WorldWideScience
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Focal full thickness articular cartilage lesions treated with an articular resurfacing prosthesis in the middle-aged  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Localised full thickness articular defects of the knee are common and disabling in the middle-aged. There are numerous treatment options for articular defects, the results of which are unpredictable in this age group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a focal articular resurfac [...] ing prosthesis used in the treatment of these defects. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients treated between 2005 and 2010 with a HemiCAP® resurfacing procedure were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up scores of the KOOS, IKDC, SF-36 and patient satisfaction were obtained. Radiographic evaluation was also obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen patients were followed-up 4.7 ± 5.9 years after surgery. Three patients had revision surgery and were not followed up. The patients were 44.7 ± 5.9 years old. The follow-up KOOS scores demonstrated comparable scores on the pain and activities of daily living sub-scales when compared to normative data; however, the sports (P

H, Hobbs; N, Ketse-Matiwane; W, van der Merwe; M, Posthumus.

2013-12-01

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Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of traumatic articular cartilage defects: a comprehensive review  

OpenAIRE

Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to repair following injury. Early intervention is required to prevent progression of focal traumatic chondral and osteochondral defects to advanced cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. Novel cell-based tissue engineering techniques have been proposed with the goal of resurfacing defects with bioengineered tissue that recapitulates the properties of hyaline cartilage and integrates into native tissue. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (M...

Bornes, Troy D.; Adesida, Adetola B.; Jomha, Nadr M.

2014-01-01

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Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair  

OpenAIRE

Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular...

Brien, Fergal J. O.; Levingstone, Tanya J.; Amos Matsiko

2013-01-01

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Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

Fergal J. O'Brien

2013-02-01

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Focal defect resembling a subchondral bone cyst of the ulnar trochlear notch in a dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 13 mo old spayed female golden retriever/standard poodle mixed-breed dog was presented for intermittent right forelimb lameness. Physical examination revealed marked effusion and decreased flexion in the right elbow joint, radiography showed mild osteophytosis of the right elbow joint, and computed tomography showed a focal defect in the subchondral bone in the trochlear notch of the ulna resembling a subchondral bone cyst. Arthroscopy of the affected elbow revealed a focal defect in the articular cartilage on the trochlear notch with vascular ingrowth covering a defect in the subchondral bone plate. The synovium surrounding the defect was inflamed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of a subchondral bone cyst in the ulna of a dog. PMID:25415218

Makielski, Kelly; Muir, Peter; Bleedorn, Jason

2015-01-01

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Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of traumatic articular cartilage defects: a comprehensive review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to repair following injury. Early intervention is required to prevent progression of focal traumatic chondral and osteochondral defects to advanced cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. Novel cell-based tissue engineering techniques have been proposed with the goal of resurfacing defects with bioengineered tissue that recapitulates the properties of hyaline cartilage and integrates into native tissue. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising strategy given the high proliferative capacity of MSCs and their potential to differentiate into cartilage-producing cells - chondrocytes. MSCs are historically harvested through bone marrow aspiration, which does not require invasive surgical intervention or cartilage extraction from other sites as required by other cell-based strategies. Biomaterial matrices are commonly used in conjunction with MSCs to aid cell delivery and support chondrogenic differentiation, functional extracellular matrix formation and three-dimensional tissue development. A number of specific transplantation protocols have successfully resurfaced articular cartilage in animals and humans to date. In the clinical literature, MSC-seeded scaffolds have filled a majority of defects with integrated hyaline-like cartilage repair tissue based on arthroscopic, histologic and imaging assessment. Positive functional outcomes have been reported at 12 to 48 months post-implantation, but future work is required to assess long-term outcomes with respect to other treatment modalities. Despite relatively positive outcomes, further investigation is required to establish a consensus on techniques for treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects with respect to cell source, isolation and expansion, implantation density, in vitro precultivation, and scaffold composition. This will allow for further optimization of MSC proliferation, chondrogenic differentiation, bioengineered cartilage integration, and clinical outcome. PMID:25606595

Bornes, Troy D; Adesida, Adetola B; Jomha, Nadr M

2014-01-01

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Osteochondral articular defect repair using auricle-derived autologous chondrocytes in a rabbit model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothesizing that the implantation of non-articular (heterotopic) chondrocytes might be an alternative approach to support articular cartilage repair, we analyzed joint cartilage defect healing in the rabbit model after implantation of autologous auricle-derived (auricular) chondrocytes. Autologous lapine articular and auricular chondrocytes were cultured for 3 weeks in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds before being implanted into critical sized osteochondral defects of the rabbit knee femoropatellar groove. Cell-free PGA scaffolds and empty defects served as controls. Construct quality was determined before implantation and defect healing was monitored after 6 and 12 weeks using vitality assays, macroscopical and histological score systems. Neo-cartilage was formed in the PGA constructs seeded with both articular and auricular chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. At the histological level, cartilage repair was slightly improved when using autologous articular chondrocyte seeded constructs compared to empty defects and was significantly superior compared to defects treated with auricular chondrocytes 6 weeks after implantation. Although only the immunohistological differences were significant, auricular chondrocyte implantation induced an inferior healing response compared with the empty defects. Elastic auricular chondrocytes might maintain some tissue-specific characteristics when implanted into joint cartilage defects which limit its repair capacity. PMID:24812031

Lohan, Anke; Marzahn, Ulrike; El Sayed, Karym; Haisch, Andreas; Müller, Riccarda Dolores; Kohl, Benjamin; Stölzel, Katharina; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

2014-09-01

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A Semi-Degradable Composite Scaffold for Articular Cartilage Defects  

OpenAIRE

Few options exist to replace or repair damaged articular cartilage. The optimal solution that has been suggested is a scaffold that can carry load and integrate with surrounding tissues; but such a construct has thus far been elusive. The objectives of this study were to manufacture and characterize a non-degradable hydrated scaffold. Our hypothesis was that the polymer content of the scaffold can be used to control its mechanical properties, while an internal porous network augmented with bi...

Scholten, Paul M.; Ng, Kenneth W.; Joh, Kiwon; Serino, Lorenzo P.; Warren, Russell F.; Torzilli, Peter A.; Maher, Suzanne A.

2011-01-01

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Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I ...

Amir Sotoudeh; Amirali Jahanshahi; Mohammad Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi; Ali Bazazan; Amin Ganjali; Maryam Pourramezani Harati

2013-01-01

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Repair of articular cartilage in rabbit osteochondral defects promoted by extracorporeal shock wave therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the stimulative effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the articular cartilage regeneration in the rabbit osteochondral defect model for the first time. An osteochondral defect, 3 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth, was drilled in the patellar groove at the distal end of each femur in 24 mature New Zealand rabbits. The right patellar defects received 500 impulses of shock waves of (at 14 kV) at 1 week after surgery and were designated as the experimental samples; the left patellar defects served as control. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after ESWT, cartilage repair was evaluated macroscopically and histologically using a semiquantitative grading scale. The total scores of the macroscopic evaluation at 4, 8, and 12 weeks in the experimental group were superior to those in the control group (statistical significance level ). As to the total scores of the histologic evaluation, the experimental group showed a tendency toward a better recovery than the control group at 4 weeks (). At 8 and 12 weeks the differences between the experimental and control groups became mild and had no significance on statistical analysis. These findings suggested that regeneration of articular cartilage defects might be promoted by ESWT, especially at the early stage. The easy and safe ESWT is potentially viable for clinical application.

Chu, C.-H.; Yen, Y.-S.; Chen, P.-L.; Wen, C.-Y.

2015-03-01

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Ongoing studies of cell-based therapies for articular cartilage defects in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Takahiro Ogura,1 Akihiro Tsuchiya,2 Shuichi Mizuno1 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Funabashi Orthopaedic Hospital Sports Medicine Center, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Recently, cell-based therapies have generated great interest in the repair of articular cartilage defects and degeneration. Surgical treatments for these indications have multiple options, including marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft transplant, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. The autologous chondrocyte implantation technique has been improved using a cell scaffold and other devices. Meanwhile, advanced cell-based therapies, including cultured stem cell treatment, have been studied in clinical trials. Most studies have been designed and authorized by institutional review boards and/or the regulatory agencies of the investigators’ countries. For cellular products in regenerative medicine, regulations of many countries are amenable to expedited approval. This paper aims to provide an update on ongoing and prospective cell-based therapies, focusing on articular cartilage injury at designated institutions authorized by the Japanese Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Agency. Keywords: autologous chondrocyte implantation, mesenchymal stem cell, knee joint

Ogura T

2014-12-01

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Study of human acellular amniotic membrane loading bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in repair of articular cartilage defect in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the repair effect of human acellular amniotic membrane (HAAM) loading bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on articular cartilage defect in rabbits. Rabbit BMSCs were isolated and cultured, and they were then inoculated on HAAM to prepare the complex of HAAM and BMSCs. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into groups A and B, with 12 animals in each group. The left and right sides were used as the experimental and control sides, respectively. The models of bilateral articular cartilage defect were established. The defect areas on the experimental side in groups A and B were implanted with the complex of HAAM and BMSCs and HAAM alone, respectively. The control sides of the two groups were not implanted with any material. In the 8th and 12th week after surgery, gross observation, histological examination and cartilage defect scoring were performed. In the 8th and 12th postoperative week, gross observation and histological observation showed that dense cartilage-like cells appeared in group A but not in group B, indicating preferable cartilage repair. The cartilage defect score on the experimental side in group A was 5.31 ± 0.68 in the 8th week and 3.23 ± 0.52 in the 12th week, and that in group A was significantly lower than in group B (P < 0.05). HAAM loading BMSCs has a good repair effect on articular cartilage defect under an in vitro environment. PMID:25299114

Liu, P-F; Guo, L; Zhao, D-W; Zhang, Z-J; Kang, K; Zhu, R-P; Yuan, X-L

2014-01-01

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Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II. Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

Amir Sotoudeh

2013-05-01

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Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New [...] Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

Amir, Sotoudeh; Amirali, Jahanshahi; Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, Takhtfooladi; Ali, Bazazan; Amin, Ganjali; Maryam Pourramezani, Harati.

2013-05-01

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Evaluation of the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects filled with autologous exogenous fibrin clot: An experimental study in the shoulder joint of dogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine whether the optimizing effect of an exogenous fibrin clot in the repair of full–thickness articular cartilage defects is valid when joint motions are restricted, standard osteochondral defects were constituted in the articular surface of the humeral head in 16 adult dogs. The defects in 8 dogs were packed with fibrin clots that had been prepared exogenously from each animal and the defects of the other animals were left empty. The operated limbs were inactivated for 2 weeks postoperatively and the healing response was then examined using routine histology at 2, 4, 8 and 12-week intervals. Although the clot-filled and control (empty defects initially healed through proliferation of fibrous connective tissue; the clot-filled defects finally modulated into fibrocartilage with completed subchondral bone formation. The clot-filled defects demonstrated a more advanced reparative tissue which was congruent with the intact articular surface from 4 weeks after the intervention.

Avki S.

2003-01-01

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[Plasma membrane focal defects in structurally normal cells].  

Science.gov (United States)

The technique of perfusion fixation through the rat kidney vasculature was modified to ensure the highest possible level of cell preservation close to that under in vivo conditions. Electron microscopic analysis of the tissue specimens treated in such a way revealed local defects of the plasma membrane in a number of cells than that otherwise looked normal. These findings together with the evidence for reparability of such defects and some data on the purely artificial nature of certain alterations should be taken into consideration in order to avoid misinterpretations while diagnosing the biopsy specimens. PMID:20131509

Nevorotin, A I; Khokhlov, S E; Borisova, E A; Sipovski?, V G; Chefu, S G

2009-01-01

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Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.)

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ICRS Recommendation Document : Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments for Use in Patients with Articular Cartilage Defects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend patient-reported outcome instruments for use in patients with articular cartilage lesions undergoing cartilage repair interventions. Methods: Nonsystematic literature search identifying measures addressing pain and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic requirements for reliability, validity, and responsiveness in cartilage repair patients. A major difference between them is that the former results in a single score and the latter results in 5 subscores. A single score is preferred for simplicity’s sake, whereas subscores allow for evaluation of separate constructs at all levels according to the International Classification of Functioning. Conclusions: Because there is no obvious superiority of either instrument at this time, both outcome measures are recommended for use in cartilage repair. Rescaling of the Lysholm Scoring Scale has been suggested, and confirmatory longitudinal studies are needed prior to recommending this scale for use in cartilage repair. Inclusion of a generic measure is feasible in cartilage repair studies and allows analysis of health-related quality of life and health economic outcomes. The Marx or Tegner Activity Rating Scales are feasible and have been evaluated in patients with knee injuries. However, activity measures require age and sex adjustment, and data are lacking in people with cartilage repair.

Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella

2011-01-01

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Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy results in healing of full thickness articular cartilage defect  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to determine the efficacy of PEMF (pulsed electromagnetic field) treatment in experimental osteochondral defect healing in a rabbit model. The study was conducted on 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits formed the study group and six rabbits the control group. The right knee joints of all 12 animals were exposed and a 3.5-mm diameter osteochondral defect was created in the trochlear groove. The defect was filled with calcium phosphate scaffold. Six animals from the study...

Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Arumugam, Sabareeswaran; Livingston, Abel; Mohanty, Mira; Chittaranjan, Samuel

2010-01-01

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MR arthrography of the hip: normal intra-articular structures and common disorders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This pictorial review illustrates the anatomical features of normal intra-articular components of the hip and their common disorders on MR arthrography. On T1-weighted MR arthrograms, the normal contrast-filled joint cavity shows a homogeneous high signal intensity. Normal acetabular labrum appears as a well-delineated triangle showing a low signal intensity, surrounded by contrast material in the perilabral recess. Intra-articular paramagnetic contrast outlines labral tears, loose bodies, communicating labral cysts and cartilage lesions (traumatic tears, focal defects, degenerative fissures and thinning), and improves their detection. Overall, MR arthrography enables accurate detection and staging of hip intra-articular structure abnormalities. (orig.)

Ghebontni, L.; Roger, B.; El-khoury, J.; Brasseur, J.L.; Grenier, P.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France)

2000-01-01

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Indium-111 chloride for detecting suspected hepatomas in patients with focal defects on technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-three patients with hepatic cirrhosis and focal defects on Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) scintigrams were restudied with In-111 chloride to determine if indium localization in the focal defect is indicative of a hepatoma. Seven of eight patients with proven hepatomas had positive studies; however, six of 15 patients without hepatomas also had studies interpreted as positive. Thus, In-111 chloride is highly sensitive for the detection of hepatomas, and a negative indium study would militate against this diagnosis. The high false-positive rate found may be due to technical factors rather than a lack of specificity of localization; the experience of others seems to support this impression. At present, In-111 chloride scintigraphy for focal hepatic defects appears to be useful in ruling out hepatoma

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Articular cartilage defect detectability in human knees with MR-arthrography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One hundred and thirteen knee joints were examined, of which 48 showed damage of the hyaline cartilage in one or more locations. For the evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) arthrographic images we used the macroscopic staging according to Outerbridge, the defect staging according to Bauer, as well as a new MR-arthrographic staging. The results of the evaluation were compared with the surgical findings in 61 knee joints. This revealed a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 90 %. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. (orig.)

Engel, A. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kramer, J. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Stiglbauer, R. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Hajek, P.C. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Imhof, H. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

1993-04-01

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Articular cartilage defect detectability in human knees with MR-arthrography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred and thirteen knee joints were examined, of which 48 showed damage of the hyaline cartilage in one or more locations. For the evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) arthrographic images we used the macroscopic staging according to Outerbridge, the defect staging according to Bauer, as well as a new MR-arthrographic staging. The results of the evaluation were compared with the surgical findings in 61 knee joints. This revealed a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 90 %. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. (orig.)

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Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} gene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3}-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3} gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease.

Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu Kai [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Quan Daping [Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2006-12-15

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Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor ?1 gene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-?1 that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-?1 gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA3-TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA3 gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the qualixperimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune responses. The transfected MSCs overexpressed their TGF-?1 gene products for at least 4 weeks in vivo. The control defects were filled with a mixture of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissue. The TGF-?1 gene transfected MSCs/poly-L-lysine coated PLA composite allografts used in this study are effective for articular cartilage repair. This novel TGF-?1 gene enhanced tissue engineering strategy may be of potential benefit to enhancing the repair of damaged articular cartilage, especially such damage caused by degenerative disease

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Treatment of focal degenerative cartilage defects with polymer-based autologous chondrocyte grafts: four-year clinical results  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: Second-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation with scaffolds stabilizing the grafts is a clinically effective procedure for cartilage repair. In this ongoing prospective observational case report study, we evaluated the effectiveness of BioSeed-C, a cell-based cartilage graft based on autologous chondrocytes embedded in fibrin and a stable resorbable polymer scaffold, for the treatment of clinical symptomatic focal degenerative defects of the knee. METHODS: Clinical outc...

Kreuz, P. C.; Mu?ller, S.; Ossendorf, C.; Kaps, C.; Erggelet, C.

2009-01-01

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Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results; Autologe Chondrozytentransplantation zur Behandlung von Knorpeldefekten des Kniegelenks. Techniken und Ergebnisse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.) [German] Zur Behandlung umschriebener Defekte des artikulaeren Kniegelenkgelenkknorpels wird der Einsatz autologer Knorpelzellen zunehmend als neue biologische Methode empfohlen. Die Technik der autologen Chondrozytentransplantation (ACT) und deren Modifikationen als matrixassoziierte autologe Chondrozytentransplantation (MACT) werden dargestellt. Es erfolgt ein Ueberblick ueber die experimentellen und klinischen Ergebnisse mit der Darstellung der haeufigsten Komplikationen und den derzeit gueltigen Indikationsrichtlinien. Unter Verwendung qualitativ hochwertiger Zellen zeigen besonders posttraumatische Knorpeldefekte bei juengeren Patienten eine hohe Erfolgsquote mit der Ausbildung eines hyalinartigen Regeneratgewebes. Die haeufigsten Komplikationen der ACT sind Periosthypertrophie, Delamination des Transplantats, intraartikulaere Adhaesionen und Transplantatversagen. Die derzeit wichtigsten Limitierungen stellen die Osteoarthrose und ein hoeheres Patientenalter dar. Bei richtiger Indikationsstellung und operativer Technik kann die ACT als effiziente und sichere Therapieoption fuer die Behandlung grosser und tiefer Knorpeldefekte des Kniegelenks angesehen werden. (orig.)

Marlovits, S.; Kutscha-Lissberg, F.; Aldrian, S.; Resinger, C.; Singer, P.; Zeller, P.; Vecsei, V. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

2004-08-01

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Treatment of posttraumatic and focal osteoarthritic cartilage defects of the knee with autologous polymer-based three-dimensional chondrocyte grafts: 2-year clinical results  

OpenAIRE

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an effective clinical procedure for the regeneration of articular cartilage defects. BioSeed®-C is a second-generation ACI tissue engineering cartilage graft that is based on autologous chondrocytes embedded in a three-dimensional bioresorbable two-component gel-polymer scaffold. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the short-term to mid-term efficacy of BioSeed-C for the arthrotomic and arthroscopic treatment of posttraumatic and degene...

Ossendorf, Christian; Kaps, Christian; Kreuz, Peter C.; Burmester, Gerd R.; Sittinger, Michael; Erggelet, Christoph

2007-01-01

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Histochemical and functional improvement of adipose-derived stem cell-based tissue-engineered cartilage by hyperbaric oxygen/air treatment in a rabbit articular defect model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cartilage is exposed to compression forces during joint loading. Therefore, exogenous stimuli are frequently used in cartilage tissue engineering strategies to enhance chondrocyte differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. In this study, human adipose-derived stem cells were seeded on a gelatin/polycaprolactone scaffold to evaluate the histochemical and functional improvement of tissue-engineered cartilage after hyperbaric oxygen/air treatment in a rabbit articular defect model. Behavior tests showed beneficial effects on weight-bearing and rear leg-supporting capacities after treatment of tissue-engineered cartilage with 2.5 ATA oxygen or air. Moreover, positron emission tomography images and immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated hydroxyapatite formation and increased ECM synthesis, respectively, at the tissue-engineered cartilage graft site after high pressure oxygen/air treatment. Based on these results, we concluded that hyperbaric oxygen and air treatment can improve the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage in vivo by increasing the synthesis of ECM. PMID:25695443

Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Fan, Gang-Yi; Liou, Nien-Hsien; Wang, Yi-Wen; Fu, Keng-Yen; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Jiang-Chuan; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Huang, Kun-Lun; Dai, Lien-Guo; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo

2015-05-01

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A novel double-network hydrogel induces spontaneous articular cartilage regeneration in vivo in a large osteochondral defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a novel method to induce spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration in vivo for a large osteochondral defect by implanting a plug made from a double-network hydrogel composed of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly(N,N'-dimethylacrylamide) at the bottom of the defect, leaving the cavity vacant. In cells regenerated in the treated defect, type-2 collagen, Aggrican, and SOX9 mRNAs were highly expressed and the regenerated matrix was rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen at 4 weeks. This fact gave a significant modification to the commonly established concept that hyaline cartilage tissue cannot regenerate in vivo. This study prompted an innovative strategy in the field of joint surgery to repair an osteochondral defect using an advanced, high-function hydrogel. PMID:19031389

Yasuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Nobuto; Gong, Jian Ping; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Onodera, Shin; Chen, Yong Mei; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Kanaya, Fuminori; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Osada, Yoshihito

2009-04-01

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Autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects: postoperative MR appearance with clinical correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To describe the MR appearance following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer for the treatment of focal chondral defects of the knee. Design and patients: Twenty-nine 1.5-T MR knee studies including dynamic gadolinium enhancement were performed on 21 patients following autogenous osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed images to evaluate graft and donor site appearance and MR findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: MR images demonstrated graft protuberance (n=12/21; range 1-2 mm), depression (n=2/21; range 1 mm), and surface incongruity: mild (n=17/21), moderate (n=2/21), marked (n=1/21). The T2 signal of graft cartilage was similar to that of adjacent cartilage in 25 of 29 examinations, and increased in four. Graft cartilage thickness relative to adjacent cartilage was <50% in six patients, 50-100% in 15. Graft enhancement in bone was absent at 2 weeks, but present at between 4 and 6 weeks following surgery. All patients had clinical follow-up examinations and knee outcome survey scores were obtained in 15 patients with follow-up greater than 3 months after surgery. All patients demonstrated the expected short-term progressive clinical improvement. Conclusion: MR images reveal a wide range of appearances following osteochondral ''plug'' transfer. Minor variations in graft orientation and surface congruity do not result in adverse clinical outcome in the short term. (orig.)outcome in the short term. (orig.)

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Glenohumeral joint preservation: current options for managing articular cartilage lesions in young, active patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a review of joint-preservation techniques for the shoulder. Whereas the management of diffuse articular cartilage loss in the glenohumeral joints of elderly and less active patients by total shoulder arthroplasty is well accepted, significant controversy persists in selecting and refining successful operative techniques to repair symptomatic glenohumeral cartilage lesions in the shoulders of young, active patients. The principal causes of focal and diffuse articular cartilage damage in the glenohumeral joint, including previous surgery, trauma, acute or recurrent dislocation, osteonecrosis, infection, chondrolysis, osteochondritis dissecans, inflammatory arthritides, rotator cuff arthropathy, and osteoarthritis, are discussed. Focal cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint are often difficult to diagnose and require a refined and focused physical examination as well as carefully selected imaging studies. This review offers a concise guide to surgical decision making and up-to-date summaries of the current techniques available to treat both focal chondral defects and more massive structural osteochondral defects. These techniques include microfracture, osteoarticular transplantation (OATS [Osteochondral Autograft Transfer System]; Arthrex, Naples, FL), autologous chondrocyte implantation, bulk allograft reconstruction, and biologic resurfacing. As new approaches to glenohumeral cartilage repair and shoulder joint preservation evolve, there continues to be a heightened need for collaborative research and well-designed outcomes analysis to facilitate successful patient care. PMID:20434669

Elser, Florian; Braun, Sepp; Dewing, Christopher B; Millett, Peter J

2010-05-01

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Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica / Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of articular chondral defects experimentally induced in horses: clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and histochemical evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a eficácia do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares, experimentalmente induzidas em equinos. Para isso, foi induzida uma lesão condral, na tróclea medial femoral dos dois membros pélvicos de quatro animais. Após 30 dias da indução, as oito articulaçõe [...] s foram divididas em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo 1 receberam o tratamento intralesional e intra-articular com PRP, e os do grupo 2 foram tratados apenas com solução fisiológica. As avaliações clínicas, constituídas de exames de claudicação e análises do líquido sinovial, foram realizadas antes da indução da lesão - tempo zero -, quinzenalmente, até 120 dias e aos 150 dias. Avaliações macroscópicas, histológicas e histoquímicas foram realizadas no tempo zero e aos 150 dias. Os equinos do grupo 1 apresentaram melhora do grau de claudicação em relação aos do grupo 2. Os exames macroscópicos, histológicos e histoquímicos revelaram melhor tecido de reparação igualmente no grupo 1. Concluiu-se que a administração de PRP apresentou efeitos benéficos no tratamento de lesões condrais experimentais de equinos. Abstract in english The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of articular cartilage defects induced experimentally in horses was studied. For this purpose, both patellofemoral joints of four animals were approached through arthroscopic surgery to perform a cartilage defect on the medial femoral trochlea. [...] After 30 days of induction the eight joints were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received intralesional and intra-articular treatment with PRP and Group 2 animals were treated only with saline solution. The clinical assessments, constituted by lameness signs and synovial fluid analysis, were performed before induction of injury (time zero) and every 15 days in 120 days, with last analysis on day 150. The macroscopic and morphologic analysis were performed at 0 and 150 days. During the experiment Group 1 animals showed improvement in lameness when compared to Group 2 animals. The macroscopic and morphological analysis showed a better tissue repair in the treated horses. Thus, the implantation of autologous PRP showed beneficial effects in the treatment of chondral lesions, experimentally induced in horses.

A.L.M., Yamada; A.M., Carvalho; P.G.G., Oliveira; S.L., Felisbino; D.L., Queiroz; M.J., Watanabe; C.A., Hussni; A.L.G., Alves.

2012-04-01

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Detection of focal renal perfusion defects in rabbits after sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection at low transmission power ultrasound insonation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) at low transmission power insonation for diagnosis of focal renal perfusion defects (RPDs) in rabbits. In seven adult New Zealand White rabbits focal RPDs were induced by polyvinyl alcohol embolizing particles (150-250 ?m in diameter) injected into the abdominal aorta. Three other rabbits that were not subjected to embolization were considered as controls. Both kidneys were insonated at baseline and after injection of sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles at low transmission power (mechanical index 0.09-0.12). One sonologist assessed on-site RPD dimensions and conspicuity (visual score 0-4). Digital cine-clips were also reviewed off-site by two other independent readers, blinded, who assigned a confidence level (grades 1-5) for the RPD diagnosis. At on-site analysis RPDs appeared as focal areas of absent or diminished enhancement with a median visual conspicuity score=4. At off-site analysis RPDs >6 mm in diameter were identified at contrast-enhanced US, and the confidence in RPD diagnosis improved significantly (P6 mm in rabbits. (orig.)

35

Detection of focal renal perfusion defects in rabbits after sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection at low transmission power ultrasound insonation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) at low transmission power insonation for diagnosis of focal renal perfusion defects (RPDs) in rabbits. In seven adult New Zealand White rabbits focal RPDs were induced by polyvinyl alcohol embolizing particles (150-250 {mu}m in diameter) injected into the abdominal aorta. Three other rabbits that were not subjected to embolization were considered as controls. Both kidneys were insonated at baseline and after injection of sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles at low transmission power (mechanical index 0.09-0.12). One sonologist assessed on-site RPD dimensions and conspicuity (visual score 0-4). Digital cine-clips were also reviewed off-site by two other independent readers, blinded, who assigned a confidence level (grades 1-5) for the RPD diagnosis. At on-site analysis RPDs appeared as focal areas of absent or diminished enhancement with a median visual conspicuity score=4. At off-site analysis RPDs >6 mm in diameter were identified at contrast-enhanced US, and the confidence in RPD diagnosis improved significantly (P<0.05) after microbubble injection (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.615 vs 0.972 by reader 1; 0.720 vs 0.953 by reader 2). Contrast-enhanced US at low transmission power insonation effectively identified RPDs with diameters >6 mm in rabbits. (orig.)

Quaia, Emilio; Palumbo, Alessandro; Rossi, Stefania; Bruni, Stefano; Cova, Maria [Cattinara Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Siracusano, Salvatore; Ciciliato, Stefano [Cattinara Hospital, Department of Urology, Trieste (Italy); Bussani, Rossana [Cattinara Hospital, Department of Pathology, Trieste (Italy)

2006-01-01

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Imaging of articular cartilage  

OpenAIRE

We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequentl...

Paunipagar, Bhawan K.; Rasalkar, Dd

2014-01-01

37

Biomechanical and histological evaluation of hydrogel implants in articular cartilage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available We evaluated the mechanical behavior of the repaired surfaces of defective articular cartilage in the intercondylar region of the rat femur after a hydrogel graft implant. The results were compared to those for the adjacent normal articular cartilage and for control surfaces where the defects remain [...] ed empty. Hydrogel synthesized by blending poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was implanted in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups with postoperative follow-up periods of 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Indentation tests were performed on the neoformed surfaces in the knee joint (with or without a hydrogel implant) and on adjacent articular cartilage in order to assess the mechanical properties of the newly formed surface. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the mechanical behavior of the neoformed surfaces was significantly different from that of normal cartilage. Histological analysis of the repaired defects showed that the hydrogel implant filled the defect with no signs of inflammation as it was well anchored to the surrounding tissues, resulting in a newly formed articular surface. In the case of empty control defects, osseous tissue grew inside the defects and fibrous tissue formed on the articular surface of the defects. The repaired surface of the hydrogel implant was more compliant than normal articular cartilage throughout the 16 weeks following the operation, whereas the fibrous tissue that formed postoperatively over the empty defect was stiffer than normal articular cartilage after 5 weeks. This stiffness started to decrease 16 weeks after the operation, probably due to tissue degeneration. Thus, from the biomechanical and histological point of view, the hydrogel implant improved the articular surface repair.

S.M., Malmonge; C.A.C., Zavaglia; W.D., Belangero.

2000-03-01

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Clinical outcomes after microfracture treatment of full-thikness articular cartilage lesions of the knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical results after microfracture treatment of the full-thikness articular lesions of the knee. Methods: This study presented clinical outcomes of 51 patients with focal full thikness articular cartilage lesion who were treated with microfracture technique and evaluated according Lysholm-Tegner, Oxford, Womac and KSS scores. According the age we examined of patients younger than 35 years and second group between 36-60 years old. Results: On the basis of follow-up at minimum 18 months, mean improvements in Lysholm-Ttegner scores in younger group (from 38.4-94.1 in older group (from 37.1-87.3, Oxford scores in younger (from 29.5-45.2 and older group (from 25.5-50.5, and Womac score in younger group (from 51.1-94.8 in older (from 50.8-87.8. There was a strong and significant correlation between functional results and age of the patients with full-thikness cartilage lesion less than 2 cm in dijametar. Conclusions: According to our short term results, microfracture technique is effective treatment for the full-thikness cartilage lesions with regard to the improvements of daily activities with a favorable impact on pain relief and better functional results. There was a strong correlation between functional results and age, size of defect location of defect as prognostic parameters.

Mitev Konstantin

2013-01-01

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Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a proof-of-concept clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have a potential for articular cartilage regeneration. However, most studies focused on focal cartilage defect through surgical implantation. For the treatment of generalized cartilage loss in osteoarthritis, an alternative delivery strategy would be more appropriate. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intra-articular injection of autologous adipose tissue derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) for knee osteoarthritis. We enrolled 18 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and injected AD MSCs into the knee. The phase I study consists of three dose-escalation cohorts; the low-dose (1.0 × 10(7) cells), mid-dose (5.0 × 10(7)), and high-dose (1.0 × 10(8)) group with three patients each. The phase II included nine patients receiving the high-dose. The primary outcomes were the safety and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included clinical, radiological, arthroscopic, and histological evaluations. There was no treatment-related adverse event. The WOMAC score improved at 6 months after injection in the high-dose group. The size of cartilage defect decreased while the volume of cartilage increased in the medial femoral and tibial condyles of the high-dose group. Arthroscopy showed that the size of cartilage defect decreased in the medial femoral and medial tibial condyles of the high-dose group. Histology demonstrated thick, hyaline-like cartilage regeneration. These results showed that intra-articular injection of 1.0 × 10(8) AD MSCs into the osteoarthritic knee improved function and pain of the knee joint without causing adverse events, and reduced cartilage defects by regeneration of hyaline-like articular cartilage. PMID:24449146

Jo, Chris Hyunchul; Lee, Young Gil; Shin, Won Hyoung; Kim, Hyang; Chai, Jee Won; Jeong, Eui Cheol; Kim, Ji Eun; Shim, Hackjoon; Shin, Ji Sun; Shin, Il Seob; Ra, Jeong Chan; Oh, Sohee; Yoon, Kang Sup

2014-05-01

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Condrocalcinose articular familiar / Familial articular chondrocalcinosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite i [...] ntermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica. Abstract in english Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical featur [...] es of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

Mittermayer Barreto, Santiago; Liliana, Galrão; Isabella, Lima; Lucas, Prado; Melba, Moura.

2004-08-01

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Articular cartilage biochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains six parts, each consisting of several papers. The part titles are: Cartilage Matrix Components; Biosynthesis and Characterization of Cartilage--Specific Matrix Components and Events; Cartilage Metabolism; In Vitro Studies of Articular Cartilage Metabolism; Normal and Pathologic Metabolism of Cartilage; and Destruction of the Articular Cartilage in Rheumatoid Diseases. Some of the paper topics are: magnetic resonance imaging; joint destruction; age-related changes; proteoglycan structure; and biosynthesis of cartilage proteoglycan.

Kuettner, K.E.; Schleyerbach, R.; Hascall, V.C.

1986-01-01

42

Transitory improvement of articular cartilage characteristics after implantation of polylactide:polyglycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds seeded with autologous mesenchymal stromal cells in a sheep model of critical-sized chondral defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical translation of emerging technologies aiming at cartilage resurfacing is hindered by neither the appropriate scaffold design nor the optimal cell source having been defined. Here, critical-sized, chondral-only focal defects were created in sheep and treated with clinical-grade, co-polymeric poly-lactide:polyglycolic acid scaffolds either alone or seeded with 3.3 × 10(6) ± 0.4 × 10(6) autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and studied over 12 month follow-up. An untreated group was included for comparison. Second-look arthroscopy performed at 4 months post-treatment evidenced the generation of neocartilage of better quality in those defects treated with cells. However, macroscopic scores in the cell-treated group declined significantly from 7.5 ± 2.3 at 4 months to 3.1 ± 2.6 (p = 0.0098) at 12 months post-treatment, whereas the other two experimental groups remained unaltered during 4-12 month post-treatment. The effectiveness of the cell-based approach proposed in this study is thus restricted to between months 1 and 4 post-treatment. PMID:24966043

Caminal, M; Moll, X; Codina, D; Rabanal, R M; Morist, A; Barrachina, J; Garcia, F; Pla, A; Vives, J

2014-10-01

43

Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair – the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach – combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

B Johnstone

2013-05-01

44

Articular cartilage stem cell signalling  

OpenAIRE

The view of articular cartilage as a non-regeneration organ has been challenged in recent years. The articular cartilage consists of distinct zones with different cellular and molecular phenotypes, and the superficial zone has been hypothesized to harbour stem cells. Furthermore, the articular cartilage demonstrates a distinct pattern regarding stem cell markers (that is, Notch-1, Stro-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). These results, in combination with the positive identification of...

Karlsson, Camilla; Lindahl, Anders

2009-01-01

45

First ex vivo study demonstrating that 99mTc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preclinical data pointed to 99mTc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify 99mTc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with 99mTc-NTP 15-5 and 99mTc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 ± 2.35 and 0.76 ± 0.24, respectively, for 99mTc-NTP 15-5 and 99mTc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense 99mTc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas 99mTc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of 99mTc-NTP 15-5. The tracer 99mTc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

46

Otro humanismo por articular  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Partiendo de un contexto de intenso contacto intercultural marcado por la globalización económica, un profundo proceso de urbanización mundial y las amplias migraciones humanas, el presente artículo aboga por des-velar el carácter nacional-etnocéntrico que ha marcado al humanismo clásico, para propo [...] ner articular uno de corte pluralista, que incorpore y esté atento a otros relatos y formas de vida no occidentalocéntricas. El reto parece claro: una época marcada por la incomprensión y el conflicto de interpretaciones exige pensar en formas de comunicarse y solidarizarse entre diversos.

Enrique, Díaz Álvarez.

2011-08-01

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Current concepts for rehabilitation and return to sport after knee articular cartilage repair in the athlete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage injury is observed with increasing frequency in both elite and amateur athletes and results from the significant acute and chronic joint stress associated with impact sports. Left untreated, articular cartilage defects can lead to chronic joint degeneration and athletic and functional disability. Treatment of articular cartilage defects in the athletic population presents a therapeutic challenge due to the high mechanical demands of athletic activity. Several articular cartilage repair techniques have been shown to successfully restore articular cartilage surfaces and allow athletes to return to high-impact sports. Postoperative rehabilitation is a critical component of the treatment process for athletic articular cartilage injury and should take into consideration the biology of the cartilage repair technique, cartilage defect characteristics, and each athlete's sport-specific demands to optimize functional outcome. Systematic, stepwise rehabilitation with criteria-based progression is recommended for an individualized rehabilitation of each athlete not only to achieve initial return to sport at the preinjury level but also to continue sports participation and reduce risk for reinjury or joint degeneration under the high mechanical demands of athletic activity. PMID:22383103

Mithoefer, Kai; Hambly, Karen; Logerstedt, David; Ricci, Margherita; Silvers, Holly; Della Villa, Stefano

2012-03-01

48

Infrared Focal Plane Arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

HgCdTe infrared focal plane array (FPA) operability is usually limited not by dark current defects but by noise defects. Pixels with high 1/ f noise should produce a tail in the root-mean-square (RMS) noise distribution. Integration time normalization reveals that RMS noise tails are, in fact, a result of 1/ f noise. An accurate means of quantifying the magnitude of the RMS noise tail thus provides a useful measure of an FPA's 1/ f noise. The skew of the RMS noise distribution is the simplest measure of an array's 1/ f noise, and is shown to be fairly quantitative when FPA operability exceeds 90%. Models for 1/ f noise from external surfaces and from internal surfaces (dislocations) correctly predict the observed temperature dependence from FPAs with systemic 1/ f noise that affects all pixels and from FPAs with isolated defect 1/ f noise that affects fewer than 1% of the pixels. The RMS noise distribution's skew is shown to increase with increasing dislocation density. The 1/ f noise tail of the RMS noise distribution increases more rapidly with temperature as the dislocation density increases.

Strong, Roger L.; Kinch, Michael A.

2014-08-01

49

First ex vivo study demonstrating that {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preclinical data pointed to {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 {+-} 2.35 and 0.76 {+-} 0.24, respectively, for {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. The tracer {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

Cachin, Florent; Culot, Damien [Jean Perrin Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Boisgard, Stephane [Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Vidal, Aurelien; Auzeloux, Philippe; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth [Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Filaire, Marc [Universite d' Auvergne, Anatomy Laboratory, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, Serge [Cyclopharma Laboratoire, Saint-Beauzire (France)

2011-11-15

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Human telomerase reverse transcriptase and glucose-regulated protein 78 increase the life span of articular chondrocytes and their repair potential  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Like all mammalian cells, normal adult chondrocytes have a limited replicative life span, which decreases with age. To facilitate the therapeutic use of chondrocytes from older donors, a method is needed to prolong their life span. Methods We transfected chondrocytes with hTERT or GRP78 and cultured them in a 3-dimensional atelocollagen honeycomb-shaped scaffold with a membrane seal. Then, we measured the amount of nuclear DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and the expression level of type II collagen as markers of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, respectively, in these cultures. In addition, we allografted this tissue-engineered cartilage into osteochondral defects in old rabbits to assess their repair activity in vivo. Results Our results showed different degrees of differentiation in terms of GAG content between chondrocytes from old and young rabbits. Chondrocytes that were cotransfected with hTERT and GRP78 showed higher cellular proliferation and expression of type II collagen than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of the age of the cartilage donor. In addition, the in vitro growth rates of hTERT- or GRP78-transfected chondrocytes were higher than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of donor age. In vivo, the tissue-engineered cartilage implants exhibited strong repairing activity, maintained a chondrocyte-specific phenotype, and produced extracellular matrix components. Conclusions Focal gene delivery to aged articular chondrocytes exhibited strong repairing activity and may be therapeutically useful for articular cartilage regeneration.

Sato Masato

2012-04-01

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Articular cartilage friction increases in hip joints after the removal of acetabular labrum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acetabular labrum is believed to have a sealing function. However, a torn labrum may not effectively prevent joint fluid from escaping a compressed joint, resulting in impaired lubrication. We aimed to understand the role of the acetabular labrum in maintaining a low friction environment in the hip joint. We did this by measuring the resistance to rotation (RTR) of the hip, which reflects the friction of the articular cartilage surface, following focal and complete labrectomy. Five cadaveric hips without evidence of osteoarthritis and impingement were tested. We measured resistance to rotation of the hip joint during 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 times body weight (BW) cyclic loading in the intact hip, and after focal and complete labrectomy. Resistance to rotation, which reflects articular cartilage friction in an intact hip was significantly increased following focal labrectomy at 1-3 BW loading, and following complete labrectomy at all load levels. The acetabular labrum appears to maintain a low friction environment, possibly by sealing the joint from fluid exudation. Even focal labrectomy may result in increased joint friction, a condition that may be detrimental to articular cartilage and lead to osteoarthritis. PMID:22176711

Song, Yongnam; Ito, Hiroshi; Kourtis, Lampros; Safran, Marc R; Carter, Dennis R; Giori, Nicholas J

2012-02-01

52

Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site  

OpenAIRE

Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site tha...

Doube, M.; Ec, Firth; Boyde, A.; Aj, Bushby

2010-01-01

53

Syndrome of focal shadow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Syndrome of focal shadow includes the focal shadows (up to 1 cm in size) solitary, multiple, located at limited space (up to two intercosts). Intrasyndrome differential diagnosis of focal shadow taking account of localization, form, structure and contours of shadows and surrounding tissues is presented. Clinical manifestations of syndrome and methods of its investigation are described

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Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization  

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Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT; os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC. A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina.The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG, defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG, defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

L.S. Iamaguti

2013-02-01

55

Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica / Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC) como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelare [...] s. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT); os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC). A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina. Abstract in english The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM) as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorder [...] s were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear sulcus of both limbs. CBM were applied in the lesion base and surface of all limbs. In the treated group (TG), defects of the right limb were filled with cultivated homologous chondrocytes, and in control group (CG), defects of the left limb were left without cellular implant. Postoperative follow up was done by histomorphometry and Collagen type II and anti-chondroitin sulfate immunohistochemistry. The homologous chondrocytes culture showed high density and viability rate. Upon immunohistochemistry the predominance of type II collagen in extracellular matrix of TG was verified. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between the groups upon histomorphometry analysis of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous tissues. Canine homologous chondrocytes culture was practicable. Neoformed tissue showed slightly higher quality in TG, but without promoting repair by the hyaline cartilage.

L.S., Iamaguti; C.V.S., Brandão; L.S.L.S., Mota; J.J.T., Ranzani; L.M., Ribeiro; V.J.V., Rossetto; C.R., Padovani; S.L., Felisbino.

2013-02-01

56

Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage  

OpenAIRE

Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints...

Mcnary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Reddi, A. Hari

2012-01-01

57

Thickness of patellofemoral articular cartilage as measured on MR imaging: sequence comparison of accuracy, reproducibility, and interobserver variation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision, and reliability of magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of articular cartilage. Fifteen cadaveric patellas were imaged in the axial plane at 1.5 T. Gradient echo and fat-suppressed FSE, T2-weighted, proton density, and T1-weighted sequences were performed. We measured each 5-mm section separately at three standardized positions, giving a total of 900 measurements. These findings were correlated with independently performed measurements of the corresponding anatomic sections. A hundred random measurements were also evaluated for reproducibility and interobserver variation. Although all sequences were highly accurate, the T1-weighted images were the most accurate, with a mean difference of 0.25 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.85. All sequences were also highly reproducible with little inter-observer variation. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of the MR measurements further, we retrospectively evaluated all measurements with discrepancies greater than 1 mm from the specimen. All these differences were attributable to focal defects causing exaggeration of the thickness on MR imaging. (orig.)

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Orthopaedic trauma mythbusters: intra-articular fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intra-articular fractures of the tibial plateau, pilon, and calcaneus often present a challenge for the treating orthopaedic surgeon. These injuries can have substantial comminution in the joint and the metaphyseal areas and are often accompanied by considerable soft-tissue trauma. In recent years, several questionable beliefs concerning these fractures have emerged and are best considered as myths. These myths include the beliefs that most patients with intra-articular fractures will have poor outcomes even with good surgical treatment, severe intra-articular fractures require a later reconstructive procedure regardless of the treatment, and the surgical treatment of comminuted intra-articular fractures has a high complication rate and may result in infection and limit the available options for limb salvage. A review of the literature regarding the treatment of common intra-articular fractures is helpful in determining if these myths concerning treatment options can be confirmed or disproved. PMID:23395012

Ostrum, Robert F

2013-01-01

59

FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENCE OF SPINOUS PROCESS, LAMINAE AND INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES. – CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available Background: The vertebral disorders are the ones which lead to disability and lot of health problems. Since the lumbar part of the vertebral column is the main weight bearing and weight transmitting region, if there is a defective development, the area for muscle attachment and the strong bony structure for the transmission of weight would be missing leading to instability at an early age. In the present case dry and processed fifth lumbar vertebra, of unknown sex which presented the features with absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes on both sides which were obtained for teaching the medical undergraduate students in M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore. There was absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes of fifth lumbar vertebra leading to a wide spina bifida with absence of laminae, inferior articular processes on both sides and spinous process of fifth lumbar vertebra which could be a developmental anomaly.

Prathap Kumar

2013-09-01

60

Alterations in periarticular bone and cross talk between subchondral bone and articular cartilage in osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The articular cartilage and the subchondral bone form a biocomposite that is uniquely adapted to the transfer of loads across the diarthrodial joint. During the evolution of the osteoarthritic process biomechanical and biological processes result in alterations in the composition, structure and functional properties of these tissues. Given the intimate contact between the cartilage and bone, alterations of either tissue will modulate the properties and function of the other joint component. The changes in periarticular bone tend to occur very early in the development of OA. Although chondrocytes also have the capacity to modulate their functional state in response to loading, the capacity of these cells to repair and modify their surrounding extracellular matrix is relatively limited in comparison to the adjacent subchondral bone. This differential adaptive capacity likely underlies the more rapid appearance of detectable skeletal changes in OA in comparison to the articular cartilage. The OA changes in periarticular bone include increases in subchondral cortical bone thickness, gradual decreases in subchondral trabeular bone mass, formation of marginal joint osteophytes, development of bone cysts and advancement of the zone of calcified cartilage between the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The expansion of the zone of calcified cartilage contributes to overall thinning of the articular cartilage. The mechanisms involved in this process include the release of soluble mediators from chondrocytes in the deep zones of the articular cartilage and/or the influences of microcracks that have initiated focal remodeling in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in an attempt to repair the microdamage. There is the need for further studies to define the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the interaction between subchondral bone and articular cartilage and for applying this information to the development of therapeutic interventions to improve the outcomes in patients with OA. PMID:22859924

Goldring, Steven R

2012-08-01

61

Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone  

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Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration.Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected.Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

A Boyde

2011-05-01

62

MRI of articular cartilaginous lesions. MRI findings in osteoarthritis of the knee joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for imaging of the knee joint, especially for detecting articular cartilaginous lesions associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A total of 141 patients with osteoarthritis were examined (23 males, 118 females). Their age range was 40-93 (mean age 66.2). Using radiotherapy examinations, patients were classified according to Hokkaido University Classification Criteria; 22, 49, 46, 16, and 8 patients were classified as Type I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Articular cartilage defects were examined using MRI, and the number of such defects increased as the X-ray stage progressed. The appearance of a low signal intensity area in the bone marrow was examined using MRI, and the number of patients observed to have such areas increased as the x-ray stages progressed. JOA OA scores were significantly low for patients with meniscal tears. Patients were classified and results reviewed using MRI examinations. Classification by MRI of articular cartilage lesions correlated with the JOA OA scores. Low signal intensity areas in the bone marrow were frequently observed in advanced osteoarthritis cases, and there was correlation between FTA and MRI classifications of these areas. MRI is extremely valuable in detecting articular cartilage lesions in the knee joint, showing those lesions which cannot be detected by conventional radiography examinations. Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically us Thus, MRI is judged to be a clinically useful method for diagnosis of osteoarthritis. (author)

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Focal vibration in neurorehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade, many studies have been carried out to understand the effects of focal vibratory stimuli at various levels of the central nervous system and to study pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological disorders as well as the therapeutic effects of focal vibration in neurorehabilitation. This review aimed to describe the effects of focal vibratory stimuli in neurorehabilitation including the neurological diseases or disorders like stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's' disease and dystonia. In conclusion, focal vibration stimulation is well tolerated, effective and easy to use, and it could be used to reduce spasticity, to promote motor activity and motor learning within a functional activity, even in gait training, independent from etiology of neurological pathology. Further studies are needed in the future well-designed trials with bigger sample size to determine the most effective frequency, amplitude and duration of vibration application in the neurorehabilitation. PMID:24842220

Murillo, N; Valls-Sole, J; Vidal, J; Opisso, E; Medina, J; Kumru, H

2014-04-01

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BMP Receptor Signaling Is Required for Postnatal Maintenance of Articular Cartilage  

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Full Text Available Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression specifically in this tissue have not been available. Here we use regulatory information from the mouse Gdf5 gene (a bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] family member to develop new mouse lines that can be used to either activate or inactivate genes specifically in developing joints. Expression of Cre recombinase from Gdf5 bacterial artificial chromosome clones leads to specific activation or inactivation of floxed target genes in developing joints, including early joint interzones, adult articular cartilage, and the joint capsule. We have used this system to test the role of BMP receptor signaling in joint development. Mice with null mutations in Bmpr1a are known to die early in embryogenesis with multiple defects. However, combining a floxed Bmpr1a allele with the Gdf5-Cre driver bypasses this embryonic lethality, and leads to birth and postnatal development of mice missing the Bmpr1a gene in articular regions. Most joints in the body form normally in the absence of Bmpr1a receptor function. However, articular cartilage within the joints gradually wears away in receptor-deficient mice after birth in a process resembling human osteoarthritis. Gdf5-Cre mice provide a general system that can be used to test the role of genes in articular regions. BMP receptor signaling is required not only for early development and creation of multiple tissues, but also for ongoing maintenance of articular cartilage after birth. Genetic variation in the strength of BMP receptor signaling may be an important risk factor in human osteoarthritis, and treatments that mimic or augment BMP receptor signaling should be investigated as a possible therapeutic strategy for maintaining the health of joint linings.

Rountree Ryan B

2004-01-01

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Focal surfaces of discrete geometry  

OpenAIRE

The differential geometry of smooth three-dimensional surfaces can be interpreted from one of two perspectives: in terms of oriented frames located on the surface, or in terms of a pair of associated focal surfaces. These focal surfaces are swept by the loci of the principal curvatures' radii. In this article, we develop a focal-surface-based differential geometry interpretation for discrete mesh surfaces. Focal surfaces have many useful properties. For instance, the normal of each focal surf...

Mcmillan, Leonard; Yu, Jingyi; Yin, Xiaotian; Gu, Xianfeng; Gortler, Steven

2007-01-01

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Joint surface defects: clinical course and cellular response in spontaneous and experimental lesions  

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Full Text Available Joint surface defects (JSD involving the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone are a common clinical problem in rheumatology and orthopaedics. The recent availability of accurate imaging for diagnosis and efficacious therapeutic options has stirred new interest in their natural history and biology. The evidence that some of these lesions can heal spontaneously whereas others precipitate osteoarthritis has raised important questions as to which lesions should be treated, when, and how. Evidence of repair of some of these lesions has also stimulated research into which factors contribute to successful healing and which ones determine chronic evolution and development of osteoarthritis (OA. Older anatomical observations, together with novel molecular tools and experimental models, have revealed a complex cellular and molecular response of cartilage to focal defects, which could explain differences in healing responses between individuals, and may provide clues to stimulating intrinsic tissue repair. In the first part of this review we will discuss clinical aspects of these lesions in the patient, with particular emphasis on their biology and natural history. In the second part we will summarize the data coming from in vitro and in vivo models of cartilage injury and regeneration, focussing on the molecular control of cartilage homeostasis after creation of cartilage surface defects.

F Dell’accio

2010-09-01

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SNAP focal plane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

2002-07-29

68

Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos / Microbiological and molecular evaluation of articulares and peri-articulares fluids of pigs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%), creche (44,35%) e crescimento/terminação (25,22%) de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs) para avaliação microbiológica [...] e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5%) amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%), Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13%) e Escherichia coli (12,68%) os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%). Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45%) e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%). Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69%) de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação. Abstract in english In this study, 115 samples of articular and peri-articular liquid from swine with clinical suspected disease were collected from farrow (30.43%), nursery (44.35%) and growing-finishing (25.22%) phases of Intensive Pig Production Systems (IPPSs) for microbiological and molecular evaluation. A total o [...] f 57 (49.5%) samples was positive for at least one test. In bacterial isolation, 39.13% were positive, with highest frequency of Streptococcus spp. (19.72%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (18.13%) and Escherichia coli (12.68%), and in some cases the fungus Candida sp. (2.6%). In the polymerase chain reaction test, 20% of the samples were positive mostly for Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34.09%), Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20.45%) and Haemophilus parasuis (15.90%). Almost all microorganisms were distributed over every growth phase, with a higher percentage of cases in the growing-finishing phase (69%). Streptococcus spp. were the principal microorganisms detected and were frequent in all phases. M. hyosinoviae was predomiant in the nursery phase. In the growing-finishing phase, A. pyogenes, H. parasuis and E. tonsilarum were predominant. About half of the cases were negative, what probably indicates degenerative processes like osteochondrosis; however articular and peri-articular infections still represent great economic losses with more or less impact depending on the growing phase of the pigs. Articular and peri-articular infectious problems were found in all herds analyzed. M. hyosinoviae mainly in nursery phase, however associated with degenerative processes, could not be excluded.

Ana Carolina S., Faria; João X. de, Oliveira Filho; Daphine A.J. de, Paula; Laila Natasha S., Brandão; Danny Franciele S., Dias; Luciano, Nakazato; Valéria, Dutra.

2011-08-01

69

Progress in intra-articular therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diarthrodial joints are well suited to intra-articular injection, and the local delivery of therapeutics in this fashion brings several potential advantages to the treatment of a wide range of arthropathies. Possible benefits over systemic delivery include increased bioavailability, reduced systemic exposure, fewer adverse events, and lower total drug costs. Nevertheless, intra-articular therapy is challenging because of the rapid egress of injected materials from the joint space; this elimination is true of both small molecules, which exit via synovial capillaries, and of macromolecules, which are cleared by the lymphatic system. In general, soluble materials have an intra-articular dwell time measured only in hours. Corticosteroids and hyaluronate preparations constitute the mainstay of FDA-approved intra-articular therapeutics. Recombinant proteins, autologous blood products and analgesics have also found clinical use via intra-articular delivery. Several alternative approaches, such as local delivery of cell and gene therapy, as well as the use of microparticles, liposomes, and modified drugs, are in various stages of preclinical development. PMID:24189839

Evans, Christopher H; Kraus, Virginia B; Setton, Lori A

2014-01-01

70

Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of {sup 35}S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate.

Leipold, H.R.

1989-01-01

71

Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of f with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of 35S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate

72

Articular cartilage lesions of the knee. MRI of tibial condylar fractures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lesions of the articular cartilage are rarely observed in convensional radiography and CT, and may be one of the most important prognostic factors in assessing traumatic or degenerative disorders at the knee joints. To discuss the usefulness of MRI for detecting cartilage lesions, knees with tibial condylar fractures were examined with MRI. 47 patients with tibial condylar fractures were reviewed 4 months to 15 years (average of 4 years) after the fractures. Good to excellent results were obtained in 91.5% of them. It is known that anatomical reduction of conventional radiography is not consistent with the clinical outcome, because radiography can show the changes of bones only. However, the results of MRI examinations are consistent with the clinical outcome, because they can directly show the state of the articular surface, such as defects of cartilage in the joint. In my study, no abnormality of well repaired joint surfaces employing MRI were observed in the patients with excellent or good results, and various degrees of cartilage lesions were detected using MRI in the other patients. MRI is a useful method for noninvasively determining the integrity of articular cartilage, detecting cartilage lesions and degenerative disorders of tibial condyle, and also may be useful in studying and following the natural aging process in osteoarthritis following intra-articular fractures. (author) 52 refs.

Nozaki, Hiroyuki [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

1995-01-01

73

Articular cartilage lesions of the knee. MRI of tibial condylar fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lesions of the articular cartilage are rarely observed in convensional radiography and CT, and may be one of the most important prognostic factors in assessing traumatic or degenerative disorders at the knee joints. To discuss the usefulness of MRI for detecting cartilage lesions, knees with tibial condylar fractures were examined with MRI. 47 patients with tibial condylar fractures were reviewed 4 months to 15 years (average of 4 years) after the fractures. Good to excellent results were obtained in 91.5% of them. It is known that anatomical reduction of conventional radiography is not consistent with the clinical outcome, because radiography can show the changes of bones only. However, the results of MRI examinations are consistent with the clinical outcome, because they can directly show the state of the articular surface, such as defects of cartilage in the joint. In my study, no abnormality of well repaired joint surfaces employing MRI were observed in the patients with excellent or good results, and various degrees of cartilage lesions were detected using MRI in the other patients. MRI is a useful method for noninvasively determining the integrity of articular cartilage, detecting cartilage lesions and degenerative disorders of tibial condyle, and also may be useful in studying and following the natural aging process in osteoarthritis following intra-articular fractures. (author) 52 refs

74

Focal nodular hyperplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign liver tumor after hemangioma and occurs predominantly in young women. Imaging techniques are crucial in the diagnosis of this lesion. In this article, we will present the imaging findings of the classic and non-classic FNHs. The role of percutaneous biopsy will also be detailed

75

Reversible focal splenial lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

Gallucci, Massimo; Limbucci, Nicola [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, S. Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy); Paonessa, Amalia [Loreto Nuovo Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Napoli (Italy); Caranci, Ferdinando [Federico II University, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

2007-07-15

76

Reversible focal splenial lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypoal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

77

Intra-articular Osteochondroma: A case Report.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteochondromas usually arise from the metaphyseal region of the growing skeleton. They usually develop in relation to the periosteum, and occur around the growth plate of long bones, especially the knee. The tumor usually stops to grow with closure of the growth plate. Extraskeletal cartilaginous tumors are uncommon. These tumors can arise at unusual anatomic site. Intra-articular osteochondromas are rare in older individuals. In joints with a large capsular space, such as the patellofemoral joint, osteochondromas can remain intra-articular [3]. Clinical-pathologic and radiological correlation helps to clarify the nature of the lesion. Complete local surgical excision is the management of choice. We report a patient with an intra-articular osteochondroma in the anterior portion of the knee joint. The tumor caused pain and swelling in the joint and affected knee motion.

Lt. Col.Sunil Sanga

2013-01-01

78

Acute focal bacterial nephritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acute focal bacterial nephritis is a very rate type of infective nephritis. It is characterised by groups of abscesses of 1 to 5 mm, situated in the renal cortex with pus tracking to the papillae. Urography is normal or suggests a non-specific enlargement. On sonography, non-homogeneous foci with reduced echogenicity are observed. Unenhanced CT shows indefinite lesions of reduced density, which do not enhance as much as the surrounding parenchyma after contrast injection. On angiography these areas appear as hypovascular lesions. The disease must be differentiated from a malignant renal tumour and from an acute renal abscess. The clinical findings and the results of sonographic and radiological observations on five patients with acute focal bacterial nephritis are described. (orig.)

79

[National IHR Focal Point].  

Science.gov (United States)

Changing world and occurrence of new emerging disease and pathogens produce a great need of not only of a good laboratory and surveillance capacity but also good ways and channels of international communication. International Health Regulations (2005) oblige both WHO and state-parties to create a new elements in their surveillance and respond structures. To maintain a good communication in urgent situations WHO was oblige to designate a 6 WHO IHR Contacts Points in their Regional Offices and each country--IHR state-party had to designate or nominate National IHR Focal Point. This article describe functions and obligations of National IHR Focal Point with especially functionality of IHR NFP in Poland. PMID:19522243

Kicman-Gaw?owska, Agnieszka

2009-01-01

80

SNAP Focal Plane  

OpenAIRE

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation -- visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders -- share one commo...

Lampton, M.; Bebek, C. J.; Collaboration, For The Snap

2002-01-01

81

Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1404-1413, 2015. PMID:25044835

Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

2015-04-01

82

A model for studying human articular cartilage integration in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major obstacles hindering cartilage repair is the integration of the reparative cartilage with the recipient cartilage. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro model that can be conveniently applied to simulate and improve the integration of tissue engineered cartilage with native articular cartilage. This model, a cartilage integration construct, consists of a cartilage explant and isolated chondrocytes. The explant was anchored to agarose gel on a culture plate as agarose gelation at 4 degrees C to seal the gap between the bottom of the explant and culture plate surface. Isolated chondrocytes were added and confined in the defect created in the center of the explant. After 4 weeks of culture, neocartilage containing proteoglycans and type II collagen was formed. Minimal integration occurred between the neocartilage and the cartilage explant, resembling the failure of cartilage integration manifested in experimental and clinical cartilage repair. In this model, agarose gel anchors the explant onto culture plate by altering temperatures and effectively prevents "leakage" of the isolated chondrocytes from the defect of the explant. This model provides a convenient simulation of the cartilage integration process in vitro and has applications in studies of cartilage integration and cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:20186769

Enders, J Tyler; Otto, Thomas J; Peters, H Charlie; Wu, Jin; Hardouin, Scott; Moed, Berton R; Zhang, Zijun

2010-08-01

83

Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia syndromes. Here we review what is known of the collagen assembly and present new evidence that collagen type III becomes covalently added to the polymeric fabric of adult human articular cartilage, perhaps as part of a matrix repair or remodelling process.

D R Eyre

2006-11-01

84

Temperature effects in articular cartilage biomechanics  

OpenAIRE

Articular cartilage is the soft tissue that covers contacting surfaces of bones in synovial joints. Cartilage is composed of chondrocytes and an extracellular matrix containing numerous biopolymers, cations and water. Healthy cartilage functions biomechanically to provide smooth and stable joint movement. Degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis involve cartilage deterioration, resulting in painful and cumbersome joint motion. Temperature is a fundamental quantity in mechanics, yet ...

June, Ronald K.; Fyhrie, David P.

2010-01-01

85

Articular synovial chondromatosis of the finger.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of synovial chondromatosis of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the right ring finger, which was resected through both dorsal and volar incisions. To our knowledge there have been only 17 reported cases of articular synovial chondromatosis of the digital joint so far. We present a case affecting the metacarpophalangeal joint with a review of scattered information found in other 17 reports. PMID:23596991

Sano, Kazufumi; Hashimoto, Tomohisa; Kimura, Kazumasa; Ozeki, Satoru

2014-10-01

86

Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage  

OpenAIRE

Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO), a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O...

Fermor, B.; Christensen, S. E.; Youn, I.; Cernanec, J. M.; Davies, C. M.; Weinberg, J. B.

2007-01-01

87

Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts  

OpenAIRE

Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported fo...

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

2013-01-01

88

Focal Myositis of Unilateral Leg  

OpenAIRE

Focal myositis is a rare, benign inflammatory pseudotumor of the skeletal muscle of unknown etiology. In Korea, there is no case report of focal myositis, which is not combined with connective tissue disease. We present an unusual case of focal myositis with ankle contracture, involving more than two muscles. A 26-year-old man visited our clinic complaining of right ankle contracture and leg muscle pain. Physical examination revealed no muscle weakness or any other neurological abnormality. T...

Jun, Jin; Im, Sun; Park, Joo Hyun; Yoo, Soon Hei; Park, Geun-young

2011-01-01

89

Polarized IR microscopic imaging of articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this spectroscopic imaging study is to understand the anisotropic behavior of articular cartilage under polarized infrared radiation at 6.25 ?m pixel resolution. Paraffin embedded canine humeral cartilage-bone blocks were used to obtain 6 ?m thick tissue sections. Two wire grid polarizers were used to manipulate the polarization states of IR radiation by setting them for various polarizer/analyzer angles. The characteristics of the major chemical components (amide I, amide II, amide III and sugar) of articular cartilage were investigated using (a) a polarizer and (b) a combination of a polarizer and an analyzer. These results were compared to those obtained using only an analyzer. The infrared anisotropy (variation in infrared absorption as a function of polarization angles) of amide I, amide II and amide III bands correlates with the orientation of collagen fibrils along the tissue depth in different histological zones. An 'anisotropic flipping' region of amide profiles indicates the possibility of using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to determine the histological zones in cartilage. Cross-polarization experiment indicates the resolution of overlapping peaks of collagen triple helix and/or proteoglycan in articular cartilage

90

Systemic focal epileptogenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

1986-01-01

91

Topographical variation in glycosaminoglycan content in human articular cartilage.  

OpenAIRE

The weight-bearing status of articular cartilage has been shown to affect its biochemical composition. We have investigated the topographical variation of sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) relative to the DNA content of the chondrocyte in human distal femoral articular cartilage. Paired specimens of distal femoral articular cartilage, from weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing regions, were obtained from 13 patients undergoing above-knee amputation. After papain enzyme digestion, spectrophoto...

Rogers, Ba; Murphy, Cl; Cannon, Sr; Briggs, Tw

2006-01-01

92

Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts  

CERN Document Server

Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75 to +75 degrees, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalog. In the new forecasts we've improved the spatial resolution to 0.1 degree and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each grid point. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method ...

Kagan, Yan Y

2013-01-01

93

Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ? Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ? High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred ?m) of nanofibrous scaffolds ? Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ? Differentiation not significantly affected ? Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

94

Outcomes following Microfracture of Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Lesions of the Knee in Adolescent Patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to document outcomes following microfracture for full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee in adolescents. Our hypothesis was that patients aged 18 years or less would have excellent outcomes and function following microfracture of full-thickness knee articular cartilage defects. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Patients?knee articular cartilage defects treated with microfracture between January 1992 and June 2008 were identified. Surgical, demographic data, Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction were collected prospectively. A total of 26 patients (14 females, 12 males) met inclusion criteria. Average age was 16.6 years (range: 12-18.9 years). Ninety-six percent of lesions were patellar (37%) or femoral condyle defects (medial 26%, lateral 33%). Minimum 2-year follow-up was obtained in 22/26 patients (85%) with average follow-up of 5.8 years (range: 2.0-13.3 years). Average postoperative Lysholm score was 90 (range: 50-100). Median Tegner scale was 6 (range: 2-10). Median patient satisfaction with outcome was 10 (range: 1-10). Lysholm correlated with Tegner scale (rho?=?0.586; p?=?0.011) and patient satisfaction (rho?=?0.70; p?=?0.001). Average postoperative Lysholm score in males was 93 and 86 in females (p?=?0.22). One patient underwent revision microfracture. This study showed that adolescent patients who underwent microfracture for treatment of full-thickness knee chondral defects demonstrated increased activity levels and excellent function following surgery. PMID:24764229

Steadman, J Richard; Briggs, Karen K; Matheny, Lauren M; Guillet, Alyson; Hanson, Chad M; Willimon, S Clifton

2015-04-01

95

Local effects of intra-articular corticosteroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) is a very popular procedure. In this review, we wanted to review all that had been published about local effects of IACIs. English literature search was made through PubMed using the terms intra-articular and local effect. Effects on subjective, functional, structural, cellular, humoral, molecular, and imaging aspects were included. Also, all local adverse effects were documented. The main beneficial effect of IACI is pain relief. The duration of this effect is variable and depends on underlying disease, type of disease, amount of structural damage, type of IACI, dose of IACI, presence of joint effusion, level of inflammatory mediators, emptiness of joint effusion, availability of imaging, and others. At large, inflammatory problems had higher rate of favorable response in terms of pain and function. IACI at the knee joint in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients resulted in remission for >6 months in >80% of the patients with a mean duration of approximately 1.2 years, while in the osteoarthritic knee there was a pain relief for 3 weeks only and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) knee for 8 weeks. There was no joint space loss at the knee joint following multiple IACI in osteoarthritis and also no increase in cartilage or bone erosions in RA following a single IACI. IACI guide imaging is important in achieving better results in particular joints. Joint infection rate is very low. Other adverse effects included intra-articular and periarticular calcifications, cutaneous atrophy, cutaneous depigmentation, avascular necrosis, rapid destruction of the femoral head, acute synovitis, Charcot's arthropathy, tendinopathy, Nicolau's syndrome, and joint dislocation. IACI is associated with a wide range of local effects. Subjective and functional favorable response is prominent mainly in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients. Adverse effects are either rare or insignificant. PMID:20101428

Habib, George S; Saliba, Walid; Nashashibi, Munir

2010-04-01

96

Phosphorylation of proteoglycans from human articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have shown that sulfated proteoglycans from human articular and epiphyseal cartilage were phosphorylated. These macromolecules contribute to the stiffness and resiliency of this tissue. We demonstrate here that the phosphate moieties are an integral part of proteoglycan subunits. Specifically, evidence is presented which indicates that proteoglycan monomers contain 3 to 4 phosphate moieties per core protein and that these appear to exist as phosphoserine residues. Furthermore, the data illustrate that human articular cartilage also contains more than 20 different phosphoproteins, some of which are closely associated with proteoglycan aggregates. Proteoglycan subunits were purified from extracts of articular cartilage or from media fractions which had been used to label tissue specimens with 32P-orthophosphate. Chemical and radiographic analyses revealed that the phosphate concentration with respect to sulfate and uronic acid content remained constant when purified proteoglycan monomers were subjected to equilibrium ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography. That the phosphate moieties were bound to proteoglycan monomers via monoester linkages was indicated by the release of 32P-orthophosphate from proteoglycan subunits incubated under mild alkaline conditions or reacted with acid or alkaline phosphatases. Identification of serine residues in the core protein as the sites of phosphorylation was made by autoradiography of thin layer plates o by autoradiography of thin layer plates on which hydrolyzed samples of purified 32P-proteoglycan subunits had been subjected to 2-dimensional electrophoresis/chromatography. Quantification of 3 to 4 phosphate moieties per core protein of 200,000 daltons was made by chemical analysis of inorganic phosphate released from proteoglycans by acid hydrolysis

97

Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries  

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Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

Yuan-cheng LI

2013-05-01

98

Viral articular deformations in a goat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A goat belonging to an animal aid association was presented for bilateral deformation of the tarsus and carpus and signs of high-grade pain. ELISA serology was positive for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus. Radiography revealed marked osseous remodelling of the tarsus. The blood fibrinogen concentration was very elevated. On infected commercial farms, it is recommended that both seropositive animals and their offspring are culled when the level of infected is low, or to separate the kids from the mothers at an early age. In this case, palliative treatment was prescribed based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and articular puncture-lavages

99

Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE) and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E) at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle. PMID:20524176

Doube, M; Firth, E C; Boyde, A; Bushby, A J

2010-01-01

100

Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3 is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

M Doube

2010-06-01

101

Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis. PMID:25698236

Ateshian, Gerard A; Henak, Corinne R; Weiss, Jeffrey A

2015-03-18

102

MRI demonstrates the extension of juxta-articular venous malformation of the knee and correlates with joint changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Juxta-articular venous malformations (VMs) are uncommon, but may cause early arthropathy of the knee in children and adolescents. We sought to describe the prevalence, extent and initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee arthropathy in children with VM adjacent to the knee joint. Thirty-five patients with VM adjacent to the knee who had MRI performed between 2000 and 2009 were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system. VM extended to the joint in 17 of the 35 patients (5.4-21.5 years, mean 11.8 years). Most of these 17 patients had joint changes (15/17, 88%), most commonly haemosiderin deposition (14/17, 82%). Other findings included the presence of subchondral bone lesions (eight, 47%), cartilage loss (six, 35%), synovial thickening (six, 35%), marrow oedema (six, 35%), joint effusion (five, 29%), subchondral cysts (five, 29%) and one loose body (6%). VM location and size did not correlate with the degree of articular involvement. Joint changes were present in focal as well as non-discrete VM. We found that the frequency of arthropathy increased with extension of VM into the joint itself. This finding stresses the importance of early MRI evaluation of all juxta-articular VM. (orig.)

103

Case report 502: Intra-articular synovial chrondromatosis of shoulder with extra-articular extension  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 41-year-old man presented with an axillary mass of soft tissue attenuation on CT examination and lack of neovascularity on angiography. Imaging with magnetic resonance was the most helpful modality in defining the intra-articular origin and nature several masses because of their distinctive distribution and striking signal characteristics. These features suggested the correct preoperative diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis, which had not even been considered in the clinical differential diagnosis. (orig./GDG)

104

Case report 502: Intra-articular synovial chrondromatosis of shoulder with extra-articular extension  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 41-year-old man presented with an axillary mass of soft tissue attenuation on CT examination and lack of neovascularity on angiography. Imaging with magnetic resonance was the most helpful modality in defining the intra-articular origin and nature several masses because of their distinctive distribution and striking signal characteristics. These features suggested the correct preoperative diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis, which had not even been considered in the clinical differential diagnosis. (orig./GDG).

Burnstein, M.I.; Fisher, D.R.; Yandow, D.R.; De Smet, A.A.; Hafez, G.R.

1988-09-01

105

REVISIÓN DE MODELOS CONSTITUTIVOS PARA CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR / REVIEW OF CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una revisión de varios modelos utilizados para explicar el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular. La revisión hace énfasis en modelos mecánicos ya que los modelos físico químicos desbordan el alcance del análisis de sólidos que se quiere tratar. La mayoría de los modelos revisa [...] dos retoman la idea planteada por Mow, la cual plantea que este tipo de tejidos puede ser modelado como un material bifásico, en donde cada fase tiene sus características específicas y la interacción entre ellas brinda las propiedades mecánicas del tejido como un global. El planteamiento de un modelo fenomenológico para el cartílago articular es complejo debido a la naturaleza de la respuesta bajo cargas transitorias y a los fenómenos físico químicos acoplados que tienen lugar. Los modelos futuros deberán estar orientados a considerar integralmente dichas características e interacciones. Abstract in english In this article, a review of several models used to explain the mechanical behavior of the articular cartilage is presented. This review makes an emphasis on the mechanical models because the physical-chemical models are out of scope of the solid behavior analysis explained in this study. Most of th [...] e revised models retake the idea proposed by Mow which states that this type of tissues can be modeled as a biphasic material where each phase has got its specific characteristics and the interaction among these phases offers the tissue overall mechanical properties. The approach of a phenomenological model for an articular cartilage is complex due to the nature of the transitory loads answer and bonded physical-chemical phenomena. The future models will have to be oriented to consider, in an integrated way, these characteristics and interactions among them.

PEDRO J., CABALLERO; NELSON, ARZOLA.

2012-06-01

106

Arthoscopy La artroscopia y las lesiones articulares  

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Full Text Available

A general view is presented on arthroscopy; its history, indications and limitations are described and analyzed; its advantages in comparison with open surgery are emphasized.

La artroscopia es un procedimiento que permite, mediante un instrumento óptico, evaluar el Interior de las cavidades articulares. Comenzó a desarrollarse como un procedimiento diagnóstico y pronto sus grandes ventajas frente a las exploraciones abiertas aceleraron el desarrollo de las técnicas y del instrumental. La minimización del trauma a los tejidos y la menor morbilidad posoperatoria permiten que la deambulación y la recuperación funcional sean precoces lo cual, sumado a un mejor resultado estético, ha colocado a la artroscopia como procedimiento de elección para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de múltiples estados patológicos intraarticulares.

Raúl J. Naranjo

1991-01-01

107

Lesiones focales hepáticas en niños / Focal liver lesions in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las lesiones focales del hígado comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de entidades como tumores benignos y malignos, sólidos o quistes, vasculares, masas inflamatorias y metástasis, entre otras. Objetivo: reportar lesiones focales hepáticas en niños, características clínicas, estudios por im [...] ágenes y conducta terapéutica. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, basado en la revisión de 16 historias clínicas de niños con lesiones focales hepáticas en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2007 a enero 2012. Se excluyeron los abscesos hepáticos. Resultados: El 68,75%11 eran del sexo masculino y 31,25%5 del sexo femenino; con edad promedio de 9,5 años (rango: 10 días - 14 años). Las lesiones focales benignas fueron: hemangioma 4/16 (25%), hematoma hepático 4/16 (25%), quiste hepático 3/16 (18,75%), hiperplasia nodular focal 1/16 (6,25%) adenoma 1/16 (6,25%) y las malignas: hepatocarcinoma 2/16 (12,50%) y hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6,25%). La mayoría de los pacientes (56,25%) se encontraban asintomáticos, 3/16 (18,75%) presentaron dolor abdominal, 3/16 (18,75%) masa palpable y 2/16 (12,5%) ictericia. La lesión fue identificada por ultrasonido abdominal en todos los pacientes y sólo el 56,25% (9/16) ameritaron tomografía con contraste. Al 43,75% (7/16) se les realizó marcadores tumorales y de estos el 42,85% (3/7) reportaron neoplasias. El funcionalismo hepático reportó normal en el 75% de los casos. Conclusión: El ultrasonido abdominal es el método de elección para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las lesiones focales hepáticas, mientras el origen de las mismas, guía la conducta terapéutica. Abstract in english Introduction: focal liver lesions comprise a heterogeneous group of entities such as benign and malignant, solid or cysts, vascular, inflammatory masses and metastasis among others. Objective: To report focal liver lesions in children, clinical features, imaging and therapeutic behavior. Patients an [...] d Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study based on a review of 16 case histories of children with focal liver lesions in the period from January 2007 to January 2012. Liver abscesses were excluded. Results: 68.75%11 were male and 31.25%5 females, mean age 9.5 years (range: 10 days - 14 years). Focal lesions were benign: Hemangioma 4/16 (25%), liver hematoma 4/16 (25%), hepatic cyst 3/16 (18.75%), nodular focal hyperplasia 1/16 (6.25%) and adenomas 1/16 (6.25%) and malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma 2/16 (12.50%) and hepatoblastoma 1/16 (6.25%). Most patients (56.25%) were asymptomatic, 3/16 (18.75%) had abdominal pain, 3/16 (18.75%) and palpable mass 2/16 (12.5%) jaundice. The lesion was identified by abdominal ultrasound in all patients and only 56.25% (9/16) needed tomography with contrast. To 43.75% (7/16) underwent tumor markers and of these 42.85% (3/7) reported neoplasm. Normal hepatic function reported in 75% of cases. Conclusion: An abdominal ultrasound is the method of choice for the diagnosis and management of focal liver lesions, while the origin of them, guide therapeutic conduct.

Adalis, Rossell; Dianora, Navarro; Karolina, López; Enicar, Perla; Betzabeth, Quintana; Credy, Figueredo; Andrea, Nogales; Katiuska, Belandria.

2013-06-01

108

Effects of recombination human bone morphogenetic protein 2 on articular cartilage repair in rabbits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is one of the growth factors capable of inducing the new cartilage or bone formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reparative effect of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on articular cartilage defects in rabbits. rhBMP-2 and polylactic acid-polyglycol acid copolymers (PLGA) were from Genetics Institute, (Cambridge, America). The implants consisted of rhBMP-2 and 100 mg of PLGA as a carrier and 0.6 ml of autologous peripheral blood. An Osteochondral defect (6 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth) was made on each femoral groove of rabbit knees. Then, rhBMP-2 composites were implanted into the defects. Rabbits were divided into following 3 groups based on implanted materials. For group 1, the implants without rhBMP-2 were implanted into the defects. For group 11, the implants including I 00 pg of rhBMP-2, and for group 111, those including 200 pg of rhBMP-2 were implanted. These animals were killed at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after implantation. Sections from each osteochondral defect were examined histologically with H and E stain and Safranin-0 stain. The depth of new cartilage formation was measured at the center of the defect area. Some extent of cartilage formation was observed in all groups from 4 weeks, although it was particularly poor in group 1. Group 11 and III had more white surface of newborn cartilage. The surface of new cartilage could be distinguished from adjacent cartilage by its color. Group I showed osteochonage by its color. Group I showed osteochondral conduction from the surrounding tissue. Group 11 and III had chondrocytes and matrix stained well with Safranin-0. Columnar cell alignment was observed on week 12 of Group 11 and 111. The depth of new cartilage increased by 200 % on week 4 of group III and by 150 % on week 8 of group 11, compared with that of the adjacent cartilage, and decreased by 40-60 % on week 12. The result revealed that 200 pg of rhBMP-2 with 100 mg of PLGA is an effective implant to repair the articular cartilage defects

109

Tantalum oxide nanoparticles for the imaging of articular cartilage using X-ray computed tomography: visualization of ex vivo/in vivo murine tibia and ex vivo human index finger cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis and characterization of tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) nanoparticles (NPs) as new X-ray contrast media for microcomputed tomography (?CT) imaging of articular cartilage are reported. NPs, approximately 5-10?nm in size, and possessing distinct surface charges, were synthesized using phosphonate (neutral), ammonium (cationic), and carboxylate (anionic) ligands as end functional groups. Assessment of a cartilage defect in a human cadaver distal metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint with the ammonium nanoparticles showed good visualization of damage and preferential uptake in areas surrounding the defect. Finally, an optimized nontoxic cationic NP contrast agent was evaluated in an in?vivo murine model and the cartilage was imaged. These nanoparticles represent a new type of contrast agent for imaging articular cartilage, and the results demonstrate the importance of surface charge in the design of nanoparticulate agents for targeting the surface or interior zones of articular cartilage. PMID:24981730

Freedman, Jonathan D; Lusic, Hrvoje; Snyder, Brian D; Grinstaff, Mark W

2014-08-01

110

The Role of Tissue Engineering in Articular Cartilage Repair and Regeneration  

OpenAIRE

Articular cartilage repair and regeneration continue to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased articular cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving articular cartilage therapy. This review provides an overall description of the current state and progress in articular cartilage repair ...

Zhang, Lijie; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

2009-01-01

111

Focal rigidity of flat tori  

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Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ?i?i called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets ?i are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ?i?i chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos ?i estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

Ferry Kwakkel

2011-12-01

112

Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

1982-08-01

113

Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes

114

Insight into osteo-articular digital tomosynthesis: a pictorial essay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this pictorial essay are to describe osteo-articular imaging using digital tomosynthesis. We provide characteristic examples in eight patients. Digital tomosynthesis allows easy, fast and low-dose imaging, with excellent spatial resolution.

115

Purification of human articular proteoglycans and technical aspects of radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proteoglycans (PG) have been purified by classical methods from human articular cartilage in order to set up a radioimmunoassay. Conditions of labelling, purification of labelled PG, and optimal conditions of buffer, temperature, duration of incubations and dilution of antiserum are described. Separation of free and bound PG is performed by immunoprecipitation. It is demonstrated that human articular PG can be assayed quantitatively by RIA procedure, with a sensitivity of +- 2 femto-moles (+- 5 ng) per tube

116

High-grade intra-articular liposarcoma of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-grade pleomorphic intra-articular liposarcoma of the knee is described in a 48-year-old man, which was diagnosed histologically after arthroscopy of the knee for suspected pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). The patient proceeded to undergo an extra-articular resection with a custom-made prosthesis. This report highlights the need to remember this rare tumour in the differential diagnosis of atypical soft tissue lesions within the knee joint prior to instrumentation. PMID:21174203

Shaerf, Daniel A; Mann, Bhupinder; Alorjani, Mohammed; Aston, Will; Saifuddin, Asif

2011-03-01

117

Optimization of indium bump preparation in infrared focal plane array fabrication  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimization of indium bump preparation in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) fabrication is presented. Reasons of bringing defective pixels during conventional lift-off and cleanout process in fabrication of indium bump are discussed. IRFPAs are characterized by IRFPA test-bench. Results show that defective pixels of InSb IRFPA are owing to indium bumps connecting through indium residue on the surface of wafer. The characteristic and configuration of defective pixels of InSb IRFPA are given and analyzed. A method of reducing defective pixels through optimizing liftoff and cleanout process in InSb IRFPA is proposed. Results prove that this method is effective.

Hou, Zhijin; Si, Junjie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haizhen; Wang, Liwen

2014-11-01

118

Differential gene expression associated with postnatal equine articular cartilage maturation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage undergoes an important maturation process from neonate to adult that is reflected by alterations in matrix protein organization and increased heterogeneity of chondrocyte morphology. In the horse, these changes are influenced by exercise during the first five months of postnatal life. Transcriptional profiling was used to evaluate changes in articular chondrocyte gene expression during postnatal growth and development. Methods Total RNA was isolated from the articular cartilage of neonatal (0–10 days and adult (4–5 years horses, subjected to one round of linear RNA amplification, and then applied to a 9,367-element equine-specific cDNA microarray. Comparisons were made with a dye-swap experimental design. Microarray results for selected genes (COL2A1, COMP, P4HA1, TGFB1, TGFBR3, TNC were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Results Fifty-six probe sets, which represent 45 gene products, were up-regulated (p Conclusion Differential expression of genes encoding matrix proteins and matrix-modifying enzymes between neonates and adults reflect a cellular maturation process in articular chondrocytes. Up-regulated transcripts in neonatal cartilage are consistent with growth and expansion of the articular surface. Expression patterns in mature articular cartilage indicate a transition from growth to homeostasis, and tissue function related to withstanding shear and weight-bearing stresses.

Stromberg Arnold J

2008-11-01

119

Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Human Femoral Articular Cartilage  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. Articular cartilage shows changes with age that are considered to be the most important factors in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. The studies on age changes in articular cartilage have been traditionally based on individual observations but this approach is limited by its subjectivity and bias, yielding considerable variability. So the present study was conducted to observe various age related changes in morphology of femoral articular cartilage using computerized morphometric analysis. Design. The articular cartilage specimens were divided into two groups according to age: group 1 (n = 16) below 40 years (16–40 years) and group 2 (n = 12) above 40 years (41–86 years) of age. 5??m thick paraffin sections were stained with H&E and analyzed using Image Pro Express image analysis software for quantitative analysis of articular cartilage. Various parameters, that is, total thickness of the cartilage, area of lacunae in each zone, area of subchondral cavities, and number of chondrocytes per 10,000??m2 area in each zone were measured. Results. Significant difference with age was found in the total thickness and area of lacunae in zone 3. Conclusions. Not much difference is observed in articular cartilage morphology with age. So ageing is not the only risk factor in development of osteoarthritis. PMID:22619732

Goyal, Neeru; Gupta, Madhur

2012-01-01

120

Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two cases of acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) are examined and followed-up with ultrasound and CT. AFBN is detected by US or CT, but precise nature, especially in differentiation from renal tumor, may be difficult to determine. Clinical features and follow-up studies after medical treatment are important aid in the differentiation. (author)

121

Focal lesions of the patella  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

122

Arthroscopic transtendinous repair of articular-sided pasta (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate clinical efficacy of arthroscopic transtendinous repair of partial articular-sided PASTA (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury. Methods: From February 2011 to July 2014, 12 cases of PASTA, aged 29 to 72 years with an average of 52.9 ± 13.3 years, were treated arthoscopically. To repair PASTA, articular-sided rotator cuff tear was explored, injury site was punctured and labeled with PDS absorbable monofilament suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) suture, subacromial bursa was cleaned up with acromioplasty, and integrity of bursa-side rotator cuff was assessed. Then with arthroscope in glenohumeral joint, footprint of the bursa-side supraspinatus tendon was preserved, rivets were introduced into the joint through supraspinatus tendon, joint-side partial tear was sutured, and anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint was established. The patients were followed up post-operatively for 12-36 months, average 22 ± 7.3 months. The clinical outcomes were emulated with ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons) Shoulder Score system and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) Shoulder rating scale. Results: The post-operative ASES score was 89.7 ± 5.6, higher than the pre-operative one 49.8 ± 9.8 (t = 12.25, P <0.0001). While UCLA scale increased from the pre-operative 17.3, ± 3.3 to the post-operative 30.4 ± 3.2 points (t = 9.87, P <0.0001), with a satisfaction rate of 11/12 (91.7%). Conclusion: Trans-tendon repair is ideal for PASTA with advantage of maximal preservation of the normal rotator cuff tissue, anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint and stable fixation of tendon-bone interface. PMID:25784979

Wang, Yi; Lu, Liangyu; Lu, Zhe; Xiao, Lei; Kang, Yifan; Wang, Zimin

2015-01-01

123

Intra-articular plica causing ankle impingement in a young handball player: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ankle sprains are common injuries that respond well to rehabilitation. In the case of persisting symptoms, the differential diagnosis should include osteochondral defects, tendon injury, mechanical instability, and ankle impingement. In the present case report, we describe a 16-year-old male handball player who presented with persisting pain and locking in the right ankle 3 years after having sustained multiple minor inversion trauma. The clinical examination and conventional radiography showed no abnormalities. On magnetic resonance imaging, a flake fracture at the anteromedial talar dome and/or loose body was assumed. Arthroscopic examination revealed an intra-articular plica originating from an osteochondral fossa at the anteromedial tibial plafond. The plica was debrided. Retrospectively, the arthroscopic findings matched the radiographs and magnetic resonance images. The postoperative protocol consisted of early mobilization. At 6 weeks of follow-up, the patient had no pain and had returned to his sports activities. The present case report illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of ankle impingement due to a, most likely congenital, intra-articular plica arising from an osteochondral fossa at the anteromedial tibial plafond. This rare clinical condition can be diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. Arthroscopic debridement will effectively relieve the symptoms. PMID:24160722

Somorjai, Nicolaas; Jong, Bob; Draijer, W F

2013-01-01

124

Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarosepropylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.

Tatiana Carla Tomiosso

2005-04-01

125

Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. [...] For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarosepropylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.

Tatiana Carla, Tomiosso; Laurecir, Gomes; Benedicto, de Campos Vidal; Edson Rosa, Pimentel.

2005-04-01

126

Luxación intra-articular de rótula Intra-articular dislocation of patella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se realizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones.The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

S. García-Mata

2006-08-01

127

Luxación intra-articular de rótula / Intra-articular dislocation of patella  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se re [...] alizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones. Abstract in english The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was [...] carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

S., García-Mata; A. M., Hidalgo-Ovejero.

2006-08-01

128

Focal rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in primary liposarcoma.  

OpenAIRE

A unique case of primary myxoid liposarcoma of the thigh, in which focal pleomorphic areas were present containing rhabdomyoblasts, is described. Focal rhabdomyosarcoma in liposarcoma has only rarely been reported previously and only in dedifferentiated liposarcomas of the retroperitoneum. All but one have been recurrences with rhabdomyoblasts being absent in the primary liposarcoma. As rhabdomyoblasts were only focally present, the present case is regarded as liposarcoma with focal divergent...

Shanks, J. H.; Banerjee, S. S.; Eyden, B. P.

1996-01-01

129

Hemodynamics of focal choroidal excavations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamics of focal choroidal excavations (FCEs). Four eyes of four patients with a FCE were studied. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and multi-focal electroretinography (mfERG) were performed to investigate the choroidal hemodynamics and the morphological and functional changes. The mean depth of the FCE determined by OCT was 222.5 ± 49.5 ?m with a range of 164-272 ?m. In one case, subretinal fluid was observed in the excavation, and in three cases, subretinal fluid was not observed. ICGA showed hypofluorescence, and laser flowgraphy (LSFG) showed decreased choroidal blood flow at the excavation in all cases. Three cases were symptomatic, and the amplitudes of the mfERGs were reduced. FCEs cause a decrease of choroidal blood flow. In three of four cases, the mfERGs were depressed over the FCEs leading to symptoms. PMID:25626897

Soma, Ryoko; Moriyama, Muka; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

2015-04-01

130

Doppelganger defects  

CERN Document Server

We study k-defects - topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion - and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of DBI instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub doppelgangers, that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelganger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgangers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonic...

Andrews, Melinda; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

2010-01-01

131

Animal Models of Focal Dystonia  

OpenAIRE

Summary: Animal models indicate that the abnormal movements of focal dystonia result from disordered sensorimotor integration. Sensorimotor integration involves a comparison of sensory information resulting from a movement with the sensory information expected from the movement. Unanticipated sensory signals identified by sensorimotor processing serve as signals to modify the ongoing movement or the planning for subsequent movements. Normally, this process is an effective mechanism to modify ...

Evinger, Craig

2005-01-01

132

Usefulness of bone scintigraphy for detecting loosening of articular prostheses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important complication of articular substitution is the loosening of the prostheses as a result of permanent overstraining, trauma, chemical or infectious noxae. The value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of loosening of the endoprothesis was examined in 53 articular prostheses (49 hip joints and 4 knee joints). A pathological scan was evident in all cases where the prosthesis had become loose (18 cases). whereas a normal scan was found in 34 firmly positioned prostheses. A false positive scan occured in one case of periarthritis. Bone scintigraphy can be employed as a means of diagnosing loosening of prostheses after a period of nine months following the operation; up to that time, enhancement can be due to the operation. A positive scan in case of loosening of the prosthesis is manifested earlier than radiological signs. For this reason, scintigraphy can be recommended as a routine examination method in pain after articular substitution surgery. (orig.)

133

Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares Update on infections in articular prosthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infectadas, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-positivas são predominantes nas contaminações das próteses articulares, em especial o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus epidermidis. As infecções causadas por bacilos gram-negativos e fungos como Candida sp vêm sendo relatadas com maior frequência em todo o mundo. As infecções de próteses articulares apresentam sinais característicos que podem ser divididos em manifestações agudas (dor severa, febre alta, toxemia, calor, rubor e secreção na ferida operatória e crônicas (dor progressiva, formação de fístulas cutâneas, com drenagem de secreção purulenta, sem febre. O diagnóstico definitivo da infecção deve ser realizado através do isolamento em cultura do micro-organismo obtido a partir da punção do líquido articular, secreção da ferida cirúrgica e materiais colhidos durante desbridamento cirúrgico. É fundamental a cobertura de S.aureus meticilino-resistente, visto a importância epidemiológica deste agente nessas infecções. O tempo total da antibioticoterapia varia de seis semanas a seis meses, sendo que o tratamento deve ser readequado quando necessário, com base nos resultados das culturas colhidas.The implantation of artificial joints, especially the hip and knee, is becoming increasingly common, representing a significant reduction in discomfort and an immeasurable improvement in patient mobility. Reviews of the global literature indicate that 1-5% of these grafts become infected, though it is important to remember that, as the number of surgeries for implantation of these prosthesis grows, so will the number of cases of this type of infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the contamination of joint prosthesis, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections caused by gram-negative bacilli and fungi such as Candida sp have been reported with increased frequency throughout the world. Infections of joint prosthesis have characteristic signals that can be divided into acute (severe pain, high fever, toxemia, heat, redness, and wound secretion and chronic (progressive pain, cutaneous fistula formation, with pus drainage, no fever manifestations. The definitive diagnosis of the infection should be made through the isolation in culture of the micro-organism obtained from the puncture of the joint fluid, surgical wound secretion, and material collected during surgical debridement. It is essential to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, given the epidemiological importance of this agent in these infections. The total time of antibiotic therapy varies from six weeks to six months, and that treatment should be adjusted as needed, based on the results of culturing.

Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz Lima

2010-01-01

134

Atualização em infecções em próteses articulares / Update on infections in articular prosthesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O implante de próteses articulares, principalmente de quadril e joelho, vem se tornando cada vez mais frequente, representando significante redução no desconforto e imensurável melhora na mobilidade dos pacientes. As revisões da literatura mundial revelam que 1 a 5% destas próteses tornam-se infecta [...] das, sendo importante lembrar que, conforme cresce o número de cirurgias para implantação destas próteses, cresce também o número de casos deste tipo de infecção. As bactérias gram-positivas são predominantes nas contaminações das próteses articulares, em especial o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus epidermidis. As infecções causadas por bacilos gram-negativos e fungos como Candida sp vêm sendo relatadas com maior frequência em todo o mundo. As infecções de próteses articulares apresentam sinais característicos que podem ser divididos em manifestações agudas (dor severa, febre alta, toxemia, calor, rubor e secreção na ferida operatória) e crônicas (dor progressiva, formação de fístulas cutâneas, com drenagem de secreção purulenta, sem febre). O diagnóstico definitivo da infecção deve ser realizado através do isolamento em cultura do micro-organismo obtido a partir da punção do líquido articular, secreção da ferida cirúrgica e materiais colhidos durante desbridamento cirúrgico. É fundamental a cobertura de S.aureus meticilino-resistente, visto a importância epidemiológica deste agente nessas infecções. O tempo total da antibioticoterapia varia de seis semanas a seis meses, sendo que o tratamento deve ser readequado quando necessário, com base nos resultados das culturas colhidas. Abstract in english The implantation of artificial joints, especially the hip and knee, is becoming increasingly common, representing a significant reduction in discomfort and an immeasurable improvement in patient mobility. Reviews of the global literature indicate that 1-5% of these grafts become infected, though it [...] is important to remember that, as the number of surgeries for implantation of these prosthesis grows, so will the number of cases of this type of infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the contamination of joint prosthesis, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections caused by gram-negative bacilli and fungi such as Candida sp have been reported with increased frequency throughout the world. Infections of joint prosthesis have characteristic signals that can be divided into acute (severe pain, high fever, toxemia, heat, redness, and wound secretion) and chronic (progressive pain, cutaneous fistula formation, with pus drainage, no fever) manifestations. The definitive diagnosis of the infection should be made through the isolation in culture of the micro-organism obtained from the puncture of the joint fluid, surgical wound secretion, and material collected during surgical debridement. It is essential to cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, given the epidemiological importance of this agent in these infections. The total time of antibiotic therapy varies from six weeks to six months, and that treatment should be adjusted as needed, based on the results of culturing.

Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz, Lima; Priscila Rosalba Domingos de, Oliveira.

135

How to 'visualize' lattice defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods to recognize objects are discussed. In case of optics, lenses are used, and light from objects passing through the lenses focuses on focal planes. The amplitude of light on the focal planes in given as a function of the structure factor of scattering light from objects, images of objects are made on image planes. In case of X-ray or neutron diffraction, lenses which make images by X-ray or neutrons can not be made, accordingly images cannot be obtained. Images can be seen with electron microscopes. By X-ray or thermal neutron diffraction, intensity on focal planes in observed, and the defects to be studied are recognized as diffuse scattering. Since it is necessary to minimize aberration in case of image observation with electron microscopes, slits are used to utilize electron beam near optical axis exclusively. Therefore large resolving power cannot be expected. The information concerning structure obtained from focal planes is of statistical nature, and that from image planes is local information. The principle of neutron topography, by which the informations concerning local points are obtained, is explained. A photograph of LiF irradiated by 0.5 MeV proton beam was taken by the topographic method, and shown in this paper. (Kato, T.)

136

Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

Murphy, B.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States)

2001-06-01

137

Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

138

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

2003-07-07

139

Focal mechanism estimation by classification  

CERN Document Server

A classification technique for identifying focal mechanism type and fault plane orientation based on the polarity of P-wave "first motion" data is derived. A support vector machine is used to classify the polarity data in the space of spherical harmonic functions. The classification is non-parametric in the sense that there is no requirement to make a priori assumptions source mechanism. A metric of similarity potentially able to distinguish shear versus tensile dislocation without requiring estimation of the fault plane orientation is a natural consequence of this procedure. Going further, correlation functions between template source mechanism is derived, gives an estimate of fault plane orientation assuming a particular source mechanism.

Lasscock, Ben G; Glinsky, Michael E

2014-01-01

140

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

141

Focal splenic lesions: US findings  

OpenAIRE

Ultrasound (US) imaging of the spleen was considered of little use in the past and was performed only to distinguish between cystic and solid lesions. However, in the last decade due to experience acquired and the introduction of second-generation contrast agents, this technique has been re-evaluated as contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) allows detection and characterization of most focal lesions of the spleen with a high sensitivity and a good specificity. Gray-scale US presents a low specificity i...

Caremani, M.; Occhini, U.; Caremani, A.; Tacconi, D.; Lapini, L.; Accorsi, A.; Mazzarelli, C.

2013-01-01

142

Focal splenic lesions: US findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasound (US) imaging of the spleen was considered of little use in the past and was performed only to distinguish between cystic and solid lesions. However, in the last decade due to experience acquired and the introduction of second-generation contrast agents, this technique has been re-evaluated as contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) allows detection and characterization of most focal lesions of the spleen with a high sensitivity and a good specificity. Gray-scale US presents a low specificity in splenic infarctions with a high rate of false negative cases, whereas specificity reaches 100 %, if the examination is performed using US contrast agents. Gray-scale US can provide a correct diagnosis in simple cysts, whereas CEUS is useful when cystic lymphangioma is suspected. In the study of splenic lesions, the most important problem is to differentiate between angioma, hamartoma, lymphoma, and metastasis. CEUS reaches a good specificity in the differentiation of benign from malignant splenic lesions, as hypo-enhancement in the parenchymal phase is predictive of malignancy in 87 % of cases. In conclusion, Gray-scale US and particularly CEUS are at present widely indicated in the study of focal splenic lesions. PMID:24294345

Caremani, M; Occhini, U; Caremani, A; Tacconi, D; Lapini, L; Accorsi, A; Mazzarelli, C

2013-01-01

143

Use of a chronic model of articular cartilage and meniscal injury for the assessment of long-term effects after autologous mesenchymal stromal cell treatment in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regenerative therapies using adult stem cells have attracted great interest in the recent years and offer a promising alternative to current surgical practices. In this report, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of an autologous cell-based treatment of osteoarthritis using mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from bone marrow aspirates that were administered intra-articularly. Ten 2-year old ewes were divided in two groups (for analysis at 6 and 12 months, respectively). Full thickness articular cartilage defects of approximately 60mm(2) were created arthroscopically in the medial femorotibial condyles and a meniscal tear in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in the 20 hind legs. Intra-articular injection of 4 mL of either treatment (a suspension of cells) or control (same as treatment, without cells) were applied one month after generating a chronic condition similar to human pathology. Animals were monitored radiographically, by MRI and ultrasound scanning; and macroscopic and histological analyses were conducted at 6 and 12 months. Furthermore a full necropsy was performed at 12 months post-treatment. The intra-articular injection of autologous MSC was safe, as judged by the lack of local or systemic adverse effects during the clinical follow-up and by a full necropsy performed at 12 months post-treatment. Evidence of regeneration of articular cartilage and meniscus was case-dependent but statistically significant improvement was found in specific macroscopic and histological parameters. Such parameters included colour, rigidity, cell distribution and hyaline quality of the refill tissue as well as the structure of subchondral bone. PMID:25063342

Caminal, Marta; Fonseca, Carla; Peris, David; Moll, Xavier; Rabanal, Rosa M; Barrachina, Josep; Codina, David; García, Félix; Cairó, Jordi J; Gòdia, Francesc; Pla, Arnau; Vives, Joaquim

2014-09-25

144

THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION / MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron ana [...] lizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular Abstract in english To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the [...] inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavity

Ana Elisa, Toscano; Silvia Regina, Arruda de Moraes; Katiúcia Samara, da Silva Almeida.

2004-12-01

145

THE ARTICULAR MUSCLE OF THE KNEE: MORPHOLOGY AND DISPOSITION MÚSCULO ARTICULAR DE LA RODILLA: MORFOLOGÍA Y DISPOSICIÓN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the morphologic aspects and the relations of the articular muscle of the knee with articular cavity of the knee, as well as the disposal of muscular fibers to the level of femur, besides comparing the muscular mass of the articular of the knee with the rest of the muscular mass of the inferior member, 15 inferior members of adult human corpse of both sex, settled in formol and transversally parted, in middle third of the thigh and in proximal third of the leg, had been analyzed. The study method was of macroscopic dissection. The articular muscle of the knee was present in all the analyzed material and in 93.3% of the cases it had its proximal point of attachment in the distal anterior portion of femur. Amongst analyzed specimens, 40% had shown a sufficiently reduced muscular mass and a trapezoidal type. This muscle presented a distal insertion at an average distance of 3.07cm above of the superior edge of the trochlea and an anterior insertion in proximal edge of the suprapatellar bursa. The number of bundles of each muscle varied from 2 to 7 bundles which, in its majority, had presented a vertical direction. The muscle showed an anterior position on the distal third of the femur. Our results suggest that the same size and the relations of this with the suprapatellar bursa can be directly related with the rest of the muscular mass of the member of the individual, therefore when it works to increase muscular tonus of the quadriceps, it is also, in indirect way, increasing the articular muscle of the knee and improving its performance in the articular cavityCon el objetivo de investigar los aspectos morfológicos y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla, así como la disposición de las fibras musculares a nivel del fémur, además de comparar la masa muscular del referido músculo con el resto de la masa muscular del miembro inferior, fueron analizados 15 miembros inferiores de cadáveres humanos adultos, de ambos sexos, fijados en formol y seccionados transversalmente, a nivel del tercio medio del muslo y tercio proximal de la pierna. El músculo articular de la rodilla estaba presente en todo el material analizado y en el 93,3% de los casos tenía su punto de origen en la parte anterior distal del fémur. Entre las piezas analizadas, un 40% mostró una masa muscular bastante reducida y en forma trapezoidal. Ese músculo presentó en la inserción una distancia promedio de 3,07 cm arriba del borde superior de la tróclea, variando los haces musculares entre 2 y 7. Éstos, en su mayoría, presentaron una dirección vertical. El músculo mostró una disposición anterior en el tercio distal del fémur. Nuestro resultado sugiere que el tamaño y las relaciones del músculo articular de la rodilla con la bolsa sinovial suprapatelar, pueden estar directamente relacionados con el resto de masa muscular del miembro inferior. Por tal motivo, cuando se trabaja para aumentar el tono muscular del músculo recto femoral, se está provocando, de manera indirecta, la hipertrofia del músculo articular de la rodilla y potenciando su desempeño en la cavidad articular

Ana Elisa Toscano

2004-12-01

146

Intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a case of lntra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee in a 53-year-old man. The case demonstrates an unusual pattern of migration of the marrow edema within the knee joint. This phenomenon has received scant attention in the radiological literature. (orig.)

Wambeek, N.; Munk, P.L.; Lee, M.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Meek, R.N. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver (Canada)

2000-02-01

147

[Embolia cutis medicamentosa (Nicolau syndrome) after intra-articular injection].  

Science.gov (United States)

Embolia cutis medicamentosa (Nicolau Syndrome) is a very rare complication of intramuscular injections which presents with extensive necrosis of the injected skin area. Intra-arteria and/or para-arterial injections after prior perforation of certain vessels are discussed as possible pathogenetic mechanisms. We describe the occurrence of embolia cutis medicamentosa after intra-articular injections into the knee. PMID:10231693

Beissert, S; Presser, D; Rütter, A; Metze, D; Luger, T A; Schwarz, T

1999-03-01

148

Radiologic vignette: primary disorders of articular cartilage in childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss several less well recognized disorders of articular cartilage which may affect pediatric patients, including relapsing polychondritis, idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip and chondrolysis after slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Idiopathic osteolysis is not considered in our review because it has been well described previously. PMID:3050085

Sartoris, D J; Resnick, D

1988-01-01

149

Incidental focal intracranial computed tomographic findings.  

OpenAIRE

Of 3000 consecutive computed tomography (CT) head scans there were 28 adult patients who had a focal intracranial lesion, who presented with nonspecific symptoms, and who had normal initial neurological examination. These lesions included cerebral infarction (8), focal atrophy (5), intracerebral haematoma (3), chronic subdural haematoma (3), focal calcification (3) and intracranial neoplasm (6). Neurological consultation was obtained after the CT in all cases. Angiography was subsequently per...

Weisberg, L. A.

1982-01-01

150

Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

Alexandrova ?.?.

2010-12-01

151

On focal stability in dimension two  

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Full Text Available In Kupka et al. 2006 appears the Focal Stability Conjecture: the focal decomposition of the generic Riemann structure on a manifold M is stable under perturbations of the Riemann structure. In this paper, we prove the conjecture when M has dimension two, and there are no conjugate points.Em Kupka et al. 2006, consideramos a Conjectura da Estabilidade Focal: a decomposição focal da estrutura Riemaniana genérica em uma variedade M é estável por perturbações dessa estrutura. No presente trabalho demonstramos essa conjectura quando M tem dimensão dois e não existem pontos conjugados.

Mauricio M. Peixoto

2007-03-01

152

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino  

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Full Text Available Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass, and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton, que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis.

Luciano A. Pimentel

2010-05-01

153

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep / Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS) é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 7 [...] 0 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton), que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso clínico de 3 dias. Macroscopicamente foram observadas herniação do cerebelo e áreas acastanhadas, multifocais, simétricas e bilaterais na cápsula interna, tálamo e pedúnculo cerebelar. Histologicamente observou-se malacia, bilateral e simétrica, com alguns neutrófilos, tumefação das células endoteliais dos vasos sanguíneos, edema perivascular e hemorragia. O rebanho foi vacinado, antes do surto, com umaúnica dose de vacina para Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Dois fatores são sugestivos quanto a importância da ocorrência da enfermidade: imunidade insuficiente devida à vacinação incorreta; e altos níveis nutricionais da suplementação com carboidratos altamente fermentáveis. Abstract in english Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the [...] state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass), and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.

Luciano A., Pimentel; Diego M., Oliveira; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Antônio F.M., Dantas; Francisco, Uzal; Franklin, Riet-Correa.

2010-05-01

154

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Kidney Transplantation  

OpenAIRE

The recurrence rate of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation is ranging between 20% and 40%. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with poor graft survival. In this review, the etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathological features, risk factors of recurrence, and updated lines of management are discussed.

Osama Gheith; Rashad Hassan

2013-01-01

155

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Kidney Transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recurrence rate of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation is ranging between 20% and 40%. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with poor graft survival. In this review, the etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathological features, risk factors of recurrence, and updated lines of management are discussed.

Osama Gheith

2013-07-01

156

Three-Dimensional Scaffold-Free Fusion Culture: the Way to Enhanced Chondrogenesis of in vitro Propagated Human Articular Chondrocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Cartilage regeneration based on isolated and culture-expanded chondrocytes has been studied in various in vitro models, but the quality varies with respect to the morphology and the physiology of the synthesized tissues. The aim of our study was to promote in vitro chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes using a novel three-dimensional (3-D) cultivation system in combination with the chondrogenic differentiation factors transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-?2) and L-ascorbic acid. Articular chondrocytes isolated from six elderly patients were expanded in monolayer culture. A single-cell suspension of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes was then added to agar-coated dishes without using any scaffold material, in the presence, or absence of TGF-?2 and/or L-ascorbic acid. Three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs, called single spheroids, and microtissues consisting of several spheroids fused together, named as fusions, were formed. Generated tissues were mainly characterized using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The morphology of the in vitro tissues shared some similarities to native hyaline cartilage in regard to differentiated S100-positive chondrocytes within a cartilaginous matrix, with strong collagen type II expression and increased synthesis of proteoglycans. Finally, our innovative scaffold-free fusion culture technique supported enhanced chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. These 3-D hyaline cartilage-like microtissues will be useful for in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation and regeneration, enabling optimization of functional tissue engineering and possibly contributing to the development of new approaches to treat traumatic cartilage defects or osteoarthritis. PMID:24441184

Lehmann, M.; Martin, F.; Mannigel, K.; Kaltschmidt, K.; Sack, U.; Anderer, U.

2013-01-01

157

Three-dimensional scaffold-free fusion culture: the way to enhance chondrogenesis of in vitro propagated human articular chondrocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cartilage regeneration based on isolated and culture-expanded chondrocytes has been studied in various in vitro models, but the quality varies with respect to the morphology and the physiology of the synthesized tissues. The aim of our study was to promote in vitro chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes using a novel three-dimensional (3-D cultivation system in combination with the chondrogenic differentiation factors transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-b2 and L-ascorbic acid. Articular chondrocytes isolated from six elderly patients were expanded in monolayer culture. A single-cell suspension of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes was then added to agar-coated dishes without using any scaffold material, in the presence, or absence of TGF-b2 and/or L-ascorbic acid. Three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs, called single spheroids, and microtissues consisting of several spheroids fused together, named as fusions, were formed. Generated tissues were mainly characterized using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The morphology of the in vitro tissues shared some similarities to native hyaline cartilage in regard to differentiated S100-positive chondrocytes within a cartilaginous matrix, with strong collagen type II expression and increased synthesis of proteoglycans. Finally, our innovative scaffold-free fusion culture technique supported enhanced chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. These 3-D hyaline cartilage-like microtissues will be useful for in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation and regeneration, enabling optimization of functional tissue engineering and possibly contributing to the development of new approaches to treat traumatic cartilage defects or osteoarthritis.

M. Lehmann

2013-11-01

158

Effect of intra-articular corticosteroid injections on primate cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt was made to ascertain whether intra-articular corticosteroids exert a harmful effect on primate cartilage. The knee joints of 10 Macaca irus monkeys were subjected to either one, two, or six injections of 20 mg methyl prednisolone or an equal number of control injections over a 12-week period. Minor degenerative changes of many femoral condyles were shown by India ink staining and by a system of histochemical grading. Changes in the joints injected with corticosteroid were not significantly different from those seen in control joints. The findings were in striking contrast to the severe degeneration reported by others in rabbit joints injected with corticosteroid. The experiment did not support the contention that intra-articular corticosteroids invariably have a deleterious effect on primate cartilage. PMID:402890

Gibson, T; Burry, H C; Poswillo, D; Glass, J

1977-02-01

159

Infecção de prótese articular da anca e joelho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A infeção de prótese articular é um dos maiores desafios para os Ortopedistas. A abordagem das infeções associadas com as próteses articulares não está protocolada devido às variadas apresentações clínicas e à escassez de ensaios clínicos randomizados. O sucesso do tratamento consiste, não só, na er [...] radicação da infeção, mas também na recuperação do arco de movimento, que é importante para a satisfação do doente. Abstract in english Periprosthetic joint infection is one of the most formidable challenges for arthroplasty surgeons. The management of infection associated with prosthetic joints is poorly standartized because of the varied clinical presentation and the lack of data from randomized, controlled trials. Successful trea [...] tment of prosthetic joint infection consists, not only, of eliminating the infection but also of restoring patient mobility, which is important for patient satisfaction.

Filipa, Freitas; Manuel, Virgolino; Carlos, Ribeiro.

2013-06-01

160

Intra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intra-articular lipoma arborescens (LA is a rare entity that can present with monoarticular or polyarticular involvement of joints such as knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, and elbows. We describe a case in a 26-year-old man who presented with intermittent pain and swelling of the left knee joint for the previous 2 years. Physical examination showed only tenderness over the medial line of the left knee joint. MRI found only joint effusion; therefore, the patient was referred to the orthopedic clinic where he underwent arthroscopy, which revealed a diffuse yellow soft tissue synovial papillary growth involving both medial and lateral gutters of the suprapatellar pouch. A biopsy reported intra-articular LA. This is the first case of LA reported in Saudi Arabia. LA should be included in the clinical and radiologic differential diagnosis of cases with persistent knee joint effusion.

Al-Shraim Mubarak

2011-01-01

161

Congenital Defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

162

Intra-articular hylastan versus steroid for knee osteoarthritis.  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of one and two intra-articular (IA) injections of the new viscosupplement, hylastan, compared with a single IA corticosteroid injection for pain due to knee osteoarthritis (OA). Hylastan is a high-molecular-weight hyaluronan derivative prepared from bacterial fermented sodium hyaluronate that was developed to remain in the joint for longer than most other viscosupplements. Methods: This 6-month, double-blind, randomized, parallel group, multicenter t...

Housman, L.; Arden, N.; Schnitzer, Tj; Birbara, C.; Conrozier, T.; Skrepnik, N.; Wei, N.; Bockow, B.; Waddell, D.; Tahir, H.; Hammond, A.; Goupille, P.; Sanson, Bj; Elkins, C.; Bailleul, F.

2014-01-01

163

Two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins secreted from articular cartilage.  

OpenAIRE

Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) is a powerful method for separation of complex mixtures of proteins. The standard procedure is not, however, well suited to analysis of articular cartilage, which contains high concentrations of proteoglycans, the polyanionic glycosaminoglycan chains of which interfere with isoelectric focusing. We have developed a method for selective removal of proteoglycans by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride, after which the residual cartilage proteins are ...

Hermansson, M.; Saklatvala, J.; Wait, R.

2007-01-01

164

Intra-Articular Hip Injection Using Anatomic Surface Landmarks  

OpenAIRE

Intra-articular hip injection is a frequently used technique for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and is gaining more importance for the early diagnosis of hip disease. It is commonly performed with imaging guidance such as ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic control. We describe our technique of injection of the hip using relative distances from anatomic surface landmarks, with the needle insertion point at the site of the proximal anterolateral portal for hip arthroscopy, with a posterior d...

Masoud, Mohammad A.; Said, Hatem G.

2013-01-01

165

Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS  

CERN Document Server

VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

2007-01-01

166

Sonographic evaluation of femoral articular cartilage in the knee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate the usefulness of sonography for the evaluation of osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Ten asymptomatic volunteers and 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee underwent sonographic evaluation. For this, the knee was maintained of full flexion in order to expose the deep portion of femoral condylar cartilage. Both transverse and longitudinal scans were obtained in standardized planes. Sonographic images of the articular cartilages were analyzed in terms of surface sharpness, echogenicity and thickness, along with associated bone changes. Normal cartilages showed a clearly-defined surface, homogeneously low echogenicity and regular thickness. Among 20 patients, the findings for medial and lateral condyles, respectively, were as follows: poorly defined cartilage surface, 16 (80%) and ten (50%); increased echogenicity of cartilage, 17 (85%) and 16 (80%); cartilage thinning, 16 (80%) and 14 (70%) (two medial condyles demonstrated obvious cartilage thickening); the presence of thick subchondral hyperechoic bands, five (25%) and four (20%); the presence of osteophytes, 13 (65%) and 12 (60%). Sonography is a convenient and accurate modality for the evaluation of femoral articular cartilage. In particular, it can be useful for detecting early degenerative cartilaginous change and for studying such change during clinical follow-up. (author)

Hong, Sung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kong Keun Young; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Young Ho; Song, Yeong Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2000-06-01

167

Sonographic evaluation of femoral articular cartilage in the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the usefulness of sonography for the evaluation of osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Ten asymptomatic volunteers and 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee underwent sonographic evaluation. For this, the knee was maintained of full flexion in order to expose the deep portion of femoral condylar cartilage. Both transverse and longitudinal scans were obtained in standardized planes. Sonographic images of the articular cartilages were analyzed in terms of surface sharpness, echogenicity and thickness, along with associated bone changes. Normal cartilages showed a clearly-defined surface, homogeneously low echogenicity and regular thickness. Among 20 patients, the findings for medial and lateral condyles, respectively, were as follows: poorly defined cartilage surface, 16 (80%) and ten (50%); increased echogenicity of cartilage, 17 (85%) and 16 (80%); cartilage thinning, 16 (80%) and 14 (70%) (two medial condyles demonstrated obvious cartilage thickening); the presence of thick subchondral hyperechoic bands, five (25%) and four (20%); the presence of osteophytes, 13 (65%) and 12 (60%). Sonography is a convenient and accurate modality for the evaluation of femoral articular cartilage. In particular, it can be useful for detecting early degenerative cartilaginous change and for studying such change during clinical follow-up. (author)

168

Genetics Home Reference: Task-specific focal dystonia  

Science.gov (United States)

... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Task-specific focal dystonia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed December 2012 What is task-specific focal dystonia? Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder ...

169

2014 JOSPT Awards Focus on 2 Contemporary Topics: Dry Needling and Knee Articular Cartilage Defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the American Physical Therapy Association's Combined Sections Meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana in February 2015, JOSPT recognized the authors of the most outstanding research and clinical practice manuscripts published in JOSPT during the 2014 calendar year. The 2014 JOSPT Excellence in Research Award was presented to Rocio Llamas-Ramos, Daniel Pecos-Martín, Tomás Gallego-Izquierdo, Inés Llamas-Ramos, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, Ricardo Ortega-Santiago, César Fernández-de-las-Peñas, and Joshua A. Cleland for their paper entitled "Comparison of the Short-Term Outcomes Between Trigger Point Dry Needling and Trigger Point Manual Therapy for the Management of Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial." The 2014 George J. Davies-James A. Gould Excellence in Clinical Inquiry Award was presented to Peter K. Edwards, Jay R. Ebert, and Timothy Ackland for their work titled "Clinical Rehabilitation Guidelines for Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation on the Tibiofemoral Joint." J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(3):151-152. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.0104. PMID:25726696

Simoneau, Guy G

2015-03-01

170

MODELADO MATEMÁTICO DEL COMPORTAMIENTO MECÁNICO DE UN FRAGMENTO DE CARTÍLAGO ARTICULAR / MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF AN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE PIECE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cartílago articular es un material biológico poroelástico que permite la distribución de las cargas mecánicas y el movimiento de las articulaciones. Como material bifásico, en presencia de carga, el cartílago articular deforma su matriz sólida y modifica la presión hidrostática del fluido en su i [...] nterior. El objetivo del presente trabajo es implementar numéricamente un modelo matemático que predice el comportamiento mecánico del cartílago articular teniendo en cuenta la dualidad entre la matriz sólida y el líquido articular, y la característica de poroelasticidad. Utilizando una metodología basada en el método de los elementos finitos, se simuló el comportamiento de un fragmento de cartílago articular en una y dos dimensiones, ante cargas mecánicas de tensión, compresión y oscilación. El análisis de los resultados permite validar cualitativamente el comportamiento poroelástico del modelo debido a la deformación de la matriz sólida y a la salida de fluido que modifica la presión del mismo de manera similar a lo reportado en trabajos experimentales. Se concluye que el modelo matemático permite realizar predicciones sobre el comportamiento biomecánico del cartílago articular, contribuyendo al proceso investigativo en áreas como la biomecánica y la ingeniería de tejidos. Abstract in english The articular cartilage is a poroelastic biological material that allows the distribution of mechanical loads and the joint movements. As a biphasic material, in presence of load, the articular cartilage deforms its solid matrix and modifies the fluid hydrostatic pressure inside. The aim of this wor [...] k is to implement numerically a mathematical model that predicts the mechanical behaviour of articular cartilage taking into account the duality between the solid matrix and articular liquid, and its poroelastic feature. Using a finite element method approach , the response of a piece of articular cartilage in one and two dimensions has been simulated, with tensile, compresive and oscillative mechanical loads. The analysis of results allows a qualitatively validation of the poroelastic behavior of the model due to the solid matrix deformation and the fluid outflow that causes variations of pressures inside the articular cartilage according with reported trials. We conclude that the mathematical model allows the prediction of the articular cartilage biomechanical behaviour. Our results contribute to the investigative processes in fields of study like biomechanics and tissue engineering

NANCY STELLA, LANDÍNEZ; JUAN CARLOS, VANEGAS; DIEGO ALEXANDER, GARZÓN.

2009-06-01

171

Surface Markers and Gene Expression to Characterize the Differentiation of Monolayer Expanded Human Articular Chondrocytes  

OpenAIRE

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a method of cartilage repair. To improve the quality of regenerated tissue by ACI, it is essential to identify surface marker expression correlated with the differentiation status of monolayer expanded human articular chondrocytes and to define the index for discriminating dedifferentiated cells from monolayer expanded human articular chondrocytes. Normal human articular chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer until passage 4. At each passage, mRNA...

HIROHITO MITSUYAMA; YOHEI ONO; MOTOSHIGE NAKASHIMA; HIDEKI HIRAIWA; TADAHIRO SAKAI; TAKASHI HAMADA; NAOKI ISHIGURO

2013-01-01

172

Cryoscanning electron microscopy of loaded articular cartilage with special reference to the surface amorphous layer.  

OpenAIRE

The surface layer (i.e. the surface lamina) of articular cartilage, which is devoid of a collagen fibril network or cells, was investigated in the pig and human. It overlies the collagenous main part of the articular cartilage which contains chondrocytes and is thought to be important biomechanically. In order to examine morphological changes in this layer when under load, knee articular cartilage of the pig, along with the underlying subchondral bone, was compressed with a cylindrical indent...

Kobayashi, S.; Yonekubo, S.; Kurogouchi, Y.

1996-01-01

173

The proinflammatory effect of intra-articular injection of soluble human and venom phospholipase A2.  

OpenAIRE

The proinflammatory effects of intra-articular injection of purified phospholipase A2 from snake venom and rheumatoid synovial fluid were studied in rats. Purified soluble phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in concentrations ranging from 1000 to 20,000 units/ml, was injected intra-articularly. Histologic parameters examined were cell and protein content of synovial fluid, subsynovial cellular infiltration, synovial lining cell hyperplasia, bone erosion, and peri-articular soft tissue infiltration. Singl...

Vadas, P.; Pruzanski, W.; Kim, J.; Fornasier, V.

1989-01-01

174

Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, hais in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center

175

Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center.

Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Hee Soo; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Yu, Jeong Sik; Yoon, Sang Wook [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-10-15

176

Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient was believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy. (orig.)

177

Paxillin Binding Is Not the Sole Determinant of Focal Adhesion Localization or Dominant-Negative Activity of Focal Adhesion Kinase/Focal Adhesion Kinase-related Nonkinase  

OpenAIRE

The carboxy-terminal 150 residues of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) comprise the focal adhesion-targeting sequence, which is responsible for its subcellular localization. The mechanism of focal adhesion targeting has not been fully elucidated. We describe a mutational analysis of the focal adhesion-targeting sequence of FAK to further examine the mechanism of focal adhesion targeting and explore additional functions encoded by the carboxy-terminus of FAK. The resu...

Cooley, Marion A.; Broome, Jill M.; Ohngemach, Christoph; Romer, Lewis H.; Schaller, Michael D.

2000-01-01

178

Degenerative joint disease in cattle and buffaloes in the Amazon region: a retrospective study / Doença articular degenerativa em bovinos e búfalos na Amazônia: estudo retrospectivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo sobre os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos em bovinos e búfalos com doença articular degenerativa (DAD) no estado do Pará, Brasil. Durante os anos de 1999 a 2014 foram avaliados 11 bovinos e 24 bubalinos. Todos os animais atendidos com suspeita clín [...] ica de DAD foram submetidos a exame clínico do sistema locomotor. Foram necropsiados sete bovinos e oito bubalinos com sinais clínicos da enfermidade. Os sinais clínicos comuns observados em ambas as espécies foram claudicação crônica, andar rígido, alterações posturais, crepitações audíveis no membro acometido, decúbito prolongado, dificuldade para levantar, e emagrecimento progressivo. As lesões articulares evidenciadas na necropsia consistiram em irregularidade da superfície articular, presença de erosão na cartilagem articular e no tecido ósseo subjacente, proliferação de tecido ósseo periarticular com formação de osteófitos. Tanto nos bovinos como nos bubalinos as articulações mais acometidas foram as dos membros posteriores. Nos bubalinos, possivelmente o principal fator predisponente ao surgimento de DAD foi à deficiência de fósforo, ao contrário dos bovinos, nos quais os defeitos de conformação anatômica dos membros posteriores, traumas crônicos em virtude da atividade exercida, como a coleta de sêmen e a idade avançada, foram o que, possivelmente, contribuíram para surgimento da enfermidade. Abstract in english A retrospective study of the epidemiological and clinic-pathological aspects of cattle and buffaloes with degenerative joint disease (DJD) was conducted in the state of Pará, Brazil. From 1999 to 2014, eleven cattle and 24 buffaloes were evaluated. All the treated animals with suspected DJD underwen [...] t a clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system. In seven cattle and eight buffaloes with clinical signs of the disease postmortem examination was performed. The common clinical signs observed in both species were chronic lameness, stiff gait, postural changes, audible crackles in the affected limb, prolonged recumbency, difficulty in getting up and progressive weight loss. The lesions observed at necropsy were: irregular articular surfaces, erosion of the articular cartilage and the underlying bone tissue, and proliferation of the periarticular bone tissue with formation of osteophytes. The most affected joints in cattle and buffaloes wereof the hind limb. In buffaloes, the main predisposing factor to the onset of DJD was phosphorus deficiency. In cattle, defects of the anatomical conformation of the hind limbs, chronic trauma due to the activities performed, such as semen collection, and advanced age possibly contributed to the emergence of the disease.

José Diomedes, Barbosa; Danillo Henrique S., Lima; Alessandra S., Belo-Reis; Cleyton P., Pinheiro; Melina G.S., Sousa; Jenevaldo B., Silva; Felipe M., Salvarani; Carlos Magno C., Oliveira.

2014-09-01

179

Elasticity of smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the elastic properties of thermotropic smectic liquid crystals with focal conic domains (FCDs). After the application of the controlled preshear at different temperatures, we independently measure the shear modulus G' and the FCD size L. We find out that these quantities are related by the scaling relation G'{approx}{gamma}{sub eff}/L, where {gamma}{sub eff} is the effective surface tension of the FCDs. The experimentally obtained value of {gamma}{sub eff} shows the same scaling as the effective surface tension of the layered systems {radical}KB, where K and B are the bending modulus and the layer compression modulus, respectively. The similarity of this scaling relation to that of the surfactant onion phase suggests an universal rheological behavior of the layered systems with defects.

Fujii, S [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Komura, S [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ishii, Y [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Lu, C-Y D, E-mail: sfujii@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-06-15

180

Three-dimensional CT imaging usefulness in distal radial intra-articular fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed information on articular damage in distal radial intra-articular fracture in provided by three-dimensional CT imaging of intra-articular distal radius fracture. We conducted this procedure in 16 patients. Eliminated axial views of intra-articular fracture revealed details of joint surface damage. These images were then compared to those of plain radiographs. Three-dimensional CT was very useful in detecting fracture displacement and distal radioulnar joint fracture, and also useful in evaluating the distal radio-carpal joint compression and fragmentation. (author)

181

Extra-articular triplane fracture of the distal tibia: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The triplane fracture of the distal tibia is anatomically complex. It typically consists of a coronal fracture of the metaphysis, a transverse fracture of the physis, and a sagittal, intra-articular fracture of the epiphysis. We report an unusual variation of the triplane fracture which includes an extra-articular epiphyseal component involving the medial malleolus. This is an important variant to recognize because it does not disrupt the distal tibial articular surface. This lack of articular involvement allows for non-surgical management in contrast to the usual triplane fracture which often requires open reduction and internal fixation. (orig.)

182

The "coiling-up procedure": a novel technique for extra-articular arthroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "coiling-up procedure" is a novel technique for extra-articular arthroscopy. A coil-shaped lifter is used to create the extra-articular working space, and a dry arthroscopy is performed. It can be combined with conventional intra-articular arthroscopy to enable direct vision from both inside and outside the joint. We have successfully used this technique to perform a vastus lateralis release in cases of painful bipartite patella. This is an innovative technique that offers the possibility of expanding the indications for extra-articular arthroscopy to other areas of the body. We describe in detail the technique for this new procedure in the knee. PMID:21035010

Maeno, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Daijo; Otani, Toshiro; Masumoto, Ko; Hui, Catherine

2010-11-01

183

Imaging strategies in focal hepatic disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: Advanced therapies are improving significantly the survival of patients with malginant focal liver disease. For efficient implementation of these surgical and interventional techniques a clear concept of the diagnostic procedere is mandatory. Methods: Based on a review of the current literature, the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, nuclear medicine and angiography, are discussed and evaluated for their diagnostic efficacy in focal hepatic disease. Results: Considering clinical, diagnostic, and economical appropriateness, recommendations for diagnostic strategies in different clinical scenarios regarding focal hepatic disease are presented. Conclusion: If the power of specific imaging methods and relevant clinical information is known, problem-based diagnostic strategies help to avoid unnecessary, expensive and time-consuming studies in the work-up of focal liver lesions. (orig.)

184

Suspision of focal neoplasm in the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stage-by-stage diagnosis of patients with suspension of focal neoplasm in the liver is presented. It includes: 1 stage -sonography - is used in case of instrumental examination of the liver; if neoplasm has the signs of simple cyst, hemangioma, focal nodal hyperplasia, then examination is near completion; in case neoplasm character is not clear CT is necessary. 2 stage -CT of the liver using intravenous contrast substance; examination is near completion if neoplasm has signs of a cyst, hemangioma, focal fatty degeneration; if suspended neoplasm is primary malignant tumor thin-needle biopsy is necessary; in case of expected neoplasm extirpation it is a good idea to do hepatic arteriography. Precise determination of focal character is important for selection of therapeutic methods

185

Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Focal Musculoskeletal Anomalies  

OpenAIRE

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies. Isolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encount...

Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Choi, Jong Sun

2003-01-01

186

Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions  

OpenAIRE

In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanis...

Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

2014-01-01

187

Tibia Vara due to Focal Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia  

OpenAIRE

We present a case of unilateral tibia vara associated with an area of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia in the medial aspect of the right proximal tibia. Such a case has not been described previously. The affected child was 8 months old. Deformity resolved without aggressive treatment. The pathogenesis of the focal lesion remains controversial. The most likely explanation is that the mesenchymal anlage of the tibial metaphysis has for unknown reasons, developed abnormality at the insertion o...

Tavakoli, A.

2004-01-01

188

Considerations for patient selection for focal therapy  

OpenAIRE

Focal therapy for prostate cancer is a nascent and emerging field. As such, the patient selection criteria for this new treatment paradigm are evolving in parallel to both the technology on which this approach depends and to our unfolding understanding of the natural history of prostate cancer. Until, and while, prospective trials of focal therapy are being reported, patient selection criteria will be flexible and very dependent on the therapeutic goals. We must carefully define the therapeut...

Ward, John F.; Pisters, Louis L.

2013-01-01

189

Focal lesions in the central nervous system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

190

Transtendon rotator-cuff repair of partial-thickness articular surface tears can lead to medial rotator-cuff failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tom C Woods,4 Michael J Carroll,1 Atiba A Nelson,2 Kristie D More,2 Randa Berdusco,1 Stephen Sohmer,3 Richard S Boorman,1,2 Ian KY Lo1,21Department of Surgery, 2Sport Medicine Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 4St Joseph's Hospital, Comox, BC, CanadaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and anatomic outcomes of patients following transtendon rotator-cuff repair of partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion (PASTA lesions.Patients and methods: Patients in the senior author's practice who had isolated PASTA lesions treated by transtendon rotator-cuff repair were included (n=8 and retrospectively reviewed. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at a mean of 21.2 months (±9.7 months postoperatively using standardized clinical evaluation (physical exam, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and Simple Shoulder Test. All patients underwent postoperative imaging with a magnetic resonance imaging arthrogram.Results: There was a significant improvement in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (42.7±17.5 to 86.9±25.2 and Simple Shoulder Test (4.6±3.2 to 10.1±3.8 scores from pre- to postoperative, respectively. Postoperative imaging demonstrated full-thickness medial cuff tearing in seven patients, and one patient with a persistent partial articular surface defect.Conclusion: Transtendon repair of PASTA lesions may lead to improvements in clinical outcome. However, postoperative imaging demonstrated a high incidence of full-thickness rotator-cuff defects following repair.Keywords: rotator cuff, PASTA lesion, transtendon repair

Woods TC

2014-06-01

191

Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

Crandall, David Lynn (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-08-01

192

Transcriptional analysis of micro-dissected articular cartilage in post-traumatic murine osteoarthritis  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Objective Identify gene changes in articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) in mice. Compare our data with previously published datasets to ascertain dysregulated pathways and genes in osteoarthritis (OA). Design RNA was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral MTP cartilage, amplified, labelled and hybridized on Illumina WGv2 microarrays. Results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for selected genes. Results Transcriptional analysis and network reconstruction revealed changes in extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal genes induced by DMM. TGF? signalling pathway and complement and coagulation cascade genes were regulated at 2 weeks. Fibronectin (Fn1) is a hub in a reconstructed network at 2 weeks. Regulated genes decrease over time. By 8 weeks fibromodulin (Fmod) and tenascin N (Tnn) are the only dysregulated genes present in the DMM operated knees. Comparison with human and rodent published gene sets identified genes overlapping between our array and eight other studies. Conclusions Cartilage contributes a minute percentage to the RNA extracted from the whole joint (<0.2%), yet is sensitive to changes in gene expression post-DMM. The post-DMM transcriptional reprogramming wanes over time dissipating by 8 weeks. Common pathways between published gene sets include focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and TGF?. Common genes include Jagged 1 (Jag1), Tetraspanin 2 (Tspan2), neuroblastoma, suppression of tumourigenicity 1 (Nbl1) and N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (Ndrg2). The concomitant genes and pathways we identify may warrant further investigation as biomarkers or modulators of OA. PMID:25545425

Gardiner, M.D.; Vincent, T.L.; Driscoll, C.; Burleigh, A.; Bou-Gharios, G.; Saklatvala, J.; Nagase, H.; Chanalaris, A.

2015-01-01

193

Manifestações articulares atípicas em pacientes com febre reumática / Articular manifestations in patients with atypical rheumatic fever  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: Descrever as características clínicas e a ocorrência de artrite atípica em crianças com diagnóstico de febre reumática (FR) acompanhadas em ambulatórios terciários em Salvador, Bahia. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo, de uma série de casos, do quadro clínico inicial ou recorrência de 41 [...] crianças com diagnóstico de FR. Resultados: Dos pacientes estudados (n=41), 61% eram do sexo masculino; com média de idade de 9,2 anos e idade no momento do diagnóstico entre 5 e 16 anos. Artrite esteve presente em 75,6% dos pacientes; cardite em 75,6%; coreia em 31,7%; eritema marginado em 14,6% e nódulos subcutâneos em 4,9%. Um padrão atípico foi observado em 22 dos 31 casos com artrite (70,9%): envolvimento de pequenas articulações e/ou esqueleto axial em 12 casos (38,7%); duração maior que três semanas em nove (29%); resposta inadequada ao AINH em dois (6,5%); oligoartrite (? quatro articulações) em 22/31 (71%), sendo monoartrite em 6/31 (uma em pés, uma em tornozelo e quatro em joelho). A febre esteve presente em 78% dos casos e 82,9% dos pacientes utilizavam a profilaxia secundária de forma regular. Conclusão: Artrite atípica esteve presente na maioria dos pacientes que cursaram com acometimento articular, constituindo um fator de confundimento diagnóstico e atraso terapêutico adequado. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and the occurrence of atypical arthritis in children diagnosed with rheumatic fever (RF) and followed in tertiary care clinics in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Methodology: A descriptive study of a case series, of the initial clinical presentation, [...] and of recurrence in 41 children diagnosed with RF. Results: Of the patients studied (n=41), 61% were male, mean age of 9.2 years, and mean age at diagnosis between 5 and 16 years. Arthritis was present in 75.6% of patients; carditis in 75.6%; chorea in 31.7%; erythema marginatum in 14.6%; and subcutaneous nodules in 4.9%. An atypical pattern was observed in 22 of 31 cases of arthritis (70.9%): involvement of small joints and/or axial skeleton in 12 cases (38.7%); >3 weeks of duration in 9 (29%); inadequate response to NSAIDs in 2 (6.5%); oligoarthritis (?4 joints) in 22/31 (71%), with monoarthritis in 6/31 (1 in the foot, 1 in the ankle, and 4 in the knee). Fever was present in 78% of the cases, and 82.9% of patients were regularly on secondary prophylaxis. Conclusion: Atypical arthritis was present in most patients presenting with joint involvement, being a confounding factor against a proper diagnosis and of therapeutic delay.

Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente, Robazzi; Simone Rocha de, Araújo; Silas de Araújo, Costa; Amaurí Batista de, Oliveira Júnior; Lívia Souza, Nunes; Isabel, Guimarães.

2014-07-01

194

Manifestações articulares nas viroses exantemáticas / Joint complaints in exanthematic diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A freqüência de manifestações articulares foi avaliada em 251 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial (detecção de IgM por ensaio imunoenzimático) de virose exantemática. As artropatias (artralgia e/ou artrite) foram mais observadas nos casos de dengue (49%) e de rubéola (38,2%) do que naqu [...] eles com parvovirose humana (30%) e sarampo (28,1%). Com exceção do sarampo, as artropatias predominaram nos adultos (315 anos de idade), sendo tal diferença estatisticamente significativa. A ocorrência maior de artropatias em adultos foi mais evidente nos pacientes com parvovirose (75%), rubéola (65%) e dengue (57,7%) do que naqueles com sarampo (31%). As queixas articulares também predominaram nos pacientes do sexo feminino para todas as viroses avaliadas. Os resultados encontrados demonstram o freqüente acometimento articular nas doenças estudadas, e indicam a necessidade de comprovação laboratorial para o diagnóstico diferencial entre elas. Abstract in english The frequency of arthropathy was evaluated in 251 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis (specific IgM detection by enzyme immunoassay) of exanthematic disease. Arthropathy (arthralgia and/or arthritis) was more frequent in dengue fever (49%) and rubella (38.2%) cases than in human parvovi [...] rus (30%) and measles (28.1%) cases. Except for measles cases, joint complaints prevailed in adults (315 years of age) and this difference was significant. The higher frequency of arthropathy in adults was more evident in human parvovirus (75%), rubella (65%) and dengue fever (57.7%) cases than in measles cases (31%). Arthropathy was also more frequent in females for all rash diseases studied. The results of this study showed the high occurrence of joint complaints in the diseases described here and the importance of laboratory confirmation for their differential diagnosis.

Solange Artimos de, Oliveira; Luís A.B., Camacho; Lílian Rachel, Bettini; Daniele Guerreiro, Fernandes; Nathalia A.C., Gouvea; Roberto A.Q., Barros; Sérgio, Setúbal; Marilda Mendonça, Siqueira.

1999-04-01

195

ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

Matsumoto, Emi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

2012-03-30

196

Manifestações articulares nas viroses exantemáticas Joint complaints in exanthematic diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A freqüência de manifestações articulares foi avaliada em 251 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial (detecção de IgM por ensaio imunoenzimático de virose exantemática. As artropatias (artralgia e/ou artrite foram mais observadas nos casos de dengue (49% e de rubéola (38,2% do que naqueles com parvovirose humana (30% e sarampo (28,1%. Com exceção do sarampo, as artropatias predominaram nos adultos (315 anos de idade, sendo tal diferença estatisticamente significativa. A ocorrência maior de artropatias em adultos foi mais evidente nos pacientes com parvovirose (75%, rubéola (65% e dengue (57,7% do que naqueles com sarampo (31%. As queixas articulares também predominaram nos pacientes do sexo feminino para todas as viroses avaliadas. Os resultados encontrados demonstram o freqüente acometimento articular nas doenças estudadas, e indicam a necessidade de comprovação laboratorial para o diagnóstico diferencial entre elas.The frequency of arthropathy was evaluated in 251 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis (specific IgM detection by enzyme immunoassay of exanthematic disease. Arthropathy (arthralgia and/or arthritis was more frequent in dengue fever (49% and rubella (38.2% cases than in human parvovirus (30% and measles (28.1% cases. Except for measles cases, joint complaints prevailed in adults (315 years of age and this difference was significant. The higher frequency of arthropathy in adults was more evident in human parvovirus (75%, rubella (65% and dengue fever (57.7% cases than in measles cases (31%. Arthropathy was also more frequent in females for all rash diseases studied. The results of this study showed the high occurrence of joint complaints in the diseases described here and the importance of laboratory confirmation for their differential diagnosis.

Solange Artimos de Oliveira

1999-04-01

197

Intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the proximal ulna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoid osteoma is a common benign osteogenic bone neoplasm characterized histologically by increased osteoid tissue formation with an intracortical nidus surrounded by cortical thickening and vascular fibrous stroma and sclerosis. The clinical presentation classically includes severe nocturnal pain that is improved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Younger men (second and third decades) have the highest incidence, with the most frequent sites of involvement being the long bones or axial skeleton. Osteoid osteoma may be missed due to the lesion occurring in an atypical location or due to failure to obtain advanced imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT). Intralesional or wide excision, or CT-guided radiofrequency ablation if available, leads to predictable and rapid pain relief. The authors report the case of a 24-year-old man who had a painful flexion contracture of his dominant right elbow for 1.5 years, secondary to an intra-articular osteoid osteoma. Attempted motion, passive or active, produced a marked exacerbation of pain. Previous surgeries, including an elbow synovectomy and an ulnar nerve transposition, had been unsuccessful in relieving his pain. Plain radiographs demonstrated a small area of periosteal thickening adjacent to the sublime tubercle. Fine-cut CT scan demonstrated an osteoid osteoma within the articular surface of the trochlear notch of the olecranon, adjacent to the sublime tubercle. Because of a perceived risk to the surrounding articular cartilage, CT-guided radiofrequency ablation was not performed. Wide en bloc surgical excision of the nidus was performed, with complete resolution of pain and rapid return to normal function. PMID:24679212

Kraus, Gabriel; Fortes, Sofia; Vazquez, Joyce; Renfree, Kevin J

2014-02-01

198

Impact of therapeutic irradiation on healthy articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced complications in bone and cartilage are of increasing concern due to potential long-term effects in cancer survivors. Healthy articular cartilage may be exposed to radiation during either chondrosarcoma treatment or in-field radiotherapy of tumors located in close proximity to articulation. Cartilage exposed to radiation undergoes bone differentiation and senescence, which can lead to painful and disabling sequelae that can impair patient quality of life. An understanding of the biological processes involved in healthy cartilage response to radiotherapy may not only optimize the delivery of therapeutic radiation but also reduce the risk of long-term sequelae in irradiated cartilage. Over the last few decades, radiobiology studies have focused primarily on signaling and repair of DNA damage pathways induced by ionizing radiation in immortalized cells under conditions dramatically different from human homeostasis. This research needs to be continued and broadened, since the range of normal tissue responses to radiation exposure is still not fully understood, despite being recognized as the major limiting factor in the rupture of tissue homeostasis after radiotherapy. Human articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with low intracellular oxygen levels and is comprised of a single cell lineage of chondrocytes embedded in a highly dense and structured extracellular matrix. These relatively unique features may impact inherent cell radiation sensitivity and suggests that canonical cell responses to ionizing radiation may not be applicable to articular cartilage. Despite the number of studies in this field, radiation-induced modifications of chondrocyte proteome remain unclear because of the dramatic variability in reported experimental conditions. In this review, we propose to introduce cartilage tissue physiology and microenvironment concepts, and then present a comprehensive synthesis of cartilage radiation biology. PMID:25587740

Saintigny, Yannick; Cruet-Hennequart, Séverine; Hamdi, Dounia Houria; Chevalier, François; Lefaix, Jean-Louis

2015-02-01

199

Fibroma aponeurótico calcificante intra articular. Presentación de un caso.  

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Full Text Available El fibroma aponeurótico juvenil es un tumor infrecuente del tejido blando que se localiza con mayor periodicidad en niños y adolescentes en la región distal de las extremidades, aunque se reportan casos en otras edades y localización. Se presenta un paciente de 18 años de edad, masculino con fibroma aponeurótico calcificante en la rodilla derecha intra articular, con una localización poco común. El diagnóstico se realizó por exéresis quirúrgica del tumor. Se hace referencia al cuadro clínico, terapéutica efectuada y seguimiento por 3 años. Se revisó literatura actualizada referente al tema. Por ser un caso infrecuente se decide su publicación.

Niurka Rabelo Aday

2010-02-01

200

Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The ?2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

201

I Focalize, You Focalize, We All Focalize Together: Audience Participation in Persepolis  

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Full Text Available

Abstract (E: This article combines theories of cognition and empathy with focalization theory to examine how and why different forms of audience engagement in fictional worlds are cued. The article argues that critics should examine the differences between engagement that encourages audiences to apply their own frames to the world presented and type engagement cued by means of point-of-view shots and close-ups of facial expressions.

Abstract (F: Cet article combine les théories de la cognition et de l’empathie avec la théorie de la focalisation afin d’analyser comment et pourquoi certaines œuvres construisent la manière dont le public est invité à s’investir dans des mondes fictionnels. Il défend l’idée que les critiques devraient examiner avant tout les différences entre un type d’investissement qui encourage les publics à appliquer leurs propres schémas de référence au monde de la fiction et un type d’investissement qui passe surtout par des techniques de point de vue et de plans rapprochés d’expressions faciles.

Lizzie Nixon

2010-06-01

202

A graphic analysis of the biomechanics of the massless bi-articular chain. application to the proximal bi-articular chain of the human finger.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper a model is presented which visualises the biomechanical functioning of the loaded and unloaded theree-tendon bi-articular chain. This model allows to graphically determine in any position of the chain (i) the exact ranges of loads which can be sustained by the different motors; (ii) the motors forces; (iii) the feasibility of the (unloaded) equilibrium; and (iv) the conditions for the good controllability of the bi-articular chain. These results are applied to the proximal three-motor bi-articular chain of the human finger, when controlled by the superficial flexor, interosseus, and extensor only. It is shown that (i) the anatomic position of the superficial flexor and extensor is a prime determinant in the good functioning of this chain; (ii) the proximal bi-articular chain of the human finger can well sustain certain flexion loads but is structurally weak for extension loads; and (iii) the chain is not optimally controllable. PMID:8850641

Leijnse, J N

1996-03-01

203

Predicting articular erosion in hallux valgus: clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a prospective intraoperative evaluation of the articular wear pattern of the first metatarsal, tibial and fibular sesamoids, and base of the proximal phalanx of 166 feet undergoing hallux valgus surgery. The collected data were compared with various clinical parameters and radiographic measurements to determine if any of these variables can predict the incidence and location of articular erosion. The incidence and predictability of the location of the articular erosion increased significantly as the patient's age ( P = .000), intermetatarsal angle 1-2 ( P = .004), hallux abductus angle ( P = .000), tibial sesamoid position ( P = .016), and proximal articular set angle ( P = .02) increased. The association of foot type (ie, digital length pattern), metatarsal protrusion distance, metatarsal head shape, and hallux abductus interphalangeus was not significant. Therefore, preoperative clinical parameters (ie, age) and radiographic measurements (ie, intermetatarsal angle 1-2, hallux abductus angle, tibial sesamoid position, and proximal articular set angle) can directly define the incidence and location of articular erosion and are helpful in the preoperative assessment of the hallux valgus deformity. In addition, nearly every first metatarsophalangeal joint evaluated had some degree of articular erosion and, in certain circumstances (ie, advanced age and increased proximal articular set angle), it was universal and extensive. PMID:15704078

Roukis, Thomas S; Weil, Lowell Scott; Weil, Lowell Scott; Landsman, Adam S

2005-01-01

204

Autoradiographic evidence of 125I-?-endorphin binding sites in the articular cartilage of the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 125I-?-endorphin was intravenously injected to rats, an autoradiographic study of distal femur articular cartilage was performed. Results show a specific binding of 125I-?-endorphin to chondrocytes, suggesting the possible existence of an opiate modulation of articular cartilage

205

Listeria monocytogenes septic arthritis following intra-articular yttrium-90 therapy.  

OpenAIRE

Listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of septic arthritis, which usually occurs in a host compromised by systemic illness. Intra-articular irradiation with yttrium-90 is generally free of complication. We report a case of intra-articular sepsis of the knee joint by Listeria monocytogenes acquired under unusual circumstances.

Wilson, A. P.; Prouse, P. J.; Gumpel, J. M.

1984-01-01

206

Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea / Anticitrulin antibody and the extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR) pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA), relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP) son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico [...] en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987) mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ? 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p Abstract in english A large proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients develop extra-articular manifestations (EAM), which are associated with morbidity and early mortality. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibody has proven to be highly specific for the diagnosis of RA, associated with severe joint dam [...] age and may have some role in the pathogenesis of EAM. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ACCP antibody and the presence of EAM in RA patients. Seventy four RA patients (ACR 1987) with EAM, > 18 years, more than 6 months duration were included, and an EAM free control, matched by sex and age, for each patient. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared using t-test, chi-square or Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed: p ? 0.05. Patients with EAM presented a greater value of ACCP antibody (116 vs. 34, p

María Jezabel, Haye Salinas; Soledad, Retamozo; Lorena, Vetorazzi; Natalia, Peano; Patricia Ericka, Díaz Cuiza; María Sol, Castaños Menescardi; Evangelina María, Miretti; Laura Mariela, Encinas; Ana Cecilia, Álvarez; Verónica, Saurit; Alejandro, Alvarellos; Francisco, Caeiro.

2013-02-01

207

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2003-12-15

208

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

209

Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido [...] a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson) e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados. Abstract in english In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the [...] tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation), and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.

Thibault, Lemaire; Salah, Naili; Vittorio, Sansalone.

2010-03-01

210

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis with intra-articular distraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has shown high rates of union comparable to those with open arthrodesis but with substantially less postoperative morbidity, shorter operative times, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays. To easily perform arthroscopic resection of the articular cartilage, sufficient distraction of the joint is necessary to insert the arthroscope and instruments. However, sometimes, standard noninvasive ankle distraction will not be sufficient in post-traumatic ankle arthritis, with the development of arthrofibrosis and joint contracture after severe ankle trauma. In the present report, we describe a technique to distract the ankle joint by inserting a 4.6-mm stainless steel cannula with a blunt trocar inside the joint. The cannula allowed sufficient intra-articular distraction, and, at the same time, a 4.0-mm arthroscope can be inserted through the cannula to view the joint. Screws can be inserted to fix the joint under fluoroscopic guidance without changing the patient's position or removing the noninvasive distraction device and leg holder, which are often necessary during standard arthroscopic arthrodesis with noninvasive distraction. PMID:24717518

Kim, Hyong Nyun; Jeon, June Young; Noh, Kyu Cheol; Kim, Hong Kyun; Dong, Quanyu; Park, Yong Wook

2014-01-01

211

Transcription factor Nfat1 deficiency causes osteoarthritis through dysfunction of adult articular chondrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease in middle-aged and older individuals. Previous studies have shown that over-expression of matrix-degrading proteinases and proinflammatory cytokines is associated with osteoarthritic cartilage degradation. However, it remains unclear which transcription factors regulate the expression of these cartilage-degrading molecules in articular chondrocytes. This study demonstrated that mice lacking Nfat1, a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factors, exhibited normal skeletal development but displayed loss of type II collagen (collagen-2) and aggrecan with over-expression of specific matrix-degrading proteinases and proinflammatory cytokines in young adult articular cartilage of load-bearing joints. These initial changes are followed by articular chondrocyte proliferation/clustering, progressive articular surface destruction, periarticular chondro-osteophyte formation and exposure of thickened subchondral bone, all of which resemble human OA. Forced expression of Nfat1 delivered with lentiviral vectors in cultured 3 month-old primary Nfat1 knockout (Nfat1(-/-)) articular chondrocytes partially or completely rescued the abnormal catabolic and anabolic activities of Nfat1(-/-) articular chondrocytes. These new findings revealed a previously unrecognized critical role of Nfat1 in maintaining the physiological function of differentiated adult articular chondrocytes through regulating the expression of specific matrix-degrading proteinases and proinflammatory cytokines. Nfat1 deficiency causes OA due to an imbalance between the catabolic and anabolic activities of adult articular chondrocytes, leading to articular cartilage degradation and failed repair activities in and around articular cartilage. These results may provide new insights into the aetiology, pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies for osteoarthritis. PMID:19526482

Wang, Jinxi; Gardner, Brian M; Lu, Qinghua; Rodova, Marianna; Woodbury, Brent G; Yost, John G; Roby, Katherine F; Pinson, David M; Tawfik, Ossama; Anderson, Harrison C

2009-10-01

212

Solid-state curved focal plane arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

2010-01-01

213

Case report 333: Osteochondral fracture of the right patella without an osteochondral defect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summary, a case is presented of a 14-year-old male who presented with pain in the right knee with a history which suggested the possibility that an injury of the knee had occurred during a summer in camp. Radiological studies showed a large defect in the articular surface of the right patella, but no loose body could be identified. (orig./WU)

214

Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

Kurokawa Takayuki

2011-09-01

215

Controling the number of focal elements  

OpenAIRE

A basic belief assignment can have up to 2^n focal elements, and combining them with a simple conjunctive operator will need O(2^2n) operations. This article proposes some techniques to limit the size of the focal sets of the bbas to be combined while preserving a large part of the information they carry. The first section revisits some well-known definitions with an algorithmic point of vue. The second section proposes a matrix way of building the least committed isopignist...

Osswald, Christophe

2013-01-01

216

Tibia Vara due to Focal Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case of unilateral tibia vara associated with an area of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia in the medial aspect of the right proximal tibia. Such a case has not been described previously. The affected child was 8 months old. Deformity resolved without aggressive treatment. The pathogenesis of the focal lesion remains controversial. The most likely explanation is that the mesenchymal anlage of the tibial metaphysis has for unknown reasons, developed abnormality at the insertion of the pes anserinus. Keywords: Tibia Vara, Pes Anserinus

A Tavakoli

2004-06-01

217

Focal splenic masses of the extramedullary hematopoiesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Extramedullary hematopoiesis arises from pleuripotential stem cells distributed throughout the body. It is most common in patients with congenital hemolytic anemia, such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and hereditary spherocytosis as a response to ineffective red blood cell formation. Although microscopic foci of Extramedullary hematopoiesis are commonly seen in the spleen and liver parenchyma, focal mass-like lesion of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and spleen are rare. We report a case of intrasplenic focal extramedullary hematopoiesis lesions and the imaging features of extramedullary hematopoiesis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should always be considered as a diagnosis in a patient with a known hematological disorder

218

Differences between diffuse and focal autoimmune pancreatitis  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To investigate differences in clinical features between diffuse- and focal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). METHODS: Based on radiological findings by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, we divided 67 AIP patients into diffuse type (D type) and focal type (F type). We further divided F type into head type (H type) and body and/or tail type (B/T type) according to the location of enlargement. Finally, we classified the 67 AIP patients into three groups: D type, H typ...

Sawako Kuruma; Terumi Kamisawa; Seiichi Hara; Taku Tabata; Yoshihiko Inaba; Kensuke Takuma

2012-01-01

219

Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

O'Rourke, D J; Bergin, A; Rotenberg, A; Peters, J; Gorman, M; Poduri, A; Cryan, J; Lidov, H; Madsen, J; Harini, C

2014-01-01

220

Rehabilitación ocluso-articular en un paciente bruxópata / Occlusal-articular rehabilitation in a patient with bruxism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la presentación del caso de un paciente masculino de 68 años de edad que acudió a la Consulta de Trastornos Temporomandibulares de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, por presentar problemas estéticos y dificultades masticatorias. Durante la anamnesis y el examen físico se observar [...] on facetas de desgastes oclusales, disminución de la dimensión vertical y prominencias óseas asociadas al bruxismo. Se realizó la discusión del caso y el tratamiento seguido para su rehabilitación ocluso-articular. El resultado final fue la restauración de la estética y la función. Abstract in english This is the presentation of the case of a male patient aged 68 came to our consultation of temporomandibular disorders of the Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana due to esthetic problems and mastication difficulty. During anamnesis and physical examination it was possible to note occlusal wea [...] r facets, decrease of vertical dimension and bone prominences associated with bruxism. Case was discussed and treatment was followed for its occlusal-articular rehabilitation. Final result was the restoration of esthetics and function.

José Miguel, Montero Parrilla; Zuilén, Jiménez Quintana.

2011-09-01

221

O gel de plasma rico em plaquetas propicia a regeneração da cartilagem articular do joelho de ovelhas / Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in knees of sheeps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração da cartilagem articular em defeitos osteocondrais do joelho induzidos pelo plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) autógeno. MÉTODOS: Defeitos osteocondrais produzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os joelhos de dez ovelhas foram preenchidos com PRP autógeno à direita e deixados [...] vazios à esquerda. Avaliação macroscópica e histológica foram efetuadas 12 semanas mais tarde. Os resultados foram avaliados por um escore geral de ambas as avaliações macroscópica e histológica comparativamente entre os lados por meio do teste pareado de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: o aspecto macroscópico não foi uniforme entre os animais, nem diferiu entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,03125); em nenhum caso o tecido regenerado se nivelou com a cartilagem normal circundante. Ao exame histológico, cartilagem aparentemente normal não foi detectada em nenhum joelho, mas uma cartilagem pouco diferenciada estava presente em sete joelhos direitos e em três joelhos esquerdos. Tecido fibrocartilaginoso estava presente nos joelhos restantes, com diferença significante no escore geral entre os joelhos direitos e esquerdos (p=0,0313). CONCLUSÃO: o PRP como usado neste estudo tem propriedades reparativas da cartilagem articular no joelho de ovelhas, principalmente por estimular a formação de tecido fibrocartilaginoso. Trabalho Experimental. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the joint cartilage of the knee induced by autologous platelet-rich plasma (pRp). METHODS: osteochondral defects produced in the trochlear groove of both knees of ten sheep; defects of the right knees were filled with autologous pRp a [...] nd the left knees were left unfilled. macroscopic and microscopic evaluation was carried out 12 week later. the results were evaluated by the total score of both macroscopic and microscopic evaluations comparing the two sides through the wilcoxon paired test. RESULTS: macroscopic appearance was not uniform among animals, nor was it different between the right and left knees (p=0.3125), and in no case the regenerated tissue was equal to the normal surrounding cartilage. at histological examination, apparently normal cartilage was not detected in any knee, but a poorly differentiated cartilage was present in 7 right knees, compared to 3 left knees. fibrocartilaginous tissue was present in most of the remaining knees, with a significant difference in the overall score between right and left knees (p=0.0313). CONCLUSION: the pRp as used in this study has reparative properties of the joint cartilage of sheep knees, mostly by stimulating the formation of a fibrocartilaginous tissue. Laboratory Investigation.

Márcio de Oliveira, Carneiro; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; José, Barbieri Neto.

2013-04-01

222

Neural Tube Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

223

Extended defects in Germanium  

CERN Document Server

Intends to provide a fundamental understanding of the extended-defect formation during Ge materials and device processing, providing ways to distinguish harmful from less detrimental defects and should point out ways for defect engineering and control.

Osgood, R M

2008-01-01

224

Precise spatial restriction of BMP signaling is essential for articular cartilage differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The articular cartilage, which lines the joints of the limb skeleton, is distinct from the adjoining transient cartilage, and yet, it differentiates as a unique population within a contiguous cartilage element. Current literature suggests that articular cartilage and transient cartilage originate from different cell populations. Using a combination of lineage tracing and pulse-chase of actively proliferating chondrocytes, we here demonstrate that, similar to transient cartilage, embryonic articular cartilage cells also originate from the proliferating chondrocytes situated near the distal ends of skeletal anlagen. We show that nascent cartilage cells are capable of differentiating as articular or transient cartilage, depending on exposure to Wnt or BMP signaling, respectively. The spatial organization of the articular cartilage results from a band of Nog-expressing cells, which insulates these proliferating chondrocytes from BMP signaling and allows them to differentiate as articular cartilage under the influence of Wnt signaling emanating from the interzone. Through experiments conducted in both chick and mouse embryos we have developed a model explaining simultaneous growth and differentiation of transient and articular cartilage in juxtaposed domains. PMID:25758226

Ray, Ayan; Singh, Pratik Narendra Pratap; Sohaskey, Michael L; Harland, Richard M; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

2015-03-15

225

MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

1999-06-17

226

Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

2006-01-01

227

Crowding in the GAIA spectrograph focal plane  

OpenAIRE

Superpositions of stellar tracings are present in every slitless spectrograph. The probability for such overlaps in the GAIA RVS spectrograph focal plane is estimated using photometric observations of 66 stellar fields, mostly close to the Galactic plane. It is shown that overlaps of bright stars (V

Zwitter, Tomaz; Henden, Arne

2003-01-01

228

The Effect of 3D Nanofibrous Scaffolds on the Chondrogenesis of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Application in Restoration of Cartilage Defects  

OpenAIRE

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) rendered the reprogramming of terminally differentiated cells to primary stem cells with pluripotency possible and provided potential for the regeneration and restoration of cartilage defect. Chondrogenic differentiation of iPSCs is crucial for their application in cartilage tissue engineering. In this study we investigated the effect of 3D nanofibrous scaffolds on the chondrogenesis of iPSCs and articular cartilage defect restoration. S...

Liu, Ji; Nie, Huarong; Xu, Zhengliang; Niu, Xin; Guo, Shangchun; Yin, Junhui; Guo, Fei; Li, Gang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Changqing

2014-01-01

229

Heterogeneous three-dimensional strain fields during unconfined cyclic compression in bovine articular cartilage explants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage provides critical load-bearing and tribological properties to the normal function of diarthrodial joints. The unique properties of cartilage, as well as heterogeneous deformations during mechanical compression, are due to the nonuniform microstructural organization of tissue components such as collagens and proteoglycans. A new cartilage deformation by tag registration (CDTR) technique has been developed by the authors to determine heterogeneous deformations in articular cartilage explants. The technique uses a combination of specialized MRI methods, a custom cyclic loading apparatus, and image processing software. The objective of this study was to use the CDTR technique to document strain patterns throughout the volume of normal bovine articular cartilage explants during cyclic unconfined compression at two physiologically-relevant applied normal stress levels (1.29 and 2.57 MPa). Despite simple uniaxial cyclic compressive loading with a flat, nonporous indenter, strain patterns were heterogeneous. Strains in the thickness direction (E(yy)) were compressive, varied nonlinearly with depth from the articular surface from a maximum magnitude of 11% at the articular surface, and were comparable despite a 2-fold increase in applied normal stress. Strains perpendicular to the thickness direction (E(xx) and E(zz)) were tensile, decreased linearly with depth from the articular surface from a maximum of 7%, and increased in magnitude 2.5-fold with a 2-fold increase in applied normal stress. Shear strains in the transverse plane (E(xz)) were approximately zero while shear strains in the other two planes were much larger and increased in magnitude with depth from the articular surface, reaching maximum magnitudes of 2% at the articular cartilage-subchondral bone interface. In general, strain patterns indicated that cartilage osteochondral explants exhibited depth-dependent nonisotropic behavior during uniaxial cyclic loading. These results are useful in verifying constitutive formulations of articular cartilage during cyclic unconfined compression and in characterizing the micromechanical environment likely experienced by individual chondrocytes throughout the tissue volume. PMID:15972257

Neu, C P; Hull, M L; Walton, J H

2005-11-01

230

Intra-articular hip injection using anatomic surface landmarks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intra-articular hip injection is a frequently used technique for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and is gaining more importance for the early diagnosis of hip disease. It is commonly performed with imaging guidance such as ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic control. We describe our technique of injection of the hip using relative distances from anatomic surface landmarks, with the needle insertion point at the site of the proximal anterolateral portal for hip arthroscopy, with a posterior direction of 30° and targeted toward a junctional point between 2 perpendicular lines, 1 distal from the anterior superior iliac spine and the second anterior from the tip of the greater trochanter. This technique can be used without imaging guidance in the outpatient clinic. Moreover, it minimizes the need for radiographic exposure for more critical injections, such as the injection of contrast material before conducting magnetic resonance arthrogaphy of the hip. PMID:23875141

Masoud, Mohammad A; Said, Hatem G

2013-05-01

231

Theory of the short time mechanical relaxation in articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular cartilage is comprised of macromolecules, proteoglycans, with (charged) chondroitin sulfate side-chains attached to them. The proteoglycans are attached to longer hyaluronic acid chains, trapped within a network of type II collagen fibrils. As a consequence of their relatively long persistence lengths, the number of persistence lengths along the chondroitin sulfate and proteoglycan chains is relatively small, and consequently, the retraction times for these side chains are also quite short. We argue that, as a consequence of this, they will not significantly inhibit the reptation of the hyaluronic acid chains. Scaling arguments applied to this model allow us to show that the shortest of the mechanical relaxation times of cartilage, that have been determined by Fyhrie and Barone to be due to reptation of the hyaluronic acid polymers, should have a dependence on the load, i.e., force per unit interface area P, carried by the cartilage, proportional to P(3/2). PMID:22070338

Ruberti, J W; Sokoloff, J B

2011-10-01

232

MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms.

Huegli, Rolf W. E-mail: rhuegli@uhbs.ch; Moelleken, Sonja M.C.; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K.; Tirman, Phillip F.J

2005-01-01

233

[Evaluation of the efficacy of intra-articular administration of somatostatin in rheumatoid arthritis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The above study was undertaken in order to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular somatostatin in rheumatoid arthritis. Twelve patients were enrolled and all of them concluded the experiment of three consecutive intra-articular somatostatin injections of 750 mcg at two-weekly intervals. All patients reported a statistically significant reduction in painful symptomatology, particularly of pain during active movement, pain at climbing stairs, and morning stiffness. In one patient, telethermography revealed complete subsidence of articular inflammation. There were neither local nor systemic side effects. PMID:7687941

Fioravanti, A; Franci, A; Gelli, R; Minari, C; Montemerani, M; Moscato, P; Marcolongo, R

1993-05-01

234

FAM190A Deficiency Creates a Cell Division Defect  

OpenAIRE

Like the p16, SMAD4, and RB1 genes, FAM190A (alias CCSER1) lies at a consensus site of homogeneous genomic deletions in human cancer. FAM190A transcripts in 40% of cancers also contain in-frame deletions of evolutionarily conserved exons. Its gene function was unknown. We found an internal deletion of the FAM190A gene in a pancreatic cancer having prominent focal multinuclearity. The experimental knockdown of FAM190A expression by shRNA caused focal cytokinesis defects, multipolar mitosis, an...

Patel, Kalpesh; Scrimieri, Francesca; Ghosh, Soma; Zhong, Jun; Kim, Min-sik; Ren, Yunzhao R.; Morgan, Richard A.; Iacobuzio-donahue, Christine A.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Kern, Scott E.

2013-01-01

235

Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode  

OpenAIRE

Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surfa...

Fuentes, Daniela E.; Bae, Chilman; Butler, Peter J.

2011-01-01

236

Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal

Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.

2013-01-01

237

Radioulnar fusion for forearm defects in children - a salvage procedure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Eight children aged 1-14 yrs with defects in the forearm were treated with the one-bone forearm procedure and followed up for 1-11 yrs. The defects were due to pyogenic osteomyelitis (n=3), osteochondroma (n=3), neurofibromatosis (n=1) and ulnar dysmelia (n=1). The radius was fixed to the ulna shaft [...] with an intramedullary pin in six cases, and two children had centralisation of the radial metaphysis onto the ulna for "radial club hand" type deformity with Kirschner wires. All forearms united in 3-6 months. Shortening ranged from 1-10 cm. Fixed flexion deformity of the elbow (20°) resulted in one child and cubitus valgus (20°) occurred in another. One child had a radial articular tilt of 45°. The procedure achieved stability at the wrist and elbow. There was cosmetic and functional improvement in all patients.

MN, Rasool.

2008-03-01

238

Intra-articular ganglion arising from the meniscofemoral ligament of Humphrey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of an intra-articular ganglion of the knee arising from the anterior meniscofemoral ligament of Humphrey. The MR imaging and arthroscopic appearance of the lesion are illustrated. (orig.)

239

Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

240

The effect of cold air application on intra-articular and skin temperatures in the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed to investigate the effect on the skin and the intra-articular structures of 5-minutes of cold air application. During and after 5 minutes of cold air application on 20 healthy subjects, the skin and intra-articular temperatures were measured by means of an infrared thermogram and a digital k-wire probe, respectively. The results showed that 1) Skin temperature dropped very rapidly by a total of 22.1 degrees C after 5 minutes of cold air application. 2) Intra-articular temperature dropped by 3.9 degrees C after 5 minutes of cold air application. 3) Two hours after the start of treatment with cold air, intra-articular temperatures had still not returned to their baseline values (p cold air application. Finally, 5) a significant correlation r=-0.72 (p cryotherapy (p > 0.05). PMID:12402375

Kim, Young Ho; Baek, Seung Sug; Choi, Ki Sub; Lee, Sang Gun; Park, Si Bog

2002-10-01

241

The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics. (orig.)

Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rajiah, Prabhakar [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-09-15

242

Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors. To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas. A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors. We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor. Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells. Abundant myxoid stroma was present, which stained positively with alcian blue and was weakly focally positive with periodic acid Schiff. Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and chromogranin were negative. MIB-1 index was < 0.1%.

De Padua Michelle

2008-05-01

243

Dynamic reactive astrocytes after focal ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Astrocytes are specialized and most numerous glial cell type in the central nervous system and play important roles in physiology. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many neural disorders including focal ischemic stroke, a leading cause of brain injury and human death. One of the prominent pathological features of focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation associated with morphological changes and proliferation. This review paper discusses the recent advances in spatial and temporal dynamics of morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental animal studies. As reactive astrocytes exhibit stem cell-like properties, knowledge of dynamics of reactive astrocytes and glial scar formation will provide important insights for astrocyte-based cell therapy in stroke. PMID:25657720

Ding, Shinghua

2014-12-01

244

Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions  

CERN Document Server

In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random. For double-couple source orientation the random probability distribution function is not uniform, which complicates the calculation of the likelihood value. To better understand the resulting complexities we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two rota...

Kagan, Y Y

2014-01-01

245

Radiopneumographic characteristics of focal pneumonia in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zonal ventilation and blood flow were studied by the radiopneumography method in 50 children of school age with lower-lobe-of-the lung focal pneumonia (26 with left-side and 24 with right-side). It is established that during right-side localization of pneumonic focus preserved was the predomination of ventilation of right lung relative to left. Complete normalization of common and regional indexes of ventilation and blood flow was established by the 21st day from the beginning of treatment during right-side focal pneumonias. In case of left-side localization of pneumonic focus only partial reduction of external respiration and perfusion comes. Therefore, compensatory and reducing capabilities of right lung are preferrable

246

Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice. PMID:20380955

Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

2010-03-01

247

On Holographic Defect Entropy  

OpenAIRE

We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theo...

John Estesblackett Laboratory, Imperial College; Kristan Jensen(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada); Andy O’Bannon(Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP, U.K.); Efstratios Tsatis(8 Kotylaiou Street, Athens 11364, Greece); Timm Wrase(Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, U.S.A.)

2014-01-01

248

Atypical presentation of focal nodular hyperplasia  

OpenAIRE

A 27-year-old man, previously healthy, had an enlarging liver mass incidentally noted at a health check-up 6 months earlier. There were no known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatic tumour seen on magnetic resonance imaging had characteristics of high T2 and low T1 signals, early hyper-enhancement and mild delayed enhancement, which was atypical for focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). An atypical hepatectomy was performed smoothly and the pathologic confirmation of FNH was fina...

Ho, Cheng-maw; Lee, Po-huang

2010-01-01

249

[Focal epithelial hyperplasia in lepromatous leprosy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck (FEH) is most likely caused by human papilloma virus. It mainly occurs in children and young people showing no associated diseases. For the first time, we describe a case of FEH in a patient with lepromatous leprosy who due to persistent erythema nodosum leprosum has been treated with a lang-term glucocorticoid therapy. The question of the competence of lepromatous patients in resisting certain viral infections arises. PMID:6649746

Jacyk, W; Lechner, W

1983-10-15

250

Surgery for drug-resistant focal epilepsy  

OpenAIRE

During the colloquium on drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore on August 16-18, 2013, a number of presentations were made on the surgically remediable lesional epilepsy syndromes, presurgical evaluation, surgical techniques, neuropathology of drug resistance focal epilepsy and surgical outcome. This pictorial essay with the illustrative case examples provides an overview of the various surgical techniques for the management...

Rao, Malla Bhaskara; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Sinha, Sanjib; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Mahadevan, Anita; Bhat, Maya; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy

2014-01-01

251

Focal Cortical Dysplasia and Epilepsy Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most commonly encountered developmental malformation that causes refractory epilepsy. With advances in neuroimaging techniques, in particular MRI, recent studies have revealed a higher prevalence of FCD than previously estimated and have improved the preoperative identification and classification of these abnormalities. However, MRI frequently does not show any abnormalities in patients with pathologically proven FCD. In this situation, functional neuroim...

Lee, Sang Kun; Kim, Dong-wook

2013-01-01

252

Usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection of the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the accuracy of the intra-articular location of hyaluronic acid injection using a blind approach and to establish the usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection. A fluoroscopy unit was used for 368 intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid to 93 knees in 65 patients. Initially, blind needle positioning was conducted on the fluoroscopy table. The failure rate of the blind approach among the 368 injections was evaluated, and a relationship between the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade) and the incidence of repeated failures using the blind approach was determined for injections to 52 knees in 37 patients who received a complete cycle of injections (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections). Using a blind approach, 298 of 368 trials (81.2%) resulted in a needle tip being placed in an intra-articular location, while 70 of 368 trials resulted in an extra-articular placement of the needle tip. Among 52 knees to which a complete cycle of injection (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections) was administered, repeated failure of intra-articular placement using the blind approach was seen for 18 knees (34.6%); a more severe K-L grade assigned was associated with a higher rate of repeated failure. However, the trend was not statistically significant based on the Chi-squared test (? value = 0.14). Fluoroscopy-guided needle placement may be helpful to ensure therapeutic intra-articularful to ensure therapeutic intra-articular injection of the knee

253

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib) is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteo...

Huilin Yang; Genlin Wang; Dinghua Jiang; Lixin Huang; Qin Shi; Xuesong Zhu; Jun Zou

2010-01-01

254

T2 Mapping of Articular Cartilage of Glenohumeral Joint with Routine MRI Correlation—Initial Experience  

OpenAIRE

The evaluation of articular cartilage currently relies primarily on the identification of morphological alterations of the articular cartilage. Unlike anatomic imaging, T2 mapping is sensitive to changes in the chemical composition and structure of the cartilage. Clinical evaluation of T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint has not been previously reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint in routine clinica...

Maizlin, Zeev V.; Clement, Jason J.; Patola, Wayne B.; Fenton, David M.; Gillies, Jean H.; Vos, Patrick M.; Jacobson, Jon A.

2009-01-01

255

In Situ measurement of transport between subchondral bone and articular cartilage  

OpenAIRE

Subchondral bone and articular cartilage play complementary roles in load bearing of the joints. Although the biomechanical coupling between subchondral bone and articular cartilage is well established, it remains unclear whether direct biochemical communication exists between them. The calcified cartilage between these two compartments was generally believed to be impermeable to transport of solutes and gases, previously. However, recent studies found that small molecules could penetrate int...

Pan, Jun; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Li, Wen; Novotny, John E.; Doty, Stephen B.; Wang, Liyun

2009-01-01

256

Can radiological results be surrogate markers of functional outcome in distal radial extra-articular fractures?  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between radiological and functional results in patients with extra-articular fractures of the distal radius. We conducted a prospective study of radiological and functional assessment in 95 consecutively selected extra-articular distal radius fractures. There were two patient groups: more than 60 and less than 60 years of age. The final fracture union radiographs were analysed for their functional outcome using the Michigan Hand Outc...

Kumar, Skand; Penematsa, Subbaraju; Sadri, Maziar; Deshmukh, Subodh C.

2007-01-01

257

Molecular regulation of articular chondrocyte function and its significance in osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. Histopathologically, OA is characterized by a progressive loss of articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, thickening of subchondral bone, and subchondral cyst formation. All current therapies are aimed at symptomatic control and have limited impacts on impeding or reversing the histopathologic progression to advanced OA. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of matrix-degrading proteinases and proinflammatory cytokines is associated with osteoarthritic cartilage degradation. However, clinical trials applying an inhibitor of proteinases or proinflammatory cytokines have been unsuccessful. A more sophisticated understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that control the function of articular chondrocytes is paramount to developing effective treatments. Since multiple catabolic factors and pathological chondrocyte hypertrophy are involved in the development of OA, it is important to identify which upstream factors regulate the expression of catabolic molecules and/or chondrocyte hypertrophy in articular cartilage. This review summarizes the current studies on the molecular regulation, with a main focus on transcriptional regulation, of the function of adult articular chondrocytes and its significance in the pathogenesis and treatment of OA. Recent studies have discovered that transcription factor Nfat1 may play an important role in maintaining the physiological function of adult articular chondrocytes. Nfat1-deficient mice exhibit normal skeletal development but display most of the features of human OA as adults, including chondrocyte hypertrophy with overexpression of specific matrix-degrading proteinases and proinflammatory cytokines in adult articular cartilage. ß-catenin transcriptional signaling in articular chondrocytes may also be involved in the pathogenesis of OA. Activation of ß-catenin leads to OA-like phenotypes with overexpression of specific matrix-degrading proteinases in articular cartilage of adult mice. These and other regulatory mechanisms described in this review may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of OA and the development of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of OA. PMID:21210351

Schroeppel, J P; Crist, J D; Anderson, H C; Wang, J

2011-03-01

258

Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Similarities between the Spatial Architectures of Postnatal Articular and Growth Plate Cartilage  

OpenAIRE

Articular and growth plate cartilage are discrete tissues but arise from a common cartilaginous condensation and have comparable spatial architectures consisting of distinct layers of chondrocytes. To investigate similarities and differences between articular and growth plate cartilage and to explore transcriptional changes that occur during the onset of their divergence, we performed manual microdissection of 10-day-old rat proximal tibias, microarray analysis, bioinformatics, and real-time ...

Chau, Michael; Lui, Julian C.; Landman, Ellie B. M.; Spa?th, Stephan-stanislaw; Vortkamp, Andrea; Baron, Jeffrey; Nilsson, Ola

2014-01-01

259

Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

Mulhall, K J

2002-10-01

260

Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: A systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue) corticosteroid injection. Methods A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were...

Brinks Aaltien; Koes Bart W; Cw, Volkers Aloysius; An, Verhaar Jan; Ma, Bierma-zeinstra Sita

2010-01-01

261

Electrophysiological demonstration of Na+/Ca2+ exchange in bovine articular chondrocytes  

OpenAIRE

Altered fluxes of Ca2+ across the chondrocyte membrane have been proposed as one pathway by which mechanical load can modulate cartilage turnover. In many cells, Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) plays a key role in Ca2+ homeostasis, and recent studies have suggested it is operative in articular chondrocytes. In this study, an electrophysiological characterisation of NCX in articular bovine chondrocytes has been performed, using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, and the effects of inhibitors and th...

Sa?nchez, Julio C.; Powell, Trevor; Staines, Henry M.; Wilkins, Robert J.

2006-01-01

262

New perspectives for articular cartilage repair treatment through tissue engineering: A contemporary review  

OpenAIRE

In this paper review we describe benefits and disadvantages of the established methods of cartilage regeneration that seem to have a better long-term effectiveness. We illustrated the anatomical aspect of the knee joint cartilage, the current state of cartilage tissue engineering, through mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials, and in conclusion we provide a short overview on the rehabilitation after articular cartilage repair procedures. Adult articular cartilage has low capacity to repair ...

Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Leonardi, Rosalia; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Giunta, Angelo; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio

2014-01-01

263

The role of intra-articular hyaluronan (Sinovial®) in the treatment of osteoarthritis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) leads to significant pain and disability. For pain relief, a tailored approach using non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies is recommended. If adequate symptom relief is not achieved with acetaminophen, other pharmacological options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical analgesics, intra-articular corticosteroids and intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) viscosupplementation. Most of these therapies generally do not i...

Gigante, Antonio; Callegari, Leonardo

2010-01-01

264

The Variations in Calcaneal Articular Facets In North Indian Population and its Clinical Implication  

OpenAIRE

Aims and Objectives- To know the most common type of calcanei in North Indian population and itsclinical importance. There are three articular facets on superior surface of calcaneus- anterior, middle andposterior. Three types of calcanei are noted according to number and arrangement of the articular facets-type A, B and C. Methodology - The present studywas done on 300 dry adult human calcanei of unknownsex taken from Department of Anatomy Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and R...

Deepinder Kaur Gandhi; Maninder Singh; Anupama Mahajan; Seema

2012-01-01

265

Extra-articular, Intraepiphyseal Drilling for Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee  

OpenAIRE

Symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the knee frequently occur in skeletally immature patients. When conservative treatment fails, retro-articular drilling, also known as intraepiphyseal extra-articular drilling, becomes a viable treatment option. The purpose of this article is to describe our surgical technique and postoperative management of patients with stable osteochondritis dissecans lesions involving the femoral condyles. This technique is reproducible, uses readily availab...

Pennock, Andrew T.; Bomar, James D.; Chambers, Henry G.

2013-01-01

266

Dual Articular Knee in demanding primary and revision replacements in patients with rheumatic diseases  

OpenAIRE

We report the results of 25 total knee replacements in 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using the Dual Articular Knee prosthesis. There were four primary and 21 revision procedures. The main indication was severe joint instability. In four infected arthroplasties a two-stage revision procedure was used. Four patellar tendon avulsions and one deep infection were encountered. Results were excellent in 18 patients. Dual Articular Knee proved to be favourable in both demanding primary a...

Himanen, A-k; Ma?enpa?a?, H.; Lehto, M.; Ha?ma?la?inen, M.; Belt, E.

2002-01-01

267

Large Focal Plane Arrays for Future Missions  

CERN Document Server

We outline the challenges associated with the development and construction of large focal plane arrays for use both on the ground and in space. Using lessons learned from existing JPL-led and ASU/JPL partnership efforts to develop technology for, and design such arrays and imagers for large focal planes, we enumerate here the remaining problems that need to be solved to make such a venture viable. Technologies we consider vital for further development include: (1) architectures, processes, circuits, and readout solutions for production and integration of four-side buttable, low-cost, high-fidelity, high-performance, and high-reliability CCD and CMOS imagers; (2) modular, four-side buttable packaging of CCD/CMOS imagers; (3) techniques and hardware to test and characterize the large number of chips required to produce the hundreds of flight-grade detectors needed for large focal-plane missions being conceived at this time; (4) ground based testbed needs, such as a large format camera mounted on a ground-based ...

Scowen, Paul A; Hoenk, Michael; Gontijo, Ivair; Shapiro, Andrew; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd; Seshadri, Suresh; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Lisman, Doug; Dickie, Matthew; Blacksberg, Jordana

2009-01-01

268

[Focal therapy for prostate cancer : German version].  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal therapy is a treatment strategy for men with localized prostate cancer that may serve as an alternative option to radical therapy. A number of minimally invasive ablative technologies are available to deliver treatment, and the energies most commonly used include high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy. The benefit of a tissue-preserving approach is the limitation of damage to key structures such as the neurovascular bundles, external urinary sphincter, rectal mucosa and bladder neck. This in turn minimizes side effects typically associated with radical therapies whilst also aiming to maintain oncological control. Over 30 single-centre studies of focal therapy have been published to date reporting excellent continence rates, good potency rates and acceptable short-term oncological outcomes. However, there are a number of controversial aspects associated with focal therapy including the index lesion hypothesis, patient selection criteria, assessment of treatment effect and the lack of medium- and long-term oncological outcomes. In the process of the adoption of new technology, there is a limited window of opportunity to provide this evidence in well-designed prospective trials. Men should be allowed to benefit from the potential advantages of this novel treatment whilst under close surveillance.An English version of this article is available under dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00120-014-3734-7. PMID:25690574

Kasivisvanathan, V; Shah, T T; Donaldson, I; Kanthabalan, A; Moore, C M; Emberton, M; Ahmed, H U

2015-02-01

269

Acercamiento a la mecanobiología del cartílago articular a través de un modelo computacional / Approach to mechanobiology of articular cartilage through a computation model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El cartílago articular es un complejo tejido biológico que recubre los extremos de las articulaciones diartrodiales y proporciona resistencia a la compresión y excelentes propiedades de fricción durante el movimiento articular. La presencia de cargas mecánicas influye en el comportamiento y condició [...] n fisiológica del cartílago. Es así como, mediante el mecanismo de mecanotrasducción, los condrocitos perciben la magnitud de la carga y a partir de éste estímulo mecánico expresan genes como el Sox9 o el Runx2, los cuales generan cambios bioquímicos en las células y por tanto en el cartílago mismo. Diferentes trabajos experimentales se reportan acerca del efecto de las cargas impuestas al cartílago relacionadas con la expresión morfogénica del condrocito, sin embargo, no se cuenta con un modelo matemático y/o computacional que pueda explicar el comportamiento antagónico del Sox9 y el Runx2. El objetivo de este trabajo es introducir un modelo matemático que permita predecir el comportamiento mecano-biológico del cartílago articular a partir de las cargas mecánicas cíclicas, la presión hidrostática y la expresión génica y/o de proteínas que facilitan el proceso de síntesis o destrucción del tejido. El modelo se implementó numéricamente con el uso del método de los elementos finitos y los resultados obtenidos permitieron predecir diversos comportamientos mecano-biológicos del cartílago articular. Abstract in english Articular cartilage is a biological tissue complex coating the extremes of diarthric joints and provides resistance to compression and excellent friction properties during the articular movement. Presence of mechanical stress influenced on the behavior and physiologic condition of cartilage. That is [...] how by means of the mechanotransduction, the chondrocytes may to perceive the stress magnitude and from this mechanical stimulus, they express gens like the Sox9 or the Runx2, which generate biochemical changes in cells and thus in the cartilage. Different experimental papers reporting on the effect of the stress imposed on the cartilage related to chondrocytes morphogenetic expression, however, there are not a mathematical model and/or computation to explain the antagonist behavior of Sox9 and the Runx2. The aim of present paper is to introduce a mathematical model allows predicting the mechano-biological behavior of articular cartilage from the cyclic mechanic stress, the hydrostatic pressure and the genic expression and or proteins providing the tissue synthesis or destruction. Model was numerically implemented using the finite elements method and the results obtained allowed to predict different mechano-biological behaviors of articular cartilage.

Nancy Stella, Landínez Parra; Diego Alexander, Garzón Alvarado; Juan Carlos, Vanegas Acosta.

2010-03-01

270

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral knee joint surgery using the Hulth technique. Six weeks post-surgery, the animals were randomly divided into three groups, and each group was respectively given weekly intra-articular injections with Celebrex®, hyaluronic acid and saline. On the sixth week, the results were assessed in rabbit models by gross observation, histological evaluation, and expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3. Results: In the group given Celebrex® and hyaluronic acid, the pathological changes in the rabbit articular cartilage improved significantly, much more than in the saline group. The statistically significant suppression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3 was shown in the Celebrex group. No significant differences were detected between two treatment groups. Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of celecoxib is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis. It might repair and protect early osteoarthritis cartilage by delaying cartilage degeneration and impairing the function of inflammatory mediators, therefore, intra-articular injection of celecoxib can be used as an alternative to the current treatment of osteoarthritis.

Huilin Yang

2010-10-01

271

T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

2012-03-15

272

Mild electrical stimulation with heat stimulation increase heat shock protein 70 in articular chondrocyte.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of mild electrical stimulation (MES) and heat stress (HS) on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), that protects chondrocytes and enhances cartilage matrix metabolism, in chondrocyte and articular cartilage. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were treated with MES and/or HS. The safeness was assessed by LDH assay and morphology. HSP70 protein, ubiquitinated proteins and HSP70 mRNA were examined by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Rat knee joints were treated with MES and/or HS. HSP70 protein, ubiquitinated proteins, HSP70 mRNA and proteoglycan core protein (PG) mRNA in articular cartilage were investigated. In vitro, HS increased HSP70 mRNA and HSP70 protein. MES augmented ubiquitinated protein and HSP70 protein, but not HSP70 mRNA. MES?+?HS raised HSP70 mRNA and ubiquitinated protein, and significantly increased HSP70 protein. In vivo, HS and MES?+?HS treatment augmented HSP70 mRNA. HS modestly augmented HSP70 protein. MES?+?HS significantly increased HSP70 protein and ubiquitinated proteins. PG mRNA was markedly raised by MES?+?HS. This study demonstrated that MES, in combination with HS, increases HSP70 protein in chondrocytes and articular cartilage, and promotes cartilage matrix metabolism in articular cartilage. MES in combination with HS can be a novel physical therapy for osteoarthritis by inducing HSP70 in articular cartilage. PMID:23335181

Hiraoka, Nobuyuki; Arai, Yuji; Takahashi, Kenji A; Mazda, Osam; Kishida, Tsunao; Honjo, Kuniaki; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Morino, Saori; Suico, Mary Ann; Kai, Hirofumi; Kubo, Toshikazu

2013-06-01

273

On the main stages of the history of intra-articular therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this review the main stages in the history of intra-articular therapy of the rheumatic diseases are summarized. The first approach to such a local treatment has been likely performed in 1792 by the French physician Jean Gay, who injected in a swelling knee the “eau du Goulard” (Goulard’s water, namely a mixture based on lead compounds. In the XIX century iodine derivatives have been mainly applied as an intra-articular treatment. In the XX century, before the wide use of intra-articular corticosteroids, chiefly due to the Joseph Lee Hollander’s experiences, a variety of drugs has been employed, including cytostatics and sclerosing substances. A further important stage has been synoviorthesis, by using specific radionuclides, that would actually represent an anti-synovial treatment. In the last years a spread use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid, particularly in osteoarthritis, has been recorded, with the aim to warrant articular viscosupplementation. Future of intra-articular treatment should be represented by the biological drugs, i.e., anti-TNF, but it is still untimely to define the exact role of such a local treatment of arthritis.

L. Punzi

2011-09-01

274

Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate two different textures of smectic A liquid crystals. These textures are particularly symmetric when they are observed at crossed polars optical microscopy. For both textures, a model has been made in order to examine the link between the defective macroscopic texture and the microscopic disposition of the layers. We present in particular in the case of some hexagonal tiling of circles (similar to the Apollonius tiling some numeric simulation in order to visualize the smectic layers. We discuss of the nature of the smectic layers, which permit to assure their continuity from one focal conic domain to another adjacent one.

Malika Belloul

2009-04-01

275

Correlation of laminated MR apperance of articular cartilage with histology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the correlation of laminae of different signal intensities (SI) of articular cartilage, as seen on magnetic resonance(MR) imaging with histologic layers, using artificially constructed landmarks. For a landmark that can exactly correlate the cartilage specimen with the MR image, five 'V'-shaped markings of different depths were made on the surface of bovine patella. Both T1-weighted (TR/TE : 300/14) and FSE T2-weighted images (TR/TE : 2000/53) were obtained on a 1.5T system with high gradient echo strength (25mT/m) and a voxel size of 78X78X2000?m. Images were obtained with 1) changed frequency-encoding directions on T1-weighted study, and 2) changed readout gradient strength ( X2, X1/2) on T2-weighted sequence. Raw image data were transferred to a workstation and signal intensity profile was generated for each image. 1 : 1 correlation of histologic specimens and MR images was performed. Line profile through the cartilage showed few peaks, suggesting changes in signal intensity profile in the cartilage. On the basis of artificial landmarks, the histologic zone was accurately identified. The histologic tangential and transitional zones correlated with superficial high SI on T1WI, as well as high and low SI on T2WI. On T1WI, the radial zone correlated with a lamina of intermediate SI, and on T2WI, with a lamina for which SI gradually decreased from high to low. Additional well-defined low and intermediate SI bands were noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radere noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radial zone. In both T1 and T2 studies, calcified cartilage layers were of low SI. On T1-weighted study, changes in the direction of frequency gradient did not lead to changes in the laminae. The alteration of readout gradient strengths did not result in an inversely proportional difference in the thickness of the laminae. These became more distinct thus ruling out chemical shift and susceptibility artifacts. The laminated appearance of articular cartilage, as seen on spin echo and fast spin-echo MR images, correlated with histologic layers rather than susceptibility or chemical shift artifacts

276

Biphasic indentation of articular cartilage--I. Theoretical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mathematical solution has been obtained for the indentation creep and stress-relaxation behavior of articular cartilage where the tissue is modeled as a layer of linear KLM biphasic material of thickness h bonded to an impervious, rigid bony substrate. The circular (radius = a), plane-ended indenter is assumed to be rigid, porous, free-draining, and frictionless. Double Laplace and Hankel transform techniques were used to solve the partial differential equations. The transformed equations and boundary conditions yielded an integral equation of the Fredholm type which was analyzed asymptotically and solved numerically. Our asymptotic analyses showed that the linear KLM biphasic material behaves like an incompressible (v = 0.5) single-phase elastic solid at t = 0+; the instantaneous response of the material is governed by the shear modulus (mu s) of the solid matrix. The linear KLM biphasic material behaves like a compressible elastic solid with material properties defined by those of the solid matrix, i.e. (lambda s, mu s) or (mu s, v s) as t----infinity. The transient viscoelastic creep and stress-relaxation behavior, 0 less than t less than infinity, of this material is controlled by the frictional drag (which is inversely proportional to the permeability k) associated with the flow of the interstitial fluid through the porous-permeable solid matrix. For given values of the Poisson's ratio of the solid matrix v s and the aspect ratio a/h, where a is the radius of the indenter and h is the thickness of the layer, the creep behavior with respect to the dimensionless time H Akt/a2 is completely controlled by the load parameter P/2 mu sa2 and the stress relaxation behavior is completely controlled by the rate of compression parameter R0 = kH A/V0h where H A = lambda s + 2 mu s and the equilibrium strain u0/h. This mathematical solution may now be used to describe an indentation experiment on articular cartilage to determine the intrinsic material properties of the tissue, i.e. permeability k, and the elastic coefficients of the solid phase (lambda s, mu s) or (mu s, v s). PMID:3654668

Mak, A F; Lai, W M; Mow, V C

1987-01-01

277

Cartilage constructs engineered from chondrocytes overexpressing IGF-I improve the repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy is a promising approach for promoting articular cartilage repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that engineered cartilage with chondrocytes overexpressing a human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I gene can enhance the repair of osteochondral defects, in a manner dependent on the duration of cultivation. Genetically modified chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds in dynamic flow rotating bioreactors for either 10 or 28 d. The resulting cartilaginous constructs were implanted into osteochondral defects in rabbit knee joints. After 28 weeks of in vivo implantation, immunoreactivity to ß-gal was detectable in the repair tissue of defects that received lacZ constructs. Engineered cartilaginous constructs based on IGF-I-overexpressing chondrocytes markedly improved osteochondral repair compared with control (lacZ constructs. Moreover, IGF-I constructs cultivated for 28 d in vitro significantly promoted osteochondral repair vis-à-vis similar constructs cultivated for 10 d, leading to significantly decreased osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defects. Hence, the combination of spatially defined overexpression of human IGF-I within a tissue-engineered construct and prolonged bioreactor cultivation resulted in most enhanced articular cartilage repair and reduction of osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defect. Such genetically enhanced tissue engineering provides a versatile tool to evaluate potential therapeutic genes in vivo and to improve our comprehension of the development of the repair tissue within articular cartilage defects. Insights gained with additional exploration using this model may lead to more effective treatment options for acute cartilage defects.

H Madry

2013-04-01

278

Dynamic focal spots registration algorithm for freeform surface measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

In a wavefront sensing system, the raw data for surface reconstruction, either the slope matrix or curvature matrix, is obtained through centroiding on the focal spot images. Centroiding is to calculate the first moment within a certain area of interest, which encloses the focal spot. As the distribution of focal spots is correlated to the surface sampling condition, while a uniform rectangular grid is good enough to register all the focal spots of a uniformly sampled near flat surface, the focal spots of aspherical or freeform surfaces have varying shapes and sizes depending on the surface geometry. In this case, the normal registration method is not applicable. This paper proposed a dynamic focal spots registration algorithm to automatically analyze the image, identify and register every focal spot for centroiding at one go. Through experiment on a freeform surface with polynomial coefficients up to 10th order, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is proved.

Guo, Wenjiang; Zhao, Liping; Chen, I.-Ming

2013-06-01

279

MR diffusion weighted imaging experimental study on early stages of articular cartilage degeneration of knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the appearance of MR diffusion weighted imaging in early stages of cartilage degeneration and to detect its values. Methods: In 20 goat left knees, intra- articular injection of 5 units of papain was performed causing a loss of cartilage proteoglycan. Twenty right knees were used as control group. MR diffusion weighted imaging was performed at 24 hours after intra-articular injection of papain. ADC of each part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. The proteoglycan content was measured biochemically and histochemically. Routine MRI and DWI were performed in 100 patients with osteoarthritis and 20 healthy people. The ADC of each interested part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. Results: In experimental control group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (14.2±2.3) x 10-4 mm2/s. In early stages of cartilage degeneration group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (17.5±4.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. The ADCav of the control group was lower than that of the early stages of cartilage degeneration group (t=2.709; P=0.016). The proteloglycan content of articular cartilage was 4.22 x 106 ?g/kg in control group, and 0.82 x 106 ?g/kg in experimental group at 24 hours after injection of papain. The difference between control group and experimental group was significant (t=2.705, P=0.018). In healthy people, the ADCav of articular cartilage wae, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (7.6±2.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. In osteoarthritis group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (10.3±4.2) x 10-4 mm2/s. The ADCav in the healthy group was significantly lower than that in the osteoarthritis group (t=2.609,P=0.014). Conclusion: DWI is an useful method in detecting early stages of cartilage degeneration which can not be showed on routine sequences. (authors)

280

Intracortical chondroblastoma mimicking intra-articular osteoid osteoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a case of intra-articular intracortical chondroblastoma of the femoral condyle which radiologically appeared to be osteoid osteoma. A 19-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of gradually increasing pain in the right knee and had been on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief. Laboratory data were within normal limits. Radiographs showed a well-demarcated lucent lesion in the medial condyle of the right femur. A nidus-like lesion with calcifications and a sclerotic rim located in the cortex was imaged by computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and soft tissue swelling around the lesion, with low signal intensity of the nidus-like lesion on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was excised en bloc and the histological diagnosis of chondroblastoma was made. A mild inflammatory reaction was observed in the bone marrow and synovium around the tumor. The chondroblastoma cells were shown to express cyclooxygenase-2 with immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Mukai, Kiyoshi [First Department of Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku 6-1-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Goto, Takahiro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Motoi, Noriko [Department of Pathology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2002-10-01

281

Early failure of articular surface replacement XL total hip arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ASR (articular surface replacement) XL (DePuy, Warsaw, Ind) metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty offers the advantage of stability and increased motion. However, an alarming number of early failures prompted the evaluation of patients treated with this system. A prospective study of patients who underwent arthroplasty with the ASR XL system was performed. Patients with 2-year follow-up or any revision were included. Failure rates, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, and radiographs were evaluated. Ninety-five patients (105 hips) were included. There were 16 revisions. Thirteen (12%) were aseptic acetabular failures. Eight were revised for aseptic loosening; 4, for metallosis; 1, for malposition; 2, for infection; and 1, for periprosthetic fracture. Mean time to revision was 1.6 years (0.18-3.4 years). The ASR XL with a revision rate of 12% is the second reported 1 piece metal-on-metal system with a significant failure rate at early follow-up. This particular class of implants has inherent design flaws that lead to early failure. PMID:21550764

Steele, Garen D; Fehring, Thomas K; Odum, Susan M; Dennos, Anne C; Nadaud, Matthew C

2011-09-01

282

MRI demonstration of hypertrophic articular cartilage repair in osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog produces changes in the unstable joint typical of osteoarthritis, although full-thickness catilage ulceration is rare. Information concerning the late fate of the cartilage after transection is meager. In the present study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate cartilage abnormalities 3 years after transection. Plain radiographs of the osteoarthritic and contralateral knees were obtained serially. MRI was performed 3 years after anterior cruciate ligament transection, at which time all three animals exhibited knee instability. Radiographs of the osteoarthritic knees showed osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis with progression between 2 and 3 years. On MRI, articular cartilage margins in the knee were indistinct, and the cartilage was thicker than that in the contralateral knee (maximum difference = 2.7 mm). This increase in thickness is consistent with biochemical data from dogs killed up to 64 weeks after creation of knee instability, which showed marked increases in cartilage bulk and in proteoglycan synthesis and concentration. The findings emphasize that increased matrix synthesis after anterior cruciate ligament transection leads to functional cartilage repair sustained even in the presence of persistent alteration of joint mechanics. (orig.)

283

Imaging articular cartilage using second harmonic generation microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub cellular resolution images of equine articular cartilage have been obtained using both second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM). The SHGM images clearly map the distribution of the collagen II fibers within the extracellular matrix while the TPFM images show the distribution of endogenous two-photon fluorophores in both the cells and the extracellular matrix, highlighting especially the pericellular matrix and bright 2-3?m diameter features within the cells. To investigate the source of TPF in the extracellular matrix experiments have been carried out to see if it may originate from the proteoglycans. Pure solutions of the following proteoglycans hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan have been imaged, only the aggrecan produced any TPF and here the intensity was not great enough to account for the TPF in the extracellular matrix. Also cartilage samples were subjected to a process to remove proteoglycans and cellular components. After this process the TPF from the samples had decreased by a factor of two, with respect to the SHG intensity.

Mansfield, Jessica C.; Winlove, C. Peter; Knapp, Karen; Matcher, Stephen J.

2006-02-01

284

Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

Dohi Yoshihiro

2008-09-01

285

New methods for assessing cartilage contact stress after articular fracture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in reducing the incidence and severity of posttraumatic arthritis depends in part on avoiding deleterious stress levels at residual local incongruities. Systematic efforts to elucidate factors adversely influencing cartilage's mechanical environment in turn depend on the availability of suitable modalities to assess intraarticular contact stresses. This has been and remains a challenging biomechanical problem. Technologic approaches used in the past have included mathematical analyses and indwelling physical sensors, each with advantages and limitations. Two emerging, mutually complementary capabilities show promise of dramatically altering the state of the art in this important field. The first of these methodologies, voxel-based contact finite element analysis, provides accurate computational estimates of cartilage stress on a patient-specific basis, and does so while accommodating arbitrarily idiosyncratic patterns of local articular incongruity. The second methodology, instrumentational, involves transient pressure distribution recordings using specially designed piezoresistive array sensors. Operational considerations for both of these new assessment technologies are described, and promising directions for future development are outlined. PMID:15232426

Brown, Thomas D; Rudert, M James; Grosland, Nicole M

2004-06-01

286

Measurement of crystal defects using phase retrieval technique  

Science.gov (United States)

In high power laser systems, crystal defects introduced by manufacturing have significant impact on quality of light beams; finally affect the output status of high power laser system. The phase retrieval algorithm can precisely measure the crystal defects, such as the residual periodic perturbations in a relatively large area and the relatively small point defects, with the resolution of micrometer magnitude. At the same time, the multiple near-focus intensity measurements algorithm used here can retrieve the morphology of focal spot, which is modulated by the defects and cannot be directly measured due to its high power. In addition, the algorithm has been improved in order to use less measurement planes and less iteration times to complete retrieval.

Yao, Yudong; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Yanli; Zhu, Jianqiang

2015-02-01

287

Cartilage constructs engineered from chondrocytes overexpressing IGF-I improve the repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model  

OpenAIRE

Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy is a promising approach for promoting articular cartilage repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that engineered cartilage with chondrocytes overexpressing a human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene can enhance the repair of osteochondral defects, in a manner dependent on the duration of cultivation. Genetically modified chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds in dynamic flow rotating bioreactors for either 1...

Madry, H.; Kaul, G.; Zurakowski, D.; Vunjak-novakovic, G.; Cucchiarini, M.

2013-01-01

288

A Case Report of Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture for Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex  

OpenAIRE

Objective: This case was to report a case of Partial Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. Methods: The patient was treated by Intra-articular bee venom Pharmacopuncture. The Effect of Treatment was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale(VAS) and Modified Mayo Wrist Score(Wrist Score). Results & Conclusions: After Treatment, Patient's VAS decreased and Wrist Score increased. For this results, Intra-articular Bee Venom Pharmacopunct...

Lee, Kwangho; Ryu, Youngjin; Sun, Seungho; Kwon, Kirok

2009-01-01

289

Transtendon, Double-Row, Transosseous-Equivalent Arthroscopic Repair of Partial-Thickness, Articular-Surface Rotator Cuff Tears  

OpenAIRE

Arthroscopic transtendinous techniques for the arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears offer the advantage of minimizing the disruption of the patient's remaining rotator cuff tendon fibers. In addition, double-row fixation of full-thickness rotator cuff tears has shown biomechanical advantages. We present a novel method combining these 2 techniques for transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-s...

Dilisio, Matthew F.; Miller, Lindsay R.; Higgins, Laurence D.

2014-01-01

290

Oral focal mucinosis: report of two cases / Mucinose oral focal: relato de dois casos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mucinose oral focal (MOF), uma lesão equivalente à mucinose cutânea focal, é uma doença rara de etiologia desconhecida. Sua patogênese pode ser devido a superprodução de ácido hialurônico pelo fibroblasto às expensas de produção de colágeno, resultando em degeneração mixoide focal de tecid [...] o conjuntivo primariamente afetando a mucosa sobre o osso. Não tem características clínicas distintas e o diagnóstico é baseado somente em características histopatológicas. Este artigo relata dois casos e discute as características clinico-patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas, bem como o diagnóstico diferencial de lesões mixomatosas da cavidade bucal. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: Os dois casos de lesões de MOF estavam presentes no palato duro de um paciente do sexo masculino, de 50 anos de idade, e na mandíbula de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 26 anos. Estes parecem ser os primeiros casos relatados na população da India. CONCLUSÃO: A análise histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica de Vimentin e proteína S-100 podem ter um papel importante no correto diagnóstico de MOF. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to overproduction of hyaluronic acid by fibroblast at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of connective tis [...] sue primarily affecting the mucosa overlying bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, since the diagnosis is solely based on histopathological features. This paper reports two cases and discusses clinicopathological, immunohistochemical features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. CASE DESCRIPTION: The two cases of OFM lesions were present in a 50 year-old patient on the hard palate and in a 26 year-old female patient in the mandible, which seem to be the first report in the Indian population. CONCLUSION: The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of Vimentin and S-100 protein may play a vital role in the correct diagnosis of OFM.

AS, Madhusudhan; Das, Nagarajappa; BS, Manjunatha; Saawarn, Swati; HS, Charan Babu.

291

Fisiopatología celular de la osteoartritis: el condrocito articular como protagonista / Osteoarthritis cellular pathophysiology: The articular chondrocyte as a central player  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La osteoartritis es una de las enfermedades más prevalentes y que más discapacidad produce en todo el mundo, lo que ocasiona costos altos para el paciente y la sociedad. En años recientes se ha venido obteniendo información importante sobre el funcionamiento normal del condrocito, la única célula pr [...] esente en el cartílago articular y responsable de la síntesis de matriz extracelular. El condrocito responde a las condiciones fluctuantes del medio, generadas por los cambios de presión, modificando su composición iónica y alterando el transporte de solutos y agua en su membrana. Esta capacidad de respuesta es clave para el mantenimiento de la matriz extracelular y, por ende, de un cartílago funcional. Diversos factores relacionados con enfermedades crónicas metabólicas inician una cascada de eventos que termina con una respuesta inadecuada del condrocito ante la carga mecánica, lo cual lleva a un predominio del catabolismo de la matriz y a un cartílago defectuoso que es la base del desarrollo de la osteoartritis. En este proceso están implicadas diversas citocinas y hormonas que afectan la homeostasis del cartílago y que pueden constituirse en blancos terapéuticos prometedores. Abstract in english Worldwide, osteoarthritis is one of the most prevalent diseases. It causes high disability rates and represents a heavy burden to patients and society. In recent years, important findings about the normal function of the chondrocyte, the only cell in articular cartilage and responsible for matrix me [...] tabolism, have been made. Chondrocytes respond to the fluctuant conditions of their environment, generated by mechanical pressure changes, by modifying their ionic composition and altering solute and water membrane transport. This characteristic is a key factor to extracellular matrix maintenance, necessary for a functional cartilage. A number of factors related to chronic metabolic diseases initiate a cascade of events that lead to an inadequate response of chondrocytes to mechanical load; this ends in a preponderance of matrix catabolism and impairement of the cartilage, which is the basis for the development of osteoarthritis. Several cytokines and hormones are involved in this process and they may become promising therapeutic targets.

Julio César, Sánchez Naranjo; Diego Fernando, López Zapata.

2011-06-01

292

Ultrasonographic features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). US features of 15 patients with pathologically proven focal XGP were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists who reached a consensus, in terms of the location, margin, size, and echo texture of the mass-like lesion, and presence or absence of associated calculi, lymphadenopathy, or local extension. These US findings were compared with CT findings. The patients were checked for the clinical symptom and sign through the review of hospital records. Thirteen of 15 patients were adults and 2 were children, and 10 were males. Their age ranged from 6 to 57 (mean, 39) years at presentation. Eight of 15 cases (53%) were in right kidney, and on US scan 12 cases (80%) were well circumscribed. The size of the mass ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 (mean, 3.8) cm. Of 15 masses, 13 (87%) were solid and two were cystic. Thirteen solid masses were composed of 10 masses (77%) with inner hypo- or anechoic foci and the other three masses without inner hypo- or anechoic foci, and the preoperative diagnosis was either renal cell carcinoma (n=11) or Wilms' tumor (n=2). The preoperative diagnosis in two cystic lesions (13%) was renal abscess. Renal calculi were found in one case, but lymphadenopathy or local extension was not depicted. Clinical symptoms and signs of flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, or anemia were found in 11 of 15 patients. Focal XGP revealed US features of solid or cystic masses confined within the renal outline mimicking renal tumor or abscess. US features, however, in association with clinical findings and other imaging findings (such as CT or MR imaging) may help the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2003-09-15

293

Identification of latexin by a proteomic analysis in rat normal articular cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Animal models of OA induced are a widely used tool in the study of the pathogenesis of disease. Several proteomic techniques for selective extraction of proteins have provided protein profiles of chondrocytes and secretory patterns in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage, including the discovery of new and promising biomarkers. In this proteomic analysis to study several proteins from rat normal articular cartilage, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS were used. Interestingly, latexin (LXN was found. Using an immunohistochemical technique, it was possible to determine its localization within the chondrocytes from normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Results In this study, 147 proteins were visualized, and 47 proteins were identified by MS. A significant proportion of proteins are involved in metabolic processes and energy (32%, as well as participating in different biological functions including structural organization (19%, signal transduction and molecular signaling (11%, redox homeostasis (9%, transcription and protein synthesis (6%, and transport (6%. The identified proteins were assigned to one or more subcellular compartments. Among the identified proteins, we found some proteins already recognized in other studies such as OA-associated proteins. Interestingly, we identified LXN, an inhibitor of mammalian carboxypeptidases, which had not been described in articular cartilage. Immunolabeling assays for LXN showed a granular distribution pattern in the cytoplasm of most chondrocytes of the middle, deep and calcified zones of normal articular cartilage as well as in subchondral bone. In osteoarthritic cartilage, LXN was observed in superficial and deep zones. Conclusions This study provides the first proteomic analysis of normal articular cartilage of rat. We identified LXN, whose location was demonstrated by immunolabeling in the chondrocytes from the middle, deep and calcified zones of normal articular cartilage, and superficial and deep zones of osteoarthritic cartilage.

Kouri Juan B

2010-06-01

294

Usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection of the knee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the accuracy of the intra-articular location of hyaluronic acid injection using a blind approach and to establish the usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection. A fluoroscopy unit was used for 368 intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid to 93 knees in 65 patients. Initially, blind needle positioning was conducted on the fluoroscopy table. The failure rate of the blind approach among the 368 injections was evaluated, and a relationship between the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade) and the incidence of repeated failures using the blind approach was determined for injections to 52 knees in 37 patients who received a complete cycle of injections (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections). Using a blind approach, 298 of 368 trials (81.2%) resulted in a needle tip being placed in an intra-articular location, while 70 of 368 trials resulted in an extra-articular placement of the needle tip. Among 52 knees to which a complete cycle of injection (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections) was administered, repeated failure of intra-articular placement using the blind approach was seen for 18 knees (34.6%); a more severe K-L grade assigned was associated with a higher rate of repeated failure. However, the trend was not statistically significant based on the Chi-squared test ({rho} value = 0.14). Fluoroscopy-guided needle placement may be helpful to ensure therapeutic intra-articular injection of the knee.

Myung, Jae Sung; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yeon [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

2007-06-15

295

Technology of the LSST focal plane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, now in the research and development phase, will undertake a wide angle, deep survey of the entire southern sky starting in 2014. The survey database will support a wide variety of astrophysical investigations, with particular emphasis on elucidating the nature of dark energy. To achieve its science goals, LSST will incorporate a silicon-based focal plane with unprecedented size (3 Gpixel), speed (2 s readout), and sensitivity (high QE over 350-1000 nm wavelength). The technologies to be used in the LSST camera are described, with an emphasis on the silicon sensors and readout electronics

296

Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern  

OpenAIRE

Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors. To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas. A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors. We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor. Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells. Abundant m...

De Padua Michelle; Rajagopal V

2008-01-01

297

Psychiatric Symptoms Associated with Focal Hand Dystonia  

OpenAIRE

Myoclonus dystonia and idiopathic dystonia are associated with a greater frequency of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depression. We investigated the frequency of OCD in 39 patients with primary focal hand dystonia (FHD) using a semistructured interview. OCD and subsyndromal OCD was diagnosed in 5 of 39 (12.82%) patients with FHD, whereas OCD occurs in 2.3% of the general population. Recurrent depression occurred in (7 of 39) 17.95% of patients with FHD along with a family histo...

Voon, Valerie; Butler, Tracy R.; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Murphy, Dennis L.; Hallett, Mark

2010-01-01

298

Psychiatric symptoms associated with focal hand dystonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myoclonus dystonia and idiopathic dystonia are associated with a greater frequency of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depression. We investigated the frequency of OCD in 39 patients with primary focal hand dystonia (FHD) using a semistructured interview. OCD and subsyndromal OCD was diagnosed in 5 of 39 (12.82%) patients with FHD, whereas OCD occurs in 2.3% of the general population. Recurrent depression occurred in (7 of 39) 17.95% of patients with FHD along with a family history of depression in (16 of 39) 41.02%. Overlapping mechanisms manifesting as FHD may also predispose to OC symptoms and likely implicates a common striatal dysfunction. PMID:20737548

Voon, Valerie; Butler, Tracy R; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Murphy, Dennis L; Hallett, Mark

2010-10-15

299

Focal hematopoietic hyperplasia of the rib  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of focal hematopoietic hyperplasia in the rib of a 24-year-old woman. This is only the fourth case to be reported in the English literature, all of which have involved the rib. Radiologically they all manifested as an expansive and radiolucent lesion and contained ill-defined areas of increased density or calcification. Histologically, all have been characterized by mixed areas of hypercellular marrow and fatty marrow. The lesion is considered a form of pseudotumor. Treatment in our case was by wide marginal excision of the rib. (orig.)

300

Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics

301

Focal renal scarring and urinary stone disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calyceal blunting and scarring (chronic atrophic pyelonephritis) is thought usually to be due to vesicoureteral reflux. But since informal observation suggested that upper tract stones was the most common condition associated with scarring, the authors investigated the association by prospectively evaluating consecutive adult urograms obtained over an 11-month period. One hundred three patients with scarring, stone disease or both were identified. Forty-nine patients had scars, of whom 67% had stones, 13% had reflux, and 10% had possible reflux. Ninety patients had upper tract stones, of whom 29% had scars. Upper tract stone disease is the commonest condition associated with focal clubbing and scarring; the relationship may be causal

302

Ambient temperature IR focal plane arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

The advent of modern photolithography and micromachining techniques has led to the development of many kinds of infrared sensitive focal plane arrays. This paper outlines the history of the development of modern uncooled thermal detector arrays, considerations for reading out those arrays, scaling laws for array design parameters, and ways to improve sensitivity and dynamic range. Future arrays will have smaller pitch (15 micrometer), higher sensitivity (10 - 20 mK, F/1), wider dynamic range (> 100 degrees Celsius, 10,000:1), and better resolution (1280 X 1024). These improvements will come about with better photolithographic resolution, thinner structures, and reduced noise.

Butler, Neal R.

2000-07-01

303

Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

1999-10-01

304

[Focal brain lesions and language dysfunction].  

Science.gov (United States)

To be a neurologist, training in cognitive/behavioral neuroscience is essential. In this review article, the author tries to emphasize the localization relationship between focal brain lesions and language dysfunction, by discussing from split-brain syndromes, hemispheric asymmetry, to pure word dumbness, pure word deafness (verbal auditory agnosia), pure agraphia, and pure word blindness (pure alexia; visual word agnosia), and finally to aphasia and aprosodia in general. Hopefully, after getting familiar with all the terms, the readers will feel free exploring language disturbances and behavioral neurology for their own interests. PMID:17966959

Chan, Jin-Lieh

2007-09-01

305

Dorsal defect of the patella: Concept of its origin and relationship with bipartite and multipartite patella  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a series of 2286 single radiographic examinations of the knee in 1985, 6 dorsal defects of the patella (DDP) were detected. The diagnosis was made if a round lucent lesion of the dorsal superolateral surface of the patella was found abutting against articular cartilage. In four of our patients, an association with a multipartite patella (MP) was found. Biopsy of one lesion showed dense connective tissue and areas of bone necrosis. In one patient, the pattern of reossification of the lesion could be demonstrated. Our observations provide further evidence that the DDP is a stress-induced anomaly of ossification rather than a post-traumatic subarticular cyst of the patella, a diagnosis sometimes suggested by the clinical context. The initial lesion is probably a traction lesion at the insertion of the vastus lateralis muscle rather than ulceration of articular cartilage. We suggest a possible relationship between dysfunction of the quadriceps mechanism, patellar subluxation, and the genesis of the DDP. (orig.)

306

Morphological Characteristics of the Temporomandibular Joint Articular Surfaces in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders / Características Morfológicas de las Superficies Articulares de la Articulación Temporomandibular de Pacientes con Trastornos Temporomandibulares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El conocimiento de las características anatómicas de las superficies articulares de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) es fundamental para que clínicos y odontólogos reconozcan las alteraciones morfológicas que ocurren en la articulación de pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares (TTM). Di [...] versos investigadores asocian los TTMs con alteraciones en las superficies articulares de la ATM. La identificación de los cambios óseos relacionados con la ATM es crítica, ya que estos se asocian a signos y síntomas de TTM, y el conocimiento de estos es fundamental para el correcto diagnóstico y adecuada planificación de tratamiento. El objetivo fue analizar las características morfológicas de las superficies articulares de la ATM en pacientes con diagnóstico de TTM, diagnosticado de acuerdo a los Criterios Diagnósticos para Investigación de los Trastornos Temporomandibulares (CDI/TTM), junto con analizar la relación existente entre incremento de edad-osteoartrosis. Fueron seleccionados 19 pacientes, 17 mujeres y 2 hombres, de la Unidad de Trastornos Cráneo Cérvico Mandibulares (UCRACEM) - Universidad de Talca, Chile. La evaluación imagenológica se realizó mediante el examen de Tomografía Computarizada Cone-Beam (TCCB). En el análisis de las superficies articulares, 11 (28,94%) presentaron morfología normal. Los cambios óseos encontrados fueron: esclerosis, aplanamiento de la cabeza de la mandíbula, erosión, osteoartrosis, osteofitos y quiste subcondral. Hubo relación estadística significativa entre incremento de edad-osteoartrosis (p=0,00). Nuestros hallazgos nos permiten concluir que los cambios óseos en las caras articulares de la ATM en pacientes con TTM son frecuentes, y la esclerosis el hallazgo más común. También se encontró asociación entre incremento de edad y osteoartrosis. Abstract in english The knowledge of the anatomical characteristics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular surfaces is essentital to enable physicians and dentists to recognize the morphological changes that occur in this articulation in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Several researchers assoc [...] iate the TMD with changes of TMJ articular surfaces. The careful identification of bone changes related to TMJ is critical, since these abnormalities are associated with signs and symptoms of TMD and the knowledge of TMD signs and symptoms is fundamental for correctly diagnosing and for adequate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the TMJ articular surfaces in patients with TMD diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). In addition, therelationship between increasing age-osteoarthrosis was evaluated. For the sample we selected 19 patients, 17 female and 2 male, referred to the "Unidad de Trastornos Cráneo Cérvico Mandibulares (UCRACEM) - Universidad de Talca, Chile". The imaging assessment was carried out by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). In the imaging analysis of the articular surfaces 11 joints (28.94%) showed normal morphology. The bone changes found were: sclerosis, flattening, erosion, osteoarthrosis, osteophytes, subcondral cysts. We found statistically significant difference between increasing age-osteoarthrosis (p=0.00). Considering our results we concluded that bone changes of the TMJ articular surfaces in patients with TMD are very common, with sclerosis as the most frequent finding. It was also possible to conclude that there was a significant association between increasing age-osteoarthrosis.

N, Alves; A, Schilling Quezada; A, Gonzalez Villalobos; J, Schilling Lara; N. F, Deana; C, Pastenes Riveros.

1317-13-01

307

Variable transformation defects  

OpenAIRE

We investigate defects between supersymmetric Landau-Ginzburg models whose superpotentials are related by a variable transformation. It turns out that there is one natural defect, which can then be used to relate boundary conditions and defects in the different models. In particular this defect can be used to relate Grassmannian Kazama-Suzuki models and minimal models, and one can generate rational boundary conditions in the Kazama-Suzuki models from those in minimal models....

Behr, Nicolas; Fredenhagen, Stefan

2012-01-01

308

On dual defective manifolds  

OpenAIRE

An embedded manifold is dual defective if its dual variety is not a hypersurface. Using the geometry of the variety of lines through a general point, we characterize scrolls among dual defective manifolds. This leads to an optimal bound for the dual defect, which improves results due to Ein. Among other things we also provide a short and easy proof of the famous Landman Parity Theorem for dual defective manifolds based on our approach to the subject. We also discuss our conj...

Ionescu, Paltin; Russo, Francesco

2012-01-01

309

Large oral focal mucinosis: a case report / Mucinose oral focal: descrição de um caso clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso de uma paciente de 23 anos de idade que procurou o serviço odontológico para exame de um grande nódulo de crescimento lento, assintomático, na gengiva mandibular, o que causou deslocamento do primeiro molar direito. Foram realizadas biópsia excisional, anális [...] e histopatológica, coloração Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) e análise imuno-histoquímica para S-100. O diagnóstico de mucinose oral focal foi estabelecido. A paciente ainda está sob acompanhamento, sem recorrência, após três anos. Embora os casos de mucinose oral focal com esse tamanho sejam raros, esta entidade deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões orais localizadas em gengiva. Abstract in english The aim of this article is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient that sought dental service for examination of an asymptomatic slow-growing large lump in the mandibular gingiva causing displacement of the right first molar. Excisional biopsy, histopathological analysis, Alcian blue/peri [...] odic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis for S-100 were performed. The diagnosis established was oral focal mucinosis. After three years, the patient is still under follow-up, without any recurrences. Although cases of oral focal mucinosis of this particular size are rare, this entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions located in the gingiva.

Karla Rovaris da, Silva; Bárbara Vanessa de Brito, Monteiro; Thayse Silva Aragão, Norões; Gustavo Pina, Godoy; Márcia Cristina da Costa, Miguel.

2014-02-01

310

Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing  

CERN Document Server

We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

Korkiakoski, Visa; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

2014-01-01

311

Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

Korkiakoski, Visa; Keller, Christoph U.; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

2014-07-01

312

CT scan findings in focal epilepsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 80 cases of focal epilepsy, excluding such cases as late onset after the age of 30 and traumatic or expansive lesions, the epileptogenic foci have been studied by comparing the CT findings with the seizure types and the EEG findings. The results were as follows: (1) Abnormal CT findings were observed in 36% of the patients. (2) These findings were classified into 4 large groups: localized cerebral atrophy, localized low density, localized high density with contrast enhancement and diffuse cerebral atrophy. (3) The incidence of CT abnormality was higher in the cases with continuous and localized EEG abnormality than in the cases with other types of EEG abnormality. In 48% of the cases, the location of the abnormal CT findings coincided with their EEG foci. (4) In the cases of temporal lobe epilepsy without abnormal CT images, the print-out data compared with the bilateral promised temporal regions, before and after contrast enhancement. The EMI-No. of the medial temporal focus increased more than that of the contralateral side in 3 cases out of 4 after contrast-media injection. (5) Moreover, for the purpose of comparing the CT findings on general seizures with those in focal seizures, we have studied 80 cases of general seizures. In the cases of the general seizures, abnormal CT findings were observed in only 16%. These abnormal findings were diffuse in 5 cases, localized in 6 cases, and combined in 3 cases. (author)

313

MRI characteristics of focal cortical dysplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To summarize the MRI characteristics of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Methods: Patients with FCD proved histopathologically underwent MR imaging and surgical resection for intractable epilepsy. MRI characteristics of FCD were summarized according to the Palmini classification. Results: There were 14 patients with type I FCD and 14 with type II FCD. In type I FCD patients, 8 patients had abnormal MRI appearances such as cortical-white matter junction blurring and focal cortical thickening, and the temporal lobe was the most frequently affected area (9/14). Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS) was seen in 6 type I FCD patients. The MRI abnormalities can be seen in 11 type II FCD patients, of which 7 cases with frontal lobe seizure. Only 2 cases of HS were foud in type II FCD. Cortical thickening, high signal of white matter on T2WI and FLAIR, high signal band in the white matter from the surface to the ventricle were the most common MRI characteristics of type II FCD. Conclusion: Two types of FCD have different MRI features which is helpful to improve the accuracy of presurgical planning and determine the prognosis of epilepsy surgery. (authors)

314

[Focal therapy in urology: kidney cancer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal therapy has gained attention in the treatment of small renal masses (SRM). However, its use is limited due to scarce data on long-term outcomes. The availability of such data is significantly lower as compared to the relevant data on surgery outcomes. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery has seen the development of laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery and, recently, robot-assisted surgery. Our purpose is to review the possibilities of treatment for SMR with particular attention on focal therapy. Clinical series and comprehensive reviews support safety and mid/long-term efficacy of renal cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation. Comparative studies and meta-analysis outlined oncological inferiority against partial nephrectomy in local tumor control. For smaller and more peripheral lesions, radiofrequency ablation showed best indications than cryoablation. There are significant demographic and tumor differences between patients treated by one or another approach. The correct indication for each treatment seems to be of key importance to achieve the best oncological and functional outcome. Open partial nephrectomy remains the gold standard treatment for PMR, but laparoscopic approaches have been showing similar results. PMID:24419921

Crestani, Alessandro; Spreafico, Carlo; Maffezzini, Massimo; Salvioni, Roberto

2013-01-01

315

Can biologic treatment induce cutaneous focal mucinosis?  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin mucinosis is a rare skin disease which clinically manifests as firm papules and waxy nodules. We report a case of a 66-year-old female psoriatic patient who developed skin mucinosis during biological therapy. Because of a previous lack of response to the local and conventional systemic treatment of psoriasis, the patient received biological therapy (infliximab from June 2008 to May 2009 - initial clinical improvement and loss of treatment effectiveness in the 36(th) week of the therapy; adalimumab from June 2009 to January 2010 - lack effectiveness; ustekinumab from March 2012 to the present). Throughout 2 months we observed a manifestation of the skin mucinosis as well-demarcated, yellow and brown, papulo-nodular lesions of 5-10 mm in diameter, localized on the back. Histopathological examination with alcian blue staining demonstrated mucin deposits in the dermis. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of cutaneous focal mucinosis was established. We present the case because of the extremely rare occurrence of the disease. Scarce literature and data suggest that there is an association between focal mucinosis and thyroid dysfunction, as well as possible adverse effects of biological therapy with TNF-? antagonists. PMID:25610359

Lesiak, Aleksandra; W?odarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Sieniawska, Joanna; Rogowski-Tylman, Micha?; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Olejniczak-Staruch, Irmina; Narbutt, Joanna

2014-12-01

316

Fast nonparaxial scalar focal field calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient algorithm for calculating nonparaxial scalar field distributions in the focal region of a lens is discussed. The algorithm is based on fast Fourier transform implementations of the first Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and assumes that the input field at the pupil plane has a larger extent than the field in the focal region. A sampling grid is defined over a finite region in the output plane and referred to as a tile. The input field is divided into multiple separate spatial regions of the size of the output tile. Finally, the input tiles are added coherently to form a summed tile, which is propagated to the output plane. Since only a single tile is propagated, there are significant reductions of computational load and memory requirements. This method is combined either with a subpixel sampling technique or with a chirp z-transform to realize smaller sampling intervals in the output plane than in the input plane. For a given example the resulting methods enable a speedup of approximately 800× in comparison to the normal angular spectrum method, while the memory requirements are reduced by more than 99%. PMID:24977358

Hillenbrand, Matthias; Hoffmann, Armin; Kelly, Damien P; Sinzinger, Stefan

2014-06-01

317

Interspecific scaling patterns of talar articular surfaces within primates and their closest living relatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The articular facets of interosseous joints must transmit forces while maintaining relatively low stresses. To prevent overloading, joints that transmit higher forces should therefore have larger facet areas. The relative contributions of body mass and muscle-induced forces to joint stress are unclear, but generate opposing hypotheses. If mass-induced forces dominate, facet area should scale with positive allometry to body mass. Alternatively, muscle-induced forces should cause facets to scale isometrically with body mass. Within primates, both scaling patterns have been reported for articular surfaces of the femoral and humeral heads, but more distal elements are less well studied. Additionally, examination of complex articular surfaces has largely been limited to linear measurements, so that 'true area' remains poorly assessed. To re-assess these scaling relationships, we examine the relationship between body size and articular surface areas of the talus. Area measurements were taken from microCT scan-generated surfaces of all talar facets from a comprehensive sample of extant euarchontan taxa (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Log-transformed data were regressed on literature-derived log-body mass using reduced major axis and phylogenetic least squares regressions. We examine the scaling patterns of muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) to body mass, as these relationships may complicate each model. Finally, we examine the scaling pattern of hindlimb muscle PCSA to talar articular surface area, a direct test of the effect of mass-induced forces on joint surfaces. Among most groups, there is an overall trend toward positive allometry for articular surfaces. The ectal (= posterior calcaneal) facet scales with positive allometry among all groups except 'sundatherians', strepsirrhines, galagids, and lorisids. The medial tibial facet scales isometrically among all groups except lemuroids. Scaling coefficients are not correlated with sample size, clade inclusivity or behavioral diversity of the sample. Muscle mass scales with slight positive allometry to body mass, and PCSA scales at isometry to body mass. PCSA generally scales with negative allometry to articular surface area, which indicates joint surfaces increase faster than muscles' ability to generate force. We suggest a synthetic model to explain the complex patterns observed for talar articular surface area scaling: whether 'muscles or mass' drive articular facet scaling is probably dependent on the body size range of the sample and the biological role of the facet. The relationship between 'muscle vs. mass' dominance is likely bone- and facet-specific, meaning that some facets should respond primarily to stresses induced by larger body mass, whereas others primarily reflect muscle forces. PMID:24219027

Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Boyer, Doug M

2014-02-01

318

Ozonoterapia sistémica e intra-articular en la artritis de la articulación temporomandibular por artritis reumatoide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia intra-articular combinada con la vía sistémica (vía rectal y se comparó con la sola aplicación por vía intra-articular en pacientes con artritis de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM por artritis reumatoide (AR mediante la evaluación clínica del dolor a la masticación, chasquido y trismo. Fueron estudiados veinte pacientes, divididos en dos grupos de diez cada uno, el primero recibió ozonoterapia intra-articular (concentración de ozono 10 mg/L y volumen de 3 mL, a razón de dos aplicaciones por semana, durante cinco semanas, y el segundo, terapia combinada (igual al primer grupo más ozono administrado por insuflación rectal, a una concentración de 30 hasta 40 mg/L y un volumen de 100 hasta 200 mL, veinte aplicaciones. Se evaluó el grosor del cartílago articular (por ultrasonido, al inicio y al final del tratamiento al igual que los síntomas clínicos: dolor a la masticación, chasquido y trismo. Como resultado, se obtuvo una disminución significativa de todos los síntomas estudiados, así como del grosor del cartílago articular diagnosticado en el estudio ultrasonográfico, teniendo una respuesta más rápida en el grupo de la terapia combinada. Se concluyó que ambas formas de tratamiento demuestran efectos beneficiosos en la artritis de la articulación temporomandibular de pacientes con artritis reumatoide, aunque la terapia combinada resulta la más eficiente, resultado que no ha sido reportado con anterioridad.

Ivonne M\\u00E9ndez-P\\u00E9rez

2010-01-01

319

Pregnane x receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR), are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a) as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging. PMID:25749104

Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

2015-01-01

320

Evaluation on Cartilage Morphology after Intra-Articular Injection of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nano scale wear particles would generate from orthopedic implants with nano scale surface topography because of residual stress. In this study, the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on articular cartilage was investigated by intra-articular injection in rats. Using contrast-enhanced high-resolution micro computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, the decreased thickness of articular cartilage in distal femur was determined at 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after nanoparticle exposure. A strong linear correlation (r=0.928, P2 nanoparticles, cartilage thickness showed time-dependent decrease, and cartilage volume was decreased too. Further, the histopathological examination showed the edema chondrocyte and shrinked nucleus in the radial and calcified zone of cartilage. The ultrastructure of articular cartilage implied that the chondrocytes was degenerated, expressing as the condensed chromatin, the dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and the rich mitochondria. Even, the fragments of ruptured endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes at postexposure day 30. Results indicate that potential damage of articular cartilage was induced by particles existed in knee joint and imply that the bio monitoring should be strengthened in patients with prostheses replacement.

321

X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis.

Kunisada, Toshiyuki [Department of Medical Materials for Musculoskeletal Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)], E-mail: toshi-kunisada@umin.ac.jp; Shimao, Daisuke [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki 300-2394 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiroshi [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takeda, Ken; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Ando, Masami [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

2008-12-15

322

A qualitative analysis of crack propagation in articular cartilage at varying rates of tensile loading.  

Science.gov (United States)

A custom-built miniature tensile testing apparatus was used to study the propagation of cracks through the articular cartilage matrix at various loading rates and initial crack lengths. The crack propagation mechanism was observed to be significantly dissimilar to that normally seen in traditional fracture mechanics opening mode, where fracture propagates through the thickness of samples or perpendicularly to the applied load. Instead, an artificially initiated microcrack in the surface layer of an articular cartilage sample grew laterally in the direction of the applied load, stretching about the crack tip, whose initial position remained unchanged throughout the fracture process. A progressive upward pull of the bottom layer toward the surface, which resulted in necking of the specimen, was observed. Our analysis revealed that the rate of necking was the same as that of the lateral stretch of the growing crack. We hypothesize that necking is due to the response of the collagen meshwork especially in the deep zones of the matrix to the tensile load. Our samples exhibited unstable fracture growth immediately after each microcrack grew to the base of the articular surface layer, with very fast crack propagation to failure, thereby indicating that the fracture toughness of the articular cartilage matrix is significantly determined by the toughness of its articular surface. PMID:12745678

Stok, K; Oloyede, A

2003-01-01

323

Intra-articular bupivacaine as treatment for postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the wrist  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intra-articular injection of local anaesthetic is a confirmed method of treatment of postoperative pain, particularly after arthroscopy of the knee. The wrist however, has a limited capacity for intra-articular instillation of local anaesthetic, and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intra-articular bupivacaine on postoperative pain after arthroscopy of the wrist. We did a prospective, non-randomised study with two comparable, consecutive series of patients undergoing diagnostic/therapeutic wrist joint arthroscopy 20 of whom were given intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine 5 ml at the end of the arthroscopic procedure and 20 of whom were not. Postoperative pain and use of analgesics (morphine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and paracetamol) were recorded in all patients during the following five postoperative days using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a pain diary. The bupivacaine group reported less pain and less use of analgesics in the first postoperative hours, but for the remaining five postoperative day's pain and the use of analgesics were similar in the two groups. We conclude that intra-articular injection of 0.5% bupivacaine 5 ml after wrist joint arthroscopy reduces pain and use of analgesics during the first postoperative hours, but has no effect during the following five days.

Hansen, Torben Bæk; Jakobsen, Inge Agergaard

2008-01-01

324

Cartilage tissue engineering using pre-aggregated human articular chondrocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we first aimed at determining whether human articular chondrocytes (HAC proliferate in aggregates in the presence of strong chondrocyte mitogens. We then investigated if the aggregated cells have an enhanced chondrogenic capacity as compared to cells cultured in monolayer. HAC from four donors were cultured in tissue culture dishes either untreated or coated with 1% agarose in the presence of TGFb-1, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Proliferation and stage of differentiation were assessed by measuring respectively DNA contents and type II collagen mRNA. Expanded cells were induced to differentiate in pellets or in Hyaff®-11 meshes and the formed tissues were analysed biochemically for glycosaminoglycans (GAG and DNA, and histologically by Safranin O staining. The amount of DNA in aggregate cultures increased significantly from day 2 to day 6 (by 3.2-fold, but did not further increase with additional culture time. Expression of type II collagen mRNA was about two orders of magnitude higher in aggregated HAC as compared to monolayer expanded cells. Pellets generated by aggregated HAC were generally more intensely stained for GAG than those generated by monolayer-expanded cells. Scaffolds seeded with aggregates accumulated more GAG (1.3-fold than scaffolds seeded with monolayer expanded HAC. In conclusion, this study showed that HAC culture in aggregates does not support a relevant degree of expansion. However, aggregation of expanded HAC prior to loading into a porous scaffold enhances the quality of the resulting tissues and could thus be introduced as an intermediate culture phase in the manufacture of engineered cartilage grafts.

F Wolf

2008-12-01

325

Limited integrative repair capacity of native cartilage autografts within cartilage defects in a sheep model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate integration and cellular outgrowth of native cartilage autografts transplanted into articular cartilage defects. Native cartilage autografts were applied into chondral defects in the femoral condyle of adult sheep. Within the defects, the calcified cartilage layer was either left intact or perforated to induce bone marrow stimulation. Empty defects served as controls. The joints were analyzed after 6 and 26 weeks by macroscopic and histological analysis using the ICRS II Score and Modified O'Driscoll Scores. Non-treated defects did not show any endogenous regenerative response and bone marrow stimulation induced fibrous repair tissue. Transplanted native cartilage grafts only insufficiently integrated with the defect borders. Cell death and loss of proteoglycans were present at the margins of the grafts at 6 weeks, which was only partially restored at 26 weeks. Significant cellular outgrowth from the grafts or defect borders could not be observed. Bonding of the grafts could be improved by additional bone marrow stimulation providing ingrowing cells that formed a fibrous interface predominantly composed of type I collagen. Transplanted native cartilage grafts remain as inert structures within cartilage defects and fail to induce integrative cartilage repair which rather demands additional cells provided by additional bone marrow stimulation. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:???-???, 2015. PMID:25470997

Gelse, Kolja; Riedel, Dominic; Pachowsky, Milena; Hennig, Friedrich F; Trattnig, Siegfried; Welsch, Götz H

2015-03-01

326

CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

327

Sensory imagination and narrative perspective : Explaining perceptual focalization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I argue that we can clarify and explain an important form of focalization or narrative perspective by the structure of perspective in sensory imagination. Understanding focalization in this way enables us to see why one particular form of focalization has to do with the representation of perceptual perspective in the narrative world, and to explain why there is a strict functional distinction between voice and perceptual focalization, why all forms of perceptual focalization is internal to the world of the narrated events, and why this does not prevent the narrator from “seeing” what is happening in the narrated world. Explaining perceptual focalization as a material counterpart of the perspective in sensory imagination enables us to see the crucial role played by the narrative representation of perspective in the reader’s understanding of and immersion in the narrative as well the reader’s emotional response to the narrative

Grünbaum, Thor

2013-01-01

328

Multi-focal Vision and Gaze Control Improve Navigation Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multi-focal vision systems comprise cameras with various fields of view and measurement accuracies. This article presents a multi-focal approach to localization and mapping of mobile robots with active vision. An implementation of the novel concept is done considering a humanoid robot navigation scenario where the robot is visually guided through a structured environment with several landmarks. Various embodiments of multi-focal vision systems are investigated and the impact on navigation performance is evaluated in comparison to a conventional mono-focal stereo set-up. The comparative studies clearly show the benefits of multi-focal vision for mobile robot navigation: flexibility to assign the different available sensors optimally in each situation, enhancement of the visible field, higher localization accuracy, and, thus, better task performance, i.e. path following behavior of the mobile robot. It is shown that multi-focal vision may strongly improve navigation performance.

Kolja Kuehnlenz

2008-11-01

329

Multi-focal Vision and Gaze Control Improve Navigation Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multi?focal vision systems comprise cameras with various fields of view and measurement accuracies. This article presents a multi?focal approach to localization and mapping of mobile robots with active vision. An implementation of the novel concept is done considering a humanoid robot navigation scenario where the robot is visually guided through a structured environment with several landmarks. Various embodiments of multi?focal vision systems are investigated and the impact on navigation performance is evaluated in comparison to a conventional mono?focal stereo set?up. The comparative studies clearly show the benefits of multi?focal vision for mobile robot navigation: flexibility to assign the different available sensors optimally in each situation, enhancement of the visible field, higher localization accuracy, and, thus, better task performance, i.e. path following behavior of the mobile robot. It is shown that multi?focal vision may strongly improve navigation performance.

Kolja Ku?hnlenz

2012-05-01

330

Point defect energies  

CERN Document Server

The point defect is just one of the menagerie of defects (comprising dislocations, disvections, discommensurations, stacking-faults, antiphase boundaries, etc.) which affect the mechanical and other properties of all materials. The class of point defect can be further divided into interstitial, substitutional and antisite. Various combinations of these defects lead to pairings such as those of Frenkel and Shottky type. The present volume comprises a compilation of selected data concerning point defects in metals, semiconductors, carbon and carbides, nitrides, halides, oxides and miscellaneous

Fisher, D J

2015-01-01

331

Defect production in ceramics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

1997-08-01

332

Stromal myofibroblasts in focal reactive overgrowths of the gingiva  

OpenAIRE

Focal reactive overgrowths are among the most common oral mucosal lesions. The gingiva is a significant site affected by these lesions, when triggered by chronic inflammation in response to microorganisms in dental plaque. Myofibroblasts are differentiated fibroblasts that actively participate in diseases characterized by tissue fibrosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of stromal myofibroblasts in the main focal reactive overgrowths of the gingiva: focal fibrous hype...

Leonardo Silveira Damasceno; Fernanda da Silva Gonçalves; Silva, Edson Costa E.; Elton Gonçalves Zenóbio; Paulo Eduardo Alencar Souza; Martinho Campolina Rebello Horta

2012-01-01

333

Osteochondral autografting (mosaicplasty) in grade IV cartilage defects in the knee joint: 2- to 7-year results  

OpenAIRE

The use of autologous osteochondral grafts (mosaicplasty) to repair articular cartilage defects is a well-established technique. Between 1998 and 2003, 19 patients with grade IV cartilage defects in the knee joint were treated by mosaicplasty. The average age of these 13 men (68%) and six women (32%) was 33.1 years (20–46). The mean follow-up was 32.4 months (84–24). The mean preoperative and postoperative Lysholm score was 45.8 (21–60) and 87.5 (74–100), respectively (p

Oztu?rk, Alpaslan; Ozdemir, M. Recai; Ozkan, Yu?ksel

2006-01-01

334

Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

Barbara Illowsky Karp

2012-11-01

335

Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

1986-11-01

336

Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA / Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estu [...] do comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine [...] with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II, 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%; and in group III, bupivacaine 0.25% associated with 1 mg of morphine. The groups were assessed for degree of pain by the Visual Analog Scale at 6, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Group III had less pain at all times, but the pain was not as intense in all groups to the point of needing extra medications beyond the established protocol. CONCLUSION: The intra-articular application of these medications after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft when performed under spinal anesthesia is not useful enough to use regularly. Level of Evidence II, Lesser quality RCT.

Marcus Vinicius, Danieli; Antonio, Cavazzani Neto; Paulo Adilson, Herrera.

337

Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estudo comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade.OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II, 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%; and in group III, bupivacaine 0.25% associated with 1 mg of morphine. The groups were assessed for degree of pain by the Visual Analog Scale at 6, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Group III had less pain at all times, but the pain was not as intense in all groups to the point of needing extra medications beyond the established protocol. CONCLUSION: The intra-articular application of these medications after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft when performed under spinal anesthesia is not useful enough to use regularly. Level of Evidence II, Lesser quality RCT.

Marcus Vinicius Danieli

2012-01-01

338

Influencia del círculo de abuelos en la evolución de las enfermedades articulares / Influence of the grandparents' circle on the evolution of articular diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio longitudinal y prospectivo en 60 abuelos que tenían alguna enfermedad articular de un total de 70 dispensarizados en el consultorio del médico de la familia No. 50 del policlínico comunitario "Alberto Fernández Montes de Oca", San Luis, Santiago de Cuba. El objetivo del estudio [...] fue valorar la influencia del circulo de abuelos, con su programa de actividades físicas y recreativas, sobre la salud de los ancianos y específicamente, en la evolución de las enfermedades articulares. La edad del grupo osciló entre 65 y 69 años, con predominio del sexo femenino, la osteoartritis fue la enfermedad más generalizada, la mayoría de los abuelos estaban deprimidos y pocos usaban el bastón. Después de la incorporación al circulo de abuelos, el grupo refirió mejoría en el estado de salud, fundamentalmente en sus dolencias articulares y el estado depresivo. La atención de enfermería se clasificó de buena por todos los pacientes. Se puede concluir que el círculo de abuelos desempeñó un importante papel en la recuperación de las capacidades físicas y psíquicas del adulto mayor. Abstract in english A longitudinal and prospective study was conducted in 60 grandparents that had some articular disease from a total of 70 categorized at the family physician's office No. 50 of "Alberto Fernández Oca" Community Polyclinic, in San Luis, Santiago de Cuba. The aim of the study was to assess the influenc [...] e of the grandparents' circle with its program of physical and recreational activities on the elderly's health and, specifically, on the evolution of articular diseases. The age of the group ranged between 65 and 69, with a predominance of females. Osteoarthritis was the most generalized disease. Most of the grandparents were depressed and a few used walking sticks. After their incorporation to the grandparents' circle, the group referred improvement of their health status, mainly of the articular pains and their depressive state. Nursing care was classified as good for all patients. It was concluded that the grandparents' circle played an important role in the recovery of the physical and psychical capacities of the elderly.

Doris Dalis, Montes de Oca García; Ana, Julia Bravo; Clara, Díaz Medina.

2004-12-01

339

Influencia del círculo de abuelos en la evolución de las enfermedades articulares Influence of the grandparents' circle on the evolution of articular diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal y prospectivo en 60 abuelos que tenían alguna enfermedad articular de un total de 70 dispensarizados en el consultorio del médico de la familia No. 50 del policlínico comunitario "Alberto Fernández Montes de Oca", San Luis, Santiago de Cuba. El objetivo del estudio fue valorar la influencia del circulo de abuelos, con su programa de actividades físicas y recreativas, sobre la salud de los ancianos y específicamente, en la evolución de las enfermedades articulares. La edad del grupo osciló entre 65 y 69 años, con predominio del sexo femenino, la osteoartritis fue la enfermedad más generalizada, la mayoría de los abuelos estaban deprimidos y pocos usaban el bastón. Después de la incorporación al circulo de abuelos, el grupo refirió mejoría en el estado de salud, fundamentalmente en sus dolencias articulares y el estado depresivo. La atención de enfermería se clasificó de buena por todos los pacientes. Se puede concluir que el círculo de abuelos desempeñó un importante papel en la recuperación de las capacidades físicas y psíquicas del adulto mayor.A longitudinal and prospective study was conducted in 60 grandparents that had some articular disease from a total of 70 categorized at the family physician's office No. 50 of "Alberto Fernández Oca" Community Polyclinic, in San Luis, Santiago de Cuba. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of the grandparents' circle with its program of physical and recreational activities on the elderly's health and, specifically, on the evolution of articular diseases. The age of the group ranged between 65 and 69, with a predominance of females. Osteoarthritis was the most generalized disease. Most of the grandparents were depressed and a few used walking sticks. After their incorporation to the grandparents' circle, the group referred improvement of their health status, mainly of the articular pains and their depressive state. Nursing care was classified as good for all patients. It was concluded that the grandparents' circle played an important role in the recovery of the physical and psychical capacities of the elderly.

Doris Dalis Montes de Oca García

2004-12-01

340

The Variations in Calcaneal Articular Facets In North Indian Population and its Clinical Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims and Objectives- To know the most common type of calcanei in North Indian population and itsclinical importance. There are three articular facets on superior surface of calcaneus- anterior, middle andposterior. Three types of calcanei are noted according to number and arrangement of the articular facets-type A, B and C. Methodology - The present studywas done on 300 dry adult human calcanei of unknownsex taken from Department of Anatomy Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchVallah (Amritsar. Results- In our study Type B was found as the most common type. Type A is the nextmost common. Interpretation- The talocalcaneal joint is important in arthritis and coalition, flat foot, valgus deformity, congenital anomalies and intra articular fractures.

Deepinder Kaur Gandhi

2012-01-01

341

Couple Control Model Implementation on Antagonistic Mono- and Bi-Articular Actuators  

CERN Document Server

Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, a couple control model for lower-limb orthosis of a body weight support gait training system is proposed. The developed leg orthosis implements the use of pneumatic artificial muscle as an actuation system. The pneumatic muscle was arranged antagonistically to form two pair of mono-articular muscles (i.e., hip and knee joints), and a pair of bi-articular actuators (i.e., rectus femoris and hamstring). The results of the proposed couple control model showed that, it was able to simultaneously control the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators and sufficiently performed walking motion of the leg orthosis.

Prattico, Flavio; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh

2014-01-01

342

Management of difficult intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are difficult clinically because the bone and soft tissue structures are small and intricate. Suboptimal treatment of intra-articular fractures typically leads to functional impairment of the hand. This article reviews the current methods of treatment, together with the senior author's experience in treating difficult proximal interphalangeal joint fractures and dislocations. Besides conservative treatments, surgical treatments include open or closed reduction with traditional Osteosynthesis, such as K-wires, screws or plates. Among recent developments are the percutaneous application of thin cannulated compression screws and novel dynamic external fixators. After a preferred minimally invasive treatment with stable reconstruction of the articular surface, sufficient aftercare is necessary to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25427554

Liodaki, E; Xing, S G; Mailaender, P; Stang, F

2015-01-01

343

Necrotizing Faciitis after shoulder mobilization and intra-articular infiltration with betametasone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Necrotizing Fasciitis is a rapidly progressive, potentially fatal infection of superficial fasciae and subcutaneous tissue, usually resulting from an inciting trauma to the skin. Medical literature refers few cases of necrotizing fasciitis related to intra-articular infiltrations, that often lead to patients death. This report describes the clinical events on a 55 year-old diabetic patient who developed upper extremity Necrotizing Fasciitis, 18 days after shoulder mobilization and intra-articular infiltration, due to Staphylococcus epidermidis. An early surgical debridement was performed and antibiotherapy was established, resulting in a successful outcome, despite the functional disability. We point out, through this case, the possibility of intra-articular injections of drugs causing Necrotizing Fasciitis, especially in risk patients. PMID:24016656

Bento-Rodrigues, Joana; Judas, Fernando; Pedrosa Rodrigues, Jorge; Oliveira, João; Simões, Pedro; Lucas, Francisco; Pais Lopes, António

2013-01-01

344

Biofunctional polymer nanoparticles for intra-articular targeting and retention in cartilage  

Science.gov (United States)

The extracellular matrix of dense, avascular tissues presents a barrier to entry for polymer-based therapeutics, such as drugs encapsulated within polymeric particles. Here, we present an approach by which polymer nanoparticles, sufficiently small to enter the matrix of the targeted tissue, here articular cartilage, are further modified with a biomolecular ligand for matrix binding. This combination of ultrasmall size and biomolecular binding converts the matrix from a barrier into a reservoir, resisting rapid release of the nanoparticles and clearance from the tissue site. Phage display of a peptide library was used to discover appropriate targeting ligands by biopanning on denuded cartilage. The ligand WYRGRL was selected in 94 of 96 clones sequenced after five rounds of biopanning and was demonstrated to bind to collagen II ?1. Peptide-functionalized nanoparticles targeted articular cartilage up to 72-fold more than nanoparticles displaying a scrambled peptide sequence following intra-articular injection in the mouse.

Rothenfluh, Dominique A.; Bermudez, Harry; O'Neil, Conlin P.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

2008-03-01

345

Combined intra-articular glucocorticoid, bupivacaine and morphine reduces pain and convalescence after diagnostic knee arthroscopy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We studied the effect of intra-articullar saline vs. bupivacaine + morphine or bupivacaine morphine + methylprednisolone after diagnostic knee arthroscopy. In a double-blind randomized study, 60 patients undergoing diagnostic knee arthroscopy without a therapeutic procedure were allocated to groups receiving intra-articular saline, intra-articular bupivacaine 150 mg + morphine 4 mg or the same dose of bupivacaine + morphine + intra-articular methylprednisolone 40 mg at the end of arthroscopy during general anesthesia. All patients were instructed to resume normal activities immediately after the procedure. Pain during movement and walking, leg muscle force and joint effusion, use of crutches and duration of sick leave were assessed. A combination of bupivacaine and morphine reduced pain, duration of immobilization and of convalescence. The addition of methylprednisolone further reduced pain, use of more analgesics, joint swelling and convalescence.

Rasmussen, Sten; Lorentzen, Jan S

2002-01-01

346

The effect of intraarticular hydrocortisone injection on the articular cartilage of rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effect of hydrocortisone on the articular cartilage of the knee in rabbits. 27 New Zealand white rabbits were injected intraarticularly with 25, 50 or 100 mg betamethasone acetate in 2 or 4 weekly intervals. Control animals were injected with normal saline and demonstrated no histological changes in the articular cartilage. Hydrocortisone administration was associated with increased cell size, as well as an increased stain density in the cytoplasm surrounding vacuoles. In addition, loss of cell organelles was also observed. High dose of hydrocortisone was associated with an obvious loss of cell shape and distortion of the cell membrane and nucleus. The magnitude of histological changes, found under light and electron microscopy, were proportional to the amount of hydrocortisone injected. Our findings strongly indicate that intraarticular injection of hydrocortisone alters the shape of articular cartilage chondrocytes, producing abnormal changes in the cytoplasm and nucleus and leading to cell degeneration. PMID:9385288

Papacrhistou, G; Anagnostou, S; Katsorhis, T

1997-10-01

347

Autoradiographic evidence of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin binding sites in the articular cartilage of the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin was intravenously injected to rats, an autoradiographic study of distal femur articular cartilage was performed. Results show a specific binding of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin to chondrocytes, suggesting the possible existence of an opiate modulation of articular cartilage.

Castano, M.T.; Freire-Garabal, M.; Giraldez, M.; Nunez, M.J.; Belmonte, A.; Couceiro, J.; Jorge, J. (Univ. of Santiago (Spain))

1991-01-01

348

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in patients receiving long-term intra-articular corticosteroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function of eight patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving regular intra-articular methyl prednisolone acetate was studied. Tests of the HPA axis 5-7 weeks after the last injection revealed suppression in two patients. Some patients receiving intra-articular corticosteroids may therefore have abnormal responses to stress. PMID:6678689

Reid, D M; Patel, S; Reid, I W; Eastmond, C J; Rennie, J A

1983-06-01

349

PKCa Agonists Enhance the Protective Effect of Hyaluronic Acid on Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis of Articular Chondrocytes in Vitro  

OpenAIRE

Objective(s): Protein kinase C (PKC?) is involved in modulating articular chondrocytes apoptosis induced by nitric oxide (NO). Hyaluronic acid (HA) inhibits nitric oxide-induced apoptosis of articular chondrocytes by protecting PKC?, but the mechanism remains unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of PKC? regulate protective effect of hyaluronic acid.

Zhou, Jian-lin; Fang, Hong-song; Peng, Hao; Hu, Qiong-jie; Liu, Shi-qing; Ming, Jiang-hua; Qiu, Bo

2013-01-01

350

Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

M. Gerbase-DeLima

1998-03-01

351

Focal hand dystonia in musicians: a synopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal hand dystonia in musicians (FHDM), also known as 'musicians' cramp', is a relatively rare, task-specific, pain-free disorder of control, causing unintentional, abnormal movements and/or positions in a part of the body directly involved in playing a musical instrument. Few physicians are familiar with the diagnosis, yet the exact cause of the disorder remains unknown and there is no generally effective therapy. In this synopsis, the authors present their experience with the diagnosis and treatment of FHDM and their aetiology hypothesis that musicians' cramp is caused by a loss of central motor control initiated by a failure of coping mechanisms, which (try to) compensate for the effects of peripheral local movement disturbing factors in the hand. Recent publications focus on the role of the central nervous system and on motor pattern relearning. We recommend further (prospective) research of the results of operative (peripheral) therapy, followed by (central) motor pattern relearning, and of neuropsychological contributions. PMID:23515596

Rietveld, A B M; Leijnse, J N A L

2013-04-01

352

Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon [refs]. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology [ref]. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation.

Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

2012-01-01

353

Nontraumatic focal lesions of the spleen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred fourteen cases of nontraumatic splenic disease were reviewed to evaluate the roles of clinical findings, CT, US, and radionuclide imaging in diagnosis and management. Patient groups included lymphoma (36), infarct (28), leukemia (14), abscess (13), cyst (18), metastatic cancer (six), hemangioma (four), hematoma (four), and hamartoma (one). In no case were clinical findings alone sufficient to diagnose a splenic lesion. Clinical and laboratory manifestations were nonspecific in all groups. Moreover, no radiologic study reliably diagnosed splenic lymphoma or leukemia. All other focal splenic lesions were consistently diagnosed noninvasively. Cross-sectional imaging was more useful than radioisotope imaging and often provided adjunctive diagnosis of extrasplenic pathology. The superior detail, spatial resolution, and sensitivity of CT made it the single most valuable diagnostic modality

354

Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function, including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a critical mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

Motelow, Joshua E; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M; Sachdev, Robert N S; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P; Englot, Dario J; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

2015-02-01

355

CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal organizing pneumonia (FOP) is a benign condition which is often difficult to differentiate from bronchogenic carcinoma, and many patients with FOP undergo invasive procedures. We tried to determine which CT features might help provide a confident diagnosis of FOP. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, chest radiographs and CT scans of 13 patients with histopathologically proven FOP. Initial chest radiographs in all 13 suggested bronchogenic carcinoma. The CT scans were reviewed by three radiologists, and final decisions were reached by consensus. They were analyzed in terms of the size, shape, contour and localization of the lesion, interior characteristics of the nodule, changes in surrounding structures, and changes in any of these findings, as revealed by follow-up chest CT scanning. FOP lesions were oval or triangular in shape and between 1.8 and 6.5cm in their largest diameter. All had irregular margins and all but one were peripherally located. Eight (61.5%) were in contact with the pleura and five (38.5%) were located along the peripheral bronchovascular bundle, with pleural indentation; in eight (61.5%), post-contrast CT scanning revealed inhomogeneous enhancement, and four (30.8%) had pleural tags. In five (38.5%), there was coarse spiculation; for six (46.2%), air bronchograms were available, and in four (30.8%), satellite nodules were present. Spotty calcification and lymph node enlargement were each evident in one case only. Follow-up CT scanning, available in four cases, showed that the mass decreased in size in three and disappeared completely in one. Although there were no consistent CT features for differentiating focal organizing pneumonia from lung cancer, the possibility of the former should be considered when a peripherally-located oval or triangular-shaped mass is in broad contact with the pleura or is located along the bronchovascular bundle, and satellite nodules are also present.

Park, Jun Gyun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Nam, Ji Eun; Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Du Yon; Kim, Sang Jin [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hoon [Gil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Suk Jong [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

2000-12-01

356

Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stephanie Anderson1,2, Hollis Krug1,2, Christopher Dorman1, Pari McGarraugh1, Sandra Frizelle1, Maren Mahowald1,21Rheumatology Section, Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 2Division of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAObjective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain.Methods and materials: Chronic arthritis was produced in adult C57Bl6 mice by intra-articular injection of Type IV collagenase into the left knee. Following induction of arthritis, the treatment group received intra-articular BoNT/B. Arthritic control groups were treated with intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Pain behavior testing was performed prior to arthritis, after induction of arthritis, and following treatments. Pain behavior measures included analysis of gait impairment (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness evaluation (evoked pain response. Strength was measured as ability to grasp and cling.Results: Visual gait analysis showed significant impairment of gait in arthritic mice that improved 43% after intra-articular BoNT/B, demonstrating a substantial articular analgesic effect. Joint tenderness, measured with evoked pain response scores, increased with arthritis induction and decreased 49.5% after intra-articular BoNT/B treatment. No improvement in visual gait scores or decrease in evoked pain response scores were found in the control groups receiving intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Intra-articular BoNT/B was safe, and no systemic effects or limb weakness was noted.Conclusions: This study is the first report of intra-articular BoNT/B for analgesia in a murine model of arthritis pain. The results of this study validate prior work using intra-articular neurotoxins in murine models. Our findings show chronic degenerative arthritis pain can be quantitated in a murine model by measuring gait impairment using visual gait analysis scores (spontaneous pain behavior and joint tenderness scores (evoked pain responses. Reduction of joint pain seen in this study is consistent with our hypothesis of inhibition of release of pain mediators by intra-articular BoNT/B, supporting further investigation of this novel approach to treatment of arthritis pain with intra-articular neurotoxins.Keywords: intra-articular BoNT/B, osteoarthritis

Stephanie Anderson

2010-09-01

357

Spatial mapping of proteoglycan content in articular cartilage using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of articular cartilage pathology in the early disease stages using current clinical diagnostic imaging modalities is challenging, particularly because there is often no visible change in the tissue surface and matrix content, such as proteoglycans (PG). In this study, we propose the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to spatially map PG content in articular cartilage. The relationship between NIR spectra and reference data (PG content) obtained from histology of normal and artificially induced PG-depleted cartilage samples was investigated using principal component (PC) and partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses. Significant correlation was obtained between both data (R(2) = 91.40%, pdistribution across mammalian joint. PMID:25657883

Afara, Isaac O; Moody, Hayley; Singh, Sanjleena; Prasadam, Indira; Oloyede, Adekunle

2015-01-01

358

MRI features of three paediatric intra-articular synovial lesions: a comparative study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To determine reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features differentiating three paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions that contain blood products, from post-traumatic or haemorrhagic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of MRI findings of 22 paediatric intra-articular congenital or neoplastic synovial lesions, including venous malformation (VM) (n = 12), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS; n = 8), and synovial sarcoma (SS; n = 2). These MRI features were compared with 22 paediatric post-traumatic or inflammatory intra-articular processes containing blood products and producing mass effect. The following imaging features were assessed: presence of a discrete mass, extension, extra-articular oedema, susceptibility, joint effusion, and size. Fisher's exact test was used and results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: The three intra-articular synovial lesions, compared with controls, were more likely to directly invade osseous structures when a discrete mass was present (13/16, 81.3% versus 1/9, 11.1%; p < 0.002) and extend into extra-articular soft tissues (13/21, 61.9% versus 2/17, 11.8%; p < 0.003), but were less likely to show extra-articular oedema (3/22, 13.6% versus 13/22, 59.1%; p < 0.004), a joint effusion (10/22,45.5% versus 19/22, 86.4%, p < 0.01), susceptibility within a joint effusion (0/22, 0% versus 11/22, 40.9%; p = 0.00), osseous oedema (3/16, 18.8% versus 7/9, 77.8%; p < 0.009), and synovial enhancement (8/21, 38.1% versus 14/16, 87.5%; p < 0.003). VMs had characteristic tubular vessels with internal fluid-fluid levels (11/12) that extended into bone (10/12) and extracapsular soft tissues (11/12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, despite the overlapping presence of haemorrhagic products, intra-articular VM, PVNS, and SS show MRI features that permit distinction from acquired post-traumatic and haemorrhagic inflammatory lesions.

Kan, J.H. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States)], E-mail: herman.kan@vanderbilt.edu; Hernanz-Schulman, M. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN (United States); Damon, B.M.; Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Connolly, S.A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, IL (United States)

2008-07-15

359

On the main stages of the history of intra-articular therapy  

OpenAIRE

In this review the main stages in the history of intra-articular therapy of the rheumatic diseases are summarized. The first approach to such a local treatment has been likely performed in 1792 by the French physician Jean Gay, who injected in a swelling knee the “eau du Goulard” (Goulard’s water), namely a mixture based on lead compounds. In the XIX century iodine derivatives have been mainly applied as an intra-articular treatment. In the XX century, before the wide use of intra-artic...

Punzi, L.; Pasero, G.; Marson, P.; Zanchin, G.

2011-01-01

360

Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal: ¿por qué Enfermedad de Heck? Focal epithelial hyperplasia: why Heck's disease?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La hiperplasia focal del epitelio se caracteriza por la presencia de elevaciones papulares o nodulares, sésiles, de aspecto liso o rugoso, múltiples, de la misma coloración de la mucosa (Neville et al., 1998. Estrada (1956 describió la presencia de verrugas intraorales y lesiones papilomatosas en indios Caramantas en Colombia en 1956. El mismo autor verificó la presencia de esas mismas lesiones en indios Kátios, también colombianos, en el año de 1960. Reyes (1962 notó esa misma condición clínica en Guatemala. Soneira y Fonseca (1964 describieron la lesión con sus variaciones clínicas, desde una pápula a múltiples lesiones papilomatosas en la mucosa oral, labios, entre otras regiones de la mucosa bucal. Estos autores estudiaron 160 niñas indias en Venezuela y observaron la enfermedad en 54 de ellas (33,75%. Ellos también sugieren que la enfermedad tenga una etiología viral. A pesar de que esta entidad haya sido descrita por otros autores latinoamericanos antes de 1965, a ella se la reconoció internacionalmente ese año a través de Archard, Heck y Stanley. Estos autores relataron casos aislados en 15 indios norteamericanos del estado de Nuevo México; un Xavante, del estado de Mato Grosso (Brasil y un caso en un niño esquimal de Alaska y pasaron a denominar la entidad Hiperplasia Focal del Epitelio. El epónimo "Enfermedad de Heck" se deriva del Dr. Heck, que identificó a un paciente con esta enfermedad en Gallup, en Nuevo México, en 1961. Practorius-Clausen y Willis (1971 fueron los primeros a demostrar partículas del HPV en la hiperplasia focal del epitelio. Con referencia a las publicaciones anteriores a aquella de Archard, Heck y Stanley (1965, los autores sugieren que el epónimo Enfermedad de Heck sea abandonado, pues esa denominación además de no dar crédito a los autores que la describieron anteriormente a la comunicación de 1965, no suministra ninguna idea con relación a la naturaleza y característica de la entidad. Los autores también relatan un caso de hiperplasia focal del epitelio en paciente del sexo masculino, 13 años, leucodemia.The focal epithelial hyperplasia is characterized by the presence of papular and nodular elevations, flat or rough multiple sessiles, with the same color of the mucous membrane (Neville et al., 1998. Estrada (1956 described the presence of intra-oral warts and papillary lesions in Caramantas natives in Colombia, in 1956. IN 1960, the same author identified the presence of the same lesions in Kátios natives, from Colombia. Reyes (1962 noticed the same clinical conditions in Guatemala. Soneira and Fonseca (1964 have described the lesion with its clinical variations, from a single papula to multiple papillary lesions in the oral mucosa, lips, and other oral regions. These authors studied 160 native girls in Venezuela and noticed the disease in 54 of them (33.75%. They also suggest that the disease has a viral etiology. In spite of the fact the disease was described by other Latin American authors before 1965, it was worldwide recognized only in this year, due to Aechard, Heck and Stanley. These authors have reported isolated cases in 15 North American natives in the State of New Mexico; one Xavante in the state of Mato Grosso (Brazil and a Eskimo boy in Alaska, and named the disease as Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia. The eponym "Heck Disease" is derived from Dr. Heck, who identified one patient with this disease in Gallup, New Mexico in 1961. Praetorius-Clausen and WiIlis (1971 were the first to show HPV particles in the focal epithelial hyperplasia. Concerning the publishing prior to Archard, Heck and Stanley (1965, the authors suggest to discard that the eponym "Heck Disease", since this denomination does not add any relation to the nature and characteristics of the disease, and also does not recognize the authors who had described it before 1965. The authors also report a focal epithelial hyperplasia in a male 13 year old patient, leukoderma.

LN Rosa

2003-10-01

361

EUVL reticle defectivity evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Reticle defectivity was evaluated using two known approaches: direct reticle inspection and the inspection of the wafer prints. The primary test vehicle was a reticle with a design consisting of 45 nm and 60 nm comb and serpentine structures in different orientations. The reticle was inspected in reflected light on the KLA 587 in a die-todie and a die-to-database mode. Wafers were exposed on a 0.25 NA full-field EUV exposure tool and inspected on a KLA 2800. Both methods delivered two populations of defects which were correlated to identify coinciding detections and mismatches. In addition, reticle defects were reviewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess the printability. Furthermore, some images of the defects found on the 45 nm reticle used in the previous study [1] were collected using actinic (EUV) microscopy. The results of the observed mask defects are presented and discussed together with a defect classification.

Tchikoulaeva, A.; Okoroanyanwu, U.; Wood, O.; La Fontaine, B.; Holfeld, C.; Kini, S.; Peikert, M.; Boye, C.; Koay, C.-S.; Petrillo, K.; Mizuno, H.

2009-03-01

362

Lesões articulares em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus) na infecção experimental pelo reovírus aviário / Articular lesion in experimental infeccion with avian reovirus in broiler (Gallus gallus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve as lesões articulares induzidas pela inoculação oral e podal de uma amostra de reovírus aviário (S-1133) em pintos de corte de um dia de idade. Realizou-se o exame histopatológico de fragmentos da articulação tibiotársica utilizando-se cinco aves dos grupos inoculados e grupo [...] controle nos períodos de 24, 48, 72 horas e semanalmente até a oitava semana após a inoculação. A primeira alteração observada foi um infiltrado inflamatório misto nas bainhas tendinosas uma semana após a inoculação. Na segunda semana após a inoculação, houve fibroplasia, formação de folículos linfóides e hiperplasia das células da membrana sinovial, alterações progressivas observadas até o final do período experimental. As lesões articulares foram similares, ocorrendo simultaneamente nos dois grupos inoculados, contudo as alterações foram mais severas no grupo inoculado no coxim plantar. Abstract in english This paper describes articular lesions induced by inoculation of one-day-old broiler chicks with an avian reovirus strain (S-1133) by oral and foodpad routes. The hock joint of five birds from inoculated and control groups were collected in the periods of 24, 48, 72 hours and at weekly intervals fro [...] m 1 to 8 weeks post inoculation for histopathological examination. The first inflammatory changes were seen in tendon sheaths one week post inoculation. On the second week postinoculation there were fibroplasia, formation of lymphoid follicles and sinovial membrane cells hyperplasia, progressive lesions seen until the end of experiment. The articular lesions were similar occurring simultaneously in both inoculated groups, nevertheless the lesions were more severe in the group inoculated via footpad.

Simone Bertozi de Souza, VASCONCELOS; José Américo, BOTTINO; José Luiz, GUERRA; José Antonio, JEREZ.

363

Marco de trabajo fenomenológico para el daño del cartílago articular / Cadre de travail phénoménologique pour le dommage du cartilage articulaire / Phenomenology work setting for articular cartilage damage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se supone la falla del cartílago articular por muerte de los condrocitos, lo cual conlleva una pérdida de la matriz extracelular. Dado que el cartílago articular es avascular, la viabilidad de los condrocitos puede ser uno de los factores críticos que limitan la respuesta de r [...] eparación. En este artículo se propone un modelo de daño por fatiga del tejido cartilaginoso, análogo al modelo utilizado en los metales, donde se considera que cualquier carga que varíe con el tiempo puede causar una falla por fatiga, a causa de la acumulación de daño por esfuerzos repetidos. De forma similar, en el caso del cartílago, el daño del tejido se produce por la muerte celular ante la presencia de cargas repetidas en el tiempo. Se realizaron simulaciones computacionales que están en concordancia con los resultados clínicos y experimentales hallados sobre el daño de cartílago. Abstract in english In present paper it is supposed the lack of articular cartilage by chondrocytes death leading to a loss of extracellular matrix. Given that the articular cartilage is avascular, chondrocytes viability may be one of the critical factors limiting the repair response. In present article is exposed a da [...] mage model due to cartilaginous tissue fatigue, similar to that used in metals, where it is considered that any load varying in time may provokes a fatigue failure caused by damage accumulation by repetitive efforts. Likewise, in the case of cartilage, tissue damage is produced by cellular death in presence of repeated loads in time. Computation simulations were performed in agreement with clinical and experimental results obtained on cartilage damage.

Nancy Stella, Landínez Parra; Diego Alexander, Garzón-Alvarado; Juan Carlos, Vanegas Acosta.

2009-12-01

364

SINOVITIS VILLONODULAR PIGMENTADA FOCAL: REPORTE DE UN CASO / FOCAL PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: A CASE REPORT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sinovitis villonodular pigmentada (SVNP) es una proliferación sinovial benigna asociada a depósitos de hemosiderina, que se origina en articulaciones, bursas o vainas tendíneas. La articulación más comprometida es la rodilla (80% de los casos), seguida por la cadera. Normalmente, esta patología e [...] s de presentación difusa y en un menor porcentaje se da en forma focal. La SVNP posee características imaginológicas muy particulares, lo que permite una buena aproximación diagnóstica de la mano de los diferentes métodos radiológicos, en particular la resonancia magnética. En este reporte se describe un caso poco frecuente de SVNP focal en la cadera, que se presentó en la Clínica Alemana de Santiago. Abstract in english Pigmented villonodular synovitis represents a benign synovial proliferation associated to hemosiderin deposits, which originates in bone joints, bursae or tendinous sheaths. The knee articulation is the most commonly involved joint (80%of the cases), followed by the hip joint. Normally, this patholo [...] gy has a diffuse presentation, and a small percentage shows a localized form. PVNS displays very specific imaging features, which allows a good diagnostic approach when aided by different radiological techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this report we describe an infrequent case of focal PVNS localized in the hip, which was treated at "Clínica Alemana", Santiago, Chile.

Carolina, Schröter G; Claudio, Silva F; Gonzalo, Delgado P; Enrique, Bosch 0; Nicolás, Zilleruelo V.

365

SINOVITIS VILLONODULAR PIGMENTADA FOCAL: REPORTE DE UN CASO FOCAL PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: A CASE REPORT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La sinovitis villonodular pigmentada (SVNP es una proliferación sinovial benigna asociada a depósitos de hemosiderina, que se origina en articulaciones, bursas o vainas tendíneas. La articulación más comprometida es la rodilla (80% de los casos, seguida por la cadera. Normalmente, esta patología es de presentación difusa y en un menor porcentaje se da en forma focal. La SVNP posee características imaginológicas muy particulares, lo que permite una buena aproximación diagnóstica de la mano de los diferentes métodos radiológicos, en particular la resonancia magnética. En este reporte se describe un caso poco frecuente de SVNP focal en la cadera, que se presentó en la Clínica Alemana de Santiago.Pigmented villonodular synovitis represents a benign synovial proliferation associated to hemosiderin deposits, which originates in bone joints, bursae or tendinous sheaths. The knee articulation is the most commonly involved joint (80%of the cases, followed by the hip joint. Normally, this pathology has a diffuse presentation, and a small percentage shows a localized form. PVNS displays very specific imaging features, which allows a good diagnostic approach when aided by different radiological techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In this report we describe an infrequent case of focal PVNS localized in the hip, which was treated at "Clínica Alemana", Santiago, Chile.

Carolina Schröter G

2010-01-01

366

Focal fatty infiltration of the liver mimicking metastatic disease.  

OpenAIRE

We report the mistaken diagnosis of metastatic liver disease by ultrasonography in a patient with congestive heart failure and focal fatty infiltration of the liver. Multiple echogenic space-occupying lesions in the liver can be caused by benign conditions as well as tumour deposits and in a debilitated patient the possibility of focal fatty infiltration should always be considered.

Bashir, Y.

1990-01-01

367

Idiopathic unilateral focal hyperhidrosis with social anxiety disorder  

OpenAIRE

Hyperhidrosis especially palmoplantar type are commonly referred to psychiatrist for management. Focal type of hyperhidrosis is less commonly seen more so associated with social anxiety disorder. Focal type is associated with variety of organic causes which has to be excluded before labeling it as Idiopathic variety. The variety of treatment that they are subjected to and its outcome are discussed in this case report.

Ghorpade, V. Anand Prakash

2009-01-01

368

Laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new laser differential confocal focal-length measurement method is proposed for the measurement of an ultra-long focal-length. The approach proposed uses the property of an axial intensity curve that the absolute zero precisely corresponds to the focus of the objective in a differential confocal focusing system (DCFS) to measure the variation in position of DCFS focus with and without a measured ultra-long focal-length lens (UFL), uses the distance between the two focuses to obtain the UFL focal-length, and thereby achieving the precise measurement of ultra-long focal-length. The method has a high focusing precision, a strong anti-interference capability and a short measurement light-path. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that the relative measurement error is about 0.01% when the method is used for the measurement of back-focus-distance (BFD). PMID:19997229

Zhao, Weiqian; Sun, Ruoduan; Qiu, Lirong; Sha, Dingguo

2009-10-26

369

Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL

2014-01-01

370

Phase defect detection signal analysis: dependence of defect size variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Influence of the size or volume of the phase defect embedded in the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) mask on wafer printability by scanning probe microscope (SPM) is well studied. However, only few experimental results on the measurement accuracy of the phase defect size have been reported. Therefore, in this study, measurement repeatability of the phase defect volume using SPM, and influence of the defect volume distribution on defect detection signal intensity using an at-wavelength dark-field defect inspection tool were examined. A programmed phase defect mask was prepared, and defect size measurement repeatability test was conducted using a SPM. After capturing the defect images, the defect volumes were then calculated. As a result, variation of measured volume due to the measurement repeatability was much smaller than that of the defect-to-defect variation. This result indicates that measuring of the volume of each phase defect is necessary in order to evaluate the defect detection yield using phase defect inspection tool and wafer printability. In addition, the phase defects were captured their images using an at-wavelength dark-field inspection tool and from which the defect detection signal intensities were calculated. Even though the defect signal intensity itself seemed to have variation, the defect volume can be roughly estimated from the defect signal intensity.

Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Abe, Tsukasa

2014-10-01

371

[Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a rough border value. Values of DPI (Doppler perfusion index) over 0.3 and tumor index over 1.0 characterize primary, and lower values characterize secondary liver malignancies. In differentiation of benign and malign tumors of kidneys, besides the aspect of vascularisation, the maximal frequency altitude in tumor artery (the limit around 2.5 kHz) is very important. However, peripheral and penetrating blood vessels are most usually seen in RCC, less often in AML and bigger oncocytomas. CDS with contrast agent is very useful in making differential diagnosis of the focal lesions with 95% specificity for some lesions. PMID:15137225

Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurovi?, V; Salihefendi?, Nizama; Smajlovi?, Fahrudin

2004-01-01

372

Differences between diffuse and focal autoimmune pancreatitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate differences in clinical features between diffuse- and focal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP. METHODS: Based on radiological findings by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, we divided 67 AIP patients into diffuse type (D type and focal type (F type. We further divided F type into head type (H type and body and/or tail type (B/T type according to the location of enlargement. Finally, we classified the 67 AIP patients into three groups: D type, H type and B/T type. We compared the three types of AIP in terms of clinical, laboratory, radiological, functional and histological findings and clinical course. RESULTS: There were 34 patients with D-type, 19 with H-type and 14 with B/T-type AIP. Although obstructive jaundice was frequently detected in D-type patients (88% and H-type patients (68%, no B/T-type patients showed jaundice as an initial symptom (P < 0.001. There were no differences in frequency of abdominal pain, but acute pancreatitis was associated more frequently in B/T-type patients (36% than in D-type patients (3% (P = 0.017. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG4 levels were significantly higher in D-type patients (median 309 mg/dL than in B/T-type patients (133.5 mg/dL (P = 0.042. Serum amylase levels in B/T-type patients (median: 114 IU/L were significantly greater than in H-type patients (72 IU/L (P = 0.049. Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP was histologically confirmed in 6 D-type, 7 H-type and 4 B/T-type patients; idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis was observed in no patients. Marked fibrosis and abundant infiltration of CD20-positive B lymphocytes with few IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in 2 B/T-type patients. Steroid therapy was effective in all 50 patients (31 D type, 13 H type and 6 B/T type. Although AIP relapsed during tapering or after stopping steroids in 3 D-type and 3 H-type patients, no patients relapsed in B/T type. During follow-up, radiological features of 6 B/T-type patients were not changed and 1 B/T-type patient improved naturally. CONCLUSION: Clinical features of H-type AIP were similar to those of D-type, but B/T-type differed from D and H types. B/T-type may involve diseases other than LPSP.

Sawako Kuruma

2012-01-01

373

Displasia cortical focal, aspectos neurofisiológicos, imaginológicos e histológicos Focal cortical dysplasia, aspects of neurophysiologic, imaginological and histological  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Displasia cortical focal é uma das formas mais frequentes de malformações do desenvolvimento cortical, estando intimamente relacionada com epilepsia de difícil controle em crianças e adultos. Caracterizam-se por alterações histológicas, imaginológicas e eletrofisiológicas peculiares. OBJETIVO: Fazer uma revisão sucinta dos principais aspectos imaginológicos, histológicos e neurofisiológicos das displasias corticais focais. MÉTODOS: Revisão bibliografia. CONCLUSÃO: As displasias corticais focais têm características clínicas peculiares, A prevalência de epilepsia refrataria entre pacientes com displasia cortical focal é bastante elevada. A RM de crânio apresenta alterações distintas a doença, podendo em muitos casos ser normal e se correlaciona com os achados histológicos. Descargas contínuas e surtos paroxísticos de alta frequência são altamente sugestivos de epilepsia devido à displasia cortical focal.INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common ways of malformation of the cortical development where they are intimate related among hard control epilepsy on children and adults. It's characterized by peculiar histological, imaginological and electrophysiological amendment. PURPOSE: To make a succinct review of the main aspects of imaginological, histological and neurophysiologic focal cortical dysplasias. METHOD: Bibliographic review. CONCLUSION: The focal cortical dysplasias have peculiar clinical features. The prevalence of refractory epilepsy among focal cortical dysplasia patients is highly elevated. The skull magnetic resonance image (MRI presents specific amendments to the disease that could be normal in many cases and correlates with histological results. Continuous discharges and high frequency paroxistic bursts are highly pointed as epilepsy due the Focal cortical dysplasia.

Daiane Piccolotto Carvalho Camargo

2010-09-01

374

Surgical treatment of a comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone in a thoroughbred horse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in a case ofa comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone of a thoroughbred chaser are described, and its surgical treatment and aftercare are detailed. The horse made an uneventful recovery and successfully returned to racing

375

Quantitative proteomics at different depths in human articular cartilage reveals unique patterns of protein distribution.  

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The articular cartilage of synovial joints ensures friction-free mobility and attenuates mechanical impact on the joint during movement. These functions are mediated by the complex network of extracellular molecules characteristic for articular cartilage. Zonal differences in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are well recognized. However, knowledge about the precise molecular composition in the different zones remains limited. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of ECM molecules along the surface-to-bone axis, using quantitative non-targeted as well as targeted proteomics.\\ In a discovery approach, iTRAQ mass spectrometry was used to identify all extractable ECM proteins in the different layers of a human lateral tibial plateau full thickness cartilage sample. A targeted MRM mass spectrometry approach was then applied to verify these findings and to extend the analysis to four medial tibial plateau samples. In the lateral tibial plateau sample, the unique distribution patterns of 70 ECM proteins were identified, revealing groups of proteins with a preferential distribution to the superficial, intermediate or deep regions of articular cartilage. The detailed analysis of selected 29 proteins confirmed these findings and revealed similar distribution patterns in the four medial tibial plateau samples. The results of this study allow, for the first time, an overview of the zonal distribution of a broad range of cartilage ECM proteins and open up further investigations of the functional roles of matrix proteins in the different zones of articular cartilage in health and disease. PMID:25193283

Müller, Catharina; Khabut, Areej; Dudhia, Jayesh; Reinholt, Finn P; Aspberg, Anders; Heinegård, Dick; Önnerfjord, Patrik

2014-11-01

376

Intra-articular injection of radioactive yttrium 90 in the hemophilic arthropathies. About nine cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report 9 cases of intra-articular injection of radioactive yttrium 90. They specify the very place of this therapeutics in the hemophilic arthropathies treatment. Y 90 seems to give better results than osmic acid but cannot be used before the full growth. Thereby the authors point out the respective directions of their use

377

Condrometaplasia tenosinovial extraarticular / Chondrométaplasie ténosynoviale extraarticulaire / Extra-articular tenosynovitis chondrometaplasia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La condromatosis tenosinovial es una metaplasia idiopática benigna de la membrana sinovial. Se caracteriza por la formación de nódulos cartilaginosos en la membrana sinovial y en la cavidad articular. La localización extraarticular es un hallazgo poco frecuente. Los síntomas predominantes son dolor, [...] inflamación y limitación de los movimientos. Los métodos diagnósticos más efectivos comprenden la radiología, la tomografía computarizada, la resonancia magnética y la ecografía. Se presenta un nuevo caso de condromatosis tenosinovial extraarticular, se incluyen imágenes diagnósticas, se exponen el tratamiento realizado y los resultados histológicos. Además se ofrece una revisión de la literatura médica sobre el tema. Abstract in english Tenosynovitis chondromatosis is a benign idiopathic metaplasia os sinovial membrane. It is characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules in synovial membrane and in the articular cavity. Extra-articular location is an infrequent finding. Predominant symptoms are: pain, inflammation and movemen [...] ts limitation. The more effective diagnostic methods include radiology, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and echography. This is a new case of extra-articular tensosynovial chondromatosis where diagnostic images are included, as well as the treatment applied and histological results. Also, a review of medical literature on this subject is offered.

Orlando Manuel, Pérez Rivera; Mario, Sarmiento de la Guardia; Tomas, Ortiz Rivera; Ricardo Mauro, Pérez Rivera; Elisabeth, Ortiz Estanque.

2009-12-01

378

Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine  

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Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

379

Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

380

Optimal 3-D culture of primary articular chondrocytes for use in the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor  

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INTRODUCTION Reliable culturing methods for primary articular chondrocytes are essential to study the effects of loading and unloading on joint tissue at the cellular level. Due to the limited proliferation capacity of primary chondrocytes and their tendency to dedifferentiate in conventional culture conditions, long-term culturing conditions of primary chondrocytes can be challenging. The goal of this study was to develop a suspension culturing technique that not only would retain the cellular morphology but also maintain gene expression characteristics of primary articular chondrocytes. METHODS Three-dimensional culturing methods were compared and optimized for primary articular chondrocytes in the rotating wall vessel bioreactor, which changes the mechanical culture conditions to provide a form of suspension culture optimized for low shear and turbulence. We performed gene expression analysis and morphological characterization of cells cultured in alginate beads, Cytopore-2 microcarriers, primary monolayer culture, and passaged monolayer cultures using reverse transcription-PCR and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS Primary chondrocytes grown on Cytopore-2 microcarriers maintained the phenotypical morphology and gene expression pattern observed in primary bovine articular chondrocytes, and retained these characteristics for up to 9 days. DISCUSSION Our results provide a novel and alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes suitable for studies that require suspension such as those using the rotating wall vessel bioreactor. In addition, we provide an alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes that can impact future mechanistic studies of osteoarthritis progression, treatments for cartilage damage and repair, and cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25199120

Mellor, Liliana F.; Baker, Travis L.; Brown, Raquel J.; Catlin, Lindsey W.; Oxford, Julia Thom

2014-01-01

381

Arthroscopic management of intra-articular pigmented villonodular synovitis of temporomandibular joint.  

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This retrospective study reports on four patients with intra-articular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) who were managed with arthroscopy between 2002 and 2009. There were three females and one male, with a mean age of 46 years at diagnosis. The common symptoms were trismus and pain. No pre-auricular swelling or mass was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthrography showed an anteriorly displaced disc, disc perforation, osteophyte of the condyle, or increased joint effusion. No neoplasm was suspected radiologically. Under arthroscopy, a yellow nodule and loose bodies were found in one patient, and a yellow or brown hyperplasia of the synovial membrane was noted in the other three patients. Degeneration of the articular cartilage was detected in two patients. The arthroscopic procedures used for every patient were partial synovectomy and debridement of articular surfaces with electric shaving and coblation. Arthroscopic disc repositioning was performed for the two young patients. Postoperative histological examination verified the diagnosis of PVNS of the TMJ. The average follow-up period was 57.4 months, and no recurrence was found. Arthroscopy has proved to be a useful method for the management of intra-articular PVNS of the TMJ. PMID:20961736

Cai, X-Y; Yang, C; Chen, M-J; Jiang, B; Yun, B; Fang, B

2011-02-01

382

Evaluation of the influence of orthognathic surgery on articular in skeletal class II patients  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of orthognathic surgery is to correct facial deformity and dental malocclusion and to obtain normal orofacial function. However, there are controversies of whether orthognathic surgery might have any negative influence on temporomandibular joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of orthognathic surgery on articular disc position and temporomandibular joint symptoms of skeletal CI II patients by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (10 women and 5 men with skeletal CI II malocclusion, aged 19-32 years (mean 23 years, from the Isfahan Department of Maxillofacial surgery were studied. All received lefort I & bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO and all patients received pre- and post surgical orthodontic treatment, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed 1 day preoperatively and 3 month post operatively. Statistical analysis of the positional change of the disk was done by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: The change of articular disc position after mandibular advancement surgery by means of sagittal split ramus osteotomy was not statistically significant, but it tended to be positioned anteriorly. Conclusion: It can be suggested that orthognathic surgery dose not significantly change the position of the articular disc.Key words: MRI, Articular disk, Orthognatic surgery.

GH Firoozeai

2008-01-01

383

Effects of enzymatic treatments on the depth-dependent viscoelastic shear properties of articular cartilage.  

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that involves the erosion and structural weakening of articular cartilage. OA is characterized by the degradation of collagen and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix (ECM), particularly at the articular surface by proteinases including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs).(1) Degradation of collagen and proteoglycans is known to alter shear mechanical properties of cartilage, but study of this phenomenon has been focused on bulk tissue properties. The purpose of this study was to assess microscale cartilage damage induced by trypsin or collagenase using a technique to measure the local shear viscoelastic properties. Safranin-O histology revealed a decrease in proteoglycans near the articular surface after collagenase and trypsin digestions, with proteoglycan depletion increasing in time. Similarly, confocal reflectance micrographs showed increasing collagen degradation in collagenase treated samples, although the collagen network remained intact after trypsin treatment. Both treatments induced changes in shear modulus that were confined to a narrow range (?400µm) near tissue surface. In addition, collagenase altered the total energy dissipation distribution by up to a factor of 100, with longer digestion times corresponding to higher energy dissipation. The ability to detect local mechanical signatures in tissue composition and mechanics is an important tool for understanding the spatially non-uniform changes that occur in articular cartilage diseases such as OA. PMID:25196502

Griffin, Darvin J; Vicari, Josh; Buckley, Mark R; Silverberg, Jesse L; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence J

2014-12-01

384

Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?  

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The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University Hospital, and College of Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

2014-04-15

385

Synovial fluid bupivacaine concentrations following single intra-articular injection in normal and osteoarthritic canine stifles.  

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Intra-articular bupivacaine helps alleviate pain in animals receiving joint surgery, but its use has become controversial as ex vivo studies have illuminated the potential for chondrotoxicity. Such studies typically involve cell cultures incubated in solutions containing high bupivacaine concentrations for long durations. The aim of this study was to measure the actual synovial fluid bupivacaine concentrations after intra-articular injection. Eight healthy beagles with normal stifles and 22 large and giant-breed dogs with stifle osteoarthritis (OA) were treated with a single intra-articular injection of bupivacaine (1 mg/kg) into a stifle. Joint fluid samples were taken from the treated stifle immediately after injection and 30 min after injection and analyzed for bupivacaine concentrations. Immediately after injection, the median bupivacaine concentrations in normal and OA stifles were 3.6 and 2.5 mg/mL, respectively. Thirty minutes after injection, bupivacaine concentrations in normal and OA stifles were 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL, respectively. These results provide insight into the pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after injection into a joint. Given its immediate dilution and rapid drop in synovial fluid concentration, bupivacaine is unlikely to damage chondrocytes when administered as a single intra-articular injection. PMID:25229713

Barry, S L; Martinez, S A; Davies, N M; Remsberg, C M; Sayre, C L; Bachelez, A

2015-02-01

386

A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author) (author)

387

Role of platelet-rich plasma in articular cartilage injury and disease.  

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Clinical and laboratory research aimed at biological approaches to cartilage repair are currently in high demand due to the poor regenerative capacity of articular cartilage in the setting of a diseased articular environment. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) takes advantage of supraphysiological concentrations of platelets and their growth factors harbored in ?-granules, which together attempt to return the diseased articular cartilage to a preinjury state. The local use of PRP directly at the site of cartilage injury is thought to stimulate a natural healing cascade and accelerate the formation of cartilage repair tissue. This article provides an overview of the basic science behind the use of PRP in the treatment of cartilage injury and disease. Both initial and current examples of the use of intra-articular PRP in clinical human studies are provided. These include the use of PRP either alone or as an augmentation device with various other procedures, including arthroscopic microfracture and cell-free resorbable polyglycolic acid-hyaluronan implantation. Finally, the authors describe some of the potential future roles of PRP in clinical settings based on recent literature. These include Achilles tendon rupture, chronic tendinosis, chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy or tearing, muscle injury, and meniscal repair. PMID:25068847

Mascarenhas, Randy; Saltzman, Bryan M; Fortier, Lisa A; Cole, Brian J

2015-02-01

388

Enhanced targeting efficiency of PLGA microspheres loaded with Lornoxicam for intra-articular administration.  

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Owing to its rationale of targeting the drug to the site of action and minimizing systemic toxic effects of the drug, intra-articular drug delivery system has gained growing interests. In this study, emphasis was placed on intra-articular Lornoxicam-loaded PLGA microspheres (Lnxc-PLGA-MS) preparation and improving the targeting of lornoxicam (Lnxc) in knee joint. The microspheres were prepared by a process involving solid-in-oil-in-water(S/O/W) emulsion, and evaluated for physicochemical properties. Joint cavity's drug leakage into systemic circulation in rabbits was examined to define the drug stagnation. Meanwhile, drug retention in synovial fluid in rats was investigated to further validate the drug targeting. The microspheres were spherical as evidenced by the SEM photographs with mean size of 7.47 ?m, and encapsulation efficiency was observed 82.22% along with drug loading 12.17%. DSC revealed that the drug in the microspheres existed in the phase of uncrystallization. The formulated microspheres could prolong the drug release up to 32 days in vitro. Comparing with animals injected with lornoxicam solution, the plasma drug concentration decreased in rabbits and retention time increased in rats' synovial fluid with intra-articular injections of microspheres, revealing good targeting efficiency. In conclusion, PLGA microspheres could be used to deliver lornoxicam following intra-articular administration for enhancing targeting efficiency. PMID:21812757

Zhang, Zhiyue; Bi, Xiuli; Li, Hui; Huang, Guihua

2011-01-01

389

Thermal conductivity of defective graphene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Letter, the thermal conductivity of defective graphene is investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that various defects including single vacancy, double vacancy and Stone–Wales defects can greatly reduce the thermal conductivity of graphene. The amount of reduction depends strongly on the density and type of defects at small density level. However, at higher defect density level, the thermal conductivity of defective graphene decreases slowly with increasing defect density and shows marginal dependence on the defect type. The thermal conductivity is found to become less sensitive to temperature with increasing defect density.

390

?-XRF and ?-XANES at calcification fronts of human articular cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: One of the main threats to human health from heavy metals is associated with exposure to lead (Pb), which is associated with chronic diseases in the nervous, hematopoietic, skeletal, renal and endocrine system. Although much progress has been made to limit Pb exposure in industrialized countries, primarily through the elimination of leaded gasoline, workplace exposures and leaded pipes, most adults have already accumulated a substantial body burden of Pb. Most of the affiliated Pb is deposited in human bones, where it is stored up to 20 years and accounts for 90.95 of the total lead body burden. Pb is able to displace Ca2+ by cation exchange processes in the hydroxyapatite crystal (the main constituent of bone) and is liberated from it in cases of increased bone turnover such as osteoporosis, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism. Besides these phenomenological studies on the release of Pb from human calcified tissue analytical studies are essential to gain insight on storage sites and storage mechanisms on a microscopic scale. Therefore detailed synchrotron radiation induced micro x-ray fluorescence analyses (SR ? - XRF) have been carried out to study the distribution of Pb in bones from human joints (femoral heads and patellas). As a very recent result we found a highly specific accumulation of Pb in the tidemark, which is a metabolically active mineralization front (thickness about 5 - 10 ?m) between calcified and non-calcified ?m) between calcified and non-calcified articular cartilage and plays an important role in developing osteoarthritis. From the results obtained for single tidemark bones one would expect an accumulation of Pb in both tidemarks of bones showing tidemark duplication. However, Pb shows a strong accumulation at the older of the two tidemarks, while it is not present at the younger one. A comparison of the Pb distribution with the one of other tidemark-seekers (e.g. Zn) exhibits a time difference in the accumulation of different metals at the calcification fronts of human calcified tissue. The finding of elevated Pb levels in cartilage compared to the subchondral region of the bone (about 10 times higher) motivated a study on the chemical speciation of Pb in both compartments of calcified human tissue. Comparing results from micro x-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (?XANES) measurements in the tidemark with the ones from adequate standard materials gives information on the chemical bond of Pb in human cartilage. Results from a first ?-XANES experiment carried out at HASYLAB beamline L will be presented in this paper. ?-XANES scans at the tidemark of a femoral head and patella, and on a set of standard materials namely Pb-hydroxyapatite, PbO, PbS, PbCO3, and PbSO4 have been compared and will be presented. Although suffering from weak counting statistics one could estimate from the results, that most of the accumulated Pb in the tidemark is bound to hydroxyapatite. (author)

391

Calcium sulfate cement in contained traumatic metaphyseal bone defects.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate prospective patients with periarticular fractures where a meta physeal bone defect was grafted with high compressive calcium sulfate cement. The calcium sulfate cement MIIG X3, (Wright Medical Technology, Inc, Arlington, TN) was used in 45 patients with periarticular fractures--distal radial, tibial plateau, humeral head, and calcaneal fractures--to fill the metaphyseal defect. All fractures were treated either with open or closed reduction, fracture fixation, and the cement was applied openly or closed. Radiographs were evaluated for fracture reduction, joint line gap, and step, as well as for rate of graft replacement by bone. All fractures united without an additional procedure. There were no wound infections or other complications attributed to the graft. At three-month follow-up, a complete graft replacement by bone was observed in all fractures. Joint line step was not developed in any patient, but a joint line gap of 3 mm was observed postoperatively in one patient with a tibial plateau fracture. Loss of reduction occurred in one patient with an extra-articular distal radial fracture treated with closed reduction and k-wire fixation. Cement that escaped into the joint or the surrounding soft tissues was not visible at the six-week follow-up. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm the safety and the efficacy of this cement when it is used as graft with the appropriate fixation method in traumatic metaphyseal bone defects. PMID:23109071

Drosos, Georgios I; Ververidis, Athanasios; Babourda, Eleni C; Kakagia, Despoina; Verettas, Dionisios-Alexandros

2012-12-01

392

[Botulinum toxin in focal hyperhidrosis. An update].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight years after its approval, intralesional injections of botulinum toxin type A have become established as an easily performed, highly effective and almost complication-free therapeutic option in primary axillary hyperhidrosis. Sweat production is decreased to about a sixth of previous amounts, and the effect persists for 7 months on average. Restoration of the often significantly impaired quality of life has been convincingly documented in large studies. The effect of botulinum toxin is based on the inhibition of the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. In addition to this approved use, botulinum toxin is also successfully employed in other forms of focal hyperhidrosis, particularly in gustatory sweating. However, its use in palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, the second most common form of primary hyperhidrosis, is limited because of the pain from numerous injections, need for increased doses of the expensive toxin and the relatively short effective period of about 4 months. Botulinum toxin type B appears to be comparably effective as type A products but is more often associated with systemic adverse events. PMID:22638981

Hosp, C; Naumann, M K; Hamm, H

2012-06-01

393

Kindler syndrome: a focal adhesion genodermatosis.  

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Kindler syndrome (OMIM 173650) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by trauma-induced blistering, poikiloderma, skin atrophy, mucosal inflammation and varying degrees of photosensitivity. Although Kindler syndrome is classified as a subtype of epidermolysis bullosa, it has distinct clinicopathological and molecular abnormalities. The molecular pathology of Kindler syndrome involves loss-of-function mutations in a newly recognized actin cytoskeleton-associated protein, now known as fermitin family homologue 1, encoded by the gene FERMT1. This protein mediates anchorage between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix via focal adhesions, and thus the structural pathology differs from other forms of epidermolysis bullosa in which there is a disruption of the keratin intermediate filament-hemidesmosome network and the extracellular matrix. In the skin, fermitin family homologue 1 is mainly expressed in basal keratinocytes and binds to the cytoplasmic tails of beta1 and beta3 integrins as well as to fermitin family homologue 2 and filamin-binding LIM protein 1. It also plays a crucial role in keratinocyte migration, proliferation and adhesion. In this report, we review the clinical, cellular and molecular pathology of Kindler syndrome and discuss the role of fermitin family homologue 1 in keratinocyte biology. PMID:19120339

Lai-Cheong, J E; Tanaka, A; Hawche, G; Emanuel, P; Maari, C; Taskesen, M; Akdeniz, S; Liu, L; McGrath, J A

2009-02-01

394

Making mosaic fish primordia by focal electroporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lateral line is a mechanosensory system that comprises a set of discrete sense organs called neuromasts, which are arranged in reproducible patterns on the surface of fish and amphibians. The posterior component of the system, the posterior lateral line (PLL), comprises the neuromasts on the body and tail. It develops from the migrating primordium and so can be used to examine various aspects of neural development, including the control of long-range, collective cell migration and the mechanisms underlying the establishment of appropriate connectivity. Mosaic animals are those in which one or a few cells differ genetically from all others. Several methods have been developed to generate mosaic zebrafish, which can be used in long-term fate mapping or lineage tracing experiments if the progenitor cell stably expresses a reporter gene such as green fluorescent protein. Mosaic analysis can also be used to evaluate the cell autonomy of a given mutation, confronting mutant and wild-type cells, or two different types of mutant cells, in morphogenetic mosaics. Here we present an application of electroporation, which is designed to generate mosaics in defined parts of the developing zebrafish PLL. The method is based on the idea of focal electroporation, a technique developed to introduce dyes and constructs into cells within intact tissues. Current is forced into the embryo by sealing the tip of the electrode against the enveloping cells (periderm or ectoderm depending on the developmental stage, or mantle cells in the case of neuromasts). PMID:24298033

Schuster, Kevin; Ghysen, Alain

2013-12-01

395

Diagnosis and treatment for focal cortical dysplasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is defined as circumscribed malformation of cortical development, and it often causes medically refractory epilepsy. Palmini et al. (2004) have classified FCD into 2 types (I and II) and 2 subtypes (A and B) each. Of our 42 patients with FCD diagnosed pathologically, patients with type IIB had significantly more frequent seizures than patients with other types. In all patients with type IIB and 2 of 13 patients with type IIA, FCD was identified as a high signal intensity lesion on MRI; proton-dense weighted images were more sensitive than T2 weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. However, FCD type IA/IB could not be identified on MRI. Chronic electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of subdural and depth electrodes disclosed frequent interictal spikes and electrical seizure onsets within FCD lesions, and these findings suggest that FCD itself has intrinsic epileptogenicity. The basic procedure of surgical treatment for FCD is multiple gyrectomy including the whole FCD lesion. In cases with negative MRI, chronic intracranial EEG recording is necessary to tailor multiple gyrectomy. In our series, all patients with FCD type IIB and 10 (76.9%) of 13 patients with FCD type IIA achieved seizure freedom (Engel class I), whereas 9 (47.4%) of 19 patients with FCD type I were free from seizures. In conclusion, patients with MRI negative-FCD should have multimodal presurgical evaluations to more precisely delineate the lesionsns to more precisely delineate the lesions. (author)

396

School Building Defect Pattern  

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Full Text Available In providing a conducive learning environment for the student, the school building must be in good condition. This paper is evaluating the existing condition of primary school building in Sarawak, Malaysia. It focuses on building defects pattern for school building. The primary data collection is from the school building condition survey with involvement of 24 primary schools. The schools have been selected using simple random sampling and stratified sampling (of school age as the variable of selection. The reporting method is based on Condition Survey Protocol (CSP 1 Matrix. Data analysis covers descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis carried out found that the overall 4,725 defects have been identified. The building defect pattern is mainly on Ground Level of 3,176 defects, the highest number of defects components found on walls (798. 16.2% defects are cracks from 11 common defects and most of all the highest score of defects based on age of the building were the building in the range of 11 to 20 years.

Mahli M.

2014-01-01

397

Intra-articular contact stress distributions at the ankle throughout stance phase-patient-specific finite element analysis as a metric of degeneration propensity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A contact finite element (FE) formulation is introduced, amenable to patient-specific analysis of cumulative cartilage mechano-stimulus attributable to habitual functional activity. CT scans of individual human ankles are segmented to delineate bony margins. Each bone surface is projected outward to create a second surface, and the intervening volume is then meshed with continuum hexahedral elements. The tibia is positioned relative to the talus into a weight-bearing apposition. The articular members are first engaged under light preload, then plantar-/dorsi-flexion kinematics and resultant loadings are input for serial FE solutions at 13 instants of the stance phase of level walking gait. Cartilage stress histories are post-processed to recover distributions of cumulative stress-time mechano-stimulus, a metric of degeneration propensity. Consistency in computed contact stress exposures presented for seven intact ankles stood in contrast to the higher magnitude and more focal exposures in an incongruously reduced tibial plafond fracture. This analytical procedure provides patient-specific estimates of degeneration propensity due to various mechanical abnormalities, and it provides a platform from which the mechanical efficacy of alternative surgical interventions can be estimated. PMID:16520960

Anderson, Donald D; Goldsworthy, Jane K; Shivanna, Kiran; Grosland, Nicole M; Pedersen, Douglas R; Thomas, Thaddeus P; Tochigi, Yuki; Marsh, J Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D

2006-06-01

398

Intra-articular Contact Stress Distributions at the Ankle throughout Stance Phase – Patient-Specific Finite Element Analysis as a Metric of Degeneration Propensity  

Science.gov (United States)

A contact finite element (FE) formulation is introduced, amenable to patient-specific analysis of cumulative cartilage mechano-stimulus attributable to habitual functional activity. CT scans of individual human ankles are segmented to delineate bony margins. Each bone surface is projected outward to create a second surface, and the intervening volume is then meshed with continuum hexahedral elements. The tibia is positioned relative to the talus into a weight-bearing apposition. The articular members are first engaged under light preload, then plantar-/dorsi-flexion kinematics and resultant loadings are input for serial FE solutions at 13 instants of the stance phase of level walking gait. Cartilage stress histories are post-processed to recover distributions of cumulative stress-time mechano-stimulus, a metric of degeneration propensity. Consistency in computed contact stress exposures presented for seven intact ankles stood in contrast to the higher magnitude and more focal exposures in an incongruously reduced tibial plafond fracture. This analytical procedure provides patient-specific estimates of degeneration propensity due to various mechanical abnormalities, and it provides a platform from which the mechanical efficacy of alternative surgical interventions can be estimated. PMID:16520960

Anderson, Donald D.; Goldsworthy, Jane K.; Shivanna, Kiran; Grosland, Nicole M.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Thomas, Thaddeus P.; Tochigi, Yuki; Marsh, J.Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D.

2008-01-01

399

Evaluation of Articular Eminence Morphology and Inclination in TMJ Internal Derangement Patients with MRI / Evaluación de la Morfología e Inclinación de la Eminencia Articular en Pacientes con Trastorno Interno de ATM con MRI  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La morfología e inclinación de la eminencia articular son reportados como dos factores predisponentes para el trastorno interno (TI). El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la inclinación y la morfología de la eminencia articular y el TI. El estudio incluyó a 70 articulaciones [...] temporomandibulares, con TI en 35 pacientes: 51 articulaciones con desplazamiento discal con reducción (DDCR) y 19 de las articulaciones tuvieron desplazamiento discal sin reducción (DDSR). Todos los sujetos fueron sometidos a imágenes de resonancia magnética bilaterales de alta resolución que se realizaron en los planos sagital y coronal con la boca cerrada y abierta. La morfología articular la eminencia se caracterizó como una caja, sigmoide, aplanada, o deforme. La inclinación de la eminencia articular se midió en tres posiciones: empinada (de 60 ° a 90 °), moderada (entre 30 ° a 60 °) y poco profunda (entre 15 ° y 30 °). Las imágenes fueron divididos en dos; DDCR y DDSOR, y estos criterios fueron comparados. Al comparar las imágenes de ambos grupos, la forma aplanada se observó con mayor incidencia en el grupo de DDSR, la forma sigmoide fue la más frecuente en el grupo de DDCR y la inclinación de la eminencia articular se encontró más pronunciada que en el grupo DDSR. La inclinación de la eminencia articular puede no tener un efecto predisponente en el desarrollo de los desplazamientos de disco. Abstract in english Articular eminence morphology and inclination are reported to be two predisposing factors for the internal derangement (ID). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the inclination and morphology of the articular eminence and ID. The study included 70 temporomandibular j [...] oints with ID in 35 patients: 51 joints had disc displacements with reduction (DDWR) and 19 joints had disc displacements without reduction (DDWOR). All subjects underwent bilateral high resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans which were performed in the sagittal and coronal planes with mouths closed and opened. Articular eminence morphology was characterized as box, sigmoid, flattened, or deformed. Articular eminence inclination was measured at three positions: steep (from 60° to 90°), moderate (from 30° to 60°) and shallow (from 15° to 30°). The images were divided into two; DDWR and DDWOR, and these two criteria were compared. The images of the two groups were compared; while flattened form was occurred with the highest incidence in the DDWOR group, sigmoid form was the most frequent in the DDWR group and articular eminence inclination was found steeper than it was for the DDWOR group. The steepness of the articular eminence may not have a predisposing effect on the development of disc displacements.

Aydin, Ozkan; Hasan Ayberk, Altug; Metin, Sencimen; Bugra, Senel.

2012-06-01

400

A biphasic finite element study on the role of the articular cartilage superficial zone in confined compression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the superficial zone on the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. Confined compression of articular cartilage was modeled using a biphasic finite element analysis to calculate the one-dimensional deformation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and movement of the interstitial fluid through the ECM and articular surface. The articular cartilage was modeled as an inhomogeneous, nonlinear hyperelastic biphasic material with depth and strain-dependent material properties. Two loading conditions were simulated, one where the superficial zone was loaded with a porous platen (normal test) and the other where the deep zone was loaded with the porous platen (upside down test). Compressing the intact articular cartilage with 0.2 MPa stress reduced the surface permeability by 88%. Removing the superficial zone increased the rate of change for all mechanical parameters and decreased the fluid support ratio of the tissue, resulting in increased tissue deformation. Apparent permeability linearly increased after superficial removal in the normal test, yet it did not change in the upside down test. Orientation of the specimen affected the time-dependent biomechanical behavior of the articular cartilage, but not equilibrium behavior. The two tests with different specimen orientations resulted in very different apparent permeabilities, suggesting that in an experimental study which quantifies material properties of an inhomogeneous material, the specimen orientation should be stated along with the permeability result. The current study provides new insights into the role of the superficial zone on mechanical behavior of the articular cartilage. PMID:25465194

Guo, Hongqiang; Maher, Suzanne A; Torzilli, Peter A

2015-01-01

401

Defects at oxide surfaces  

CERN Document Server

This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied t