes diabéticos podem desenvolver neuropatia focal e multifocal que incluem envolvimento de nervos cranianos, tronco e membros inferiores. Este padrão de neuropatia é mais freqüente em pacientes com mais de 50 anos e com longa historia de diabetes. Este tipo de neuropatia fibra-comprimento dependente não apresenta melhora, progride lentamente ou permanece estável por vários anos. As neuropatias focais que são associadas freqüentemente com vasculopatias inflamatórias nas biópsias de nervo, permanecem auto limitadas por vezes com surtos de remissão.

  11. Pupillary anomaly masquerading as a glaucomatous visual field defect: a case report

    Tey Adrian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients are often referred to ophthalmologists with focal visual field defects on routine testing, possibly related to a potential diagnosis of glaucoma. However, examination of the individual patient's ocular characteristics as well as facial characteristics may often reveal a cause of the visual field defect. Case presentation We describe a patient who was found to have a superior visual field defect on routine testing by the optician. Repeat perimetry with pharmacological dilatation of the pupil revealed that the cause of the field defect was related to an eccentric inferiorly displaced pupil, secondary to trauma some years previously. Discussion Individual patient characteristics, including both ocular, as well as facial, need to be considered, when interpreting any visual field defect.

  12. Distinct focal lesions of the femoral head: imaging features suggesting an atypical and minimal form of bone necrosis

    Heading AbstractObjective. To document the imaging findings observed in patients with an unusual pattern of abnormality of the femoral head, most likely representing osteonecrosis.Design and patients. The imaging findings in 11 patients (10 men, 1 woman; age range 32-55 years) with a distinct lesion of the femoral head were reviewed with particular attention to the morphologic appearance, location, and extent of the lesion(s) in the proximal femur.Results. The 16 lesions identified in these patients extended to the subchondral area. Articular collapse was not evident in any hip. Radiography and CT showed areas of mixed bone sclerosis and osteolysis surrounded by sclerotic margins. On MR imaging, the signal intensity characteristics of the osseous lesion(s) were most commonly similar to those of fluid. Histopathologic findings, available in two hips, were typical of osteonecrosis. There was evidence of correlation of the site of the lesion with the known general distribution and anastomoses of arteries supplying the femoral head.Conclusion. A distinct, focal lesion of the femoral head is believed to represent an atypical form of bone necrosis. Its restriction to a small portion of the femoral head may relate to localized vascular anatomy. Recognition of the quite characteristic imaging findings can prevent misdiagnosis and may have implications for the prediction of the natural course of the disease. (orig.)

  13. Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica

    A. L.M. Yamada; A.M. Carvalho; P.G.G. Oliveira; S.L. Felisbino; D.L. Queiroz; M.J. Watanabe; C.A. Hussni; A.L.G. Alves

    2012-01-01

    Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulações foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações ...

  14. PKCa Agonists Enhance the Protective Effect of Hyaluronic Acid on Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis of Articular Chondrocytes in Vitro

    Jian-lin Zhou; Hong song Fang; Hao Peng; Qiong jie Hu; Shi qing Liu; Jiang hua Ming; Bo Qiu

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): Protein kinase C (PKCα) is involved in modulating articular chondrocytes apoptosis induced by nitric oxide (NO). Hyaluronic acid (HA) inhibits nitric oxide-induced apoptosis of articular chondrocytes by protecting PKCα, but the mechanism remains unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of PKCα regulate protective effect of hyaluronic acid.   Materials and Methods The ratio of apoptotic cell and cell viability was s...

  15. Postnatal changes to the mechanical properties of articular cartilage are driven by the evolution of its collagen network

    AR Gannon; Nagel, T.; AP Bell; NC Avery; DJ Kelly

    2015-01-01

    While it is well established that the composition and organisation of articular cartilage dramatically change during skeletal maturation, relatively little is known about how this impacts the mechanical properties of the tissue. In this study, digital image correlation was first used to quantify spatial deformation within mechanically compressed skeletally immature (4 and 8 week old) and mature (1 and 3 year old) porcine articular cartilage. The compressive modulus of the immature tissue was ...

  16. Ruídos articulares e sinais de disfunção temporomandibular: um estudo comparativo por meio de palpação manual e vibratografia computadorizada da ATM

    CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues; MIRANDA João Evandro da Silva; Flávia ORNELAS

    2000-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve como finalidade estimar a validade interexaminadores, em detectar sons articulares e comparar os resultados com um sistema computadorizado (SONOPAK). Para isto, uma amostra de 45 indivíduos foi selecionada aleatoriamente e dividida em dois grupos. O grupo experimental foi formado por 24 pacientes, que apresentavam problemas articulares, e o grupo controle por 19 pacientes com ausência de qualquer relato ou queixa, compatível com DTM. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes ...

  17. The influence of long-term treadmill exercise on bone mass and articular cartilage in ovariectomized rats

    Chang Ting-Kuo; Huang Chang-Hung; Huang Chun-Hsiung; Chen Hsuan-Chiang; Cheng Cheng-Kung

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Loss of bone quality and deterioration of articular cartilage are commonly seen after menopause. While exercise may protect against tissue degeneration, a clear link has yet to be established. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of long-term treadmill exercise on changes in bone mass and articular cartilage in ovariectomized rats. Methods Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized plus ...

  18. Protocolos para el diseño in vitro de cartílago articular animal basados en métodos de ingeniería de tejidos

    Correa, Diego; Arroyo, Julia; Llinás, Adolfo; Groot, Helena; Briceño, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    EI cartílago articular es la estructura que recubre las superficies óseas en las articulaciones. Tiene funciones biomecánicas especificas que lo hacen el tejido mas importante en el mantenimiento de la homeostasis articular. Se lesión a con mucha frecuencia generando consecuencias discapacitantes. Infortunadamente cuenta con una muy escasa capacidad de autorreparo por lo cual se han generado múltiples tratamientos con éxitos parciales, dado el hecho de que el tejido de reparo que se crea es b...

  19. A novel computational modelling to describe the anisotropic, remodelling and reorientation behaviour of collagen fibrres in articular cartilage

    S. Cortez; Completo, A; Alves, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    In articular cartilage the orientation of collagen fibres is not uniform, varying mostly with the depth on the tissue. Besides, the biomechanical response of each layer of the articular cartilage differs from the neighbouring ones, evolving through thickness as a function of the distribution, density and orientation of the collagen fibres. Based on a finite element implementation, a new continuum formulation is proposed to describe the remodelling and reorientation of the collagen fibres unde...

  20. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Adult Stem Cells by a Porous Scaffold Derived from Native Articular Cartilage Extracellular Matrix

    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Estes, Bradley T.; Awad, Hani A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2008-01-01

    Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to differentiate into a chondrogenic phenotype in response to specific environmental signals such as growth factors or artificial biomaterial scaffolds. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a porous scaffold derived exclusively from articular cartilage can induce chondrogenesis of ASCs. Human ASCs were seeded on porous scaffolds derived from adult porcine articular cartilage and cultured in standard medium without exogenous gr...