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EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)  

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Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological n...

Hemanth Kumar, M.; Spandana, V.; Tiwari Poonam

2011-01-01

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Cadmium Bioaccumulation and Toxicity in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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The present study was undertaken to determine the bioaccumulation of cadmium in livers of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) and to assess the histological alteration of intestine, liver and kidney tissues due to cadmium toxicity. Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to cadmium at different concentrations (5 and 10 mg L-1) for 7 days. Cadmium assayed by using AA220FS atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of cadmium in the liver tissues in the f...

Elamin, Maha H.; Al-olayan, Ebtesam M.; Daghestani, Maha H.; Dalia Fouad; Elobeid, Mai A.; Omer, Sawsan A.; Promy Virk; Ameera El-Mahassna

2012-01-01

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EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological niches, mainly pond aquaculture and reservoir fisheries. Tilapia fish scales found to have more percentage of Type I collagen. Fish collagen is complex structural protein that helps to maintain the strength and flexibility of skin, ligaments, bones, joints, muscles, tendons, gums, eyes, blood vessels, nails and hair. Collagen can be obtained from fish scales, fish skins by advanced enzymatic digestion methods in biotechnology. The Protein content of the above is more than 90% and having 18 kinds of amino acids out of which 7 are essential for human consumption. These products are easily absorbable and having high biological value promoting the absorption of vitamins and minerals. The enzymatic digestion technology process releases a lot of peptides in molecular collagen that helps humans in many physiological functions. Collagen has been used in biomedical pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In this paper we have determined the collagen extracted from Tilapia fish scales and also its clinical importance.

M.Hemanth kumar

2011-10-01

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Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus) Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis / Diferenciación Morfométrica de Dos Especies de Peces Nigerianos (Oreochromis niloticus y Lates niloticus) Utilizando Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análsis Discriminante  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las diferencias morfológicas entre dos poblaciones de peces similares se han investigado en Doma Dam, centro-norte de Nigeria utilizando análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. El propósito fue identificar correctamente las dos especies y asignarlas a los distintos grupos genét [...] icos. Para lograr esto, siete medidas morfométricas (peso corporal, longitud estándar, longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, profundidad del cuerpo, longitud de la aleta dorsal y la longitud de la aleta caudal) se realizaron en cada una de las muestras de los 252 peces estudiados (153 Oreochromis niloticus y 99 Lates niloticus) . El análisis de varianza mostró que de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in Doma Dam, north central Nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. The purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. To achieve this, seven morphometr [...] ic measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length) were made on each of the studied 252 fish specimens (153 Oreochromis niloticus and 99 Lates niloticus). The analysis of variance showed that significantly (P

A, Yakubu; S. A, Okunsebor.

1429-14-01

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Toxicological effects of the herbicide oxyfluorfen on acetylcholinesterase in two fish species: Oreochromis niloticus and Gambusia affinis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alterations of the AChE activity in the brains of two fresh water fishes; Oreochromis niloticus and Gambusia affinis were measured after exposure to acute, sub-acute and chronic concentrations from the widely used herbicide; oxyfluorfen. Bioassays were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The used concentrations were acute: LC50 for 6 days, sub-acute 1/3 LC50 for 15 days and chronic 1/10 LC50 for 30 days. The obtained results showed marked inhibitory effects of the herbicide on the activity of AChE in both fishes. However, these effects were more pronounced in O. niloticus where the decline in the enzyme activity ranged from 19.7 to 81.28% while in case of G. affinis it ranged from 5.7 to 36.7%. These findings demonstrate that G. affinis is most tolerant to oxyfluorfen toxicity compared with O. niloticus. PMID:12046652

Hassanein, Hamdy M A

2002-01-01

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A novel cold-adapted imidase from fish Oreochromis niloticus that catalyzes hydrolysis of maleimide.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we report the first comparative study of cold-adapted imidase (EC 3.5.2.2) from the fish (Oreochromis niloticus) liver and its thermophilic counterparts taken from pig liver and Escherichia coli (overexpressed recombinant hydantoinase from Agrobacterium radiobacter NRRL B1). Approximately 6000-fold purification and a 40% yield of fish imidase activity were obtained through ammonium sulfate precipitation, octyl, chelating, DEAE, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. This cold-adapted imidase was characterized by a specific activity 10- to a 100-fold higher than those of its thermophilic counterparts below room temperature (25 degrees C or lower) conditions but less stable at elevated temperatures (40 degrees C or higher). A less organized helical structure (compared to those of pig liver and bacterial imidases) was observed by circular dichroism. Furthermore, maleimide was first identified as a novel substrate of all imidases examined, and confirmed by HPLC and NMR analysis. These results constituted a first study to discover a novel cold-adapted imidase with surprising high activity. These findings might be also helpful for industrial application of imidase. PMID:14637160

Huang, Cheng-Yang; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

2003-12-12

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Seasonal effects on the nutritive value of the natural food of three omnivorous fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Citharinus citharus) in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa)  

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The chemical composition of the stomach contents and the digestibility of organic matter, proteins and energy of three planktivorous fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Citharinus citharus) were studied in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa) during the dry and wet seasons. The diet contents of O. niloticus and S. galilaeus presented high levels of organic matter and proteins during the wet season (ashfree dry weight (AFDW): 753 mg·g?1 dw and 703 ...

Blé M. C.; Arfi R.

2009-01-01

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The Influences of Nickel Exposure on Selected Physiological Parameters and Gill Structure in the Teleost Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The present study was focused for investigation the effects of sublethal concentration of nickel exposure after three weeks on some physiological and gill structure alterations in the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Physiological parameters such as serum sodium, chloride, osmolality, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were chosen to evaluate the response of experimental animal to nickel intoxication. In comparison with control, serum sodium, chloride and osmolality values were decreased in nickel-exposed fish, while the levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly elevated. Nickel exposure induced some histological changes in fish gill structure. These changes included hyperplasia, hypertrophy, shortening of secondary lamellae and fusion of adjacent lamellae. The physiological and histological changes indicate that nickel is very hazardous pollutant. Moreover, the above mentioned severe alterations indicate that the fish, Oreochromis niloticus is appropriate species to act as a biological indicator of water pollution level.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2007-01-01

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Assessment of metal status in drainage canal water and their bioaccumulation in Oreochromis niloticus fish in relation to human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess metal concentrations (Al, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni) in Sabal drainage canal (Al-Menoufiya Province, River Nile Delta, Egypt) water as well as their accumulation in some selected organs (skin, muscles and kidneys) of Oreochromis niloticus fish to evaluate their hazard levels in relation to the maximum residual limits for human consumption. Drainage canal water was found to be heavily polluted with metals which far exceeded the permissible limits. It was found that metals accumulated in organs of O. niloticus in concentrations higher than those of canal water. Kidneys of O. niloticus contained the highest concentrations of the detected metals, while skin appeared to be the least preferred site for the bioaccumulation of metals as the lowest metals concentrations were detected in this tissue. The present study shows that fish organs contained high levels of metals exceeding the permissible limits values. Metals in muscle of fish were higher than the maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption. Thus, consuming fish caught from drainage canals is harmful to the consumers. PMID:22451326

Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2013-01-01

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Changes in Haematological Parameters of the Fish, Oreochromis niloticus Treated with Sublethal Concentration of Cadmium  

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Full Text Available The sub-chronic and chronic exposure of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to sublethal concentration of 5. 5 ppm cadmium (0. 3 of 96 h LC50 for 1, 3 and 5 weeks was studied. Exposure of Tilapia to cadmium resulted into a number of haematological alterations. Erythropenia, a marked decrease in values of haemoglobin content, haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were observed at all experimental periods of cadmium exposure. The values of mean cell volume were decreased at the second and last periods. The levels of mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration decreased significantly at first period compared to the control value.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2005-01-01

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Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 ?g L-1 of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

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ROn-1 SINEs: a tRNA-derived, short interspersed repetitive DNA element from Oreochromis niloticus and its species-specific distribution in Old World cichlid fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A SINE-like repetitive element (ROn-1) has been cloned from the tilapiine cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus. The element is 345 base pairs (bp) in length and consists of a transfer-RNA-like domain with putative RNA polymerase III recognition sequences, a tRNA-unrelated region, and a poly(A) tail. Approximately 6000 copies of ROn-1 occur in the haploid genome of O. niloticus. Southern blot analysis revealed that ROn-1 is an abundant element in the genomes of many African cichlid fishes, but absent from the genome of the Indian cichlid Etroplus. PMID:9597778

Bryden, L J; Denovan-Wright, E M; Wright, J M

1998-03-01

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In vivo Acute Toxicity Tests of Some Heavy Metals to Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Fingerlings tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in laboratory conditions to a range of Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) concentrations separately and the mortality rate were registered after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50s) and Median Lethal Times (LT50s) values were calculated by static bioassays for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h with the 95% fiducial limits through Probit analysis. LC50 and LT50

Shuhaimi-othman, M.; Abdulali Taweel; Ahmad, A. K.

2013-01-01

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Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) From Four Selected Markets in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia  

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Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) were measured in various organs (such as in liver, gill and muscle) of Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) which were collected from Serdang night market, Bangi night and wet markets and Kajang wet market, in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of metals was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The levels of metal varied as it depended on various tissues. Zinc w...

Shuhaimi-othman, M.; Taweel, Abdulali K. A.; Ahmad, A. K.

2012-01-01

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Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy regarding fish meal, poultry by-product meal and quinua for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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The purpose of this study was to determine protein (ADCp) and energy (ADCe) apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa) (QF) used in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The indirect method with a chromium oxide marker was used to estimate the aforementioned ADC; faeces were collected by the modified Guelph system. Tilapias having an average 130 g weight were fed on an experimental diet consisting o...

Gutie?rrez-espinosa, Mariana C.; Yossa-perdomo, Martha I.; Walter Vásquez-Torres

2011-01-01

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Sub-lethal concentrations of monocrotophos affect aggressive behavior of the fishes Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski (Teleostei, Characidae) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei, Cichlidae)  

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This study investigated the effects of sublethal concentrations of the pesticide monocrotophos (organophosphate) on the agonistic behavior of two fishes species, Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (lambari) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nile tilapia). Sublethal concentrations of the pesticide for the two species were determined and lambari was more resistant than Nile tilapia. The sublethal concentrations were smaller than 400 mgl-1 for lambari and 20 mgl-1 for Nile ti...

André Luis da Cruz

2002-01-01

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Fishborne trematodes in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and wild-caught fish from Thailand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections affect the health of more than 18 million people around the world, particularly in Asian countries. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a white meat fish that has an increasing national and international market. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of FZT metacercarial infections in Nile tilapia from cage and pond aquaculture systems and in wild-caught fish from Suphan Buri, Nakhon Pathom and Chachoengsao provinces, Thailand. Fish were collected from four cages in Suphan Buri and four ponds in Nakhon Pathom provinces between September-October 2011 and April-May 2012 and wild-caught fish were collected in May 2012. All fish were examined for metacercariae by a pepsin digestion and metacercariae identified using morphological and molecular methods. During the first sampling of tilapia the prevalence of metacercariae in cage culture fish were 2.5% and 10% in pond culture fish. During the second sampling, metacercariae was found in 2.0% of tilapia from cage and none from the ponds. Of the 150 wild-caught fish, a total of 80 (53.3%) were found to be infected with metacercariae, mostly the zoonotic species Stellantchasmus falcatus, Haplorchis pumilio and Procerovum varium. The results revealed a low risk for FZT in Nile tilapia cultured in cage and pond aquaculture systems. However, the high prevalence of FZT in wild-caught fish indicates a high potential for spillover from wild reservoir hosts and underscores the need for vigilance and good management practices by the aquaculture sector. Crown Copyright © 2013.

Wiriya, Benjamaporn; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

2013-01-01

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Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

Evans, Joyce J.; Klesius, Phillip H.; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

2009-01-01

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Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). PMID:19402966

Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H; Pasnik, David J; Bohnsack, John F

2009-05-01

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Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El uso de alizarina roja S (ARS) para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamie [...] ntos: 1) Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2) Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tres estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas), sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de cultivo el resto de los ejemplares fueron analizados y se observó la permanencia de las marcas en todos los casos. En vista de lo anterior, para los propósitos de marcaje se recomienda el uso del tratamiento de inmersión por 12h y una concentración de 100mg/l. Abstract in english The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in [...] tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (p

Ana L., Ibáñez; Antonio, Rodríguez-Canto; Jasmín, Cortés-Martínez; José L., García-Calderón.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958) élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne  

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Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958) Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant d...

Kone, M.; Cisse, M.; Ouattara, M.; Agathe Fantodji

2012-01-01

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Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess the potential for FZT transmission in an area with high density of tilapia farms, wild-caught fish from local rivers and canals were bought at local markets. The wild-caught fish species included Hemiculter leucisculus (145), Rhodeus sinensis Gunther (10), Rasborinus lineatus (96), Squaliobarbus curriculus (6), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong Province during August-October 2011. A total of 389 tilapias sized 2.33-1450.00 g were collected from 30 farms, and examined for FZT metacercariae by the pepsin digestion method. Ten percent of the farms surveyed had fish with FZT infections. The overall FZT prevalence in fish was 1.5% and the infection intensity was 0.12 metacercaria/100 g. The infection in nursery farms was higher than that in grow-out farms (3.18 % versus 0.43 %). Our findings show a low prevalence of FZT in the farmed tilapia. Further studies are needed to assess the associated risk factors for FZT infection in particular at the nursery stage of production.

Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

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Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing resi...

Lia Ferraz de Arruda; Ricardo Borghesi; Aelson Brum; Arce, Marisa Regitano D.; Marília Oetterer

2006-01-01

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Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus From Four Selected Markets in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concentrations of cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co were measured in various organs (such as in liver, gill and muscle of Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus which were collected from Serdang night market, Bangi night and wet markets and Kajang wet market, in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of metals was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The levels of metal varied as it depended on various tissues. Zinc was the dominant metal measured during this study. In general, results indicated that all studied heavy metals concentrations were significantly higher (p-1 dry weight (DW less than zinc in fish gill in the same market (55.72 ?g g-1 DW. The highest Cd, Pb and Co concentration in fish liver were observed in Kajang wet market which is 0.44, 0.72 and 02.86 ?g g-1 DW, respectively. Meanwhile, in fish gill, levels of Pb and Co in Serdang night market were the lowest among all sites which is 0.34 and 0.31 ?g g-1 DW, while the highest in gill from Bangi wet market which is 0.63 and 0.41 ?g g-1 DW, respectively. Cd, Zn, Pb and Co levels in fish muscle from Serdang night market were the lowest (0.02, 11.36, 0.10 and 0.25 ?g g-1 DW, respectively, whereas the lowest Ni level was noted in fish muscle from Kajang wet market (03.84 ?g g-1 DW. On the other hand, the highest Cd and Zn level were in Bangi wet market (0.03 and 16.72 ?g g-1 dw, respectively. The results obtained in this study were compared with those reported in all other areas of earlier studies. All studied heavy metals levels are below the limits for fish proposed by World Health Organization and safe within the limits for human consumption in the edible part of studied fish.

M. Shuhaimi-Othman

2012-01-01

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Digestibilidad aparente de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) / Apparent digestibility of fishing waste silage in red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado con tres repeticiones, se determinó la digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes y energía de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). El ensilaje químico se preparo con ácido sulfúrico 98% (20 ml/kg) y á [...] cido fórmico (10 ml/kg) y el ensilaje biológico con miel de caña (150 g/kg) y yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris y streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). Se usó oxido crómico como indicador y las heces se recolectaron por un sifón desde el fondo de los tanques. Se obtuvo que la digestibilidad aparente de algunos nutrientes difirió en función del tipo de ensilaje, entre tanto la proteína digestible fue mayor para el ensilaje químico y la materia seca, calcio y fósforo para el ensilaje biológico. Digestibilidades iguales (P>0,05) se presentó para los lípidos, cenizas y energía. Concluyendoque los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros presentan alto valor nutricional, lo que constituyen una fuente de proteína alternativa en la formulación de raciones para tilapias rojas. Abstract in english By means of a design completely randomized with three repetitions, in vivo digestibility of nutrients and energy in fishing waste silages were determined for red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). Chemical silage prepared with sulphuric acid 98 % (20 ml/kg) and formic acid (10 ml/kg) [...] and the biological with sugar cane molasses (150 g/kg) and of yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris and streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). The chromic oxide was used as inert indicator and fecal sample were recollected by siphon from the bottom of tanks. As a result, the apparent digestibility of some nutrients differed from silage type; meanwhile protein was bigger for the chemical silage and the dry matter, calcium and phosphorus for the biological silage. Similar digestibility (P>0,05) was presented for lipids, ashes and energy. In conclusion, all this showed that the fishing waste silages present high nutritional value, that constitute an alternative- protein source in the formulation of rations for red tilapias.

José E, Llanes; Aliro, Bórquez; José, Toledo; José M, Lazo de la Vega.

2010-12-01

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Karyotype Analysis of the Hybrid, Thai Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. X Oreochromis mossambicus Linn.  

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Full Text Available Thai Red Tilapia is the hybrid fish between Oreochromis niloticus Linn. and O. mossambicus Linn. The chromosomal constitution of this hybrid were investigated using high quality metaphase preparations obtained from their bone marrow. The diploid chromosome of Tilapias consisted of 22 chromosome pairs (2n = 44. However, the morphology of their chromosome types were different. The karyotype of O. niloticus consisted of 18 subtelocentric (st, 26 acrocentric (a whereas 6 submetacentric (sm, 10 st, 28 a and 2 sm 6 st, 36 a were observed in O. mossambicus and Thai Red Tilapia respectively. The arm number of O. niloticus, O. mossambicus and Thai Red Tilapia were 62, 60 and 52 respectively. The heterochromatic of the short arms of all Tilapias were also observed. The karyotypic differences between O. niloticus, O. mossambicus and the hybrid, Thai Red Tilapia will be useful for strain classification and the improvement of commercial Tilapias production.

Jiradej Manosroi

2003-01-01

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Seasonal effects on the nutritive value of the natural food of three omnivorous fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Citharinus citharus in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition of the stomach contents and the digestibility of organic matter, proteins and energy of three planktivorous fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Citharinus citharus were studied in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa during the dry and wet seasons. The diet contents of O. niloticus and S. galilaeus presented high levels of organic matter and proteins during the wet season (ashfree dry weight (AFDW: 753 mg·g?1 dw and 703 mg·g?1 dw, protein contents: 479 mg·g?1 AFDW and 449 mg·g?1 AFDW, respectively. In the dry season, the chemical composition of the food was characterized by high proportions of inorganic material (73% and 68% for O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, respectively. The chemical composition of the food of C. citharus was characterized by low seasonal variation. The levels of AFDW (396–461 mg·g?1 dw and proteins (65–86 mg·g?1 AFDW in its diet were generally low, reflecting a high proportion of mineral content. During the wet season, the digestibility of AFDW (52% and 58%, total amino acids (68% and 76% and energy (63% and 56% increased significantly for O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, respectively. Nutrient and energy digestibility for C. citharus showed no significant seasonal variations (AFDW: 36–45%; total amino acids: 57–64%; energy: 31–39%. The marked seasonal character of the pond, in terms of both hydrology and trophic conditions, had a low impact on the availability and quality of nutritive resources for the two tilapia species O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, while C. citharus appears to have the capacity to adapt its regime to the available food quality, whatever the season.

M.C. Blé

2009-12-01

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Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nutritional requirements  

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AbstractThe purpose of this review was to compile information regarding recent advances concerning some Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nutrient requirements. The raw protein requirements are being substituted for specific amino acid requirements, such as lysine and methionine, applying the ideal protein concept. Nile tilapia’s nutritional requirements suggested by NRC (1993) differ by some amounts from the nutritional requirements estimated for tilapia in tropical conditions. The sup...

Torres-novoa, Diana M.; Hurtado-nery, Vi?ctor L.

2012-01-01

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Toxicity of Malathion to Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus (Linn. Fingerlings  

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Full Text Available The toxicity of a commercial grade malathion on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings was determined. The 24, 48, 72, and 96-h LC50 of malathion on Nile tilapia fingerlings were 7.19, 5.43, 5.34, and 5.30 mg/l, respectively. Behavioral changes in fish included rapid opercular movement, hyperexcitability, darkening of the body, and contraction of trunk muscles. Moribund fish displayed labored opercular movement, severe contraction of the trunk muscles, erratic swimming, and total loss of equilibrium. A safe level of less than 0.53 mg/l malathion for Nile tilapia fingerlings was considered.

Virginia Cariño,

1993-12-01

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Effects of Water Pollution in Lake Mariut on Gonadal Free Amino Acid Compositions in Oreochromis niloticus Fish  

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Full Text Available In the present report, we have determined the gonadal free amino acid compositions in Oreochromis niloticus collected from three sites in Lake Mariut: SE basin (less polluted, main basin (moderately polluted and SW basin (highly polluted, in an attempt to develop sensitive biomarker to evaluate pollution effects from multiple sources. Variations of free amino acids (FAAs were apparent in the polluted sites; total FAAs in testes and ovaries exhibited significant increases as compared to the less polluted site. This increase was attributed to increases in all individual amino acids including essential and non-essential ones. ANOVA indicated significant changes in all testicular FAAs, excluding phenylalanine. Levels of non-essential amino acids showed obvious alterations in ovaries. However, the increase in most essential amino acids, although insignificant, yet it was quite observable. In addition, the ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids was insignificantly decreased in gonads. This may be indicative of changes in protein metabolism.

Cecil A. Matta

2007-01-01

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Resistência a antimicrobianos de bactérias oriundas de ambiente de criação e filés de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Antibacterial resistance in bacteria from fish pond and Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A resistência de bactérias a antimicrobianos foi determinada em uma piscicultura de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em tanques de terra, sem utilização de antibióticos para profilaxia ou controle de doenças. Foi selecionado um tanque, capturados peixes e coletadas amostras de conteúdo intestinal e superfície dos peixes, água de abastecimento e do tanque, ração, filés de tilápias frescos e congelados. Colônias representativas foram selecionadas e analisadas pelos testes de Gram, catalase, oxidase e oxidaçãofermentação. Foram selecionadas 89 amostras e submetidas a antibiograma, utilizando vários antimicrobianos. A maioria das bactérias pertenceu às famílias Enterobacteriaceae e Vibrionaceae. Tanto no ambiente de criação como nos filés de tilápias observou-se que os isolados bacterianos apresentaramse resistentes principalmente a ampicilina e eritromicina. O índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR foi calculado, sendo que do total de 89 isolados analisados 74 (83%, apresentaram MAR ³ 0,2, ou seja apresentaram-se resistentes a dois ou mais antimicrobianos. As freqüências de índice MAR foram altas e maiores na ração.This study was conducted in a freshwater tilapia farm that has not used any antibiotic. It was selected one pond, caught 15 fishes and collected samples of intestinal content and mucus surface, water influent and pond water, ration, fresh tilapia fillets and frozen fillets.. Phenotypical characteristics, Gram stain, oxidase production, oxidative-fermentative utilization of glucose (O-F were determined of representative colony. Were selected 89 strains and submitted for antimicrobial sensitivy test using several antibiotics. The major identified bacterial families were belonged Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The most isolates showed resistance to ampicilin and eritromicin. From the 89 isolates evaluated 74 (83% showed a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR ³ 0.2, that mean resistance to two or more antibiotics. The MAR índice frequency were higher and bigger in the rations.

Rejeana Márcia Santos Lima

2006-02-01

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Resistência a antimicrobianos de bactérias oriundas de ambiente de criação e filés de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Antibacterial resistance in bacteria from fish pond and Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A resistência de bactérias a antimicrobianos foi determinada em uma piscicultura de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) em tanques de terra, sem utilização de antibióticos para profilaxia ou controle de doenças. Foi selecionado um tanque, capturados peixes e coletadas amostras de conteúdo intestinal e [...] superfície dos peixes, água de abastecimento e do tanque, ração, filés de tilápias frescos e congelados. Colônias representativas foram selecionadas e analisadas pelos testes de Gram, catalase, oxidase e oxidaçãofermentação. Foram selecionadas 89 amostras e submetidas a antibiograma, utilizando vários antimicrobianos. A maioria das bactérias pertenceu às famílias Enterobacteriaceae e Vibrionaceae. Tanto no ambiente de criação como nos filés de tilápias observou-se que os isolados bacterianos apresentaramse resistentes principalmente a ampicilina e eritromicina. O índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR) foi calculado, sendo que do total de 89 isolados analisados 74 (83%), apresentaram MAR ³ 0,2, ou seja apresentaram-se resistentes a dois ou mais antimicrobianos. As freqüências de índice MAR foram altas e maiores na ração. Abstract in english This study was conducted in a freshwater tilapia farm that has not used any antibiotic. It was selected one pond, caught 15 fishes and collected samples of intestinal content and mucus surface, water influent and pond water, ration, fresh tilapia fillets and frozen fillets.. Phenotypical characteris [...] tics, Gram stain, oxidase production, oxidative-fermentative utilization of glucose (O-F) were determined of representative colony. Were selected 89 strains and submitted for antimicrobial sensitivy test using several antibiotics. The major identified bacterial families were belonged Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The most isolates showed resistance to ampicilin and eritromicin. From the 89 isolates evaluated 74 (83%) showed a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) ³ 0.2, that mean resistance to two or more antibiotics. The MAR índice frequency were higher and bigger in the rations.

Rejeana Márcia Santos, Lima; Henrique César Pereira, Figueiredo; Flaviane Castro de, Faria; Roberta Hilsdorf, Picolli; Júlio Silvio de Sousa, Bueno Filho; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato.

2006-02-01

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Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

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Sub-lethal concentrations of monocrotophos affect aggressive behavior of the fishes Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski (Teleostei, Characidae and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus (Teleostei, Cichlidae  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of sublethal concentrations of the pesticide monocrotophos (organophosphate on the agonistic behavior of two fishes species, Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (lambari and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Nile tilapia. Sublethal concentrations of the pesticide for the two species were determined and lambari was more resistant than Nile tilapia. The sublethal concentrations were smaller than 400 mgl-1 for lambari and 20 mgl-1 for Nile tilapia. The two species were tested in grouping conditions (triads and isolation, under monocrotophos concentrations of 200 mgl-1 for lambari and 5 mgl-1 for Nile tilapia. The concentration decreased the aggressiveness in lambari, but in Nile tilapia an opposite effect was detected. The results show a species-specific effect of the monocrotophoson aggression.

André Luis da Cruz

2002-12-01

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Selection for growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in low-input environments  

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Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus,is one of the most important species farmed in the world and is the mainstay of many resource-poor fish farmers. The majority of its culturing is carried out in semi-intensive systems with a wide array of pond inputs from the farm. These systems are characterized by poor fish growth a...

Charo-karisa, H.

2006-01-01

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Risk Assessment of Tributyltin Oxide in Aquatic Environment: A. Toxicity and Sublethal Effects on Brain AChE and Gill ATPases Activity of Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity of TBTO and the effects of its sublethal concentration on brain AChE and gill ATPases activity of tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus during acute (3-96 h and subchronic (7-28 d exposure periods. The results showed that TBTO is extremely toxic to O. niloticus with 96 h LC50 of 16.3 ?g L-1 using static renewal bioassay test. Sublethal concentration of 4.1 ?g L-1 (25% of 96 h LC50 of TBTO inhibited brain AChE activity by 24.01 and 24.06% of control at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by 51.8 and 54.5% at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. The activity of gill Mg2+-ATPase was decreased by 26.9 and 24.28% at 96 h and 21 d, respectively. After 7 d of recovery, AChE and Mg2+-ATPase activites were completely recovered. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase was partially recovered but the inhibition was still significant. The inhibition percentages were higher in acute exposure than in subchronic exposure in both AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase, but the opposite result was recorded in Mg2+-ATPase. It can be concluded that there is a need for more evaluation and international regulation to minimize the organotin input to aquatic environment.

Abdul Rahman A. Aba. Alkhail

2004-01-01

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The biology of Oreochromis niloticus in a polluted canal.  

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In the present investigation, length-weight relationship, condition factor, age, growth, mortality, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and fecundity of tilapias (Bolti in Arabic): Oreochromis niloticus, from Shanawan drainage canal (SDC), Al-Minufiya Province, Egypt, were studied. This was carried out on 162 fish samples collected during the period from April 1992 to May 1993. Oreochromis niloticus was found to attain sexual maturity early (8-9 cm), was more fecund (1,234-3,893) and has high mortality rates (91% for males and 94% for females). A comparison of the various parameters of O. niloticus from SDC with those of other authors in different localities and times in Egypt revealed year-to-year and geographically significant differences in relation to variation in weight with length, condition factor, fecundity, growth and mortality rates. These differences were discussed and were found to be attributed to the effect of eutrophication and pollution on the growth, age and other biological aspects of O. niloticius. Multiple regression analysis showed that only female GSI correlated significantly with pesticides and heavy metals contamination. PMID:14649423

Khallaf, Elsayed A; Galal, Mansour; Authman, Mohammad

2003-10-01

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A morphometric analysis of chloride cells in the gills of the teleosts Oreochromis alcalicus and Oreochromis niloticus and a description of presumptive urea-excreting cells in O. alcalicus.  

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The gills of Oreochromis alcalicus, a hyperosmotic and low pH adapted teleost, and Oreochromis niloticus, a freshwater closely related fish have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a morphometric analysis of, particularly, the chloride cells and their primary organelles, the mitochondria and the tubulo-vesicular system carried out. Oreochromis alcalicus had a fourfold greater number of chloride cells than O. niloticus and the chloride cells had more mitochondria and a mo...

Maina, J. N.

1991-01-01

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Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.  

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Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 ?g/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25231739

Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

2015-02-01

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Genotoxic evaluation in Oreochromis niloticus (Fish: Characidae) of recombinant spore-crystal complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis.  

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Bioinsecticides from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used around the world in biological control against larval stages of many insect species. Bt has been considered a biopesticide that is highly specific to different orders of insects, non-polluting and harmless to humans and other vertebrates, thus becoming a viable alternative for combating agricultural pests and insect vectors of diseases. The family of Bt ?-endotoxins are crystal-protein inclusions showing toxicity to insects' midgut, causing cell lysis leading to starvation, septicemia and death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of recombinant Bt spore-crystals expressing Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 on peripheral erythrocyte cells of Oreochromis niloticus, through comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) analysis. Fish (n = 10/group) were exposed for 96 h at 10(7) spores 30 l(-1), 10(8) spores 30 l(-1) or 10(9) spores 30 l(-1) of Bt spore-crystals. Cry1Ia showed a significant increase in comet cells at levels 1 and 2, but not at levels 3 and 4, so it was not mutagenic nor did it induce MN or NA. These three spore-crystals showed some fish toxicity at only the highest exposure level, which normally does not occur in the field. PMID:24374720

Freire, I S; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Fascineli, M L; Oliveira-Filho, E C; Martins, E S; Monnerat, R G; Grisolia, C K

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Metacercarial Infection of Wild Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil  

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Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus collected in an artificial urban lake from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated for natural infection with trematodes. Morphological taxonomic identification of four fluke species was performed in O. niloticus examined, and the total prevalence of metacercariae was 60.7% (37/61). Centrocestus formosanus, a heterophyid found in the gills, was the species with the highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection (31.1% and 3.42 (1–42), resp.), followed by the diplostomid Austrodiplostomum compactum (29.5% and 1.27 (1-2)) recovered from the eyes. Metacercariae of Drepanocephalus sp. and Ribeiroia sp., both found in the oral cavity of the fish, were verified at low prevalences (8.2% and 1.6%, resp.) and intensities of infection (only one metacercaria of each of these species per fish). These species of trematodes are reported for the first time in O. niloticus from South America. The potential of occurrence of these parasites in tilapia farming and the control strategies are briefly discussed. PMID:25485302

Pinto, Hudson A.; Mati, Vitor L. T.; Melo, Alan L.

2014-01-01

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Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne  

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Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

Kone, M.

2012-01-01

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The radiosensitivity of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a very popular fish commercially in the Philippines, was studied to determine its radiosensitivity and to see its potential as a biological indicator in aquatic ecosystems. Nile tilapia was seen to be radiosensitive. The fish were exposed to gamma-irradiation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. The various types of aberrations seen were chromatid gaps, chromosome gaps, chromatid fragments, dicentric rings, fusions, despiralizations and translocations. Among the aberrations observed, dicentric rings, fusions and chromosome gaps were strongly correlated with dosage, with only the dicentric rings increasing steadily with increasing dosage. In the course of the study, the lethal dosage50 for nile tilapia with 18 days was determined and it was observed at 2.0 krad. The modal chromosome number was also established at 2n=44 with a karyotype exhibiting 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes with 2 pairs of marker chromosomes present. (Author)

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Caracterización genética de tres líneas de tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Genetic characterization of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la diversidad genética de tres líneas de tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), mediante marcadores RAPDs. Se analizaron 90 individuos adultos (30 de cada línea) de dos piscifactorías ubicadas en las ciudades de Maringá (líneas Bouaké - B y GIFT G) y Guaír [...] a (línea Chitralada - C), en el Estado del Paraná (Brasil). Los 13 oligonucleótidos seleccionados produjeron 72 fragmentos de los cuales 60 (83,3%) fueron polimórficos. Fueron observadas diferencias (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains, through the RAPD markers. Ninety adult individuals (30 of each strain) of two fish farms stations located in the Maringá (Bouaké - B and GIFT - G strains) and Guaíra (Chitralada C strain [...] ) cities, in the Paraná State (Brazil) were analyzed. The 13 selected primers yielded 72 fragments of which 60 (83.3%) were polymorphic. Differences (p

E., Lupchinski Jr.; L., Vargas; N.M., Lopera-Barrero; R.P., Ribeiro; J.A., Povh; E., Gasparino; P.C., Gomes; G.L., Braccini.

2011-12-01

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Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 = Host-parasite relationship in fish from fish farms in the Assis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757  

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Full Text Available Um total de 90 espécimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da água em cada propriedade. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possível observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porém cada propriedade apresentauma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlação negativa significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o copépode Lamproglena sp.apresentaram correlação positiva significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão nas pisciculturas de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, respectivamente. Em relação ao fator de condição relativo, somente a espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a abundância de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a relação hepatossomática (RHS das tilápias em Palmital, e o ergasilídeo apresentou correlação significativa negativa da abundância de parasitismo e a relaçãoesplenossomática (RES dos hospedeiros em Cândido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in São Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farmfeatured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp.1 presented a significant negative correlation of abundance to standard host length only at the Palmital fish farm. The Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 species and the Lamproglena sp. copepod displayed a significant positive correlation of abundance to standard length at the Tarumã and Cândido Mota fish farms, respectively. With regard to the relative condition factor, only thespecies Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 presented a significant negative correlation to the prevalence of parasitism. Lamproglena sp. presented a significant positive correlation with respect to thehepatosomatic index (HI of the tilapias at the Palmital fish farm, and the Ergasilidae presented a significant negative correlation of abundance with respect to splenosomatic index (SI of the host at Cândido Mota.

Maria de los Angeles Perez Lizama

2007-04-01

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Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.594 Host-parasite relationship in fish from fish farms in the Assis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757  

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Full Text Available Um total de 90 espécimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da água em cada propriedade. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possível observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porém cada propriedade apresenta uma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlação negativa significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o copépode Lamproglena sp. apresentaram correlação positiva significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão nas pisciculturas de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, respectivamente. Em relação ao fator de condição relativo, somente a espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a abundância de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a relação hepatossomática (RHS das tilápias em Palmital, e o ergasilídeo apresentou correlação significativa negativa da abundância de parasitismo e a relação esplenossomática (RES dos hospedeiros em Cândido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in São Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farm featured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp.1 presented a significant negative correlation of abundance to standard host length only at the Palmital fish farm. The Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 species and the Lamproglena sp. copepod displayed a significant positive correlation of abundance to standard length at the Tarumã and Cândido Mota fish farms, respectively. With regard to the relative condition factor, only the species Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 presented a significant negative correlation to the prevalence of parasitism. Lamproglena sp. presented a significant positive correlation with respect to the hepatosomatic index (HI of the tilapias at the Palmital fish farm, and the Ergasilidae presented a significant negative correlation of abundance with respect to splenosomatic index (SI of the host at Cândido Mota.

Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva

2007-12-01

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CYN determination in tissues from freshwater fish by LC-MS/MS: validation and application in tissues from subchronically exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are occurring in eutrophic freshwater lakes and reservoirs throughout the world and, because of the production of toxins such as cylindrospermopsin (CYN), they can present a public safety hazard through contamination of seafood and fish for human consumption. Therefore it is important to develop methods to determine CYN at trace levels in those organisms. A new method for unconjugated CYN determination in tissues (liver and muscle) of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is herein described and discussed; it is based on solvent extraction and purification with C18 and graphitized carbon cartridges, and quantification by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was optimized and suitably validated, with a linear range from 0.125-12.5 µg CYN/g dry weight (dw) in the case of the liver, and 0.02-1 µg CYN/g dw for the muscle. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.07 and 0.12 µg/g dw for the liver, and 0.002 and 0.007 µg/g dw for the muscle, respectively. Mean recoveries ranged 80-110% in liver, and 94-104% in muscle, and intermediate precision values from 6 to 11%. The method is robust against the three factors considered for purification (batch of the graphitized carbon cartridges, time for the sample to pass through the cartridge, and final dissolving water volume). Furthermore, it has been successfully applied to the extraction and quantification of CYN in tissue samples from tilapia subchronically exposed to CYN in the laboratory. This represents a sensitive, reproducible, accurate, and robust method for extraction and determination of unconjugated CYN in tissues of fish exposed to the toxin. This procedure can be used for confirmatory routine monitoring of CYN in fish samples in environmental studies. PMID:25281126

Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Moreno, I; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Soria-Díaz, M Eugenia; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana M

2015-01-01

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Molecular characterization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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Fishery plays an important role in the supply of food for the increasing population. Tilapia production exceeded twomillion tons, being the second most important group of fish worldwide. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusLinnaeus, 1758) is the most important species due to the fast growth rates and good acceptance by the consumer.Fish genetic improvement is highly based on molecular genetics, including RAPD, and the knowledge obtained inthe last decades gave good results in terms of molecula...

Gustavo Emygdio Halfen; Maycon Eduardo Nicoletti; Appel, Henrique B.; Fernando Adami Tcacenco

2012-01-01

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Genotype by production environment interaction in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Three discrete generations of GIFT fish (Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus; a total of 10,065 fish with pedigree and phenotypic information) were tested in pond and cage culture environments to determine genotype by production environment interaction between both environments in Malaysia. Live weight (selected trait), standard length, body depth and width were recorded. A bivariate animal model was used to estimate variance and covariance components, whereby the homologous body trait...

Khaw, H. L.; Ponzonia, R. W.; Hamzah, A.; Abu-bakara, K. R.; Bijma, P.

2012-01-01

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Perfil proteico de tilápia nilótica chitralada (Oreochromis niloticus), submetida ao estresse crônico por hipóxia / Proteic electrophoretic profile of chitralada tilapia nilotic (Oreochromis niloticus), exposed to hypoxia chronic stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a variação da resposta secundária ao estresse causado por hipóxia durante 18 dias, em sistema de recirculação, em uma linhagem de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus), chitralada, refletida no perfil proteico eletroforético do peixe e avaliou-se a diferença entre sexos para essa respo [...] sta. Foram utilizados 126 peixes, sendo 60 machos e 66 fêmeas, ambos com média de peso de 800g. O estresse crônico por hipóxia alterou (P Abstract in english This study evaluated the secundary response variation to hypoxia stress in a strain of chitralada nilotic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during 18 days, in a recirculation system. The effects were measured by the proteic electrophoretic profile and the difference between the genders. One hundred tw [...] enty-six fish were used, 60 males and 66 females, both averaging 800g. The chronic hypoxia stress altered (P

D.C., Melo; D.A.A., Oliveira; M.M., Melo; D.V., Júnior; E.A., Teixeira; S.R., Guimarães.

1183-11-01

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Karyotype Analysis of the Hybrid, Thai Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. X Oreochromis mossambicus Linn.)  

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Thai Red Tilapia is the hybrid fish between Oreochromis niloticus Linn. and O. mossambicus Linn. The chromosomal constitution of this hybrid were investigated using high quality metaphase preparations obtained from their bone marrow. The diploid chromosome of Tilapias consisted of 22 chromosome pairs (2n = 44). However, the morphology of their chromosome types were different. The karyotype of O. niloticus consisted of 18 subtelocentric (st), 26 acrocentric (...

Jiradej Manosroi; Keravit Petchjul; Umnat Mevatee; Aranya Manosroi

2003-01-01

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Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire)  

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The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggestin...

Helene Roche; Abiba Tidou; Ana Persic

2007-01-01

53

/ Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se realizaron estudios de enero a diciembre de 1993 para conocer la edad y crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus obtenida de las capturas comerciales de la laguna de Coatetelco, Morelos, Mexico. Se colectaron escamas de 318 peces. La moda de longitud patrón que se obtuvo en la captura fue de 10.5-11. [...] 5 cm. Se encontró que la formación de los anillos se realiza en Diciembre. Asimismo, no se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las hembras y los machos para las longitudes retrocalculadas para cada edad. En las escamas se registraron cuatro marcas. Se encontró que de acuerdo a los parametros de la ecuación de crecimiento, los peces tienen baja tasa de crecimiento (k=0.07) y alcanzan un tamaño adecuado (L* =29.19 cm). Los resultados obtenidos por medio del análisis de distribución de frecuencias no difieren significativamente (t-student, p Abstract in english Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus from Lagoon of Coatetelco, Morelos State, Mexico were studied from January through December, 1993. Scales of 318 specimens were collected. Modal length at capture was 10.5-11.5 cm standard length. Scales rings were formed during December. Back-calculated lengt [...] hs-at-age showed no significant differences by sex. Four check marks were recorded. According to the growth curve parameters for population, the fish grow at a low rate (k=0.07) until they achieve a size (L*) of 29.19 cm. Length-frequency analysis (Bhattacharya's Gaussian component determination procedure) do not differ significantly (t-student, p

José Luis, Gómez-Márquez.

1998-12-01

54

Five Different Piscidins from Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: Analysis of Their Expressions and Biological Functions  

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Piscidins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that play important roles in helping fish resist pathogenic infections. Through comparisons of tilapia EST clones, the coding sequences of five piscidin-like AMPs (named TP1?5) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were determined. The complete piscidin coding sequences of TP1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 were respectively composed of 207, 234, 231, 270, and 195 bases, and each contained a translated region of 68, 77, 76, 89, and 64 amino acids. The tiss...

Peng, Kuan-chieh; Lee, Shu-hua; Hour, Ai-ling; Pan, Chieh-yu; Lee, Lin-han; Chen, Jyh-yih

2012-01-01

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Toxicidade aguda de herbicidas a tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Acute toxicity to herbicides to Oreochromis niloticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade de alevinos de Oreochromis niloticus a diversos herbicidas. Para isso, foram realizados dois ensaios, sendo, no primeiro, avaliadas concentrações de atrazina (0; 2,5; 5; 10; e 20 mg L-1), visando a determinação da concentração letal a 50% dos [...] indivíduos (CL50), e, no segundo, a sensibilidade às mesclas dos herbicidas alachlor + atrazina (5,33 + 5,33 mg L-1), diuron + MSMA (5,33 + 2,13 mg L-1), paraquat (1,33 mg L-1) e 2,4-D + picloram (1,28 + 0,34 mg L-1), com contagem de mortes 96 horas após exposição aos produtos. No primeiro ensaio foi observado elevado declínio na sobrevivência dos alevinos a partir de 3 mg L-1 do herbicida atrazina, com CL50 estimada de 5,02 mg L-1. No segundo, a mistura alachlor + atrazina promoveu o maior efeito de mortalidade sobre os alevinos de tilápia. Com 72 horas de exposição, a escala de intoxicação evidenciou redução nos números de indivíduos de, aproximadamente, 17,4% para os produtos paraquat, 2,4-D + picloram e diuron + MSMA e de 100% para alachlor + atrazina. Os dados permitem concluir que a CL50 obtida para o atrazina é inferior àquela mencionada como tóxica para truta e que a mistura alachlor + atrazina pode ser caracterizada como de risco para O. niloticus, mesmo quando aplicada em doses normais de uso. Abstract in english Two assays were carried out to evaluate Oreochromis niloticus sensitivity to different herbicides. In the first experiment, atrazin concentrations (0; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mg L-1) were evaluated aiming to determine lethal concentration (LC50) to O. niloticus. In the second assay, the effects of the her [...] bicide mixtures alachlor + atrazin (5.33 + 5.33 mg L-1), diuron + MSMA (5.33 + 2.13 mg L-1 ), paraquat (1.33 mg L-1 ) and 2,4-D + picloran (1.28 + 0.34 mg L-1 ), were evaluated on O. niloticus survival after 96 h of exposure. In the first assay, a sharp decrease in fingerlings survival was observed from 3 mg L-1 of atrazin with CL50 value of 5.02 mg L-1 and a high biomass decrease due to herbicide presence. In the second assay, a greater negative effect was observed on fingerlings by alachlor + atrazin. . After 72 h of incubation, intoxication rate showed a reduction in the number of individuals of 17.4% for paraquat, 2,4 D + picloram and diuron + MSMA, and of 100% for alachlor + atrazin. It was concluded that CL50 obtained for atrazin is inferior to that listed as toxic to trouts and that the alachlor + atrazin mixture can be characterized as a risk to O. niloticus, even when applied at commercially recommended rates.

R.G., Botelho; J.B., Santos; T.A., Oliveira; R.R., Braga; E.C.M., Byrro.

56

Toxicidade aguda de herbicidas a tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus Acute toxicity to herbicides to Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade de alevinos de Oreochromis niloticus a diversos herbicidas. Para isso, foram realizados dois ensaios, sendo, no primeiro, avaliadas concentrações de atrazina (0; 2,5; 5; 10; e 20 mg L-1, visando a determinação da concentração letal a 50% dos indivíduos (CL50, e, no segundo, a sensibilidade às mesclas dos herbicidas alachlor + atrazina (5,33 + 5,33 mg L-1, diuron + MSMA (5,33 + 2,13 mg L-1, paraquat (1,33 mg L-1 e 2,4-D + picloram (1,28 + 0,34 mg L-1, com contagem de mortes 96 horas após exposição aos produtos. No primeiro ensaio foi observado elevado declínio na sobrevivência dos alevinos a partir de 3 mg L-1 do herbicida atrazina, com CL50 estimada de 5,02 mg L-1. No segundo, a mistura alachlor + atrazina promoveu o maior efeito de mortalidade sobre os alevinos de tilápia. Com 72 horas de exposição, a escala de intoxicação evidenciou redução nos números de indivíduos de, aproximadamente, 17,4% para os produtos paraquat, 2,4-D + picloram e diuron + MSMA e de 100% para alachlor + atrazina. Os dados permitem concluir que a CL50 obtida para o atrazina é inferior àquela mencionada como tóxica para truta e que a mistura alachlor + atrazina pode ser caracterizada como de risco para O. niloticus, mesmo quando aplicada em doses normais de uso.Two assays were carried out to evaluate Oreochromis niloticus sensitivity to different herbicides. In the first experiment, atrazin concentrations (0; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mg L-1 were evaluated aiming to determine lethal concentration (LC50 to O. niloticus. In the second assay, the effects of the herbicide mixtures alachlor + atrazin (5.33 + 5.33 mg L-1, diuron + MSMA (5.33 + 2.13 mg L-1 , paraquat (1.33 mg L-1 and 2,4-D + picloran (1.28 + 0.34 mg L-1 , were evaluated on O. niloticus survival after 96 h of exposure. In the first assay, a sharp decrease in fingerlings survival was observed from 3 mg L-1 of atrazin with CL50 value of 5.02 mg L-1 and a high biomass decrease due to herbicide presence. In the second assay, a greater negative effect was observed on fingerlings by alachlor + atrazin. . After 72 h of incubation, intoxication rate showed a reduction in the number of individuals of 17.4% for paraquat, 2,4 D + picloram and diuron + MSMA, and of 100% for alachlor + atrazin. It was concluded that CL50 obtained for atrazin is inferior to that listed as toxic to trouts and that the alachlor + atrazin mixture can be characterized as a risk to O. niloticus, even when applied at commercially recommended rates.

R.G. Botelho

2009-01-01

57

Apparent digestibility coefficient of duckweed (Lemna minor), fresh and dry for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dry matter (DMD), protein (PD), ash (AD), fat (FD), gross energy (ED) and phosphorus (PhD) digestibility coefficients were determined for five different iso-N fish diets fed to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The control diet contained fishmeal (35Œ corn (29Œ wheat (20Œ wheat bran (10Œ fish oil (3Œ diamol (2€and premix (1Ž Partial replacement of dry matter of fishmeal, corn grain, wheat grain, wheat bran and fish oil by 20nd 40?f dry matter of duckweed, in a dry and fresh form...

El-shafai, S. A. A. M.; El-gohary, F.; Verreth, J. A. J.; Schrama, J. W.; Gijzen, H. J.

2004-01-01

58

Effect of Some Water Pollutants on the Biology of the Nile Bolti, Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samples of water and Oreochromis niloticus fish were collected from El-Mahmoudya channel near Alexandria for contaminants determination. The data show that El Mahmoudya channel water includes relatively high levels of Fe, Cu and chlordane and much higher levels of Zn and lindane. Most of the dissolved, metals and organic contaminants or their metabolites were monitored in the fish and then eggs. The above pollutants were found to affect spawning behaviour and duration. The average number of eggs per spawn were higher in the control groups than the contaminated ones. The residue levels monitored in the eggs affected the fry survival of the Nile fish.

K.K. Barakat

2004-01-01

59

Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo State, Brazil Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo, Brasil  

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Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) rearing. Sampling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months), taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A princip...

Jeniffer Sati Pereira; Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante; Julio Vicente Lombardi; André Martins Vaz-dos-Santos; Clóvis Ferreira do Carmo; João Alexandre Saviolo Osti

2012-01-01

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Salinity Tolerance and Preference of Hatchery Reared Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linneaus 1758  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted in fisheries laboratory of Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Nigeria on salinity tolerance and preference of hatchery reared Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linneaus, 1758. Tilapias are important candidate species for aquaculture and are increasingly cultured in polyculture system with shrimp. Thus creating a demand for Tilapia genotypes well suited to elevated salinities. O. niloticus is a member of the Family Cichlidae and one of most cultured fish species in Nigeria. It is known for its high prolific rate of breeding and multiplication. Six hundred and sixty (660 fingerlings of the fish measuring between 53-140 mm TL and weighing 8.96 to 21.56 g BW were subjected to salinity regimes of 0-10‰ for 28 days. All the fish survived in 0-7‰, and 100% death was recorded in 9 and 10‰. Different levels of behavioural responses to threat and feeding were observed among the fish. Salinities 0-7‰ were tolerated by the fish, however the most preferred salinity was 1‰. The present study as demonstrated in the laboratory therefore, suggests the possibility of culturing Nile tilapia, O. niloticus in both fresh and low brackish water environments and as added data to the existed reviews on this economically valued fish species. The salinity regimes well that were tolerated and preferred for optimal survival, growth and behavioural performances of O. niloticus are therefore investigated.

E.O. Lawson

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Pathological manifestations and immune responses of serotypes Ia and III Streptococcus agalactiae infections in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) infections cause serious worldwide damage to fish farming. Here, we evaluated the pathological manifestations and immune responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) infected with GBS serotype Ia (GBS-Ia) and GBS serotypes III (GBS-III). Experimental infection of fish with GBS by intraperitoneal injection indicated the severity of GBS-Ia infection as shown by the LD50 of GBS-Ia and GBS-III, being 1.58?106 CFU/fish an...

Atchariya Suwannasang; Machalin Dangwetngam; Akkarawit Issaro; Wutiporn Phromkunthong; Naraid Suanyuk

2014-01-01

62

Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio / Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é i [...] dêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses. Abstract in english The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other tel [...] eostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

S., Garcia-Santos; S.M., Monteiro; J., Carrola; A., Fontainhas-Fernandes.

2007-04-01

63

Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean +/- SEM; V: 24.79 +/- 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 +/- 3.09, Ch: 0.1 +/- 0.07, Iso: 4.68 +/- 1.26 events/30 min; P two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test), induced spawning in females (3 spawning in V and also 3 in Ch+V condition), and increased GSI in males (mean +/- SEM; V: 1.39 +/- 0.08, Ch+V: 1.21 +/- 0.08, Ch: 1.04 +/- 0.07, Iso: 0.82 +/- 0.07%; P two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test). Chemical communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia. PMID:19330265

Castro, A L S; Gonçalves-de-Freitas, E; Volpato, G L; Oliveira, C

2009-04-01

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Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using 203Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

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Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using {sup 203}Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

Wang Rui [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-08-15

66

Ingestion and utilization of periphyton grown on artificial substrates by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.  

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The study was carried out to quantify the periphyton biomass developed on glass substrates over time, to investigate the effects of periphyton quantity and fish size on the ingestion rate by fish, and to determine the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of periphyton by tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Periphyton was grown in two fertilised 1000-l tanks on glass slides and monitored as dry matter (g), ash-free dry matter (g) and chlorophyll a concentrations (mg) per unit surface area (m2) over a six we...

Azim, M. E.; Verdegem, M. C. J.; Dam, A. A.; Beveridge, M. C. M.

2003-01-01

67

Apparent phosphorus availability in food for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Disponibilidade aparente de fósforo em ingredientes pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Apparent availability of phosphorus from various foodstuffs for sexually reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was provided. Fish with an average weight of 16.0 ? 0.5g were randomly stocked in 21 aquariums equipped with feces collector (Guelf system), at the rate of five fish per aquarium. Each set of three aquariums was provided with a biological filter, aeration and flowing water (0.75 L/min discharge). An egg albumin-gelatin purified diet containing 0.1% chromic...

Edma Carvalho de Miranda; Antonio Celso Pezzato; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Wilson Massamito Furuya

2000-01-01

68

Effectiveness of homologous inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine by immersion bath in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Avaliação da eficácia de vacina autóctone de Streptococcus agalactiae inativado aplicada por banho de imersão em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)
 

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Tilapia is the most important group between cultivated fish. Intensive handling systems are characterized by high rate of stocking of fish making them susceptible to infectious diseases. The streptococcosis is one of the diseases that cause great economic losses. The objective of the study was to test a vaccine administered by immersion bath (b.i.) against Streptococcus agalactiae and challenge with homologous strain. For this study, 421 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average we...

Elaine Longhi; Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano; Ernst Eckehardt Müller

2012-01-01

69

Energia digestível para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Digestible energy for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

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Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Utilizaram-se 125 alevinos com peso e comprimento iniciais de 0,62±0,12 g e 3,25±0,25 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental consistiu de um aquário contendo cinco ...

Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Aldi Feiden; Altevir Signor; Arcangelo Augusto Signor; Jandir José Bard; Fabio Akira Ishida

2006-01-01

70

Valores bioquímicos séricos de tilapia del nilo (oreochromis niloticus) en cultivo intensivo / Serum biochemical values for nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) cultured under an intensive system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se a avaliação dos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), linhagem tailandesa Chitralada, produzidas em sistema de piscicultura intensiva e capturadas por tarrafeamento. Amostras sanguíneas de 40 exemplares, pesando em média 453 ± 52 g, foram obtidas po [...] r venopunção caudal e posteriormente analisadas quanto às concentrações séricas de proteína total, albumina, globulinas, ácido úrico, creatinina, ureia, cálcio, fósforo inorgânico, relação Ca/P, magnésio e fosfatase alcalina. Em um contexto geral, os resultados evidenciaram parâmetros semelhantes aos estabelecidos para peixes de escama, com exceção do ácido úrico. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar los parámetros bioquímicos séricos de tilapias del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), linaje tailandés chitralada, producidas en un sistema de piscicultura intensiva y capturadas con atarraya. Se tomaron muestras de sangre a 40 ejemplares por punción de la vena caudal. [...] Los peces tenían un peso de 453 ± 52 g. Se determinó proteína total, albúmina, globulinas, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, calcio, fósforo inorgánico, relación Ca/P, magnesio y fosfatasa alcalina. En un contexto general, los resultados mostraron parámetros semejantes a los establecidos para peces de escama, con excepción del ácido úrico. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum biochemical parameters of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Thai Chitralada lineage, raised under an intensive pisciculture system and captured by the cast net technique. Blood samples from 40 individuals were obtained by caudal venopuncture. Me [...] an body weight was 453 ± 52 g. The serum biochemical parameters evaluated were total protein, albumin, globulins, acid uric, creatinine, urea, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, Ca/P ratio, alkaline phosphatase, and magnesium. In general, the data showed similar parameters in comparison to those established for scale fish, exception of the acid uric.

Leandro, Z. Crivelenti; Sofia, Borín; José Javier, M. Socha; Antonio V, Mundim.

2011-12-01

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Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

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This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were perform...

Fiuza, Tatiana S.; Silva, Paulo C.; Paula, Jose? R.; Tresvenzol, Leonice M. F.; Sabo?ia-morais, Simone M. T.

2009-01-01

72

Health Condition of a Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Earthen Ponds, Northern Bangladesh  

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Investigation on health conditions of a farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in two upazilas of Mymensingh District were carried out through clinical and histopathological observation during September, 2010 to March, 2011. Fish sample and water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia) were monitored on a monthly basis. Clinical observations of the fish were also done for any kind of abnormalities at monthly intervals. Samples of skin, mu...

Shamsuddin, M.; Belal Hossain, M.; Khatun, T.; Ahmed, G. U.

2012-01-01

73

Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano.

Lia Ferraz de Arruda

2006-12-01

74

Regulação da ingestão protéica na tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus / Hability of protein intake regulation in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a habilidade de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, em regular a ingestão protéica. Mil exemplares com peso e comprimento de 13,93g ± 0,87g e 8,8cm ± 0,47cm, respectivamente, revertidos sexualmente, foram distríbuídos em oito grupos de 125 peixes, em aquários de 1.000 L com [...] renovação contínua de água e dotados de dois alimentadores de demanda. Duas rações isoenergéticas (2.800 kcal/kg) contendo, respectivamente, 40% e 15% PB foram oferecidas diariamente, ad libitum, em combinações que caracterizaram quatro tratamentos: A: ração de 15% PB de um lado e de 40% PB do outro do aquário; B: idêntico ao tratamento A com inversão dos lados; C: ração de 15% PB fornecida em dois alimentadores; e D: ração de 40% PB fornecida em dois alimentadores. O delineamento em quadrado latino permitiu que os peixes fossem submetidos a cada tratamento durante quatro fases de 15 dias (I, II, III e IV). Entre as fases, houve intervalo de uma semana, quando os peixes receberam dieta contendo 30% PB nos dois alimentadores. O consumo alimentar dos peixes, registrado diariamente, não diferiu significativamente entre os tratamentos A e B. Porém, quando foram apresentadas simultaneamente as dietas contendo mesmo teor de PB (Tratamentos C e D), observou-se consumo significativamente maior da ração contendo 15% de PB (Tratamento C). O ajuste em porcentagem da proteína ingerida pelos peixes revelou média de 24% de PB. Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese de que a tilápia do Nilo apresenta habilidade em regular a ingestão dietética protéica por meio de livre escolha. Abstract in english The free-choice feed and regulation of protein intake were investigated in juveniles reverted males of tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. During the experiment 1000 fish (reverted males) with similar weigth and length were maintained in eight aquariuns supplied with recirculated water (groups o [...] f 125 fish each aquarium). Fish were fed by demand-feeders, containing the two experimental diets, formulated to contain 15% and 40% protein each and distributed in four treatments (A: 15% protein diet on one hand and 40% protein diet on the other hand, B: alike in A, therefore with an inversion on both hands, C: the two feeders supplied with 15% protein diet, D the two feeders supplied with 40% protein diet) The Latin Square was the estatistical method used for the experiment, and the treatments were distributed into four stages (I, II, III and IV). A one week stop after each stage was stipulated and the fish received a 30% protein diet. The results showed that no differences about the intake was detected between fish fed by diets containing 15% and 40% protein in the same aquarium. However, with same diets in the tanks ( Treatment C and D), the animals that were fed with the 15% protein diet showed better feed intake. The percentage of regulated protein during the experiment was about 24% protein. The results confirm the hipoteses of free-choice ability by tilápia-do-Nilo to detect the level of protein in the diet.

Elyara Maria, Pereira-da-Silva; Débora Niero, Orsoli; Lúcio Francelino, Araújo; Osmar Ângelo, Cantelmo; Giovana Krempel Fonseca, Merighe.

1921-19-01

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Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A multiplex PCR (m-PCR technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus cultured in Paphayomand Bangkaew District, Phatthalung Province and Sichon and Hua Sai District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand, bym-PCR technique showed positive results for S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai and negativeresults for samples from Paphayom and Sichon. The m-PCR results were in accordance with microbiological culture techniques,which detected S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai indicating that our m-PCR assay is a sensitiveand specific diagnostic tool for simultaneous detection of streptococcosis caused by S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieaein cultured fish in Thailand.

Chutima Tantikitti

2012-11-01

76

Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)  

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Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicusxOreochromis niloticus) were evaluated in twelve 5x5x1-m3 concrete mud-bottomed tanks with bamboo poles for periphyton production. Submerged tank wall surface was 16 m2. There were three densities of 1.5-m bamboo poles...

Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T. J.; Dam, A. A.; Beveridge, M. C. M.; Verdegem, M. C. J.

2004-01-01

77

An Important Natural Genetic Resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Threatened by Aquaculture Activities in Loboi Drainage, Kenya  

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The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variatio...

Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-franc?ois

2014-01-01

78

Impact of Introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on Non-native Aquatic Ecosystems  

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The global invasion of non-native aquatic ecosystems by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is well documented and coincides with their increased use as an aquaculture species. Aquaculture can be defined as the farming of fish or other aquatic organisms and it varies considerably in terms of production practices. Generally, freshwater finfish, such as Nile tilapia, are reared in inland ponds (closed systems). However, in several countries, floating cages are increasingly used to rear ...

Fonseca-alves, C. E.; Vicente, I. S. T.

2013-01-01

79

Regulação da ingestão protéica na tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Hability of protein intake regulation in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Estudou-se a habilidade de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, em regular a ingestão protéica. Mil exemplares com peso e comprimento de 13,93g ± 0,87g e 8,8cm ± 0,47cm, respectivamente, revertidos sexualmente, foram distríbuídos em oito grupos de 125 peixes, em aquários de 1.000 L com renovação contínua de água e dotados de dois alimentadores de demanda. Duas rações isoenergéticas (2.800 kcal/kg) contendo, respectivamente, 40% e 15% PB foram oferecida...

Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva; Débora Niero Orsoli; Lúcio Francelino Araújo; Osmar Ângelo Cantelmo; Giovana Krempel Fonseca Merighe

2004-01-01

80

Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

 
 
 
 
81

Parâmetros hematológicos de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentadas com diferentes fontes de óleo / Hematological parameters of Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus") fed different oil sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a influência das fontes de óleo da dieta sobre os parâmetros hematológicos de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizados 112 juvenis, com peso médio inicial de 50±12g, distribuídos em 16 caixas com capacidade total de 100L cada, num delineamento inteiramente casu [...] alizado com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, contendo sete peixes por repetição. Os tratamentos eram constituídos por: tratamento um - óleo de soja; tratamento dois - óleo de peixe; tratamento três - óleo de linhaça; tratamento quatro - óleo de oliva. As rações eram semipurificadas, isoproteicas (32% de proteína bruta) e isocalóricas (3200 kcal de energia bruta/kg de ração). Não houve diferença (P>0,05) entre os tratamentos quanto ao número e diferenciação de leucócitos, número de eritrócitos totais e níveis de hemoglobina. Os peixes do tratamento um apresentaram níveis superiores de hematócrito (P Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary lipid sources on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) hematological parameters. 112 juveniles of Nile tilapia with average initial weight of 50 ± 12g were distributed in 16 tanks with total capacity of 100L each in a totally randomized d [...] esign with four treatments and four repetitions with seven fish each replicate. Treatments were composed of: treatment one - soybean oil; treatment two - fish oil; treatment three - linseed oil; treatment four - olive oil. Experimental diets were semi-purified, isonitrogenous (32% crude protein) and isocaloric (3200 kcal gross energy/kg of ration). No difference was found between treatments in hemoglobin rates, number of total erythrocytes and leucocytes differential counting (P>0.05). Fish from treatment one presented higher hematocrit rates compared with treatment two and treatment three (P

Diego Vicente da, Costa; Milena Wolff, Ferreira; Rodrigo Diana, Navarro; Priscila Vieira, Rosa; Luis David Solis, Murgas.

2014-09-01

82

Some biological and hematological responses of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles exposed to Atrazine herbicide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was aimed at finding the influence of Atrazine on a most widely farmed fish,Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, in Nigeria. Specific areas of investigation were to find the LC50after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of the chemical administration to the fish. The effects of the chemical onthe behavioral and biological responses of O. niloticus were equally observed. The ten fish each werestocked in six different tanks containing 40 liters of water. These tanks contained graded concentrationsof the chemical and the treatments were replicated three times. Dissolved oxygen content was reducingwith increasing Atrazine concentration, while temperature and pH increased with increasing Atrazineconcentration. The LC50 of Atrazine in 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were 7.9, 7.6, 7.3 and 7.2 respectively.Behavioral and biological responses included loss of reflex, air gulping, erratic swimming, discoloration,hemorrhage and molting. The blood parameters observed showed that there were increases in packedcell volume (PCV and red blood cell count (RBC and decrease in hemoglobin (Hb, erythrocytesedimentation rate (ESR and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, while there was no significant change inwhite blood cell count (WBC and mean cell volume (MCV values. The chemical was therefore observedto be lethal to juvenile O. niloticus.

Fidelis Bekeh Ada

2012-12-01

83

Parasite fauna of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites-Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae-were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers. PMID:21688067

Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Nattabi, Juliet K; Agoe, Catherine; Schiemer, Fritz

2012-01-01

84

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae)  

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Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in length) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of ...

Lin?a?n-cabello, Marco A.; Robles-basto, Cindy M.; †Alfredo Mena-Herrera

2013-01-01

85

Production of YY-male of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from atypical fish / Producción de machos YY de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a partir de peces atípicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La aplicación exitosa de la tecnología YY depende de la producción de hembras XY. Sin embargo, su identificación es complicada, ya que son indistinguibles de las hembras normales. Los peces atípicos podrían ofrecer una alternativa para una más rápida y precisa identificación. Se evaluó la progenie d [...] e nueve peces atípicos con la finalidad de producir machos YY. Los alevines obtenidos se criaron a 28 ± 1°C en acuarios de 85 L. Los juveniles fueron colocados en jaulas flotantes por 30 días y, finalmente, en estanques de 8 m³ hasta los 120 días de edad. La prueba de progenie se realizó evaluando las diferencias entre sexos en la estructura de la papila genital. Seis de los nueve peces atípicos seleccionados mostraron la proporción de sexos 3:1 (macho-hembra) esperada para hembras revertidas. Se observó una proporción de machos significativamente mayor a la distribución 3:1 esperada en dos peces atípicos. Este aumento en la proporción de machos puede ser atribuido a la interacción del efecto parental con la temperatura del agua durante la etapa de alevín. El uso de peces atípicos podría reducir el tiempo y esfuerzo empleados en la identificación de hembras XY durante la etapa inicial de la tecnología YY. Abstract in english Successful YY technology depends on the production of XY females. However, their identification is complicated because they are indistinguishable from normal females. Atypical fish could offer an alternative for a more rapid and precise identification. Progeny of atypical fish was evaluated in order [...] to produce YY-males. In total, nine atypical fish and 18 normal males were selected. The fish were placed in 8 m³ concrete tanks at a 2:1 sex ratio. The produced fry were collected and reared at 28 ± 1°C in 85 L aquaria. Juveniles were placed in net cages for 30 days and finally in 8 m³ concrete tanks until the age of 120 days. Progeny test was achieved evaluating differences between sexes in the genital papilla structure. Six of the nine atypical fish selected showed the 3:1 sex ratio (male-female) expected for sex-reversed females. A significantly higher proportion of males than the expected 3:1 distribution were observed in two atypical fish. This boost in male proportion could be attributed to a parental effect interacting with the water temperature during the fry stage. Use of atypical fish could help reduce the time and effort spent to identify XY females during the initial stage of YY technology.

Juan Pablo, Alcántar-Vázquez; Raúl, Moreno-de la Torre; Daniel, Calzada-Ruíz; Carolina, Antonio-Estrada.

2014-07-01

86

Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage / Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os [...] objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus) após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano. Abstract in english One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of incr [...] easing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.

Lia Ferraz de, Arruda; Ricardo, Borghesi; Aelson, Brum; Marisa Regitano, D' Arce; Marília, Oetterer.

2006-12-01

87

Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência, características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival, characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fillet, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05 for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P<0.05 among the treatments. The inclusion of 16% in fish by-product wastes from the filleting industry in diets formulated with ingredients certificated from organic origin improves livestock performance, does not impair body yield, but it alters the parameters of mineral matter and ethereal extract of tilapia in the phase of growth.

Wilson Rogério Boscolo

2010-12-01

88

Digestibilidad aparente de materia seca, proteína y energía de harina de vísceras de pollo, quinua y harina de pescado en tilapia nilótica, Oreochromis niloticus / Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy regarding fish meal, poultry by-product meal and quinua for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente estudio se realizó con el objeto de determinar los coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente (CDA) de la proteína (CDAp) y de la energía (CDAe) de harina de pescado (HP), harina de vísceras de pollo (HVP) y harina de quinua Chenopodium quinoa (HQ), para tilapia nilótica Oreochromis nilotic [...] us. Para estimar los coeficientes se utilizó el método indirecto con marcador (óxido de cromo), colectando las heces por el sistema Guelph modificado. Tilapias con peso promedio de 130 gr se alimentaron con una dieta experimental constituida por dieta referencia (DR) (89.5 %, 79.5 % ó 69.5 %), 0.5 % de marcador inerte y el ingrediente a evaluar en un nivel de inclusión de 10 %, 20 % ó 30 %. Las heces comenzaron a colectarse 10 horas después de suministrar el alimento, cada hora durante 12 horas; las muestras se secaron a una temperatura de 60ºC y se almacenaron a -17°C hasta ser analizadas. Los CDAp para los tres niveles de inclusión (10, 20 y 30 %) fueron respectivamente: 88.1, 89.4 y 90.9 % para HP; 96.8, 94.9 y 94.1 para HVP y 67.7, 73.5 y 77.5 para HQ. No se observaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to determine protein (ADCp) and energy (ADCe) apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa) (QF) used in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The indirect method with a chromium [...] oxide marker was used to estimate the aforementioned ADC; faeces were collected by the modified Guelph system. Tilapias having an average 130 g weight were fed on an experimental diet consisting of reference diet (RD) (89.5 %, 79.5 % or 69.5 %), 0.5 % inert marker (chromium dioxide) and the ingredient to be evaluated to assess 10 %, 20 % or 30 % inclusion level. The fish were fed every hour for 12 hours per day and their faeces were collected 10 hours after the fish had been fed; the samples were dried at 60ºC and stored at -17°C until analysed. Chromium oxide level was determined by the acid digestion method. The ADCp for the three inclusion levels (10 % 20 % and 30 %) were respectively: 88.1 %, 89.4 % and 90.9 % for FM, 96.8 %, 94.9 % and 94.1 % for PBM and 67.7 %, 73.5 % and 77.5 % for QF. There were no significant differences (p 0.05); there were no significant differences between PBM inclusion levels and QF was significantly lower (10 % inclusion level).

Mariana C., Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Martha I., Yossa-Perdomo; Walter, Vásquez-Torres.

2011-12-01

89

Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de va [...] rredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h. Adicionalmente, alguns dos resultados obtidos pela análise em microscopia de luz foram confirmados com o recurso da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Abstract in english Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of [...] control O. niloticus (freshwater group) was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.

António, Fontaínhas-Fernandes; Ana, Luzio; Sofia, Garcia-Santos; João, Carrola; Sandra, Monteiro.

1057-10-01

90

Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water  

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Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h. Adicionalmente, alguns dos resultados obtidos pela análise em microscopia de luz foram confirmados com o recurso da microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

2008-10-01

91

Organic insecticide spinosad causes in vivo oxidative effects in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinosad is an organic insecticide derived from a naturally occurring soil bacterium and is used in organic farming worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo toxic effects of spinosad in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus as a model organism. The fish were exposed to sublethal spinosad concentrations (25, 50, 75 mg L(-1) ) for 24-48-72 h to determine tGSH, GSH, GSSG, and TBARS contents, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GPx, GR, GST enzymes activities using spectrophotometrical methods, and Hsp70 content by an ELISA technique. Spinosad caused elevations in the contents of tGSH, GSH, GSSG, Hsp70, and reductions in the ratio of GSH/GSSG and GPx activity and an induction in the GR activity. The results indicated that spinosad had oxidative effects in the brain tissue by altering the parameters in GSH-related antioxidant system and Hsp70. It was also suggested that spinosad-induced free-radicals were eliminated by GSH-related antioxidant system in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus. PMID:22223469

Piner, Petek; Uner, Nevin

2014-03-01

92

Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus) na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência), características de ca [...] rcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático) e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo) dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05) nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival), characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fil [...] let, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index) and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract) of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05) for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P

Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Anderson, Coldebella; Guilherme Wolff, Bueno; Aldi, Feiden.

2010-12-01

93

Quantification of Essential Fatty Acids and Assessment of the Nutritional Quality Indexes of Lipids in Tilapia Alevins and Juvenile Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available To determine the nutritional quality of the lipid segment in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus during different periods of development (alevins and juveniles, the total lipids (TL, linolenic (LNA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, docosapentaenoic (DHA, linoleic (LA and arachidonic (AA acids were quantified , and the lipid nutritional quality indexes were calculated for the tilapia. The lipid profile showed that the species present high indexes of monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in both development phases. The indexes of nutritional quality of lipids, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI present low values and represent beneficial health effects, both in the alevin and juvenile fish. The quantifications of LNA, EPA, DHA, LA and AA show the greatest values (mg/g of total lipids for the juveniles. However, regardless of the development phase in which the tilapia is, the fish may be considered a source of essential fatty acids a kind of potential and nutritional food, reflecting beneficial effects for consumer’s health. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

Ivane Benedetti Tonial

2014-03-01

94

Modelos matemáticos no lineales como herramienta para evaluar el crecimiento de tilapia roja (Oreochromis spp.) y tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus Var. Chitralada) alimentadas con dietas peletizadas o extruidas / Mathematical non linear growth models as tool for evaluation of the growth of nile red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus var. Chitralada) fed pelleted feeds or extruded feeds  

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Aguilar Aguilar, Fredy Armando (2010) Modelos matemáticos no lineales como herramienta para evaluar el crecimiento de tilapia roja (Oreochromis spp.) y tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus Var. Chitralada) alimentadas con dietas peletizadas o extruidas / Mathematical non linear growth models as tool for evaluation of the growth of nile red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus var. Chitralada) fed pelleted feeds or extruded feeds. Maestría thesis, Universi...

Aguilar Aguilar, Fredy Armando

2010-01-01

95

The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

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Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, ...

Fiuza, Tatiana S.; Silva, Paulo C.; Paula, Jose? R.; Tresvenzol, Leonice M. F.; Sabo?ia-morais, Simone M. T.

2009-01-01

96

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

Suanyuk, N.

2005-02-01

97

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal inject...

Suanyuk, N.; Kanghear, H.; Supamattaya, K.; Khongpradit, R.

2005-01-01

98

Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus in Opa reservoir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods employed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied between 2.12 mm and 2.69 mm with a mean of 2.47±0.02. Female gonadosomatic index was 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637. The male gonadosomatic index was 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789. In Opa reservoir, O. niloticus bred throughout the study period. The species was a maternal mouth brooder with the female fish carrying eggs and fry in the buccal cavities. The sex ratio of O. niloticus was approximately 1:1 in the reservoir. The fecundity of the species was between 73 eggs and 1 810 eggs per female with a mean fecundity of 815 eggs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 595-602. Epub 2007 June, 29.Estudiamos la tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus en la reserva de Opa, Nigeria, desde octubre 1997 hasta febrero del 2000. Recolectamos 1 430 especímenes con red lanzada y red de arrastre. El diámetro de los huevos varía entre los 2.12 mm y 2.69 mm con un promedio de 2.47±0.02. El índice gonadosomático de las hembras fue de 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637, y en machos fue de 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789. En la reserva este pez se reprodujo durante todo el periodo de estudio. Hay cuido materno: la hembra lleva los huevos y alevines en la boca. La proporción machos/hembras fue aproximadamente 1:1. La fecundidad varía entre 73 y 1 810 huevos por hembra con un promedio de 815 huevos.

O.O Komolafe

2007-06-01

99

Apparent phosphorus availability in food for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Disponibilidade aparente de fósforo em ingredientes pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Apparent availability of phosphorus from various foodstuffs for sexually reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was provided. Fish with an average weight of 16.0 ? 0.5g were randomly stocked in 21 aquariums equipped with feces collector (Guelf system, at the rate of five fish per aquarium. Each set of three aquariums was provided with a biological filter, aeration and flowing water (0.75 L/min discharge. An egg albumin-gelatin purified diet containing 0.1% chromic oxide was used as reference and basal diet. Dicalcium phosphate, bone and fish meals, soybean and wheat bran and middlings were added to the basal diet at 3.5, 6.0, 21.67, 40.0, 12.0 and 10.62% respectively, at the expense of albumin, gelatin and dextrose. Dicalcium phosphate was the best phosphorus source (apparent availability of 74.23% for tilapia fingerlings. In decreasing order it was followed by bone and soybean meals (54.59 and 35.13%, wheat middlings (30.49%, fish meal (27.15% and corn meal (7.33%. Whereas fish meal had the lowest apparent phosphorus availability among animal foodstuff, soybean meal was the best among plant foodstuffs.Foi determinada a disponibilidade aparente do fósforo de ingredientes alimentares para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram utilizados 105 alevinos, revertidos, com peso vivo inicial médio de 16,0 ? 0,5g. Foram distribuídas, cinco por aquário em 21 unidades de fibra de vidro (80L e sistema Guelf para coleta de fezes. Cada conjunto, constituído de três aquários, foi dotado de aeração, filtro biológico e fluxo contínuo (vazão de 0,75 L/mim. Foram avaliados o fosfato bicálcico, as farinhas de osso e de peixe, os farelos de soja e de trigo e fubá de milho, os quais substituíram parte de uma dieta purificada, usada como referência, marcada com óxido de crômio. Ao final, pode-se concluir: o fosfato bicálcico, disponibilidade aparente de 74,24%, deve ser a fonte preferencial de fósforo nas rações; a farinha de osso (54,59% apresenta-se como fonte alternativa; a de peixe apresentou baixa disponibilidade (27,15% e, dentre os produtos de origem vegetal, o farelo de soja apresentou a melhor (35,13%, e os farelos de trigo (30,49% e de milho, a pior disponibilidade (7,33%.

Edma Carvalho de Miranda

2000-05-01

100

Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração denominada controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros, contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registradas as respostas dos animais para cada ingrediente, separadamente. Concluiu-se que as respostas comportamentais da tilápia variam de acordo com o ingrediente oferecido e que parece existir uma correlação positiva entre o grau de atrato-palatabilidade de um ingrediente e a ocorrência de confrontos agonísticos entre os indivíduos. Sugere-se que ingredientes classificados como de alta atrato-palatabilidade (farinhas de crisálidas, de peixe, de carne, de camarão e ovo liofilizado integral sejam adicionados às dietas especiais para peixes, visando ao aumento da ingestão alimentar nos períodos pré-invernais, situações de estresse ou estados patológicos.Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus responses to attractivity and taste of fourteen food ingredients, here classified as animal sources (shrimp, fish, silkworm and meat meal, integral lyophilized egg and sugar-cane-yeast, vegetable protein sources (maize gluten, soybean bran, sunflower meal and cotton bran and energetics (maize flour, manioc scraping, manioc bran and wheat bran were investigated. These ingredients were compared to a control diet, using a two-choice method. Four 750 liters aquaria stocked with three fries each and two feeders installed respectively at the right and left corner where used to register the responses of the fries to each ingredient separately. The results showed that behavioral patterns of the fries change according to the type of ingredient and that three seems to be a positive correlation between the attractivity and taste degree and the occurrence of agonistic behavior in the studied species. It may be suggested that the most attractive and tasty ingredients (silkworm, fish, meat and shrimp meal, and integral lyophilized egg be added to special fish diets, in order to increase food consumption in pre-hibernal periods and under stress and pathological conditions.

Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Passive immunization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) provides significant protection against Streptococcus agalactiae.  

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A study was conducted to determine the role of specific antibodies in immunity to Streptococcus agalactiae. Adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were injected i.p. with tryptic soy broth as control or with S. agalactiae vaccine. Ninety days later, fish were challenged with 1.5x10(4)CFUS. agalactiae fish(-1). Blood was drawn from all fish 90d after vaccination and 25d after challenge, and the acquired serum was injected i.p. in fingerling Nile tilapia. These passively immunized fish were subsequently challenged 72h later with 1.5x10(4)CFUS. agalactiae fish(-1), and significantly less (Pagalactiae antibodies (0.0-10.0% mortalities) than in control groups (63.3-72.7% mortalities). Heat-inactivation of serum produced no significant differences in mortalities than non-heat-treated serum in groups administered serum containing specific antibodies from vaccinated fish (Pagalactiae antibodies play a primary role in immunity to S. agalactiae in fish. PMID:16531069

Pasnik, David J; Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H

2006-10-01

102

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin E  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de Vitamina E no desempenho e qualidade de carcaça de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Os experimentos foram conduzidos no ranário experimenta do Departamento de Biologia Animal, UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de 09/01/ 2005 a 25/04/2005, t [...] otalizando 106 dias. Foram utilizadas 400 pós larvas revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus)em um experimento com um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina E monofosfato) numa ração isoproteíca 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com quatro repetições. Não se observou efeito significativo para peso final, para ganho de peso total, para ganho de peso diário dos animais, para taxa de eficiência protéica e para taxa de sobrevivência. Para o índice viscerossomático houve diferença significativa para o tratamento sem suplementação, com 100 mg e com 150 mg/kg desta vitamina. Para o ácido graxo oléico (C18:1) a utilização do tratamento sem vitamina E foi significamente maior em relação aos outros tratamentos. O ácido graxo eicosapentaenóico EPA (C20:5?3) foi estatisticamente significativo para o tratamento sem suplementação de vitamina E. O ácido graxo linoléico (C18:2?6), ácido graxo ?-linolênico (C18:3?6), ácido graxo ?-linoléico (C18:3?3) e ácido graxo araquidônico (C20:4?6) aumentaram de forma quadrática até o nível estimado de 110 mg, 111 mg, 113 mg e 140 mg de vitamina E por kg de ração, respectivamente. Abstract in english The effect of vitamin E supplementation on performance and carcass quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The research was carried out in the experimental frog raising facilities at the Department of Animal Biology, UFV, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Four hundred post larva reversed (Oreochr [...] omis niloticus) were used for studies. The experiments were randomly designed with five treatments (supplying 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of vitamin E mono-phosphate) in an isoproteic ration with 36% CP and isocaloric with 3600 kcal/kg of DE with four repetitions. It was not observed significant effect for final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain, protein efficiency rate and survivor rate. The viscerosomatic index showed significant differences for the treatment without vitamin E supplementation and with 100 and 150 mg of this vitamin. For oleic fatty acid, the treatment without vitamin E was significantly higher. The eicosapen-taenoic fatty acid (C20:5?3) was statistically significant for the treatment without vitamin E. The fatty acids linoleic (C18:2?6), ?-linolenic (C18:3?6), ?-linoleic (C18:3?3), and arachidonic (C20:4?6) increased in a quadratic way up to the estimated levels of 110 mg, 111mg, 113 mg, and 140 mg of vitamin E/kg of ration, respectively.

R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; D.P., Veloso; D.O., Fontes; R.F., Silva.

2010-06-01

103

Requerimientos nutricionales para Tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nutritional requirements / Exigências nutricionais para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Estarevisão foi realizada com o objetivo de recolher informação dos recentesavanços sobre as exigências de alguns nutrientes para a tilápia Nilótica (Oreochromisniloticus).Asexigências de proteína bruta estão sendo substituídas pela exigência especificade aminoácidos, como no caso da lisina e da met [...] ionina, aplicando o conceito deproteína ideal. Asexigências nutricionais da tilápia do Nilo recomendadas pelo NRC (1993),diferem em algumas quantidades das exigências nutricionais estimadas paratilápia em condições tropicais. O fornecimento de ração atendendo as exigênciasde nutrientes para as diferentes fases de vida da tilápia permite obter ótimosrendimentos no ganho de peso e na conversão alimentar, garantindo um statussanitário alto na produção desta espécie. Abstract in spanish Estarevisión fue realizada con objetivo de acopiar información de los recientesavances sobre los requerimientos de algunos nutrientes para la tilapianilótica(Oreochromisniloticus). Los requerimientos de proteína bruta, estánsiendo substituidos por el requerimiento específico de aminoácidos, como en [...] elcaso de lisina y metionina, aplicando el concepto de proteína ideal. Losrequerimientos nutricionales de tilapia delNilo sugeridos por NRC (1993),difieren en algunas cantidades a los requerimientos nutricionales estimadospara tilapia en condiciones tropicales. El suministro de raciones atendiendolas exigencias de nutrientes para las diferentes fases de vida de la tilapia,permite obtener óptimos rendimientos en ganancia de peso y conversiónalimenticia, garantizando un status sanitario alto en la producción de estaespecie. Abstract in english The purpose of this review was tocompile information regarding recent advances concerning some Nile tilapia (OreochromisNiloticus) nutrient requirements. The raw protein requirements are beingsubstituted for specific amino acid requirements, such as lysine andmethionine, applying the ideal protein c [...] oncept. Nile tilapia"s nutritionalrequirements suggested by NRC (1993) differ by some amounts from thenutritional requirements estimated for tilapia in tropical conditions. Thesupply of rations attending to the nutrient demand from the different phases oftilapia"s lifecycle lead to optimum yield being obtained regarding weight gainand feed conversion, guaranteeing high sanitary status when producingthis specie.

Torres-Novoa, Diana M.; Hurtado-Nery, Víctor L..

2012-06-01

104

Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

Wanderson Pantoja MF

2012-04-01

105

Salinity Tolerance and Preference of Hatchery Reared Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linneaus 1758)  

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A study was conducted in fisheries laboratory of Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Nigeria on salinity tolerance and preference of hatchery reared Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linneaus, 1758). Tilapias are important candidate species for aquaculture and are increasingly cultured in polyculture system with shrimp. Thus creating a demand for Tilapia genotypes well suited to elevated salinities. O. niloticus is a member of the Family Cichlidae and one of most cultured fis...

Lawson, E. O.; Anetekhai, M. A.

2011-01-01

106

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast / Crescimento das tilápias do Nilo Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes níveis de levedura alcooleira  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), com 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14 g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 330 dias. O desempenho da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de d [...] estilaria (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) em rações experimentais balanceadas sobre o desenvolvimento na criação de tilápia do Nilo não mostrou efeito prejudicial até o nível máximo testado de 30%, indicando que a escolha do nível de levedura na ração para estes peixes depende de sua disponibilidade e custo ocasional. A levedura proporcionou aos peixes boa resistência às condições ambientais desfavoráveis, o que foi constatado pela não diferença estatística entre os tratamentos com diferentes níveis de levedura e o controle. O baixo índice de crescimento em comprimento e peso pode ser atribuído ao pouco espaço disponível por exemplar, não obedecendo o limite de densidade populacional, e uma diminuição da ingestão de alimentos coincidindo com o período de inverno, além da ausência de alimentação natural. Abstract in english Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery ye [...] ast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding.

V., MEDRI; G. V., PEREIRA; J. H., LEONHARDT.

2000-02-01

107

Growth and gonad maturation responses of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on diets containing different levels of Rumalato additive  

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Tests were done to evaluate the effects of dietary supplements of Rumalato on performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L). Five diets were tested containing isonitrogenous (332 g kg-1) and isocaloric (18.4 kJ g-1) formulated as supplements to 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 Rumalato. Fish were reared in fifteen glass aquaria for 60 days, and there were three replicates per treatment. Ten fingerlings of Nile tilapia with an average weight of 4.4± 0.3 g were placed in each aquarium. F...

Gaber et al.

2012-01-01

108

Control of Reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) Using Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Linn.) Leaf Meal as Reproduction Inhibitor  

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Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf (HLM) was added to a basal diet (350g crude protein and 18.5MJ gross energy/kgdiet) at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg diets and fed to mixed-sex Oreochromis niloticus for 60 days to evaluate theeffects on growth, feed conversion ratio, reproduction traits, and histology of gonads. There were no variations(p >0.05) in growth parameters and feed conversion ratio. Indices of reproduction traits decreased withincreasing dietary HLM levels. Fish fe...

Jegede, Temitope

2010-01-01

109

Characterization and evaluation of the impact of feed management on the effluents of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed management on the quality of effluent water generated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture ponds. Feed was supplied as follows: natural food, and pelleted, extruded or minced ration. The study was conducted during 19 weeks in 12 continuous water exchange ponds of 300 m² each, with a population of male Nile tilapia juveniles, in a density equal to 1.7 fish m-2. Feeds contained 30% crude protein, 3,000 kcal dig...

Ana Eliza Baccarin; Antonio Fernando Monteiro Camargo

2005-01-01

110

Control of Reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758 Using Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Linn. Leaf Meal as Reproduction Inhibitor  

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Full Text Available Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf (HLM was added to a basal diet (350g crude protein and 18.5MJ gross energy/kgdiet at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg diets and fed to mixed-sex Oreochromis niloticus for 60 days to evaluate theeffects on growth, feed conversion ratio, reproduction traits, and histology of gonads. There were no variations(p >0.05 in growth parameters and feed conversion ratio. Indices of reproduction traits decreased withincreasing dietary HLM levels. Fish fed with the basal diet had higher and better indices of reproduction traits(Ptissues, and no lesions were observed. Fish fed 1.0g HLM/kg diet showed slight increase in interstitial cells intestes. Fish fed 2.0g HLM/kg diet showed swollen spermatids nuclei, increased interstitial cells and focalnecrosis in testes; and hydropic degeneration, ruptured follicles, granulomatous inflammation in the insterstitiumand necrosis in ovaries. Fish fed 3.0g HLM/kg diet exhibited atrophy of seminiferous tubules in testes. Fish fed4.0g HLM/kg diet, there was disintegration of spermatids and necrosis in testes and severe atretic follicles inovaries. Reproduction traits and histological observations of gonads in O. niloticus fed high dietary HLM levelsrevealed that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves may be effective as a reproduction inhibitor in O. niloticus.

Temitope JEGEDE

2010-11-01

111

Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

2013-11-01

112

Piperonyl butoxide increases oxidative toxicity of fenthion in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to understand the effects of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), modulator of cytochrome P450 (CYP 450), on the neurotoxicity of organophosphate pesticide fenthion in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus used as a model organism. Fish were exposed to one-fourth of the LC?? value of fenthion (0.567 mg/L) and 0.5 mg/L PBO concentration for 24 h, 96 h, and 15 days. Glutathione (GSH)-related antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation, stress proteins, and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity were investigated. Our results showed that PBO induced the neurotoxic effect of fenthion with increasing oxidative stress in long-term exposure. GSH-related antioxidant system might take a role in protecting the brain from these oxidative effects. PBO possibly inhibited the biotransformation of fenthion by inhibiting CYP 450; thereby preventing the brain from AChE inhibition in short-term exposure. Changes in parameters indicated that PBO caused biphasic response by affecting CYP 450 in the brain of O. niloticus. PMID:24497177

Üner, Nevin; Piner, Petek; Temiz, Özge

2014-02-01

113

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina C / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin C  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de vitamina C no desempenho produtivo de tilápias revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizadas 400 pós-larvas revertidas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C monofosfato de ácido ascórbico [...] L) numa ração isoprotéica de 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com 4 repetições. Observou-se efeito significativo no peso médio final e ganho de peso com 50, 100 e 200 mg de vitamina C por kg. Não foi observada diferença significativa para o comprimento total. No entanto, para o comprimento padrão foi observada diferença significativa com os tratamentos 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg. Verificou-se efeito significativo na taxa de eficiência protéica com suplemen-tação de 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou a porcentagem de MS, proteína bruta e porcentagem de proteína no ganho de peso. Não foi observada diferença significativa dos tratamentos para extrato etéreo, porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou significativamente a concentração de glicogênio no músculo. Não foi observada diferença significativa para glicogênio do fígado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin C in the productive performance of reverted tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus). Four hundred tilapias were used. The experiment was mounted according to a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 [...] mg/kg of vitamin C monophosphate of ascorbic acid L) in a ration isoproteinic (36% of PB) and isocaloric (3600 kcal of DE/kg) with 4 repetitions. Significant effect was observed in final weight and weight gain for in treatments of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. It was not observed significant difference for the total length. However, for the standard length was observed significant difference in treatments 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Significant effect was observed for protein efficiency rate with supplementation of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Vitamin C supply did not influenced MS percentage, crude protein and protein percentage in weight gain. Significant difference was not observed for ether extract and fat percentage in weight gain. Vitamin C supply did not influence significantly the concentration of muscle glycogen. It was not observed significant difference for liver glycogen.

R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; L.M., Botion; F.K.S., Pereira; R.F., Silva; T.E.F., Maciel.

2010-12-01

114

Fibra bruta para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L) / Crude fiber for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L) fingerlings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este experimento objetivou avaliar diferentes níveis de fibra bruta no desempenho e no tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L). Foram utilizados 125 alevinos (1,39 ± 0,03 g) distribuídos em 25 aquários de 54 L, em um delineamento inteiramente cas [...] ualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram formuladas cinco rações isoenergéticas (3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível) e isoprotéicas (30% de proteína bruta), diferindo quanto aos níveis de fibra bruta (3,65; 4,75; 6,00; 7,25 e 8,50%). O período experimental foi de 64 dias a uma temperatura média de 26,5ºC ± 0,8 de manhã e 27,5ºC ± 0,7 à tarde. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desempenho dos alevinos, entretanto houve decréscimo linear para o tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar com o aumento da fibra. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate different crude fiber levels on reverted Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L) fingerlings performance and time of retention of food. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings of Thai strain, 1.39 ± 0.03 g of initial weight were allotted to twenty-five 54 L aquarium, at f [...] ive treatments and five replications on completely randomized design. Five isoenergy (3000 kcal/kg of digestible energy) and isoprotein (30% of crude protein) diets were formulated with five different crude fiber levels (3.65, 4.75, 6.00, 7.25 and 8.50%), for ranging cellulose and inert material addition. The experimental period was 64 days with 26.5ºC ± 0.8 in the morning and 27.5ºC ± 0.7 in the afternoon temperatures. No difference was observed to fingerlings performance (food conversion, final weight, weight gain), but a linear decrease to time of retention of food with crude fiber addition.

Fábio, Meurer; Carmino, Hayashi; Wilson Rogério, Boscolo.

2003-04-01

115

Quantification of Essential Fatty Acids and Assessment of the Nutritional Quality Indexes of Lipids in Tilapia Alevins and Juvenile Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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To determine the nutritional quality of the lipid segment in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) during different periods of development (alevins and juveniles), the total lipids (TL), linolenic (LNA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DHA), linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids were quantified , and the lipid nutritional quality indexes were calculated for the tilapia. The lipid profile showed that the species present high indexes of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturat...

Ivane Benedetti Tonial; Debora Francielly Oliveira; Alexandre Rodrigo Coelho; Makoto Matsushita; Fabio Augusto Garcia Coró; Nilson Evelazio Souza; Jesui Vergilio Visentainer

2014-01-01

116

Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles  

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Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus) na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência), características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático) e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo) ...

Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Arcangelo Augusto Signor; Anderson Coldebella; Guilherme Wolff Bueno; Aldi Feiden

2010-01-01

117

First isolation and characterization of Lactococcus garvieae from Brazilian Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactococcus garvieae infection in cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz), from Brazil is reported. The commercial bacterial identification system, Biolog Microlog, confirmed the identity of L. garvieae. Infectivity trials conducted in Nile tilapia using Brazilian Nile tilapia L. garvieae isolates resulted in a median lethal dose-50 of 1.4 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/fish. This is the first evidence of the presence of this pathogen from Brazilian fish. In addition, this is the first report of L. garvieae infection in either Nile tilapia or pintado. Collectively, this evidence expands the geographical range of fish hosts, number of fish hosts harbouring L. garvieae and carbon source utilization by L. garvieae fish isolates. Furthermore, the Biolog system may be an alternative technique to polymerase chain reaction for the identification of L. garvieae and discrimination between closely related bacterial species. PMID:19531061

Evans, J J; Klesius, P H; Shoemaker, C A

2009-11-01

118

Restrição alimentar no desempenho produtivo da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Maricultura da Universidade Federal do Maranhãocom o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar no desempenho produtivo de juvenisde tilapia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus cultivados em sistema de recirculação de água. Foiutilizado 300 juvenis de tilápia, distribuídos em 6 tanques de fibra-cimento de 1000 L. Os tratamentosforam: (A alimento fornecido diariamente; (B alimento fornecido dia sim e dia não e (C alimentofornecido uma vez a cada 2 dias, sendo quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foram avaliadosparâmetros físico-químicos da água e de desempenho produtivo. Os resultados foram submetidosa análise de variância, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade.A qualidade da água e a conversão alimentar não foram influenciadas pela estratégia alimentar.O desempenho produtivo apresentou diferença significativa (P<0,05 com os tratamentos, sendoo melhor para os peixes alimentados diariamente e o pior para os peixes alimentados uma vez acada 2 dias. A restrição alimentar em peixes diminui o desempenho produtivo.

Luis Ricardo Romero Arauco

2012-06-01

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The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets / Uso de bacterias ácido lácticas aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) como promotores de crecimiento en peces alimentados con dietas bajas en proteína  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto como promotores de crecimiento de cinco cepas de bacterias ácido lácticas (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I y Streptococcus sp. II) aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus). Se formularon ocho dietas isocalóri [...] cas: una conteniendo 40% de proteína como control positivo y siete con 27% de proteína. Cinco dietas con 27% de proteína fueron suplementadas con cada una de las bacterias aislada a una concentración de 2,5x10(6) ufc g-1 de alimento. Un probiótico comercial a base de S. faecium y Lactobacillus acidophilus a la misma concentración de inclusión bacteriana a una dieta con 27% de proteína como dieta comparativa, y la última dieta no fue suplementada con bacterias (control negativo). Juveniles de tilapia (280 mg de peso basal) fueron distribuidos en acuarios de 15 L de capacidad, a una densidad de dos juveniles por litro, alimentados durante 12 semanas con las dietas experimentales. Los resultados mostraron que los organismos alimentados con las dietas suplementadas con bacterias nativas presentaron crecimiento y asimilación del alimento significativamente mayor que las dietas control. El tratamiento con Streptococcus sp. I, aislada del intestino de la tilapia, produjo el mejor crecimiento y la mejor eficiencia alimenticia, sugiriendo que esta bacteria es apropiada como un promotor de crecimiento nativo de tilapia. Abstract in english In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II), isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: on [...] e containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6) cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control). Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight) stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

Maurilio, Lara-Flores; Miguel A, Olvera-Novoa.

2013-07-01

120

Níveis de vitamina C e ferro para tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Levels of vitamin C and iron for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de vitamina C e ferro no desempenho produtivo e parâmetros fisiológicos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados por um período de 73 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três níveis de vitamina C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg e três níveis de ferro (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg, mais um tratamento adicional (0 mg/kg de suplementação de vitamina C e ferro, com quatro repetições cada tratamento, totalizando 10 grupos experimentais. Utilizaram-se 240 alevinos revertidos com peso médio inicial de 7,46 ± 0,49 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 40 aquários de 250 L, numa lotação de 6 peixes/aquário. Confeccionou-se dieta purificada com 32,0% de proteína bruta e 3300 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A ausência de vitamina C e ferro nas dietas propiciou o aparecimento de anemia microcítica e hipocrômica aos alevinos. A presença dessa vitamina em dosagens elevadas estimulou a liberação de eritrócitos imaturos na corrente sangüínea. Determinou-se, também, que níveis desses acima das exigências nutricionais descritas para a espécie não determinaram efeito detrimental no desempenho produtivo, na produção de proteínas plasmáticas ou nos aspectos morfológicos do fígado.The effects of different levels of vitamin C and iron on growth performance and physiological parameters on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated for 73 days. A factorial experiment with three levels of vitamin C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg and three levels of iron (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg, plus an additional treatment (with 0 mg/kg of vitamin C and iron, was considered on a completely randomized design, with four replicates for each experimental group. It was randomly stocked 240 reverted fingerlings, an average weight of 7.46 ± 0.49 g, into 40, 250L, aquaria at a density of 6 fish/aquarium. A albumin-gelatin-diet was formulated to contain 32.0% of crude protein and 3,300 kcal/kg of digestible energy. Fingerlings of Nile tilapia fed diet without supplemental vitamin C and iron developed hypochromic microcytic anemia and the supplemental vitamin C determined the presence of immature erythrocytes on blood. It was also determined that iron serum concentration was influenced by vitamin C and iron supplied on diets, and that levels above to nutritional requirements for the specie did not determined detrimental effect on growth performance, plasmatic protein or morphologic characteristics of liver.

Margarida Maria Barros

2002-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Determination of selenium toxicity to Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters=Determinação da toxicidade do Selênio por meio de análises hematológicas em Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Selenium (Se is described as an essential micronutrient and participates in different biological functions, as the antioxidant defense systems maintenance and regulation. However, when in high concentrations, Se may cause toxic effects as well as hematological changes in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of selenium in the form of sodium selenate (Na2Se6+O4 in Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters, after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.14 and 1.4 mg Se6+ L-1. The erythrocytic and leukocytic series were examined over 14 days at intervals of 0, 3, 5, 7,10 and 14 days. The erythrocytic series showed significant alterations in the first 7 days, including the control group. Neutrophils and monocytes showed variations in the first 3 days at a concentration of 1.40 mgSe6+ L-1 characterizing an acute response. The total number of leukocytes was different in relation to time zero on all Se concentrations. The thrombocyte count also differed statistically from time zero and control in the first 3 days at 0.14 mgSe6+ L-1. These results indicate that different concentrations induce an acute response with diminution of total leukocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis and thrombocytosis.O selênio (Se é descrito como um micronutriente essencial e participa de diversas funções biológicas. No entanto, quando em concentrações elevadas, o Se pode causar efeitos tóxicos, bem como alterações hematológicas em peixes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a toxicidade do selênio na forma de Selenato de sódio (Na2Se6+O4 em Oreochromis niloticus com base em parâmetros hematológicos, após a exposição a diferentes concentrações (0,01, 0,14 e 1,4 mg + Se6+ L-1. A série eritrocitária e leucocitária foram examinadas por 14 dias, em intervalos de 0, 3, 5, 7,10 e 14 dias. A série eritrocítica mostrou alterações significativas nos primeiros 7 dias, incluindo o grupo controle. Neutrófilos e monócitos apresentaram variações nos primeiros 3 dias na concentração de 1,40 mgSe6+ L-1, caracterizando uma resposta aguda. O número total de leucócitos foi diferente em relação ao tempo zero em todas as concentrações de Se. A contagem de trombócitos também diferiram estatisticamente entre o tempo zero e os primeiros 3 dias a 0,14 mgSe6+ L-1. O resultados indicam que diferentes concentrações induzem a resposta aguda com diminuição dos leucócitos totais, neutrofilia, monocitose e trombocitose.

Silmara Regina Siqueira

2012-04-01

122

Karyotypical characterization from stock of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, at Londrina State University, PR, Brazil, through several techniques of chromosomes band/
Caracterização cariotípica de um estoque de tilápia do Nilo,Oreochromis niloticus, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, mediante diversas técnicas de bandamento cromossômico
 

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14 specimens of Nile’s tilapia were analyzed cytogenetically, Oreochromis niloticus, that belong to the stock of fish breeding from the Freshwater Aquaculture Station of the Londrina State University in the Paraná, Brazil. All specimens presented the same disploid number of 44 chromosomes. The NORs were observed in four chromosomes with marks in terminal position of the short arm and the hybridization “in situ” (FISH) with probe of 18 S also evidenced the presence of two pairs of chrom...

Julio Hermann Leonhardt; Mauro Caetano Filho; Alberto Fenocchio; Lucia Giuliano Caetano; Creusa Maria Rodrigues Leonhardt

2006-01-01

123

Isolation of Streptococcus spp from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and quality of water in hapas nets in North Region of Parana State, Brazil/
Isolamento de Streptococcus spp de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e qualidade da água de tanques rede na Região Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil
 

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This study evaluated 12 intensive breed of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in four properties localized in the north of Parana State, Brazil. In the period of 13 months, 71 fishes were collected and analyzed of hapas nets that presenting morbidity and mortality of tilapias. Parallel, to evaluate the quality of the water of these hapas nets, there was measured the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia. Of the 71 fishes, were collected 220 biological samples. 1...

Aleksey Machado Moreno; Júlio César de Freitas; Juliana Alves Dias; Luciene Garcia Pretto-Giordano; Júlio Hermann Leonhardt; Ernst Eckehardt Müller; Rogério Salvador

2003-01-01

124

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia  

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A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not a...

Al-ruqaie, Ibrahim M.

2007-01-01

125

Influence of good manufacturing practices on the shelf life of refrigerated fillets of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) packed in modified atmosphere and gamma-irradiated  

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This study evaluated the influence of good manufacturing practices (GMP) on the shelf life of refrigerated fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) packed in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and irradiated. In a first series of experiments, 120 tilapia fillets kept under controlled sanitary conditions were purchased from a fish market managed by a cooperative. A second lot totaling 200 tilapia fillets was obtained under controlled storage conditions from a pilot plant. The combined ...

Monteiro, Maria Lu?cia Guerra; Ma?rsico, Eliane Teixeira; Mano, Se?rgio Borges; Teixeira, Claudia Emi?lia; Da Cruz Silva Canto, Anna Carolina Vilhena; Carvalho Vital, Helio; Conte-ju?nior, Carlos Adam

2013-01-01

126

First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25473359

Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Gewik, Mohamed M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

2014-12-01

127

Histopathological biomarkers in gills and liver of Oreochromis niloticus from polluted wetland environments, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish live in direct contact with their immediate external environment and, therefore, are highly vulnerable to aquatic pollutants. In this study, Oreochromis niloticus were caught at three different sites in Al-Hassa irrigation channels, namely Al-Jawhariya, Um-Sabah and Al-Khadoud. The histological changes in gills and liver were detected microscopically and evaluated with semi-quantitative analyses. Also, heavy metals have been determined in the water samples in these sites. Results showed that all sites were polluted by different kinds of heavy metals. Cd and Pb were mostly detected at concentrations above the WHO reference values. Meanwhile, various histopathological abnormalities were observed in gills and liver of fish specimens. In the gill filaments, cell proliferation, lamellar cell hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, lifting of the respiratory epithelium, and the presence of aneurysmal areas were observed. In the liver, there was vacuolization of the hepatocytes, sinusoidal congestion, necrosis of the parenchyma tissue, nuclear pyknosis, eosinophilic hepatocellular degeneration, pigment accumulation, an increase in the number and size of melanomacrophage centers. Liver tumors with severe chronic inflammation were occasionally found in fish at Al-Khadoud area (first-time report). The histological lesions were comparatively most severe in the liver. Despite heavy metals assessment did not show marked differences among sites, histopathological biomarkers indicated that the surveyed fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:22546634

Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A; Elmenshawy, Omar M

2012-08-01

128

Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3 and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001. Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

José E. P. Cyrino

2012-01-01

129

Individual protein balance strongly influences ?15N and ?13C values in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Science.gov (United States)

Although stable isotope ratios in animals have often been used as indicators of the trophic level and for the back-calculation of diets, few experiments have been done under standardized laboratory conditions to investigate factors influencing ?15N and ?13C values. An experiment using Nile tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was therefore carried out to test the effect of different dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%) on ?15N and ?13C values of the whole tilapia. The fish were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-synthetic diets at a relatively low level. ?15N and ?13C values of the lipid-free body did not differ between the fish fed the diets with different protein contents, but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased with increasing protein accretion in the individual fish, for N from 6.5‰ to 4‰ and for C in the lipid-free body from 4‰ to 2.5‰. This is the first study showing the strong influence of the individual protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the individual physiological condition and the feeding rate may lead to erroneous results.

Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

130

Studies and Observations on the Spawning of Oreochromis Niloticus Species Reared at SCDP Nucet - Dambovita  

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Full Text Available At the Fish Culture Research and Development Station Nucet, in 2011 were achieved studies and observations on the reproduction, sexual organs and seminal products of Oreochromis niloticus tropical species. A batch of 140 breeders of 1 year old Nile tilapia (T1 was stoked both in a pond as in Ewos tanks in two variants of density (VI – 8 fish/tank, (VII – 12 fish/tank. In a third variant were used 2 years old Nile tilapia breeders (T2, (VIII – 4 fish/tank. The male/female ratio in all variants from tanks was 1:3. Independently, into another tank were stoked 20 males. Into the pond, spawning was achieved naturally, and on the tank variants, the eggs were gathered from the mouth of females and incubated in different incubation systems. On both rearing systems, under the climatic conditions from Nucet (south of Romania were achieved 3 generations of Nile tilapia fry. On the female breeders, were determined: the gonad-somatic ratio, theoretical and adjective prolificacy (no. of eggs/g of ovary, and for males were achieved spermatozoa motility tests and determination of spermatozoa number per unit of volume.

Cecilia Bucur

2012-10-01

131

Coupling of methylmercury uptake with respiration and water pumping in freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships among the uptake of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) and two important fish physiological processes-respiration and water pumping--in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were explored in the present study. Coupled radiotracer and respirometric techniques were applied to measure simultaneously the uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen under various environmental conditions (temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and water flow). A higher temperature enhanced MeHg influx and the oxygen consumption rate but had no effect on the water uptake, indicating the influence of metabolism on MeHg uptake. The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consumption rate was not affected until the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased to extremely low levels (below 1 mg/L). The MeHg and water uptake rates increased simultaneously as the dissolved oxygen level decreased, suggesting the coupling of water flux and MeHg uptake. The influence of fish swimming performance on MeHg uptake was also investigated for the first time. Rapidly swimming fish showed significantly higher uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen, confirming the coupling relationships among respiration, water pumping, and metal uptake. Moreover, these results support that MeHg uptake is a rate-limiting process involving energy. Our study demonstrates the importance of physiological processes in understanding mercury bioaccumulation in fluctuating aquatic environments. PMID:21713968

Wang, Rui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2011-09-01

132

Acute exposure to pure cylindrospermopsin results in oxidative stress and pathological alterations in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is increasingly recognized as a potential threat to drinking water safety, due to its ubiquity. This cyanotoxin has been found to cause toxic effects in mammals, and although fish could be in contact with this toxin, acute toxicity studies on fish are nonexistent. This is the first study showing that single doses of CYN pure standard (200 or 400 ?g CYN/kg fish bw) by oral route (gavage) generate histopathological effects in fish (Tilapia-Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to the toxin under laboratory condition. Among the morphological changes, disorganized parenchymal architecture in the liver, dilated Bowman's space in the kidney, fibrolysis in the heart, necrotic enteritis in the intestines, and hemorrhages in the gills, were observed. Moreover, some oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver and kidney of tilapias were altered. Thus, CYN exposure induced increased protein oxidation products in both organs, NADPH oxidase activity was significantly increased with the kidney being the most affected organ, and decreased GSH contents were also detected in both organs, at the higher dose assayed. PMID:22331699

Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

2014-04-01

133

EFFECT OF DIETARY BOVINE LACTOFERRIN ON DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth pe...

134

Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus agalactiae Strains Isolated from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Farms in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2009-2011, two clinical and one environmental strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farms in Thailand. Draft genome sequences of two clinical isolates comprise 2,048,343 and 2,105,006 bp, while environmental isolates comprise 2,097,115 bp, having 1,573 to 1,578 coding sequences, respectively. PMID:25502682

Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

2014-01-01

135

Edad y crecimiento del híbrido de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) en la represa “Zimapán” Hidalgo, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La edad y crecimiento de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus fueron determinados por medio de la lectura de escamas. Un total de 382 individuos fueron capturados mediante el uso de redes agalleras y atarrayas. Ocho recolectas mensuales se llevaron a cabo entre septiembre 2003-mayo [...] 2004; se registraron los datos de longitud estándar en cm. (Le), el peso total en g (Pt) y se obtuvieron muestras de escamas para registrar el largo de la escama en mm. (Lesc) y el número de anillos de crecimiento formados. Las tallas y pesos de recolecta variaron entre 38 a 232mm (Le) y de 8.7 a 311.9g de peso total (Pt) respectivamente. El recuento de los anillos anuales en escamas, permitió establecer cuatro grupos de edad, siendo el grupo de edad 2 el más representativo, con un 34.3% de la población muestreada. El cálculo de los incrementos marginales del crecimiento mensual de las escamas, sugirió la formación de dos anillos, uno de ellos se forma en los meses de noviembre-enero y otro en los meses de abril-mayo, los cuales coinciden con la época de bajas temperaturas y de madurez gonádica respectivamente. Los parámetros de crecimiento quedaron establecidos en: L?=281.1mm, W?=877.1g, K=0.33 y T0=0.88/año. Las curvas de crecimiento en longitud y peso se describieron mediante las ecuaciones de von Bertalanffy: Le=28.11 [1- e-0.33(t+0.88)] y Pt=877.17 [1-e-0.33(t+0.88)]³. Finalmente, se concluyó que los peces que se explotan en la represa mediante captura comercial presentan entre un año y año y medio de edad. Abstract in english Age and growth of the hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the dam “Zimapan” Mexico. Studies on age and growth in fishes are essential to establish models on population dynamics. The previos issues were determined in this study by scale growth analyse [...] s. Between September 2003 and May 2004, 382 organisms were captured using gill and atarraya nets. Eight samples were developed every month a long this study. Standard length in centimeters (Le), total weight in grams (Pt), scale length in centimeters (Lesc) and growth rings were determined. The size and weight ranged from 38 to 232mm (Le) and 8.7 to 311.9g (Pt), respectively. The growth rings analyses reveal four age groups, being the sec-ond group the most representative with 34.3% of the total sampled. The scale ring analyses showed two growth rings, one develops between November-January and the other between April-May, in good correlation with low temperature and gonad development, respectively. The growth parameters were established as: L?=281.1mm, W?=877.1g, K=0.33 and T0=0.88year -1. The growth curves based on length and weight were described by using the von Bertalanffy model: Le =28.11[1-e-0.33(t+0.88)] and Pt =877.17[1-e-0.33(t+0.88)]³. Finally, it is concluded that commercial catches in this dam are between a year and year and half-old when exploited. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2): 761-770. Epub 2011 June 01.

M. A., Gómez-Ponce; K., Granados-Flores; C., Padilla; M., López-Hernández; G., Núñez-Nogueira.

2011-06-01

136

Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil / Parásitos protozoarios y metazoarios de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus criadas en Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir la parasitofauna y el factor de condición relativa (Kn) de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) en granjas piscícolas del estado de Amapá. Materiales y métodos. 123 peces, de cuatro granjas piscícolas del Estado del Amapá, Brasil, fueron necropciados para real [...] izarles un análisis parasitólogico y el análisis Kn. Resultados. De los peces examinados, 64.2% estaban con las branquias infectadas por Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 y ParaTrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). La mayor prevalencia fue de Monogenoidea C. tilapiae, mientras que la menor fue de los parásitos Trichodinidae. Sin embargo, I. multifiliis fue el parásito que mostró la mayor intensidad y abundancia. Las diferencias encontradas estuvieron en las tasas de infección parasitaria de diferentes granjas piscícolas debido a las causas aquí discutidas. El parasitismo no influenció el factor de condición relativa (Kn). Este fue el primer registro de P. Africana para el Brasil, en la Amazonía Oriental. Conclusiones. En el Brasil, Lamproglena sp es un parásito emergente en las regiones del Sur y Suroeste, pero este crustáceo no fue encontrado en la tilapia del Nilo del Estado de Amapá. En la tilapia del Nilo criada en el Brasil, las infecciones parasitarías son causadas por especies de protozoarios, monogenoideas, crustáceos y digenéticos; las diferencias regionales en las tasa de prevalencia e intensidad son discutidas aquí. Abstract in english Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and [...] Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae); Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Para Trichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn) of fish. This was the first record of P. Africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

Wanderson, Pantoja MF; Ligia Neves R, Fishing Engineer; Márcia Dias RD, Fishing Engineer; Renata Marinho GB, Biologist; Daniel Montagner, Zoo Technician; Marcos, Tavares-Dias.

2812-28-01

137

Health Condition of a Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Earthen Ponds, Northern Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Investigation on health conditions of a farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in two upazilas of Mymensingh District were carried out through clinical and histopathological observation during September, 2010 to March, 2011. Fish sample and water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia were monitored on a monthly basis. Clinical observations of the fish were also done for any kind of abnormalities at monthly intervals. Samples of skin, muscle, liver and kidney were observed by histological techniques. Among the water quality factors, water temperature and alkalinity were found at unfavourable level for fish during the colder months. Clinically, it was observed that the tilapia were more affected from December and January and almost normal in appearance during September, October, November and March. Different clinical symptoms like rough skin, scale loss, red spots and dermal lesions were noticed in December and January. Histopathologically, sampled fish were found almost normal in the months of September and October. In the month of November minor pathologies were found to be started. Marked pathological changes like necrosis, pyknosis, hemorrhage, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, missing of primary and secondary gill lamellae, vacuums, fat droplets and fungal granuloma and fungal hyphae were observed in fish organs during December and January. Whereas, the pathological condition of fish gradually reduced in February. Again when considered individual fish pond, fishes of pond 1 (P1 in Bhaluka upazila were more affected than other ponds. The study showed that severity of clinical and pathological changes were increased in December and January. During the period of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS, bacterial and protozoan diseases were evident.

M. Shamsuddin

2012-01-01

138

Probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici modulates both localised intestinal- and peripheral-immunity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of probiotics in aquaculture has received concerted research efforts but the localised intestinal immunological response of fish to probiotic bacteria is poorly understood. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic effect of Pediococcus acidilactici on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with specific emphasis on intestinal health and probiotic levels as well as system level responses such as growth performance, feed utilization and haemato-immunological parameters under non-challenged conditions. Fish (9.19 ± 0.04 g) were fed either a control diet or a P. acidilactici supplemented diet (at 2.81 × 10(6) CFU g(-)(1)) for six weeks. At the end of the study the probiotic was observed to populate the intestine, accounting for ca. 3% (1.59 × 10(5) CFU g(-)(1)) of the cultivable intestinal bacterial load. Real-time PCR indicated that the probiotic treatment may potentiate the immune-responsiveness of the intestine as up-regulation of the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? was observed in the probiotic fed fish (P haematological and zootechnical parameters compared to the control group (P > 0.05). PMID:23871840

Standen, B T; Rawling, M D; Davies, S J; Castex, M; Foey, A; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Merrifield, D L

2013-10-01

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Accumulation and toxic effects of microcystin in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from an eutrophic Brazilian lagoon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcystin (MC) accumulation and depuration in environmentally exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at a chronically contaminated eutrophic lagoon was studied. This is one of the scarce reports on microcystin accumulation in bile of environmentally exposed fish, and gonad MC accumulation in the field, in contrast to laboratory exposure experiments. Results show that preferential MC accumulation in the environment occurred in tilapia fish muscle, followed by gonads, liver and, finally, bile. Biliary MC excretion in in situ conditions indicates elimination from the body to a certain degree. High gonad MC bioaccumulation is of concern, since this could indicate potential reproductive problems in this species. This study also demonstrated that tilapia shows similar oxidative stress responses (in the form of reduced glutathione, GSH) in the environment as those observed in laboratory exposed fish. MC dietary intake values for tilapia muscle and liver were above the limits imposed by international legislations, indicating that the local human population should exercise care when ingesting this species as a part of their diet and that human ingestion of MC-contaminated samples should be carefully monitored. PMID:25463863

Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lavradas, Raquel Teixeira; Lavandier, Ricardo Cavalcanti; Rojas, Edwin Gonzalo Azero; Guarino, Alcides Wagner Serpa; Ziolli, Roberta Lourenço

2015-02-01

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Triguilho na alimentação da tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.): digestibilidade e desempenho / Wheat midlings in the nile tilapia feeding (Oreochromis niloticus L.): digestibility and performance  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente experimento objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa) da proteína bruta (PB) e da energia bruta (EB) do triguilho para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e avaliar a inclusão do triguilho sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo. Para a det [...] erminação dos CDa, foram utilizadas 40 tilápias com peso e comprimento médios de 80,00g e 15,9cm, respectivamente, submetidas à coleta das fezes por sedimentação. Para a avaliação do desempenho, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, com peso inicial médio de 0,80g, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. As rações experimentais continham níveis de inclusão de 0,00; 7,97; 14,94; 23,91 e 31,88% de triguilho substituindo até 100% do milho. Os CDas da PB e EB do triguilho foram de 91,03 e 78,72%, respectivamente, apresentando 11,92% de proteína digestível e 3134Kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Não foi observada diferença (P>0,05) no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com as rações contendo os diferentes níveis de inclusão do triguilho. O triguilho é um alimento com bons CDa da PB e EB e pode ser incluído em até 31,88% em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo sem causar prejuízo no desempenho. Abstract in english This experiment was aimed at determining the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of the raw protein (RP) and of raw energy (RE) of the wheat middling given to the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and evaluating the inclusion of wheat middling on the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. [...] In order to determine the ADC, 40 tilapias with the average weight and length of 80g and 15.9cm, respectively, were used and submitted to the collection of the excrements by sedimentation. To the evaluation of the performance 125 fingerlings of Nile tilapia were used, with an initial average weight of 0.80g, distributed into 25 aquariums with a 30L capacity at a random design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The experimental fish feed had inclusion levels of 0.00; 7.97; 14.94; 23.91 and 31.88% of wheat middling, substituting corn up to 100%. The ADCs of RP and RE of the wheat middling were 91.03% and 78.72, respectively, presenting 11.92% of digestible protein and 3134kcal kg-1 of digestible energy. No difference was observed (P>0.05) in the performance of the fish fed with the fish feed having the different levels of inclusion of the wheat middling. The wheat middling is a feed with good ADC of RP and RE and can be included in up to 31.88% in fish food for Nile tilapia fingerlings without causing damage in its performance.

Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Aldi, Feiden; Altevir, Signor; Adilson, Reidel.

1116-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Energia digestível para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Digestible energy for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 125 alevinos com peso e comprimento iniciais de 0,62±0,12 g e 3,25±0,25 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental consistiu de um aquário contendo cinco alevinos. As rações, isoprotéicas (30% de proteína digestível, isofosfóricas e isocalcíticas, foram formuladas para conter 2.900; 3.025; 3.150; 3.275 e 3.400 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A quantidade de ração fornecida (quatro vezes ao dia correspondeu a 10% da biomassa. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água (oxigênio dissolvido - OD, pH e condutividade elétrica - CE foram mensurados semanalmente, à tarde, e a temperatura, diariamente, antes da primeira e da última sifonagem, apresentando médias de 8,00±0,05 mg/L; 7,91±0,19; 92,11±2,27 µS/cm e 25,61±0,90ºC, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, foram analisadas as médias de peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento final, conversão alimentar aparente, sobrevivência e fator de condição. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho de alevinos entre os diferentes tratamentos. Recomenda-se a utilização de 2.900 a 3.400 kcal de ED/kg na ração de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo.The different levels of digestible energy on the performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings were evaluated. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings averaging initial length and weight of 0.62±0.12 and 3.25±0.25 cm were allotted to 25 30L-aquariums, as a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates (an aquarium with five fingerlings was considered the experimental unit. The diets, formulated to be isonitrogenous (30% of digestible protein, isophosphorous and isocalcium, contained 3,300, 3,525, 3,750, 3,975, and 4,200 kcal/kg of digestible energy. The amount of diet was fed of 10% of biomass four times a day. The abiotic parameters (pH, dissolved oxigen - DO, and electric condutivity - EC were weekly measured at afternoon and the temperature was was daily mensured. The following values were observed: pH of 7.91±0.19, DO of 8.00±0.05 mg/L, EC of 92.11±2.27 µS/cm, and temperature of 25.61±0.90ºC. At the end of experiment, means of final weight, weight gain, final length, apparent feeding conversion, survival rate and condition factor were analyzed. No significant differences on fingerling perfomance were found across the treatments. It can be included from 2,900 to 3,400 kcal of ED/kg in the diet of Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Wilson Rogério Boscolo

2006-06-01

142

Energia digestível para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Digestible energy for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Utilizaram-se 125 alevinos com peso e comprimento iniciais de 0,62±0,12 g e 3,25±0,25 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de [...] 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental consistiu de um aquário contendo cinco alevinos. As rações, isoprotéicas (30% de proteína digestível), isofosfóricas e isocalcíticas, foram formuladas para conter 2.900; 3.025; 3.150; 3.275 e 3.400 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A quantidade de ração fornecida (quatro vezes ao dia) correspondeu a 10% da biomassa. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água (oxigênio dissolvido - OD, pH e condutividade elétrica - CE) foram mensurados semanalmente, à tarde, e a temperatura, diariamente, antes da primeira e da última sifonagem, apresentando médias de 8,00±0,05 mg/L; 7,91±0,19; 92,11±2,27 µS/cm e 25,61±0,90ºC, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, foram analisadas as médias de peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento final, conversão alimentar aparente, sobrevivência e fator de condição. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho de alevinos entre os diferentes tratamentos. Recomenda-se a utilização de 2.900 a 3.400 kcal de ED/kg na ração de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo. Abstract in english The different levels of digestible energy on the performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings were evaluated. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings averaging initial length and weight of 0.62±0.12 and 3.25±0.25 cm were allotted to 25 30L-aquariums, as a completely randomized des [...] ign with five treatments and five replicates (an aquarium with five fingerlings was considered the experimental unit). The diets, formulated to be isonitrogenous (30% of digestible protein), isophosphorous and isocalcium, contained 3,300, 3,525, 3,750, 3,975, and 4,200 kcal/kg of digestible energy. The amount of diet was fed of 10% of biomass four times a day. The abiotic parameters (pH, dissolved oxigen - DO, and electric condutivity - EC) were weekly measured at afternoon and the temperature was was daily mensured. The following values were observed: pH of 7.91±0.19, DO of 8.00±0.05 mg/L, EC of 92.11±2.27 µS/cm, and temperature of 25.61±0.90ºC. At the end of experiment, means of final weight, weight gain, final length, apparent feeding conversion, survival rate and condition factor were analyzed. No significant differences on fingerling perfomance were found across the treatments. It can be included from 2,900 to 3,400 kcal of ED/kg in the diet of Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Aldi, Feiden; Altevir, Signor; Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Jandir José, Bard; Fabio Akira, Ishida.

2006-06-01

143

Environmental effects on the gills and blood of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to rivers of Bahia, Brazil.  

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Through the integration of chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on environmental biomarkers, such as gill histopathological changes and hematological and biochemical parameters, in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to four sites in the Jacuipe and Subaé rivers over seven days. Sediment analyses identified Sapelba as the most contaminated site, followed by Oliveira de Campinhos, Santo Amaro and Jacuípe. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and manganese at all sites. Aluminum and other metal were also detected in the gills of fishes. Fish exposed to the Sapelba site exhibited significant necrosis formation, as well as higher hematological parameters and trend to increase of cortisol levels. However, filament epithelium proliferation was higher at the Oliveira de Campinhos and Santo Amaro sites, at which the lowest levels of the hematological variables were observed. Multivariate analysis grouped some gill histopathological changes together, such as epithelial detachment with edema and lamellar epithelial proliferation with the lamellar fusion of adjacent filaments, revealing relationships among them. Positive associations were identified between sediment contamination and necrosis and cortisol, while water contamination was related with filament epithelium proliferation, aneurism, lamellar fusion and several hematological parameters. Furthermore, relationships between blood parameters and gill histopathological changes demonstrated a joint physiological response that may have resulted from environmental variables such as dissolved oxygen. The results exhibited the direct influence of xenobiotics on these biomarkers but also highlighted the need to consider the complexity of environmental factors to optimize the adoption of these environmental predictive tools. PMID:25450911

Cruz, André Luis da; Prado, Thiago Matos; Maciel, Letícia Aguilar da Silva; Couto, Ricardo David

2015-01-01

144

Effect of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) on some blood constituents of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is an urban drinking water purification substance that was introduced recently in Sudan and used to substitute polymer poly diallyl dimethyl aluminium chloride (DADMAC) and aluminium sulphate in water purification treatments. This study was conducted to determine its effects on fish health, which is is considered a biological indicator and an essential component of fresh water ecosystem. In this experiment, PAC was used in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/1) in experimental tanks to achieve the desirable doses for the study. The tanks were populated by Nile Tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average weight ranging between 70 and 100 grams. Exposure of this fish to PAC resulted in an immediate signification reduction (P<0.01) in haemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes count, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of experimental fingerlings blood. The degree of reduction in these parameters was directly proportional to the concentration of PAC used. (Author)

145

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 +/- 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding. PMID:10838930

Medri, V; Pereira, G V; Leonhardt, J H

2000-02-01

146

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast  

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Full Text Available Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding.

MEDRI V.

2000-01-01

147

Molecular characterization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. in Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Fishery plays an important role in the supply of food for the increasing population. Tilapia production exceeded twomillion tons, being the second most important group of fish worldwide. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusLinnaeus, 1758 is the most important species due to the fast growth rates and good acceptance by the consumer.Fish genetic improvement is highly based on molecular genetics, including RAPD, and the knowledge obtained inthe last decades gave good results in terms of molecular marker-assisted breeding. In the present work the geneticvariability of four populations of Nile tilapia was assessed using molecular techniques. Modifications in the DNAextraction protocol described by Bardakci and Skibinski (1994 were evaluated, which was followed by theapplication of the RAPD technique, using eight primers and twenty specimens of four tilapia lineages (Bouaké,Chitralada, GST and GIFT. The results from the PCR amplifications were evaluated using the programs NTSysand PopGen. GIFT was the most polymorphic group, with 37% of its loci showing polymorphism, and the groupthat presented the highest Shannon index (0,17. All primers but one (OPA-12 for the lineage Chitralada showedbands that can be used as a diagnostic tool for lineage differentiation. The dendrogram generated with thepolymorphic bands clearly separated the four populations; GIFT and Chitralada presented the highest geneticsimilarity (0,88, whereas GIFT and GST presented the highest genetic distance (0,23.

Gustavo Emygdio Halfen

2012-01-01

148

Cyanobacterium producing cylindrospermopsin cause histopathological changes at environmentally relevant concentrations in subchronically exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute toxicity of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has been established in rodents, based on diverse intraperitoneal an oral exposure studies and more recently in fish. But no data have been reported in fish after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells containing this cyanotoxin, so far. In this work, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed by immersion to lyophilized Aphanizomenon ovalisporum cells added to the aquaria using two concentration levels of CYN (10 or 100 ?g CYN L(-1) ) and deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (deoxy-CYN) (0.46 or 4.6 ?g deoxy-CYN L(-1) ), during two different exposure times: 7 or 14 d. This is the first study showing damage in the liver, kidney, hearth, intestines, and gills of tilapia after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells at environmental relevant concentrations. The major histological changes observed were degenerative processes and steatosis in the liver, membranous glomerulopathy in the kidney, myofibrolysis and edema in the heart, necrotic enteritis in the gastrointestinal tract, and hyperemic processes in gill lamellae and microhemorrhages. Moreover, these histopathological findings confirm that the extent of damage is related to the CYN concentration and length of exposure. Results from the morphometric study indicated that the average of nuclear diameter of hepatocytes and cross-sections of proximal and distal convoluted tubules are useful to evaluate the damage induced by CYN in the main targets of toxicity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 261-277, 2015. PMID:24000190

Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto, Ana I; Moreno, Isabel; Vasconcelos, Vitor M; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán Fernandez, Ana M

2015-03-01

149

Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Reared in Fertilized Tanks  

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Juvenile monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed four dietary protein levels (17%, 25%, 30% and 35%) to investigate their effects on growth performance, carcass composition and survival rate. The experiment was carried out in concrete tanks (2.9m x 1.4m x 1m), stocking each tank with 160 fish (50 fish/m3). The diets were offered to the fish (2.5±0.1g average initial weight ) at a level of 3% of body weight, six days a week for 180 days. In addition to the expe...

Bahnasawy, Mohamed H.

2009-01-01

150

Productive performance of the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in tanks with different water exchanges and stocking density in raceway Desempenho produtivo da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) em diferentes densidades e trocas de água em “raceway”  

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Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes Cichlidae) fingerlings were stocked at 90, 120 and 150 fishes in 24 circular tanks (0,5 m³), submitted to two full water exchanges, in a 30 and 60 minutes, in raceway system, to evaluate productive performance. The performance results were analyzed through a completely randomized design, in a 3x2 factorial scheme. After 128 days, the final weight and the weight gain were higher in larger water exchange and lower stocking density. T...

Paulo César Silva; Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka; Lúcia Helena Sipaúba Tavares; Valéria Leão Souza

2002-01-01

151

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)  

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The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed t...

Apt, Medeiros; Chellappa, S.; Me, Yamamoto

2007-01-01

152

Heavy Metals in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Persiformes: Cichlidae), Ictalurus punctanus (Rafinesque, 1818) (Suliriformes: Ictaluridae) and Bottom Sediments from Lagos Lagoon Proximal to Egbin Power Plant, Ijede, Ikorodu, Lagos Nigeria  

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This study presents the level of the heavy metal concentration in sediment and two fish species from the Ijede end of the Lagos lagoon in order to ascertain the pollution level of the lagoon .The pollution status of sediment and two fish species namely the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Persiformes: Cichlidae) and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctanus (Rafinesque, 1818) (Suliriformes: Ictaluridae) in the Ijede end of Lagos lagoon were investigated. Samples of the test fish...

Denloye, A. A.; Osundiya, M. O.; Onwordi, C. T.; Olowu, R. A.; Moronkola, B. A.; Omoyeni, O. A.; Ajuwon, O. R.; Owolabi, M. S.; Tovide, O. O.; Adebayo, N. O.

2012-01-01

153

Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo State, Brazil / Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia [...] do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses), compreendendo a água de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos. Abstract in english Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) rearing. Sa [...] mpling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months), taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.

Jeniffer Sati, Pereira; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; André Martins, Vaz-dos-Santos; Clóvis Ferreira do, Carmo; João Alexandre Saviolo, Osti.

2012-12-01

154

Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, São Paulo State, Brazil Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, São Paulo, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus rearing. Sampling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months, taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses, compreendendo a água de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos.

Jeniffer Sati Pereira

2012-12-01

155

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

TATIANA S FIUZA

2009-01-01

156

Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper / Alterações histopatológicas no epitélio hepático e branquial da Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, exposta a diferentes concentrações de cobre  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram mantidas em água doce e expostas a concentrações de 0.5, 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1 de sulfato de cobre durante um período de 21 dias. Amostras de fígado e de brânquia foram coletadas após o tempo de exposição e as lesões foram analisadas por micr [...] oscopia óptica. As principais alterações histopatológicas observadas nas brânquias foram edema, "lifting" do epitélio lamelar e uma intensa vasodilatação do eixo lamelar. Embora menos freqüentes, a fusão lamelar causada pela proliferação do epitélio filamentar e alguns aneurismas lamelares também foram observadas. O fígado do grupo controle exibiu uma arquitetura normal, enquanto os dos peixes expostos ao cobre apresentaram vacuolização e necrose. Estas lesões hepáticas foram mais evidentes nos peixes expostos a concentrações de cobre de 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1. O número dos núcleos dos hepatócitos / mm² de tecido hepático decresceu com o aumento da concentração de cobre. Em contraste, o índice hepatossomático foi mais elevado nos peixes expostos a 2.5mg L-1 de cobre. Em resumo, este trabalho acrescenta nova informação sobre a influência do cobre ao nível da histologia da brânquia e do fígado de O. niloticus e demonstra que os seus efeitos podem ser observados em diferentes concentrações. Abstract in english Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were reared in freshwater and exposed to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 of waterborne copper for a period of 21 days. Liver and gill samples were collected after 21 days of exposure to copper and lesions were analyzed by light microscopy. The main histopath [...] ological changes observed in gills exposed to the highest concentration were edema, lifting of lamellar epithelia and an intense vasodilatation of the lamellar vascular axis. Although less frequent, lamellar fusion caused by the filamentar epithelium proliferation and some lamellar aneurisms were also found. The liver of control group exhibited a quite normal architecture, while the fish exposed to copper showed vacuolation and necrosis. These hepatic alterations were more evident in fish exposed to 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 copper concentrations. The number of hepatocytes nucleus per mm² of hepatic tissue decreased with the increase of copper concentration. In contrast, the hepatic somatic index was high in fish exposed at 2.5mg L-1 of copper. In short, this work advance new knowledge as influence of copper in the gill and liver histology of O. niloticus and demonstrated that their effects could be observed at different concentrations.

António, Figueiredo-Fernandes; Jorge V., Ferreira-Cardoso; Sofia, Garcia-Santos; Sandra M., Monteiro; João, Carrola; Pedro, Matos; António, Fontaínhas-Fernandes.

2007-03-01

157

Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

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Problem statement: Al-Khadoud Spring is one of the largest spring in Al-Hassa governorate (Saudi Arabia). Due to the extended domestic activities and urbanization as well as the continuous industrial and agricultural growth of the region, spring water quality is potentially changing. Approach: This study was conducted to measure toxic heavy metal concentrations in water and fish samples along the spring channel. Filtered spring water and tissues (liver and muscle) of capt...

Al-kahtani, Mohammed A.

2009-01-01

158

Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under Different Exposure Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw), and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L) for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days). The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms. PMID:24406981

Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Risalde, María de los Ángeles; Moyano, Rosario; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Ángeles; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana María

2014-01-01

159

Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increahe TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

160

Immunohistochemical approach to study cylindrospermopsin distribution in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under different exposure conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw), and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L) for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days). The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms. PMID:24406981

Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Risalde, María de los Ángeles; Moyano, Rosario; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Ángeles; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana María

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus under Different Exposure Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cylindrospermopsin (CYN is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw, and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days. The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms.

Remedios Guzmán-Guillén

2014-01-01

162

Exigência de lisina pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), na fase de terminação Lysine requirement of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), for grow-out phase  

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O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de lisina pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Setenta e dois peixes revertidos sexualmente e com peso vivo médio inicial de 117,9 ± 0,67g foram alimentados por 50 dias com quatro rações (25% proteína bruta e 3090kcal de energia digestível kg-1) contendo diferentes teores de inclusão de L-Lisina HCl: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7%, correspondente a rações com 1,13; 1,27; 1,42 e 1,57% de lisina, respectivamente. Os pei...

Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Daniele Botaro; Patrícia Ribeiro Neves; Lilian Carolina Rosa Silva; Carmino Hayashi

2004-01-01

163

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast Crescimento das tilápias do Nilo Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes níveis de levedura alcooleira  

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Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the...

Medri, V.; Pereira, G. V.; Leonhardt, J. H.

2000-01-01

164

Trace metal concentrations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three catchments, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of the muscle and liver of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were obtained from a single reservoir in each of three Sri Lankan catchments (Kaudulla, Rajanganaya, and Udawalawe reservoirs in the Mahaweli, Kala Oya, and Walawe Ganga river basins, respectively) in 2002. The concentrations of 12 elements were consistently detected in the tilapia muscle and liver (Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn). However, a three factorial principal components analysis suggested that there were no differences in the metal profiles (range of elements and concentration) of the fish obtained from any of the three reservoirs, although the chemistries of each tissue (muscle and liver) were different. Metal concentrations were below WHO and Food Standards Australia and New Zealand guideline values, and substantial quantities of tilapia would need to be consumed each week on a regular basis to exceed intake limits (e.g. more than 1.5 kg to exceed intake lits for Cu), suggesting consumption of tilapia from these reservoirs poses little risk to human health. PMID:18949439

Allinson, G; Salzman, S A; Turoczy, N; Nishikawa, M; Amarasinghe, U S; Nirbadha, K G S; De Silva, S S

2009-03-01

165

Tissue-specific in vivo inhibition of cholinesterases by the organophosphate fenthion in Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to elucidate the effect of the organophosphate fenthion exposure on cholinesterase-specific activities in brain, liver, and kidney tissues of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus, and to define the best indicator tissue to fenthion exposure. The 96-h LC(50) value was determined as 2.27 mg/L and fish were exposed to 20% of this concentration for 24-, 48-, and 96-h. Recovery periods in similar durations were provided to evaluate the ChE activities. AChE and BChE activities were determined spectrophotometrically. The activities of these enzymes were significantly inhibited in all the tissues tested, liver was the most and kidney was the least affected tissues. The inhibition percentages of AChE and BChE were at similar levels in the liver while BChE was more affected in kidney. BChE was not detected in the brain. A significant positive correlation in ChE inhibitions was found among tissues, and the effect of fenthion on ChE activities was tissue specific. In general enzymes activities were not significantly recovered in 96-h recovery period; however, an elevation in AChE inhibition was observed in brain. Based on the data of this study, the liver may be suggested as the best indicator tissue especially for phosphorothioate exposure. PMID:19479785

Uner, Nevin; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Piner, Petek

2010-08-01

166

Impact of Introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus on Non-native Aquatic Ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global invasion of non-native aquatic ecosystems by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is well documented and coincides with their increased use as an aquaculture species. Aquaculture can be defined as the farming of fish or other aquatic organisms and it varies considerably in terms of production practices. Generally, freshwater finfish, such as Nile tilapia, are reared in inland ponds (closed systems. However, in several countries, floating cages are increasingly used to rear Nile tilapia in open water bodies. In such systems, escape is inevitable. The Nile tilapia is considered an omnivorous species and it ingests zooplankton, phytoplankton, or debris present in rivers. As a consequence, the release of Nile tilapia into non-native aquatic ecosystems may result in competition for food and space, thereby damaging native species. The wide environmental tolerance and high reproductive rate of Nile tilapia facilitate its use for aquaculture, but also render the species highly invasive. Here, we review the high frequency of Nile tilapia in non-native biodiversity and indicate the existence of the species under feral conditions in every country in which it has been introduced through farming systems.

C.E. Fonseca-Alves

2013-01-01

167

Biochemical biomarkers in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene and diazinon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemical biomarkers (the activities of acetylcholinesterase, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deetilase, carboxylesterase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase) were evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that had been exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and the organophosphate pesticide diazinon (DZ), at 0.5mg/L. The animals were pre-exposed to BaP for three days, and DZ was then added to both non-exposed and pre-exposed groups, being exposed for 2 and 7 additional days. The level of BaP was also measured in the bile. BaP caused the induction of phase I and II enzymes, and DZ caused carboxylesterase inhibition in gills but not in liver. AChE activity was unchanged. No significant modulation was observed in antioxidant enzymes. When in combination with BaP, DZ caused a significant decrease of EROD and GST induction. Levels of BaP in the bile were also increased in fish exposed to BaP combined with DZ, indicating an interference of DZ in responses activated by BaP. PMID:20149458

Pereira Trídico, Camila; Ferreira Rodrigues, Aline Cristina; Nogueira, Lilian; da Silva, Daniele Caetano; Benedito Moreira, Altair; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

2010-07-01

168

DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO, COMPOSICIÓN Y BIODISPONIBILIDAD RELATIVA DE SELENIO EN TILAPIA NILÓTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPLEMENTADA CON SELENIO ORGÁNICO E INORGÁNICO / PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE SELENIUM BIOAVAILABILITY IN NILE TILAPIA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SELENIUM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desempeño productivo, la composición corporal y la biodisponibilidad relativa de selenio en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada con selenio dietario. Una dieta basal fue suplementada con selenio en forma de selenito de sodio o seleno-levadura en niveles crecientes de s [...] uplementación (0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80 y 1.60 mg/kg de dieta). Un total de 336 individuos de tilapia nilótica, con un peso inicial de 13.41±0.12 g, fueron distribuidos de forma aleatoria en 48 acuarios de vidrio (80 l, 4 réplicas, 7 peces por acuario). No se detectó selenio en el agua de abastecimiento. Los peces fueron alimentados hasta saciedad aparente 3 veces al día por un período de 9 semanas. El desempeño productivo de la tilapia nilótica no se vio afectado (P>0.05) por la suplementación con selenio dietario. El selenio corporal se incrementó de forma lineal (P Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance, whole body selenium retention and relative selenium bioavailability in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A practical basal diet was supplemented with either sodium selenite or seleno-yeast at tilapia fish (n=336) with an initial w [...] eight of 13.41±0.12 g were randomly distributed into forty-eight glass aquaria (80 l, 4 replicates, 7 fish per aquarium). There was no detectable selenium in supply water. Fish were fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation three times daily for nine weeks. Selenium supplementation did not affect the productive performance of Nile tilapia (P>0.05). Total whole body selenium increase linearly in response to dietary selenium supplementation (P

J. E, Vinchira; G. A, Wills; A. P, Muñoz.

2014-08-01

169

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Isolated from Fresh-Marketed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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The contamination of seafood by bacteria of fecal origin, especially Escherichia coli, is a widely documented sanitary problem. The objective of the present study was to isolate E. coli strains from the gills, muscle, and body surface of farmed Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) fresh-marketed in supermarkets in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil), to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics of different families (amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, aztreona...

Rafael dos Santos Rocha; Lana Oliveira Leite; Oscarina Viana de Sousa; Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes Vieira

2014-01-01

170

Linkage and Physical Mapping of Sex Region on LG23 of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Evidence supports that sex determination (SD) in tilapia is controlled by major genetic factors that may interact with minor genetic as well as environmental factors, thus implying that SD should be analyzed as a quantitative trait. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SD in Oreochromis niloticus were previously detected on linkage groups (LG) 1 and 23. Twenty-one short single repeats (SSR) of >12 TGs and one single nucleotide polymorphism were identified using the unpublished tilapia genome seq...

Eshel, O.; Shirak, A.; Weller, J. I.; Hulata, G.; Ron, M.

2012-01-01

171

Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis  

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Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis...

Mohamed Tabita Kamara; Wenshui Xia; Betty Mabel Foh; Issoufou Amadou; Mohamed Beva Kelfala Foh

2010-01-01

172

Species diversity defends against the invasion of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the most widely cultured species globally and has successfully colonized much of the world. Despite numerous studies of this exotic species, how differences in native communities mitigate the consequences of Nile tilapia invasion is unknown. Theory predicts that communities that are more diverse should be more resistant to exotic species, an effect that is referred to as “biotic resistance”, but these effects are spatially dependent and organ...

Gu Dang E.; Luo Du.; Xu Meng.; Ma Guang M.; Mu Xi D.; Luo Jian R.; Hu Yin C.

2014-01-01

173

Natural mating in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) : implications for reproductive success, inbreeding and cannibalism  

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Niletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.) is one of the most important species among the commercially farmed tilapias. Both small-scale and commercial production of tilapia is rapidly expanding in many countries of the world because tilapias meet many of the desirable characteristics for an ideal species for aquaculture: fast growth, high acceptability to consumers and tolerance of a wide range of culture conditions. Fry produc...

Fessehaye, Y.

2006-01-01

174

The Influence of Some Phytobiotics on Haematological and Some Biochemical Indices at Oreochromis Niloticus – Linnaeus, 1758  

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The aim of this research was to evaluated the influence of some phytobiotics on haematological profile, leukocyte reaction and some biochemical indices at Oreochromis niloticus species, reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. This experiment was conducted six weeks. The experimental variants were: V1 – control; V2 – 1% Rosmarinus officinalis / kg feed; V3 – 1% Hippophae rhamnoides / kg feed and V4 – 1% Zingiber officinale / kg feed. Blood was ...

Alina Antache; Cristea Victor; Grecu Iulia; Dediu Lorena; Cre?u Mirela; Petrea ?tefan Mihai

2014-01-01

175

Effect of chlorpyrifos on the immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, on immune response parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The results indicated that chlorpyrifos (0.051, 0.102 and 0.255 mg L-1) did not provoke significant changes in the proliferation capacity of lymphocytes of tilapia; however, at 0.051 mg L-1, this pesticide induced a diminishment in concentration of lgM in plasma. On the other hand, organisms exposed...

Di?az-resendiz, K. J. G.; Giro?n-pe?rez, M. I.

2014-01-01

176

Determinación y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivada en Campeche, México  

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Objetivo. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en granjas de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) en el Municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Materiales y métodos. La colecta de organismos se realizó en tres granjas de cultivo de tilapia nilótica del municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Los organismos se examinaron externa e internamente y se tomó una muestra de riñón la cual fue sembrada en forma de estría en medios de cultivo: Löwesntein-Jen...

Maurilio Lara-Flores; Sara Balan-Zetina; Ana Zapata; Karina Sonda-Santos

2013-01-01

177

Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g, estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L, alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5. O ganho de peso (GDP e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%. Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L, kept under controlled environmental conditions inside 1000-L plastic pools, were fed to satiation, for 42 days, with purified diets supplemented with 0, 375, 750, 1125, 1500 or 1875 mg of choline chloride per kg of feed. Trial was set up in an incomplete, totally randomized block design (n=5. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and survival rate (S%; there were significant differences for weight gain (WG and food conversion ratio (FCR between the control and all the other treatments, but not between supplementation levels. A second trial (52 days evaluated the effects of higher rates of choline -- 1250 or 2500 mg per kg of feed, and the substitution of choline by betaine in the diets -- 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg of betaine per kg of feed. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and S%, but the FCR and WG of fish fed betaine-supplemented and control diets were significantly worse. There were no differences on the performance among groups fed the choline-supplemented diets. Supplementation of 375 mg of choline per kg of feed met nutritional requirements of Nile tilapia, and betaine did not substitute choline effectively in diets for the species.

Ivan Vieira

2001-12-01

178

Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic T ilapia zillii and native O reochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai , Ethiopia  

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Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detr...

Prabu, Padanillay C.

2008-01-01

179

Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P0.05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein proeasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved growth performances, feed and nutrients utilization and whole body composition (dry matter, protein and energy content) in Nile tilapia fry. (author)

180

Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

 
 
 
 
181

Duration of protective antibodies and correlation with survival in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus following Streptococcus agalactiae vaccination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality among numerous species of freshwater, estuarine and marine fishes. Considering the economic importance of fishes susceptible to S. agalactiae throughout the world, an efficacious S. agalactiae vaccine was developed using an extracellular product (ECP) fraction and formalin-killed whole cells of S. agalactiae. A vaccine study was conducted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in order to determine the duration of protection and its correlation to antibodies specific for this pathogen. After 47, 90 or 180 d post-vaccination (DPV), the fish were i.p. challenged with approximately 2.0 x 10(4) S. agalactiae colony-forming units (CFU) fish(-1) to determine the duration of protective immunity. The percent survival in control fish i.p.-injected with sterile TSB was 16,16, and 4% on 47, 90 and 180 DPV, respectively, while the percent survival for the vaccinated fish was 67, 62 and 49%, respectively. The specific mean antibody concentration of the vaccinated fish was significantly higher than that of the control fish, with significant correlation between the ELISA optical density (OD) and protection. These results indicate that the specific antibody has a correlation with protection following immunization with the S. agalactiae vaccine and that the vaccine can confer protection against S. agalactiae up to 180 DPV. PMID:16231638

Pasnik, David J; Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H

2005-09-01

182

Desempenho produtivo da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. em diferentes densidades e trocas de água em “raceway” Productive performance of the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. in tanks with different water exchanges and stocking density in raceway  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo dos alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, (Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes Cichlidae estocados nas densidades de 90, 120 e 150 peixes/tanque, em 24 tanques circulares com 0,5 m³, em duas trocas totais de água (30 e 60 minutos, no sistema “raceway”. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2, para análise dos dados. Após 128 dias, o peso final e o ganho de peso foram superiores na maior troca de água e menor densidade; a conversão alimentar não alterou significativamente; a biomassa total aumentou com o aumento da renovação de água e densidade de estocagem de 120 e 150 peixes/m³; a taxa de crescimento específico aumentou na maior renovação da água; os rendimentos de filé e de carcaça diminuíram com a menor troca de água nas maiores densidades de estocagem. Os melhores resultados ocorreram com troca total de água em 30 minutos, nas densidades de estocagem de 120 e 150 peixes/m³.Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes Cichlidae fingerlings were stocked at 90, 120 and 150 fishes in 24 circular tanks (0,5 m³, submitted to two full water exchanges, in a 30 and 60 minutes, in raceway system, to evaluate productive performance. The performance results were analyzed through a completely randomized design, in a 3x2 factorial scheme. After 128 days, the final weight and the weight gain were higher in larger water exchange and lower stocking density. The feed conversion ratio with non-significant statistical differences. The total biomass increased with the water exchange and stocking density increasing for 120 and 150 fishes/m³; the specific growth ratio increased with water exchange increasing; the fillet yield and the carcass yield decreased significantly with lower water exchange and bigger stocking density. In this research, it was concluded that the best performance parameters were obtained with full water exchange in 30 minutes, at bigger stocking densities.

Paulo César Silva

2002-04-01

183

Morformetria e desenvolvimento gonadal em (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Morphometry and development of gonad in (Oreochromis niloticus) with supplementation of vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da suplementação de vitamina E na morfometria e no desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). Para peso da gônada, índice gonadossomático (IGS), espessura do testículo e porcentagem de lúmen foram observadas diferenças para tratamento 150 mg/kg de vitam [...] ina E. Para epitélio germinativo foi observada diferença para o tratamento com 150 mg e para porcentagem de células de Leydig do tratamento com 50 mg de vitamina E por kg. Para vasos sanguíneos foi maior com 50 e 150 mg. A exigência de vitamina E para desenvolvimento gonadal da tilápia é de 150 mg/kg. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in the morphometry and gonadal development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Considering the weight of the gonad, gonadossomatic index, testes thickness and lumen percentage, significant differences were observed for the tre [...] atment with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. There were observed significant differences for percentage of germinative epithelium to 150 mg/kg of vitamin E and for percentage of Leydig cells in treatment with 50 mg/kg of vitamin E. The percentage of blood vessels was higher in both treatments with 50 and 150 mg. The vitamin E requirement for gonadal development of tilápia is 150 mg/kg.

R.D., Navarro; S.L.P., Matta; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; W.M., Ferreira; D.C., Miranda; F.K.S., Pereira.

2010-12-01

184

Qualidade microbiológica de filés de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) durante o armazenamento em gelo / Microbiological quality of the Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets in ice storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o frescor microbiológico de filés sem pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), cultivada durante o seu armazenamento em gelo. Os filés com peso médio de 120g foram acondicionados em caixas isotérmicas, com gelo em escama, na proporção de 1:1 (filé: [...] gelo). Estas caixas foram armazenadas em uma câmara fria, com temperatura externa e interna de aproximadamente 4°C e 0ºC, respectivamente. Realizaram-se análises microbiológicas a cada 72 horas, a partir do tempo zero, em triplicata. A qualidade microbiológica das amostras de tilápia foi aceitável durante o armazenamento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological freshness of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skinless fillets, during storage in ice. The average weight of 120g fillets were packed in cool boxes with scale ice, 1:1 ratio (fillet: ice). These boxes were stored in a cold room with [...] internal and external temperature of about 4°C and 0°C, respectively. Microbiological analyzes were performed every 72 hours from time zero in triplicate. The microbiological quality of the tilapia samples was acceptable during storage.

Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva, Soares; Alex Augusto, Gonçalves; Lara Barbosa de, Souza.

2273-22-01

185

Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to petroleum refinery and chromium processing plant effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The genotoxic effects of effluents from a petroleum refinery and a chromium processing plant were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Perciformes) using the micronucleus test. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v) of the effluents for 3, 6 and 9 days. Micronucleus analyses were carried out on gill epithelial cells and peripheral blood erythrocytes. Nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, considered as genetic damage indicators, were also evaluated on erythrocytes. Cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 4 mg/L was used as a positive control. The results of this study showed that both effluents had genotoxic potential. On the other hand, the level of genetic damage induced by petroleum refinery effluent was considerably higher than that of chromium processing plant effluent. Our results further indicate that nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, such as blebbed and lobed nuclei, may also be used as indicators of genotoxic damage

186

Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to petroleum refinery and chromium processing plant effluents  

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The genotoxic effects of effluents from a petroleum refinery and a chromium processing plant were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Perciformes) using the micronucleus test. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v) of the effluents for 3, 6 and 9 days. Micronucleus analyses were carried out on gill epithelial cells and peripheral blood erythrocytes. Nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, considered as genetic damage indicators, were also evaluated on erythrocytes. Cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 4 mg/L was used as a positive control. The results of this study showed that both effluents had genotoxic potential. On the other hand, the level of genetic damage induced by petroleum refinery effluent was considerably higher than that of chromium processing plant effluent. Our results further indicate that nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, such as blebbed and lobed nuclei, may also be used as indicators of genotoxic damage.

Cavas, Tolga [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33342 Mersin (Turkey)]. E-mail: tcavas@mersin.edu.tr; Ergene-Goezuekara, Serap [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33342 Mersin (Turkey)

2005-09-10

187

Subacute intoxication of a deltamethrin-based preparation (Butox) 5% EC) in monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., was exposed to subacute concentration (1.46 microg/l) of a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin for 28 consecutive days. Behavioural, clinical, haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological consequences were assayed at a regular interval of 7 days. The abnormal behavioural responses and toxic symptoms were described. Exposure to deltamethrin not only significantly decreased lymphocyte and basophile percentages, total leucocytic and total erythrocytic counts, haemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume value, but also caused serious effects in the form of hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperglycaemia and significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Moreover, the histopathological results indicated that the haemobiotic organs were affected by deltamethrin, primarily liver and gills. Our data suggest that subacute exposure to deltamethrin exerts a serious metabolic distress on the fish corresponding to the exposure period. In addition, the assayed parameters and histopathological findings can be as good biomarkers of pyrethroid ecosystem pollution. PMID:18053029

El-Sayed, Yasser Said; Saad, Talaat Talaat

2008-03-01

188

Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758).  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT) on specific growth rate (SGR% day(-1)), condition factor (k), gonado-somatic-index (GSI), histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 ?g/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day(-1) (0.9±0.04) as compared to control (1.23±0.026). The GSI value was significantly (pfish was more or less similar. It is concluded that exogenous melatonin suppressed SGR% day(-1), GSI, ovarian cellular activity, protein and lipid biosynthesis, in tilapia suggesting that melatonin is useful in manipulating the gonadal maturity in fishes. PMID:25049476

Singh, Ruchi; Singh, A K; Tripathi, Madhu

2012-01-01

189

Pathological manifestations and immune responses of serotypes Ia and III Streptococcus agalactiae infections in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS infections cause serious worldwide damage to fish farming. Here, we evaluated the pathological manifestations and immune responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus infected with GBS serotype Ia (GBS-Ia and GBS serotypes III (GBS-III. Experimental infection of fish with GBS by intraperitoneal injection indicated the severity of GBS-Ia infection as shown by the LD50 of GBS-Ia and GBS-III, being 1.58?106 CFU/fish and 2.10?108 CFU/fish, respectively. The onset of disease and clinical observation revealed notable differences between the GBS-Ia and GBS-III infections. Histological findings showed severe changes of the liver, pancreas, kidney and brain of fish infected with GBS. In addition, significantly different haemato-immunological parameters were observed between GBS-Ia and GBS-III infected fish. Differences in the pathological manifestations and immune responses of GBS-Ia and GBS-III infections in tilapia are of practical use for fish pathologists who monitor tilapia mortality resulting from GBS infections.

Atchariya Suwannasang

2014-10-01

190

Formation of ring marks in stocked tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus) (Perciformes: Cichlidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El lago de Metztitlán se secó completamente en la primavera de 1998, inundándose nuevamente en agosto del mismo año para ser repoblado entre septiembre y noviembre con 1.6 millones de jóvenes de un híbrido de tilapia (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus) en dos periodos. Ambas cohortes fueron monitoread [...] as mensualmente durante un año. Debido a que la fecha de nacimiento era conocida, el objetivo del estudio fue evaluar si las marcas anulares de las escamas, las sagittae y los opérculos, o los circuli de las escamas pueden usarse para estimar la edad. Los anillos de las escamas y opérculos mostraron gran variabilidad, mientras que las de las sagittae se relacionaron significativamente con la longitud, sin embargo no quedó claro si al menos el primer anillo podría haber sido formado por cambios en dieta o movimientos en los tanques de la granja de cultivo. Por el contrario los circuli mostraron una formación regular con una tasa de formación de 10.38±0.93 y 11.38±0.95 circuli/mes para la primera y segunda cohortes, respectivamente, proporción que fue mantenida durante el periodo de estudio y que puede ser usada para calcular la edad de los jóvenes, especialmente en organismos que muestran numerosos anillos debido a la manipulación sufrida en las granjas o debido a las "siembras". Abstract in english Lake Metztitlán was dried up completely in the spring of 1998 and refilled in August of that year. In the period September-November, two cohorts of 1.6 million juveniles of a tilapia hybrid were stocked (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus), and monitored every month for one year. Since the date of birt [...] h of these juveniles was known, the analyses focused on whether the ring marks of the scales, sagittae and opercula or the circuli of the scales could be used to age them. The ring marks of the scales and opercula showed great variability, and the sagittae had a significant relationship with length, but it is unclear if at least the first ring mark could be formed at the hatchery and reflect changes in diet and/or tank movements in the fish farm. The circuli had a continuous regular behavior, with a formation rate of 10.38±0.93 and 11.38±0.95 circuli/month for the first and second cohorts, respectively. This proportion was maintained during the study period, and could be of help to calculate an approximate age of juveniles, especially in stocked fish that show multiple ring marks because of manipulation in fish farms and stocking events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4): 1005-1013. Epub 2007 December, 28.

Ana L, Ibañez; Marco A, Romo-Coronel.

1005-10-01

191

Optimisation of the pond rearing of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The impact of stunting processes and recruitment control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stunting is often considered as a major bottleneck for the pond rearing ofNiletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) and was a major topic in this study. Neonteny: the earlier breeding of tilapia in ponds takes place, but is not a bottleneck as with appropriate feeding levels the somatic growth is maintained. The study indicated that aggravation of the living conditions is not a major cause of the observed earlier b...

Graaf, G. J.

2004-01-01

192

Mating systems and male reproductive success in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in breeding hapas: A microsatellite analysis  

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Fry production in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus is typically achieved by mass spawning of males and females stocked in large hapas suspended in ponds. In such spawning aggregations, territorial behavior and reproductive competition among males may lead to a large variance in reproductive success among individual males. We analyzed parentage and quantified male reproductive success of O. niloticus under commercial hatchery conditions in two breeding hapas each stocked with 12 males and 2...

Fessehaye, Y.; El-bialy, Z.; Rezk, M. A.; Crooijmans, R. P. M. A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

2006-01-01

193

First evidence for family-specific QTL for temperature-dependent sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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This study for the first time screens microsatellite markers for associations with the temperature-dependent sex of Oreochromis niloticus. Previous studies revealed markers on linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, and 23 to be linked to the phenotypic sex of Oreochromis spp. at normal rearing temperatures. Moreover, candidate genes for sex determination and differentiation have been mapped to these linkage groups. Here, 6 families of a temperature-treated genetically all-female (XX) F(1)-population were ...

Lu?hmann, L. M.; Knorr, C.; Ho?rstgen-schwark, G.; Wessels, S.

2012-01-01

194

Effect of Feeding Different Grain Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings Fed in Outdoor Hapas  

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The study investigated the growth performance and body composition of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L) fingerlings (4.70g ? 0.09) fed Isonitrogenous and Isoenergetic diet of 25% crude protein containing different grain sources (maize, wheat, rice, sorghum and millet) designated DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 respectively. The study lasted for 56 days. Fish fed a diet containing maize gave the highest mean weight gain (MWG) of 6.05g; highest specific growth rate (SGR) of 1.47; be...

Solomon, S. G.; Tiamiyu, L. O.; Agaba, U. J.

2007-01-01

195

EFEKTIVITAS IKAN NILA MERAH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) SEBAGAI PEMAKAN JENTIK NYAMUK  

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Ikan nila merah (Oreachromis niloticus) merupakan ikan yang berasal dari luar negeri yang sudah dibudidayakan secara meluas di Indonesia. Ikan tersebut mempunyai arti ekonomis penting karena harganya mahal. Dalam percobaan laboratorium, ikan nila merah memakan jentik nyamuk dan ganggang Enteromorpha, yaitu ganggang yang dipakai untuk bertelur nyamuk Anopheles sundaicus. Dalam suatu percobaan, efektivitas ikan nila merah sebagai agen biologi untuk mengendalikan je...

Sudomo, M.; Ima Nurisa; Sushanti Idris Idram; Sujitno Sujitno

2012-01-01

196

Partial and total substitution of soy oil for tilapia oil in rations for larvae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) /
Substituição parcial e total do óleo de soja pelo óleo de tilápia em rações para larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present experimentwas undertaken out to evaluate the performance and the survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the sexual reversion phase. The fish were fed with rations with different levels of tilapia oil in substitution of the soy oil. 7 larvae, with average weight of 0,012 ±0,002 g e 0,931 ±0,144 cm, respectively were used. Fish were distributed in 25 aquariuns with 15 larvae in an entirely randomly design with 5 treatments and 5 repetitions. The rations contained leve...

Adilson Reidel; Aldi Feiden; Altevir Signor; Arcangelo Augusto Signor; Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Ronaldo José Boscolo

2008-01-01

197

Characterization and evaluation of the impact of feed management on the effluents of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed management on the quality of effluent water generated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus culture ponds. Feed was supplied as follows: natural food, and pelleted, extruded or minced ration. The study was conducted during 19 weeks in 12 continuous water exchange ponds of 300 m² each, with a population of male Nile tilapia juveniles, in a density equal to 1.7 fish m-2. Feeds contained 30% crude protein, 3,000 kcal digestible energy, and were supplied twice a day. Natural food consisted of chicken manure. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll a and suspended solids were monitored weekly in the supplying and effluent water. Water residence time was also determined for the ponds. In general, effluent water quality decreased in all treatments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes manejos alimentares: alimento natural, ração peletizada, extrusada ou farelada, sobre a qualidade da água dos efluentes gerados em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O experimento foi desenvolvido durante 19 semanas em doze viveiros de 300 m², com renovação contínua de água, povoados com juvenis machos de tilápia do Nilo na densidade de 1,7 peixes m-2. As rações isoproteícas (30% de proteína bruta e isoenergéticas (3.000kcal de energia digestível foram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia. Quanto ao tratamento alimento natural, foi utilizado esterco de galinha poedeira. Semanalmente, foram aferidos na água de abastecimento e nos efluentes, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, fósforo total, nitrogênio total, clorofila a e material em suspensão. De maneira geral, houve piora na qualidade da água dos efluentes de todos os tratamentos estudados, em comparação a água de abastecimento, evidenciando o impacto ambiental desta atividade produtiva, podendo levar a eutrofização dos corpos d'água receptores.

Ana Eliza Baccarin

2005-01-01

198

Characterization and evaluation of the impact of feed management on the effluents of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes manejos alimentares: alimento natural, ração peletizada, extrusada ou farelada, sobre a qualidade da água dos efluentes gerados em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). O experimento foi desenvolvido durante [...] 19 semanas em doze viveiros de 300 m², com renovação contínua de água, povoados com juvenis machos de tilápia do Nilo na densidade de 1,7 peixes m-2. As rações isoproteícas (30% de proteína bruta) e isoenergéticas (3.000kcal de energia digestível) foram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia. Quanto ao tratamento alimento natural, foi utilizado esterco de galinha poedeira. Semanalmente, foram aferidos na água de abastecimento e nos efluentes, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, fósforo total, nitrogênio total, clorofila a e material em suspensão. De maneira geral, houve piora na qualidade da água dos efluentes de todos os tratamentos estudados, em comparação a água de abastecimento, evidenciando o impacto ambiental desta atividade produtiva, podendo levar a eutrofização dos corpos d'água receptores. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed management on the quality of effluent water generated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture ponds. Feed was supplied as follows: natural food, and pelleted, extruded or minced ration. The study was conducted during 19 [...] weeks in 12 continuous water exchange ponds of 300 m² each, with a population of male Nile tilapia juveniles, in a density equal to 1.7 fish m-2. Feeds contained 30% crude protein, 3,000 kcal digestible energy, and were supplied twice a day. Natural food consisted of chicken manure. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll a and suspended solids were monitored weekly in the supplying and effluent water. Water residence time was also determined for the ponds. In general, effluent water quality decreased in all treatments.

Ana Eliza, Baccarin; Antonio Fernando Monteiro, Camargo.

2005-01-01

199

Oxidative stress responses and recovery patterns in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to chlorpyrifos-ethyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorpyrifos is the most common insecticide in freshwater ecosystems, and detected in agricultural and fishery product. In this study, Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 ppb sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos in order to determine the oxidative stress response in liver. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly inhibited. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased after 15 days of chlorpyrifos treatments at all concentrations (146.95%, 53.04%, 208.70%, respectively). Malondialdehyde levels were higher than that of the control level after 15 days of 5 ppb (95.65%), 10 ppb (69.56%) and 15 ppb (252.17%) chlorpyrifos treatments. Malondialdehyde levels were also increased ranging from 59.09%, 113.63% to 195.46% after 30 days of 5, 10 and 15 ppb chlorpyrifos exposures. Glutathione S-transferase activity decreased except for 15 days low concentration exposure. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased while there is no significant alteration in glutathione peroxidase activity. After recovery period, the low concentration group of chlorpyrifos provided a protection in AChE activity during recovery, but fish were observed to be unable to overcome the inhibition of AChE activity at high concentration groups. CAT activity remained reduced, SOD activity increased whereas the other biochemical parameters recovered to control levels. Results of this study suggest that chlorpyrifos induces oxidative stress in the liver of O. niloticus and this effect is not related with anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of pesticide. PMID:22310847

Oruc, Elif

2012-05-01

200

Morphological and quantitative evaluation of the ovarian recrudescence in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after spawning in captivity.  

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The Nile tilapia is one of the most important fish species for aquaculture worldwide. Understanding their reproductive biology is essential for improving their aquaculture methods. The morphological and quantitative dynamics of ovarian recrudescence of Oreochromis niloticus was studied for 21 days postspawning. To accomplish this, breeding females were kept in controlled conditions and ovarian samples were collected weekly for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric analyses. Ovarian follicle morphology revealed an intense synthesis activity of the follicular cells, which actively contributed to formation of the zona radiata and oocyte development following spawning. Recently spawned ovaries contained follicles at all developmental stages, but they were predominantly early primary growth (? 42%) and full-grown follicles (? 20%). Remnants of spawning, postovulatory follicle complexes represented approximately 5% of the former ovarian follicles immediately after spawning, and less than 1% after 7 days. Atretic follicles accounted for approximately 2% of the follicles studied during the period. The stock of primary growth follicles was stable during ovarian recrudescence, indicating their availability for continuous recruitment. Only the frequency of full-grown follicles significantly increased in the ovaries during recrudescence, representing approximately 35% of the follicles 21 days postspawning. The diameters of all follicles were significantly different between the periods analyzed. The ovaries' morphological characteristics, the maintenance of young follicles stocks and the gradual and significant increase in the proportion and diameter of full-grown follicles showed a rapid ovarian recovery and follicular growth of O. niloticus, in 21 days at 29.5°C, necessary for the next spawning. PMID:24136463

Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Martins, Yuri Simões; Teixeira, Edgar de Alencar; Luz, Ronald Kennedy; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Efectos individuales de la ciclidogiriasis y estreptococosis inducidas en la bioquímica sanguínea de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus / Individual effects of cichlidogyriasis and streptococosis induced on the blood biochemistry of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este estudio se propone evaluar la posibilidad de utilizar los datos de la bioquímica sanguínea como diagnóstico presuntivo de un proceso infeccioso en tilapias Oreochromis niloticus, mediante infecciones inducidas por Streptococcus sp. o por la activación de la respuesta inmune inducida por antí [...] genos de Cichlidogyrus spp. Específicamente, se evaluó la variabilidad de algunos metabolitos de la bioquímica sanguínea de tilapias O. niloticus, desafiadas de manera individual con inyecciones intraperitoneales (IP) de cultivos celulares de Streptococcus sp. (Grupo STREP, n = 10) y extractos tisulares de Cichlidogyrus spp. (Grupo C-EXP, n = 10). Adicionalmente, a 10 tilapias, se les inyectó búfer salino de fosfato (PBS) (pH = 7), para ser usados como control de inmunizaciones (Grupo solución salina, SS). Además, 70 tilapias se mantuvieron en condiciones acuaculturales usuales y conformaron el grupo línea base (LB). Diez peces más, libres de infección, sirvieron como control negativo (Grupo CN). La bioquímica sanguínea (metabolitos y iones), se analizó por el método de microplaca. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo diferencias entre los grupos LB y CN (p > 0.05). En los peces STREP y C-EXP se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de glucosa, proteínas totales, albúmina y globulinas al compararlos con los peces LB (p 0.05). Para esta especie y en las condiciones de cultivo establecidas, las variaciones producidas por la infección con Streptococcus sp. y los antígenos de Cichlidogyrus spp., modificaron algunos parámetros de su bioquímica sanguínea, los cuales pueden servir como indicadores de posibles patologías infecciosas. Abstract in english In this study, we propose to evaluate the blood biochemistry as diagnosis technique of a pathologic process in tilapias Oreochromis niloticus by means of infections induced by Streptococcus sp. or by the activation of the immune response induced by antigens of Cichlidogyrus spp. Specifically, variat [...] ions of some metabolites from the blood biochemistry were evaluated in experimentally infected tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The organisms were intraperitoneally challenged (IP) with individual antigenic extracts of Streptococcus sp. (STREP Group, n = 10) and Cichlidogyrus spp. (C-EXP Group, n = 10), respectively, while 10 other tilapia were inoculated with a saline solution buffer (SS Group) and were used as immunization control. Another group of 70 tilapias was maintained in aquaculture conditions included the baseline group (LB). The negative control (CN) included 10 fish free of infection. The blood chemistry (metabolites and ions) were tested in a microplate format. No differences were observed between the LB and the CN groups (p > 0.05). Only fish injected with Streptococcus sp. (STREP) and Cichlidogyrus spp. (C-EXP) were significantly different with the values of glucose, total proteins, albumin, and globulins, when comparing with LB fish (p 0.05). The results from the induced infections with Streptococcus sp. and Cichlidogyrus spp., respectively, modified some parameters of the blood biochemistry of tilapia that could be used for some preliminary diagnosis of infectious diseases.

Juan José, Sandoval-Gío; Miguel, Rosado-Vallado; Rossanna, Rodríguez-Canul.

2013-12-01

202

Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2 in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3 and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5µg/g body weight to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24 hr post injection (P < 0.001, while the treatment with an anti-thyroid, MMI (100 ppm for 6 days significantly reduced kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05. gnrh2, gnrh3 and thyrotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect.

SatoshiOgawa

2013-11-01

203

Radical scavenging and reducing ability of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzymatically hydrolyzed fish protein hydrolysates could be used as a source of antioxidative nutraceuticals. In our current work, we have investigated alkali-solubilized tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for their reducing power. Tilapia protein isolate was prepared by an alkaline solubilization technique and used as a substrate for enzyme hydrolysis. Cryotin, protease A 'Amano' 2, protease N 'Amano', Neutrase and Flavourzyme, were used separately to determine their effectiveness in hydrolyzing tilapia protein isolate. ROS scavenging ability was quantified using an isoluminol enhanced chemiluminescent assay in the presence of a) hydrogen peroxide or b) mononuclear cells isolated from human blood. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the hydrolysates using 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) or 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), were also investigated. Results showed that, in general, the TEAC, FRAP values and ROS scavenging ability of the hydrolysates increased with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Among the different hydrolysates, those prepared using Cryotin were most effective and Amano A2 hydrolysates were least effective in scavenging ABTS*(+) and ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide. However, FRAP assay showed that hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme were most effective, and Amano N and Neutrase hydrolysates were least effective in reducing ferric ions. No significant difference was observed among the hydrolysates produced with different enzymes in their ability to scavenge ROS generated by phorbol myristate acetate stimulated mononuclear cells. These results shed light on the in vitro ROS scavenging ability of alkali solubilized tilapia protein hydrolysates, as well as potential nutraceutical use of these hydrolysates. PMID:18828605

Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

2008-11-12

204

Five different piscidins from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: analysis of their expressions and biological functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piscidins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that play important roles in helping fish resist pathogenic infections. Through comparisons of tilapia EST clones, the coding sequences of five piscidin-like AMPs (named TP1?5) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were determined. The complete piscidin coding sequences of TP1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 were respectively composed of 207, 234, 231, 270, and 195 bases, and each contained a translated region of 68, 77, 76, 89, and 64 amino acids. The tissue-specific, Vibrio vulnificus stimulation-specific, and Streptococcus agalactiae stimulation-specific expressions of TP2, -3, and -4 mRNA were determined by a comparative RT-PCR. Results of the tissue distribution analysis revealed high expression levels of TP2 mRNA in the skin, head kidneys, liver, and spleen. To study bacterial stimulation, S. agalactiae (SA47) was injected, and the TP4 transcript was upregulated by >13-fold (compared to the wild-type (WT) control, without injection) and was 60-fold upregulated (compared to the WT control, without injection) 24 h after the S. agalactiae (SA47) injection in the spleen and gills. Synthesized TP3 and TP4 peptides showed antimicrobial activities against several bacteria in this study, while the synthesized TP1, -2, and -5 peptides did not. The synthesized TP2, -3, and -4 peptides showed hemolytic activities and synthesized TP3 and TP4 peptides inhibited tilapia ovary cell proliferation with a dose-dependent effect. In summary, the amphiphilic ?-helical cationic peptides of TP3 and TP4 may represent novel and potential antimicrobial agents for further peptide drug development. PMID:23226256

Peng, Kuan-Chieh; Lee, Shu-Hua; Hour, Ai-Ling; Pan, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Lin-Han; Chen, Jyh-Yih

2012-01-01

205

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus. PMID:18278323

Medeiros, A P T; Chellappa, S; Yamamoto, M E

2007-11-01

206

Genetic and physical mapping of sex-linked AFLP markers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of the sex-determining genes of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has important implications for commercial aquaculture. We previously identified an XX/XY sex-determining locus in this species within a 10-cM interval between markers GM201 and UNH995 on linkage group one (LG1). In order to refine this region, we developed new AFLP markers using bulked segregant analysis of the mapping families. We identified three AFLP markers that showed a sex-specific pattern of segregation. All three mapped near, but just outside, the previously identified sex-determining region on LG1. Hybridization of BAC clones containing these markers to chromosome spreads confirmed that the XX/XY sex-determining locus is on one of the small chromosomes in O. niloticus. PMID:20953654

Lee, Bo-Young; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-Francois; Kocher, Thomas D

2011-06-01

207

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

Kenan Koprucu

2004-01-01

208

Nile Tilapia Neu3 sialidases: molecular cloning, functional characterization and expression in Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammalian Neu3 is a ganglioside specific sialidase. Gangliosides are involved in various physiological events such as cell growth, differentiation and diseases. Significance of Neu3 and gangliosides is still unclear in aquaculture fish species. To gain more insights of fish Neu3 sialidases, molecular cloning and characterization were carried out in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A tilapia genome-wide search for orthologues of human NEU1, NEU2, NEU3 and NEU4 yielded eight putative tilapia sialidases, five of which were neu3-like and designated as neu3a, neu3b, neu3c, neu3d and neu3e. Among five neu3 genes, neu3a, neu3d and neu3e were amplified by PCR from adult fish brain cDNA with consensus sequences of 1227bp, 1194bp and 1155bp, respectively. Multiple alignments showed conserved three Asp-boxes (SXDXGXTW), YRIP and VGPG motifs. The molecular weights for Neu3a, Neu3d and Neu3e were confirmed using immunoblotting analysis as 45.9kDa, 44.4kDa and 43.6kDa, respectively. Lysate from neu3 genes transfected HEK293 cells showed sialidase activity in Neu3a towards ganglioside mix optimally at pH4.6. Using pure gangliosides as substrates, highest sialidase activity for Neu3a was observed towards GD3 followed by GD1a and GM3, but not GM1. On the other hand, sialidase activities were not observed in Neu3d and Neu3e towards various sialoglycoconjugates. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that tilapia Neu3a and Neu3d are localized at the plasma membrane, while most Neu3e showed a cytosolic localization. RT-PCR analyses for neu3a showed significant expression in the brain, liver, and spleen tissues, while neu3d and neu3e showed different expression patterns. Based on these results, tilapia Neu3 exploration is an important step towards full understanding of a more comprehensive picture of Neu3 sub-family of proteins in fish. PMID:25234733

Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Komatsu, Masaharu; Itakura, Takao; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

2014-11-15

209

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

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Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758) was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days) exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg). Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC), ...

Nilton Massuo Ishikawa; Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva; Julio Vicente Lombardi; Cláudia Maris Ferreira

2007-01-01

210

Genetic and physical mapping of sex-linked AFLP markers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identification of the sex-determining genes of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has important implications for commercial aquaculture. We previously identified an XX/XY sex-determining locus in this species within a 10cM interval between markers GM201 and UNH995 on linkage group one (LG1). In order to refine this region, we developed new AFLP markers using bulked segregant analysis of the mapping families. We identified three AFLP markers that showed a sex-specific pattern of segregat...

Lee, Bo-young; Coutanceau, Jean-pierre; Ozouf-costaz, Catherine; D’cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-francois; Kocher, Thomas D.

2010-01-01

211

Characterization of cholinesterase activity from different tissues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholinesterases (ChE) from brain, muscle and liver in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized using three substrates: acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide, and butyrylthiocholine iodide. Eserine was used as a total ChE inhibitor; BW284c51 and iso-OMPA were used as selective inhibitors for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), respectively. The results indicate that AChE is the enzyme present in brain, whereas in both liver and muscle, the presence of atypical ChEs are suggested. These findings indicate that characterization of ChE is necessary prior to use in monitoring programs. PMID:15178074

Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo

2004-01-01

212

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast  

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Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the...

Medri, V.; Pereira, G. V.; Leonhardt, J. H.

2000-01-01

213

Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces): a methodological comparison  

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The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13) and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis test, our results rev...

Christofoletti, Cintya A.; David, Jose? Augusto O.; Fontanetti, Carmem S.

2009-01-01

214

Inflammatory responses of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus agalactiae: effects of vaccination and yeast diet supplement.  

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This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with 0.3% Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell wall and of vaccination against Streptococcus agalactiae on the cellular component of acute inflammation induced in the coelomic cavity of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and on survival of the fish after challenge. A total of 84 tilapia of mean (±SD) weight 125.0 ± 1.5 g were distributed among twelve 310 l fiberglass tanks according to a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design in the following manner: with and without supplementation; 2 stimulations (oily solution without S. agalactiae vaccine and vaccination); 15 d later all fish were intracoelomically challenged with 108 CFU ml-1 of a homologous strain of S. agalactiae, and evaluated after 6, 24 and 48 h, with 7 replicates. The fish received the non-supplemented or supplemented diet for a total of 77 d. The vaccination was performed on the 60th day, intracoelomically, as a single injection of 0.5 ml of the vaccine containing 108 CFU ml-1. Fifteen days later, all the fish were challenged with S. agalactiae by means of an intracoelomic inoculation of 108 CFU ml-1. No mortality was observed among the supplemented fish. The fish that were fed the non-supplemented diet and immunized with the bacterium presented a mortality rate of 28.5%. Among the non-supplemented and non-immunized fish, the mortality rate was 38.09%. Supplementation, in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish, induced larger accumulations of thrombocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages at the inflammatory focus. The results suggest that supplementation with 0.3% yeast cell wall, in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish, improved the inflammatory response of the fish and protected against the challenge. Vaccination increased the defense response, but the effect was stronger when associated with supplementation with S. cerevisiae. PMID:22535873

Salvador, Rogério; Toazza, Caroline Silva; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engrácia; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas

2012-04-26

215

Toxicidade aguda e efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat na brânquia e no fígado da tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus = Acute toxicity and histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on the gill and liver of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A concentração letal 50% e os efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat para a tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados em três experimentos. Os peixes foram expostos às concentrações de 0; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; e 60 mg de diquat L-1 e a histologia da brânquia e do fígado foi avaliada nos peixes sobreviventes. A CL (I 50-96h do diquat estimada foi de 37,28 mg L-1, com limite inferior de 33,12 mg L-1 e superior de 41,44mg L-1. No tratamento com 30, 35 e 40 mg L-1, ocorreram início de fusão apical das lamelas secundárias; com 45 e 50 mg L-1 ocorreram congestão nas lamelas primárias e no tratamento com 55 mg L-1, ocorreu congestão sangüínea nas lamelas secundárias. O fígado dos peixes dos tratamentos controle, 30 e 35 mg L-1 estavam com organização cordonal dos hepatócitos. Nos tratamentos com 40 e 45 mg L-1, ocorreram hipertrofia dos hepatócitos; com 50 e 55 mg L-1 ocorreram fusão celular e presença de vacúolos. O diquat apresentoubaixo risco de intoxicação à tilápia nilótica e as alterações histopatológicas mais severas ocorreram somente nas concentrações mais elevadas.The lethal concentration of 50% (LC (I 50-96h and the histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fish were evaluated in three experiments. The fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 mg diquat L-1, and gill and liver histology were evaluated in the surviving fishes. The estimated LC (I (50-96h of diquat was37.28 mg L-1, with lower limits of 33.12 mg L-1 and upper limits of 41.44 mg L-1. In the treatment with 30, 35 and 40 mg L-1, signs of apical fusion of the secondary lamellae were observed; with 45 and 50 mg L-1, congestion of the primary lamellae was observed; in thetreatment with 55 mg L-1, congestion of blood vessels on secondary lamellae took place. The livers of fishes in treatments with 0, 25, 30 and 35 mg L-1 showed cordonal organization of hepatocytes. In the treatments with 40 and 45 mg L-1, hypertrophy of hepatocytes took place; with 50 and 55 mg L-1, cell fusion and the presence of vacuolesinside hepatocytes were observed. Diquat presented low risk of toxicity for nile tilapia, as the more severe histopathologic alterations occurred only in higher concentrations.

Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares

2008-01-01

216

The effect of increased light intensity on the aggressive behavior of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Animals show behavioral and physiological changes that emerge in response to environmental perturbations (i.e., emergency life-history stages). In this study, we investigate the effects of light intensity on aggressive encounters and social stability in groups of adult male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis [...] niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). The study compared the behavior observed under low (280.75 ± 50.60 lx) and high (1394.14 ± 520.32 lx) light intensities, with 12 replicates for each treatment. Adult fish were isolated in 36-L aquaria for 96 hours, and three males were grouped for 11 days in 140-L aquaria. Agonistic behavior was video-recorded (10 min/day) on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th day to quantify aggressive interactions and social stability. There was an effect of light intensity and day of observation on the total number of agonistic behaviors performed by the fish group. Besides, increased frequency of aggressive interactions (the sum of the four sessions) by the alpha, beta and gamma fish occurred at the higher light intensity. The dominance ranks of the fish remained unchanged across the observation sessions under both the low and high light intensities. We concluded that enhanced light intensity has a cumulative effect that increases the aggressiveness of the Nile tilapia but that this effect is not sufficiently strong to destabilize the social hierarchy.

Thaís B., Carvalho; Francine Z., Mendonça; Roselene S., Costa-Ferreira; Eliane, Gonçalves-de-Freitas.

2013-04-01

217

Effects of replacing fishmeal with wastes derived from local fisheries on the growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially and totally replacing fishmeal with by-product derived from local fisheries on growth performances of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Tilapia fingerlings (average initialweight 0.38±0.05 g were fed with 5 different diet formulas composing of fish meal protein replacement levels of 0%, 25%,50%, 75, and 100%. Tilapia were raised in 80 x 80 x 80 cm3 hapa in an earthen pond for 8 weeks. Each treatment contained3 replications. No feeding trial was applied as negative control. The result showed that fish by-product powder could substitute for fishmeal on a crude protein basis at a level of not more than 25%. As a result, feed cost can only be cut down approximately 3 US cents/kg. Specific growth rate, weight gain, survival rate and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different between the fish fed with the 75% and 100% fishmeal containing diets (P>0.05. The outcome would beapplied to reduce the solid wastes from fish processing and partially replace the imported fishmeal. This can also be used as guideline for farmers in small communities to produce their own tilapia feed.

Chanagun Chitmanat

2009-01-01

218

Protective role of dietary N-acetylcysteine on the oxidative stress induced by cylindrospermopsin in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin produced by various cyanobacteria species. Fish can be exposed to this cyanotoxin in their natural environments and in aquaculture ponds, and toxic effects can be derived. The present study investigated the effects of dietary N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the oxidative stress induced by pure CYN and CYN from lyophilized cells of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were pretreated with 0, 22, and 45 mg NAC/fish/d for a week, and on day seven, they received a single dose of 200 µg/kg CYN and were killed after 24 h. Oxidative biomarkers evaluated included lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activity of the enzyme ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and activity and gene expression of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. Results showed that CYN induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the increase of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, the decrease in GSH/GSSG, and the alteration of the enzymatic activities assayed. Moreover, exposure to cyanobacterial cells containing CYN induced higher toxic effects in comparison to pure CYN. N-acetylcysteine supplementation was effective at reducing the toxicity induced by CYN, particularly at the highest dose employed, with a recovery of some of the biomarkers assayed to basal levels. Therefore, NAC can be considered a useful chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress in the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxication in fish. PMID:22511408

Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Puerto, María; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Jos, Ángeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana M

2012-07-01

219

Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study  

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The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythro...

Abdel-aziz, El-saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Ali, Tamer El-sayed; Fouad, Huda F.

2010-01-01

220

Production algale et consommation par le Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., au Lac Muhazi (Rwanda. Résumé de thèse de doctorat  

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Full Text Available Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda. The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

Mukankomeje, R.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

GROWTH, IMMUNE FUNCTION, AND DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF JUVENILE NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED GRADED LEVELS OF BOVINE LACTOFERRIN  

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Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth performanc...

222

Microbial Load Analysis of Fresh Mud Catfish (Clarias anguillaris And Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Gerio, Adamawa State, Nigeria using Two Different Smoking Kilns  

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Full Text Available Fresh mud catfish (Clarias anguillaris and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus collected from Lake Gerio in Adamawa state were smoked using two different smoking kilns in order to evaluate the microbial load in the fish samples. Variations were observed in the microbial composition contained in the samples. The samples from the traditional smoking drum had higher microbial load, higher peroxide values and higher moisture loss when compared to the FUTY improved processor. In terms of the microbial composition, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were identified for samples from both processors. Fungi identified include Aspergillus niger, Pennicillium spp, Rhizopus spp, Mucor spp and Neurospora spp. The quality of the smoked Clarias anguillaris and Oreochromis niloticus with reference to their various peroxide values were obtained after a 28 day storage period. The physico-chemical parameters of the four samples were also obtained. In conclusion, the FUTY Improved Processor (FIP were of better quality products than the Traditional Smoking Drum (TSD and was recommended for fish processors in Adamawa State.

Onyia, L. U.

2011-04-01

223

Ontogenetic diet shifts of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia rendalli of the Barra Bonita reservoir (Tietê river, São Paulo State, Brazil=Mudanças ontogenéticas na dieta de Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia rendalli da represa de Barra Bonita (rio Tietê, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

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Full Text Available The Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and the Congo Tilapia, Tilapia rendalli, are important members of the African cichlids, and have been introduced to many Brazilian lakes and reservoirs. These species exhibit a large feeding flexibility and may modify their habits during their growth. In the Barra Bonita reservoir, these species are well adapted, representing more than 80% of fish. This study aimed to analyze ontogenetic variation with regard to the diet of these species in this important reservoir. Samples were taken monthly, from March 2007 to February 2008, in Anhembi, São Paulo State. Both species were analyzed by grouping individuals according to size classes. The coexistence of these species was observed in this environment, to which fish were introduced, as well as discreet differences in diet, being that Oreochromis niloticus was considered as an detritivorous, since the detritus was constant in the diet of almost all size classes, and presents some changes in its diet according to the different size classes. While T. rendalli may was defined as herbivorous, and the contribution of food resources to the diet of T. rendalli seems to be different from that of O. niloticus along the size classes.A Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, e a Tilapia do Congo, Tilapia rendalli, são importantes membros do grupo dos ciclídeos africanos, e têm sido introduzidas em diversos lagos e reservatórios brasileiros. Estas espécies exibem uma grande flexibilidade em suas dietas e podem modificar seus hábitos alimentares durante o crescimento. No reservatório de Barra Bonita, estas espécies estão bem adaptadas, representando mais de 80% da pesca. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a variação ontogenética na dieta destas duas espécies neste importante reservatório. Foram realizadas amostras mensais, de Março de 2007 a Fevereiro de 2008, no município de Anhembi, Estado de São Paulo. Ambas as espécies foram analisadas agrupando os indivíduos de acordo com a classe de tamanho. Foi possível observar a coexistência e uma discreta diferença na dieta das duas espécies neste ambiente, sendo que Oreochromis niloticus foi considerada como detritívora, pois o detrito foi constante na dieta na maioria das classes de tamanho e apresentou algumas mudanças na dieta nas diferentes classes de tamanho. Já T. rendalli foi considerada herbívora, e houve diferença quanto à contribuição dos recursos alimentares na dieta ao longo das classes de tamanho comparando as duas espécies.

Edmir Daniel Carvalho

2012-07-01

224

The Influence of Some Phytobiotics on Haematological and Some Biochemical Indices at Oreochromis Niloticus – Linnaeus, 1758  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluated the influence of some phytobiotics on haematological profile, leukocyte reaction and some biochemical indices at Oreochromis niloticus species, reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. This experiment was conducted six weeks. The experimental variants were: V1 – control; V2 – 1% Rosmarinus officinalis / kg feed; V3 – 1% Hippophae rhamnoides / kg feed and V4 – 1% Zingiber officinale / kg feed. Blood was analyzed using standard techniques. At the end of the experiment the following parameters were determined: RBCc (x106cells/µL, Hb (g/dL, PVC (%, MCV (µm3, MCH (pg, MCHC (g/dL, TP (g/dL, GLU (mg/dL, cortisol (ng/mL, lysozyme activity (U/mL, absolute number of blood cells (x103 cells/µL and leukogram (%. The results showed that the administration in feed of some phytobiotics lead to signifiant differences (p<0.05 of following parameters: RBCc (x106cells/µL, MCV (µm3, glucose (mg/dL, lysozyme activity (U/mL, monocyte (% and in absolute number of leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. In conclusion, due to decreasing of RBCc, PVC, Hb, MCHC, cortisol, GLU and due to normal concentration of TP, we can say that the administration of sea buckthorn and ginger, but even rosemary administration, in diet improves the physiological status at Oreochromis niloticus species.

Alina Antache

2014-05-01

225

Improving estimates of trophic shift in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), using measurements of lipogenic enzyme activities in the liver.  

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To test whether the measurement of selected enzyme activities could be used to estimate more precisely the trophic shift of C isotopes, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed semi-synthetic diets differing in their lipid contents (1.7%, 5.0%, 10.8% and 20.0%). The diets were formulated to contain the same amount of nitrogen and metabolizable energy and were made from casein, wheat starch, corn germ oil supplemented with vitamins, minerals and L-arginine. The influence of the different diets on the activity of two lipogenic enzymes, ATP-citrate lyase and malic enzyme, on delta13C values in the whole fish, the liver and their correlation was investigated. There was a strong positive correlation between delta13C values in the lipids of whole fish and those of their livers. The activities of lipogenic enzymes increased significantly with increasing trophic shift of C isotopes (Deltadelta13Cdiet-fish values) in the lipids. If the relationship between trophic shift and enzyme activity can be confirmed in situations where feed quantity and quality are not known, the determination of enzyme activities would enable better estimates of the trophic shift to be made thus significantly improving back-calculation of diets from stable isotope data. PMID:15664320

Gaye-Siessegger, J; Focken, U; Abel, H-J; Becker, K

2005-01-01

226

Immunostimulatory effects of artificial feed supplemented with a Chinese herbal mixture on Oreochromis niloticus against Aeromonas hydrophila.  

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The effects of a Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) composed of astragalus, angelica, hawthorn, Licorice root and honeysuckle on immune responses and disease resistant of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain) were investigated in present study. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0% CHM (w/w) for 4 weeks. And series of immune parameters including lysozyme, cytokine genes TNF-? and IL-1?, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured during test period. After four weeks of feeding, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that feeding Nile tilapia with CHM-supplementation diet stimulated lysozyme activity, SOD activity and POD activity in serum, induced TNF-? and IL-1? mRNA expression in head kidney and spleen, but decreased serum MDA content. All CHM-supplemental groups showed reduced mortalities following A. hydrophila infection compared with the group fed the control diet. These results suggested that this CHM can be applied as a tilapia feed supplement to elevate fish immunity and disease resistance against A. hydrophila. PMID:24925761

Tang, Jufen; Cai, Jia; Liu, Ran; Wang, Jiamin; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

2014-08-01

227

Physiological and oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to pendimethalin-based herbicide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish are relatively sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment, including increasing pollution. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of contamination with the pendimethalin-based herbicide; Stomp(®) 50% EC (50% pendimethalin as emulsive concentrate) on adults of the monosex Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. A total of 260 fish with body weights of 90?±?5.0 g were used in the determination of the 96-h LC50 value and of the impacts of acute exposure to pendimethalin on physiological parameters, and oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers. The 96-h median lethal concentration (96-h LC50 ) value of pendimethalin for monosex Nile tilapia was determined as 4.92 mg/L. Abnormal behavioral responses of the fish and the toxic symptoms of pendimethalin exposure are described. Acute exposure to pendimethalin induced leukocytosis, hyperglobulinemia, and hyperglycemia, but resulted in nonsignificant changes in other hemato-biochemical parameters. Moreover, pendimethalin increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased levels of reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase in both liver and gill tissues, in a time-dependent manner, with maximum alterations observed in the gills rather than the liver. We conclude that although pendimethalin is moderately toxic, it does not cause hepatorenal toxicity. However, this herbicide pollutant induces major disturbances to the antioxidant system; induction of oxidative stress and LPO is the proposed toxicodynamic pathway for such stress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:24293324

El-Sayed, Yasser S; Samak, Dalia H; Abou-Ghanema, Ismail Y; Soliman, Magdy K

2013-12-01

228

Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) dosed with azathioprine display immune effects similar to those seen in mammals, including apoptosis.  

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Azathioprine, an anti-neoplastic drug and therapeutic immunosuppressant, was administered intraperitoneally at 10.0 and 50.0 mg/kg to 3-6-month-old tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Consistent alterations in immune cellular parameters of the blood, pronephros (hematopoietic kidney) and spleen were observed. Peripheral blood total cellularity decreased as the azathioprine dose increased, to approximately half that of the control. Differential analysis of white blood cells indicated a decline in lymphocyte number, in particular, with increased dosage of azathioprine. Pronephric total cellularity was depressed in fish receiving the 10.0 or 50.0 mg/kg dose. In contrast, both splenic weight and splenic total cellularity increased proportionately with the increase in the drug dosage. Histopathologic examination of the spleens showed normal patterns for both control and 10.0 mg/kg dose groups. At 50.0 mg/kg, spleens were characterized by marked expansion of the white pulp, although lymphocytes were rare. Melanomacrophage centers at the higher dose were also larger and more numerous than in the control group. Evaluation of splenic and pronephric leukocytes with apoptotic markers showed an increase in apoptotic cells in the pronephros with increasing drug dose. These changes in fish are consistent with those seen in humans and laboratory rodents dosed with azathioprine, suggesting that fish may be potentially useful as preliminary models for detecting immunosuppressive compounds. PMID:10438321

Gogal, R M; Smith, B J; Robertson, J L; Smith, S A; Holladay, S D

1999-05-01

229

Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae juveniles  

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Full Text Available This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758. In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluated exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L-1. The most appropriate clove oil concentration to induce surgical anaesthesia was 90 mg.L-1. To biometry or other brief handling, the recommended concentration is 50-60 mg.L-1 as it provides fast recovery. Maximum anaesthesia time should be 10 min. The mortality rate of fish transported using 18 mg.L-1 of anaesthetic was significantly higher than that of the control group at 24 h of transportation and at 96 h after transportation. The fish transported using clove oil as anaesthetic presented more significant Na+ and K+ disorders as compared to the control group. As an anaesthetic, clove oil is efficient in the handling of Nile tilapia in routine fish hatchery procedures, although it should be avoided in the transportation.

Larissa N. Simões

2011-06-01

230

Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluate [...] d exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L-1). The most appropriate clove oil concentration to induce surgical anaesthesia was 90 mg.L-1. To biometry or other brief handling, the recommended concentration is 50-60 mg.L-1 as it provides fast recovery. Maximum anaesthesia time should be 10 min. The mortality rate of fish transported using 18 mg.L-1 of anaesthetic was significantly higher than that of the control group at 24 h of transportation and at 96 h after transportation. The fish transported using clove oil as anaesthetic presented more significant Na+ and K+ disorders as compared to the control group. As an anaesthetic, clove oil is efficient in the handling of Nile tilapia in routine fish hatchery procedures, although it should be avoided in the transportation.

Larissa N., Simões; Danielle C., Lombardi; Andrea T. M., Gomide; Levy C., Gomes.

2011-06-01

231

Honey bee pollen improves growth, immunity and protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

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The mode of action of honey bee pollen (HBP) was investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Thus, fish with an average weight of 29 ± 3 g were divided into four groups, and fed with HBP-free diet (control), and 1%, 2.5% and 4% (w/v) HBP incorporated into basal diet for 10, 20 and 30 days. Immunological, hematological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured, and sub-groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection. HBP significantly increased the growth performance parameters [body weight, length, average daily gain (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed efficiency ratio (FER)] and immunological (phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and nitroblue tetrazolium assay (NBT)), hematological (hematocrit (Hct), leucocrit (Lct), the numbers of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) and biochemical parameters (serum total protein, albumin and globulin ratios). Furthermore, all treated fish exhibited significant protection against challenge with A. hydrophila, with the highest protection (93%) observed in the group fed with 2.5% (w/v) HBP for 20 and 30 days. PMID:25086230

El-Asely, Amel M; Abbass, Amany A; Austin, Brian

2014-10-01

232

EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Samuel Olubodun Obasa

2013-10-01

233

Effects of depuration on oxidative biomarkers in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterium producing cylindrospermopsin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic polyketide-derived alkaloid produced by several freshwater cyanobacterial species. It is now considered the second most studied cyanotoxin worldwide. Among the toxic mechanisms suggested for CYN pathogenicity are inhibition of protein and glutathione synthesis, genotoxicity by DNA fragmentation, and oxidative stress. The study of depuration of cyanobacterial toxins by aquatic organisms, particularly by fish, is important for fish economy and public health, but in the case of CYN is practically nonexistent. In this work, we investigated the efficiency of two distinct depuration periods, 3 or 7d, in a clean environment, as a mean of restoring the levels of several oxidative stress biomarkers in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) subchronically exposed to CYN by immersion in an Aphanizomenon ovalisporum culture (by adding 10 ?g CYN/L every two days during 14 d). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA oxidation returned to normal values after 7d of depuration, whereas the time needed for restoring of the oxidatively damaged proteins was longer. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (?-GCS) activities recovered after just 3d of depuration, while catalase (CAT) activity needed up to 7d to return to control values. Ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) returned to control levels after 7d of depuration in both organs. These results validate the depuration process as a very effective practice for detoxification in fish contaminated with these toxins. PMID:24561425

Guzmán-Guillén, R; Prieto, A I; Moreno, I; Ríos, V; Vasconcelos, V M; Cameán, A M

2014-04-01

234

EFEKTIVITAS IKAN NILA MERAH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS SEBAGAI PEMAKAN JENTIK NYAMUK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ikan nila merah (Oreachromis niloticus merupakan ikan yang berasal dari luar negeri yang sudah dibudidayakan secara meluas di Indonesia. Ikan tersebut mempunyai arti ekonomis penting karena harganya mahal. Dalam percobaan laboratorium, ikan nila merah memakan jentik nyamuk dan ganggang Enteromorpha, yaitu ganggang yang dipakai untuk bertelur nyamuk Anopheles sundaicus. Dalam suatu percobaan, efektivitas ikan nila merah sebagai agen biologi untuk mengendalikan jentik nyamuk vektor malaria, telah dilakukan dengan membuat kolam-kolam percobaan sebanyak 12 kolam yang diisi dengan, ikan nila merah, ikan nila merah, dan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas, serta kolam kosong sebagai kontrol. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa dalam kolam yang diisi dengan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas jentik nyamuknya lebih sedikit. Hal ini berbeda nyata dengan kolam yang diisi ikan mas saja dan kolam kontrol.

M. Sudomo

2012-10-01

235

Energia digestível para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) na fase de reversão sexual / Digestible energy for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) larvae in the sexual reversion phase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na ração sobre o desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), durante a fase de reversão sexual. Foram utilizadas 375 larvas com peso e comprimento inicial de 21,0 ± 4,0 m [...] g e 11,9 ± 7,2 mm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, composto por cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental foi considerada como um aquário contendo 15 larvas. As rações foram formuladas de modo a conterem 3.300; 3.525; 3.750; 3.975 e 4.200 kcal/kg de energia digestível e serem isoprotéicas (38,6% de proteína digestível). Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum cinco vezes ao dia. Ao final do experimento, foram analisadas as médias de peso final (PF), sobrevivência (SO), fator de condição (FC) e comprimento final (CF). O aumento de ED nas rações proporcionou redução linear no PF e CF dos peixes. Não foram observadas diferenças na SO e FC dos peixes nos diferentes tratamentos. Conclui-se que o aumento nos níveis de energia digestível em rações para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo durante a reversão sexual proporciona redução no desempenho. Abstract in english This experiment was conducted to evaluate different levels of digestible energy on the performance of Nile tilapia larvae (Oreochromis niloticus) during the sexual reversion phase. Three hundred and seventy-five larvae with initial average length and weight of 21.0±4.0 mg and 1.19±0.72 cm, respectiv [...] ely, were allotted to 25 30L-aquarium. A completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates was used. The aquarium with 15 larvae was the experimental unit. The diets were formulated to contain levels of 3,300, 3,525, 3,750, 3,975, and 4,200 kcal/kg of digestible energy and to be isoprotein (38.6% digestible protein). The animals were fed ad libitum five times a day. At the end of the experiment, the averages of weight (PF), survival rate (SO), condition factor (FC) and length (CF) were analyzed. Linear reduction of fishes PF and CF, as the dietary digestible energy levels increased, was observed. No differences on fish SO and FC of different treatments were observed. Deleterious effects on performance due to the increasing dietary digestible energy levels were noticed for Nile tilapia larvae during the sexual reversion.

Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Altevir, Signor; Aldi, Feiden; Robie Allan, Bombardelli; Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Adilson, Reidel.

1813-18-01

236

Bacillus subtilis Strain VITNJ1 Potential Probiotic Bacteria in the Gut of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are Cultured in Floating Net, Maninjau Lake, West Sumatra  

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Full Text Available Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one kind of fish are cultured in floating net (KJA Maninjau lake, West Sumatra. This study was aimed to know about proteolytic bacteria found in the gut of fish Nila can be used as candidate probiotics. Materials used in this study were derived from Nila fish farmers in the vicinity of Maninjau lake. The research method used is the isolation, identification and characterization of bacteria. Identification was conducted on the morphological and biochemical characteristics of bacteria. It was found that 55 isolates of bacteria that are morphological and biochemical grouped into three namely genus are Bacillus, Achromobacter and Enterobacter. Based on the production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes known that isolates B.3.2 had the highest proteolitic index. Based on characteristics examination and PCR analysis the isolate B.3.2 was primarily identified as Bacillus subtilis strain VITNJ1 bacteria can be used as a candidate probiotic.

Yempita Efendi

2014-01-01

237

Metallic Micropollutants in the Harvest of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757)from Polluted Waters: Wildlife and Human Concerns  

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Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were sampled at four locations along Lake Mary?t for eleven metal residues. Data were compared to certified levels for possible metal contamination. Generally, cadmium, lead, mercury, manganese and copper were above standard levels for unpolluted waters. The kidneys in O. niloticus were the principal store organs for most of the metals tested. In an outstanding result, the muscular edible tissue in O. niloticus was the principal dest...

Adham, K. G.

2001-01-01

238

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish or [...] ally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

TATIANA S, FIUZA; PAULO C, SILVA; JOSÉ R DE, PAULA; LEONICE M F, TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T, SABÓIA-MORAIS.

239

Outbreaks and genetic diversity of Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis isolated from farm-raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis (FNO) is an emerging pathogen of warm water tilapia in a number of different countries. The disease caused by this bacterium in fish is characterized by a systemic granulomatous infection that causes high mortality rates during outbreaks. FNO has been previously described in Asia, Europe, and Central and North America. Its occurrence in South America has never been described. Since 2012, outbreaks of a granulomatous disease have been recorded in cage farms of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Brazil. The current study aimed to identify the etiologic agent of recent francisellosis outbreaks at Brazilian tilapia farms, and to characterize the genetic diversity of the pathogen from farms with distinct geographic origins and without epidemiological connections. Bacteriological analysis of 44 diseased Nile tilapia collected from five cage farms in Brazil was performed during 2012 and 2013. The farms were in different locations and had no recent history of animal or biological material transport between each other. Sixty-two FNO isolates were identified on the basis of FNO-specific qPCR. The main predisposing factors for the occurrence of outbreaks on Brazilian farms were lower water temperature (<22°C) and life stage of fish, affecting mainly fry, fingerlings and young adults (live weight <100 g). The genetic diversity of the Brazilian FNO isolates was evaluated using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The isolates from different origins were shown to be clonally related. This is the first report of the occurrence and genetic diversity of FNO in South America. PMID:25117328

Leal, C A G; Tavares, G C; Figueiredo, H C P

2014-01-01

240

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

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Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3. However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05 decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

S.K. Wong

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in ?-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against ?-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to ?-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to ?-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. (author)

242

Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in ?-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against ?-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to ?-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to ?-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. PMID:23589025

Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M; El-Shebly, Abdallah A; Pan, Deyu; Assanah, Edward; Lawson, Greg

2013-09-01

243

Cyanobacterium producing cylindrospermopsin cause oxidative stress at environmentally relevant concentrations in sub-chronically exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a potent cyanobacterial cytotoxin produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria. Structurally, it is an alkaloid with a tricyclic guanidine moiety combined with hydroxymethyluracil. It has proved to be a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis, and to deplete hepatic glutathione. Recently, some studies have shown that CYN produces changes in some oxidative stress biomarkers in fish acutely exposed to pure CYN by oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes. In the present study tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed by immersion to lyophilized Aphanizomenon ovalisporum cells added to the aquaria using two concentration levels, 10 or 100 ?g CYN L(-1), during two different exposure times: 7 and 14 d. Fish were sacrificed and liver and kidney were extracted. The oxidative status of fish was evaluated by analyzing in both organs the following biomarkers: lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation, DNA oxidation, reduced-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), and changes in the activity of Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and ?-Glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (GCS). In general, major changes were observed in tilapia treated with 100 ?g CYN L(-1) after 14 d of exposure. However, some endpoints were altered at the lowest concentration assayed only after 7d of exposure, such as DNA oxidation and ?-GCS in kidney, and CAT and GSH/GSSG decrease in the liver and kidney. The kidney was the most affected organ. These findings confirm that the oxidative stress play a role in the pathogenicity induced by CYN in this fish species, and the results obtained could be useful for future ecotoxicological risks assessment studies, for the protection of fish and aquatic ecosystems. To our knowledge this is the first study dealing with the oxidative stress changes induced by cyanobacterial cells containing CYN and its derivative deoxy-CYN on fish exposed sub-chronically under laboratory conditions. PMID:23072785

Guzmán-Guillén, R; Prieto, A I; Vasconcelos, V M; Cameán, A M

2013-01-01

244

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Actualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC) con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT). En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (5.0cm de longitud), fueron asignados [...] al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque), en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a) peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH), b) peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R), c) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH), y d) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N). La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra), se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T) y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T), Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K), porcentaje de supervivencia (S), la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR), porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP) y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH), y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p Abstract in english Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in len [...] gth) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (p

Marco A., Liñán-Cabello; Cindy M., Robles-Basto; & #8224; Alfredo, Mena-Herrera.

2013-03-01

245

Functionality and antioxidant properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as influenced by the degree of hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 3-(2-pyridyl) 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine), radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P HWD hydrolysed by Alc, while in hydrolysed by Flav and Neut they were >8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%). They have 'U' shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients. PMID:20480046

Foh, Mohamed Beva Kelfala; Amadou, Issoufou; Foh, Betty Mabel; Kamara, Mohamed Tabita; Xia, Wenshui

2010-01-01

246

Electrophysiological assessment of spectral sensitivity in adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: evidence for violet sensitivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cichlid fish radiations of the African Great Lakes are an important model for evolutionary biology. Cichlids have diverse colour vision systems and predominately express three cone visual pigments. However, rare populations of spectrally distinct cones have been found in a number of species, but it is not known whether they contribute to spectral sensitivity. Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, an ancestral outgroup to the cichlid radiations in the Great Lakes, have three cone types: short-wavelength sensitive (SWS), medium-wavelength sensitive (MWS) and long-wavelength sensitive (LWS) cones, but evidence from microspectrophotometry and cone opsin gene expression suggests they may also have violet-sensitive (VS) cones. We used electrophysiology to assess spectral sensitivity in this species and found evidence of four sensitivity peaks in the ranges 380-420, 440-480, 500-600 and 600-680 nm, with maximal sensitivity at longer wavelengths. The continued presence of a 380-420 nm peak under long-wavelength chromatic adapting backgrounds indicates that this is due to a VS cone mechanism not the beta-band of the LWS cone mechanism. Differences in spectral sensitivity curves recorded at different times of year revealed evidence of A1/A2 shifts. The presence of notches in the sensitivity curves and a multiple-mechanisms model used to assess cone contributions indicated that the curves are the result of four cone mechanisms (VS, SWS, MWS and LWS cones) and that chromatically opponent processes occur between mechanisms. The spectral transmittance of the lens steeply declines between 410-380 nm, limiting the short-wavelength limb of the VS cone. As adults, Nile tilapia appear to possess the necessary retinal mechanisms for colour vision. While maximal sensitivity to longer wavelengths is an adaptation to the wavelengths of light predominantly available in their natural habitats, their broad sensitivity range suggests that Nile tilapia possess a flexible, generalised visual system able to adapt to changes in visual environment in their highly variable natural habitat. PMID:20400629

Lisney, T J; Studd, E; Hawryshyn, C W

2010-05-01

247

Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc, Flavourzyme (Flav and Neutrase (Neut, and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 3-(2-pyridyl 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine, radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the samples. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU for humans. Lower molecular weight sizes 8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%. They have ‘U’ shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients.

Mohamed Tabita Kamara

2010-04-01

248

Development of phytase transgenic Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The feeding of plant proteins to fish results in generation of a high amount of phytate because fish cannot effectively digest it. The hydrolysis of phytate by microbes in the environment release P which can stimulate eutrophication. This study was conducted to express phytase gene from fungi, Aspergillus niger in the gastrointestinal tract of tilapia and to conduct feeding trials with the transgenic fish produced. The DNA construct used consist of CMV promoter, secretion signal, phy A gene a...

Kemeh, Settor

2004-01-01

249

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

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Full Text Available Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg. Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, total white blood cell count (WBC and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr. There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758 através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2 correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC, concentração de hemoglobina (Hb, hematócrito (Ht, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, trombócitos totais (Tr, contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc. Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus.

Nilton Massuo Ishikawa

2007-07-01

250

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758) através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, [...] SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g) e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2) correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (Ht), volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), trombócitos totais (Tr), contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc). Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus. Abstract in english Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758) was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days) exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg). Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control g [...] roup. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr). There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.

Nilton Massuo, Ishikawa; Maria José Tavares, Ranzani-Paiva; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; Cláudia Maris, Ferreira.

2007-07-01

251

Concentrado protéico de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus): caracterização físico-química e aceitação sensorial / Protein concentrate from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): physical-chemical characterization and sensory acceptance  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou o aproveitamento da carne mecanicamente separada (CMS) de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) na obtenção de um concentrado protéico de tilápia (CPT) para o consumo humano, caracterizando-o quanto aos parâmetros físico-químicos e sens [...] oriais. O CPT foi caracterizado quanto aos seguintes aspectos: rendimento, umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, atividade de água (Aw) e aceitação sensorial. O CPT apresentou rendimento de 18,34%, baixos níveis de umidade e cinza e alto conteúdo protéico e lipídico, quando comparado à matéria-prima original (CMS) e baixa Aw. Na avaliação sensorial do CPT, a freqüência de aceitação dos provadores foi de 60,4% para a cor, 51,1% para o aspecto geral e 41,7% para o aroma. A descrição do aroma com termos como característico de pescado foi relatada por 44,2% dos provadores, sugerindo a necessidade de uma desodorização parcial do material, e indicando um equilíbrio em relação ao grupo dos provadores que não perceberam o odor característico. Esta pesquisa mostra agregação de valor a um material de descarte, gerando possibilidades de oferta de uma fonte proteica alternativa, de custo relativamente baixo. Abstract in english This study aimed to use mechanically separated mince (MSM) from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) to obtain a protein concentrate for human consumption and to assess its proximal composition and sensory characteristics. Yield, proximal composition, [...] water activity and sensory evaluation were analyzed on the dry TPC. The TPC has a yield of 18.34%, and contained 1.38% moisture, 62.39% protein, 32.63% fat, 2.26% ash and had 0.16 Aw. Sensory evaluation of dry FPC powder expressed as frequency of acceptance by panelists was 60.4% for color, 51.1% for general appearance and 41.7% for aroma. Description of flavor using terms like "typical of fish" was reported by only 44.2% of the panelists, suggesting the need for a more efficient deodorizing process and showing a balance in relation to the group of panelists that did not notice the characteristic smell. The study shows the possibility of adding value to a residual food material offering an alternative source of protein at a relatively low cost.

Juliana Maria Aderaldo, Vidal; Maria do Carmo Passos, Rodrigues; Jorge Fernando Fuentes, Zapata; Janaína Maria Martins, Vieira.

2011-03-01

252

Custos de produção de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em um modelo de propriedade da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produção da piscicultura praticada na região oeste do Paraná. Os custos são apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se à exploração comercial de uma área de 24.000m², em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produção de 14,4t de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus por ciclo de produção, com o peso unitário médio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantação, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao mês e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o último representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo variável representou 70,18% do custo total de produção e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que são bastante sensíveis às variações nos preços das matérias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsável pela governança da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivência.The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m² area, in eight tanks, which enable the production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of raw material prices. The necessity of the establishment of a responsible agent for the leadership of the food chain was exposed to guarantee its survival.

Rafael Luiz Barboza de Andrade

2005-02-01

253

Heterogeneous growth fingerlings of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: effects of density and initial size variability / Crescimento heterogêneo em juvenis de Tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus: efeito da heterogeneidade inicial de peso e da densidade  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, testou-se o efeito da heterogeneidade inicial de peso e da densidade sobre o crescimento heterogêneo (CHet, avaliado pelo coeficiente de variação do peso) em juvenis de tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus, espécie territorial. Os peixes foram mantidos em aquários de vidro (8 e 2 L [...] d’água) com dois níveis de heterogeneidade inicial de peso: baixo e alto, sob duas densidades: baixa e alta, configurando-se quatro condições (6 réplicas cada uma). Os pesos dos animais foram tomados no início, aos 8, 16, 22 e 30 dias (final do experimento). Os resultados, avaliados pelo teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, demonstraram que nos grupos em que os animais foram estocados com alto CHet inicial houve redução e que nos grupos em que os animais foram estocados em alta densidade houve exacerbação ou manutenção dos altos valores de CHet. A alta densidade quando associada à alta heterogeneidade inicial provocou maior exacerbação do CHet de forma que a densidade parece ser um fator determinante da exacerbação ou da manutenção de altos valores de CHet, enquanto a heterogeneidade inicial de peso pode ser um fator secundário. Abstract in english In this study, the effect of initial heterogeneity of weight and density on heterogeneous growth (HetG) evaluated by the coefficient of the variation of weight in the young Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus of the territorial species was tested. Fish were maintained in a glass aquarium (8 and 2 L o [...] f water) with two levels of initial heterogeneity of weight: low and high, under two density conditions: low and high, thus constituting four conditions (six replications for each). Initially, the weights of the animals were taken after 8, 16, 22 and 30 days (end of experiment). The results, evaluated by the non-parametric test of Kruskal- Wallis, demonstrated that in the groups where the animals were stored under high initial HetG, there was a reduction of the same and that in the groups where the animals were stored under high density, there was exacerbation or maintained high values of HetG. High density in association with high initial heterogeneity caused more exacerbation of HetG in such a way that the density appeared to be a determining factor for exacerbation or the maintenance of high values of HetG, whereas the initial heterogeneity of the weight could be a secondary factor.

J. M., Barbosa; S. S. S., Brugiolo; J., Carolsfeld; S. S., Leitão.

2006-05-01

254

Desempenho produtivo de três linhagens de tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com dois níveis de proteína = Productive performance of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus lines feed with two protein levels  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho produtivo de três linhagens de tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus, alimentadas com dois níveis de proteína bruta (25 e 30%. As linhagens estudadas foram Bouaké (BOU, Chitralada (CHI e GIFT. Os peixes forammarcados individualmente e alojados em dois viveiros de terra de 140 m2 cada, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando três linhagens e dois níveis de proteína bruta, sendo cada indivíduo uma repetição. A qualidade da água manteve-se adequada para a espécie.Das linhagens estudadas, GIFT apresentou melhor desempenho para ganho de peso e comprimento total, altura, largura e peso final, rendimento e peso de filé, independente das condições de cultivo. Esta superioridade às linhagens não melhoradas pode ser conferida aomelhoramento genético da linhagem. As tilápias alimentadas com 25% PB superaram em 51,0% (BOU, 47,0% (CHI e 58,0% (GIF o peso daquelas alimentados com 30% PB. Os resultados obtidos sugerem menor necessidade de PB para tilápias na fase de terminação e alerta para o valor biológico dos ingredientes das rações.This study aimed to evaluate the productive performance of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus lines, fed with two crude protein levels (25 and 30%. The lines studied were Bouaké (BOU, Chitralada (CHI and GIFT. The fish were individually marked and housed in two land nurseries with 140 m2 each, in a completely randomized designusing three lineages and two levels of crude protein, with each individual counting as one replication. The water quality remained appropriate for the species. With regard to the lines studied, GIFT had the best performance for weight gain and total length, height, final width and weight, fillet yield and weight, regardless of culture conditions. This superiority to nonimproved lines can be attributed to the breeding line. The tilapia fed with 25% CP exceeded in 51.0% (BOU, 47.0% (CHI and 58.0% (GIF the weight of those fed with 30% CP. The results suggest less need of CP for tilapia in the finishing phase and alert to the biological value of feed ingredients.

Vanice Marli Fülber

2010-01-01

255

Silagem de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), com ácido fórmico - análise Bromatológica, físico-química e microbiológica / Silage of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) filetage residues with formic acid Bromatological, phisico-chemical and microbiological analyses  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento avaliou o valor nutritivo da silagem ácida da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758), visando sua utilização em substituição à farinha de peixe na alimentação de organismo aquático. A silagem consistiu de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia (carcaça) e 3% de á [...] cido fórmico, armazenada em temperatura ambiente (máxima média de 21,5ºC) e temperatura mínima média de 15ºC, por trinta dias, em baldes de polietileno com um orifício, por onde os gases saiam. O pH foi monitorado no 1º, 15º e 30º dia. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas para contagem total de microrganismos e coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC. O pH apresentou média de 3,95 ao final dos 30 dias. Nas análises microbiológicas observou-se a ausência de coliformes a 45ºC e, que a quantidade de microrganismos diminuiu gradativamente. Do ponto de vista microbiológico, a silagem ácida de resíduo da filetagem de tilápia mostrou-se como alimento alternativo viável para a alimentação animal. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out for evaluate the nutritional value of the silage of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758) filetage residues with formic acid as a replace of fish meal in aquatic organisms feeding as protein source. The silage consisted of tilapia filetage residues (carca [...] ss) and 3% formic acid, and it was stored in environmental temperature with a maximum average of 21,5º C and a minimum average of 15 º C, during thirty days, in polyethylene pails with an orifice for the exhaustion of gases. The pH was monitored on the 1st, 15th and 30th day. The microbiological analyses were made for the total count of microorganisms and coliforms at 35º C and 45º C. The average pH was 3.95 at the end of 30 days. The microbiological analyses showed absence of coliformes at 45º C and a gradual reduction in the quantity of microorganisms. From the microbiological standpoint, the acid silage of tilapia residues was shown to be an alternative viable diet for animal feeding.

Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Antônio Cléber da Silva, Camargo; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Carlos José, Pimenta.

1218-12-01

256

Efficacy of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) vaccine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by intraperitoneal and bath immersion administration.  

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We evaluated the effectiveness of a Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for prevention of streptococcal disease. The vaccine was prepared from formalin-killed cells and concentrated extracellular products (greater than 3 kDa) of a single isolate of S. agalactiae (ARS-KU-MU-11B). Intraperitoneal (IP) and bath immersion (BI) vaccine trials were conducted at two temperatures, 32 and 26 degrees C, and mean fish weights, 5 and 30 g. Control tilapia were injected with tryptic soy broth. Thirty gram tilapia vaccinated and challenged by IP injection with 1.5 x 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/fish of Streptococcus agalactiae at 30 days post-immunization had a relative percent survival (RPS) of 80. Smaller tilapia vaccinated and challenged under similar conditions had an RPS of 25. An RPS of zero was noted in 30 g fish IP vaccinated with Streptococcus iniae and IP challenged with S. agalactiae. The 5 and 30 g tilapia bath immunized with S. agalactiae and IP challenged with 3.6 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(6) CFU/fish of S. agalactiae had RPS values of 34. Intraperitoneal administration of the vaccine provided efficacious protection only in the 30 g tilapia regardless of whether the fish were immunized and challenged at 26 or 32 degrees C. Bath immunization of both 5 and 30 g tilapia resulted in RPS values that were two times lower than those achieved with IP vaccination. The results of this study suggest that there is a lack of cross-protection of S. iniae bacterins against S. agalactiae challenge. Protection against S. agalactiae infection is, however, provided through vaccination with a S. agalactiae modified bacterin vaccine. PMID:15315858

Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H; Shoemaker, Craig A

2004-09-01

257

Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus=Purification, physical and chemical characterization, and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1. O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II, eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I e 23,80 (F II UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS, suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I and 23.80 (F II IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

2011-07-01

258

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g. Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1 and without (type-2 were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

2007-01-01

259

Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance limit, calculated as the 99th percentile of the potential residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 ??g/g maximum residue level by 6.14 d after the dosing period.

Gaikowski, M.P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schleis, S.M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R.G.

2010-01-01

260

Tilapia by-product meal in rations for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings/
Farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)
 

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Objectifying to evaluate the inclusion of tilapia processing residues (FT) in the feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings, 125 Nile tilapia fingerlings (with average initial weight of 0.72±0.19g) were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions in 25 aquariums (30L). The rations were formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15% of FT and 0% FT plus methionine (0+met). Isoproteics, isocalcitics, isophosphorics and isoenergetics diets were...

Adilson Reidel; Signor, Arcangelo A.; Altevir Signor; Boscolo, Wilson R.; Aldi Feiden

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Performance de crescimento de diferentes linhagens de tilápia-do-nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757), em gaiolas Growth performance of different strains of nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1757) in cages  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a performance de crescimento de diferentes linhagens de tilápia-do-nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, em gaiolas individuais instaladas em laboratório na Universidade Estadual de Londrina-PR. Foram estudadas linhagem proveniente da Tailândia, linhagem local do norte do Paraná e o seu híbrido (macho tailandês x fêmea local). O experimento foi conduzido em 36 gaiolas individuais com qualidade e temperatura da água controladas. O peso inicial pa...

Julio Hermann Leonhardt; Mauro Caetano Filho; Marco Antônio Zanoni

2000-01-01

262

Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração d...

Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

1999-01-01

263

Disponibilidade aparente de fósforo em ingredientes pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Apparent phosphorus availability in food for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Foi determinada a disponibilidade aparente do fósforo de ingredientes alimentares para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizados 105 alevinos, revertidos, com peso vivo inicial médio de 16,0 ? 0,5g. Foram distribuídas, cinco por aquário em 21 unidades de fibra de vidro (80L) e sistema Guelf para coleta de fezes. Cada conjunto, constituído de três aquários, foi dotado de aeração, filtro biológico e fluxo contínuo (vazão de 0,75 L/mim). Foram a...

Edma Carvalho de Miranda; Antonio Celso Pezzato; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Wilson Massamito Furuya

2000-01-01

264

The Role of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in Growth and Immunity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Its Resistance to Bacterial Infection  

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Full Text Available The current study was designed to optimize the dietary levels of Spirulina platensis in Oreochromis niloticus; this was tested via graded levels. Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried spirulina 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to six equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings for 3 months. Growth performance, non-specific immune parameters, tissue reactions and resistance of tilapias post challenge infection with Pseudomonas fluorescens were estimated monthly. There were significant increase in growth performance parameters and survival rates in spirulina-supplemented groups at concentration level of 10 g/kg for 2 months. Significant increases in hematocrit, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme activity were observed in most of the supplemented groups. Bacterial challenge infections resulted in significantly lower mortality rate in all Spirulina groups with remarkable increase in protection of fish received 10 g/kg. In sum, it advisable to incorporate 10 g/kg diet of spirulina for 2 months for maximum growth performance, immunity and disease resistance in O. niloticus.

Mai D. Ibrahem

2013-05-01

265

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

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Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A. [Food Engineering Department, ZEA/FZEA/USP, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, 13635 900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

2007-11-15

266

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

Sabato, S. F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P. J. A.

2007-11-01

267

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction

268

Toxicity and Efficacy of Lidocaine as an Anesthetic for Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The anesthetic lidocaine was tested for its toxicity, efficacy and safety on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Toxicity values were variable and depended mainly on concentration and time of exposure. Concentrations of 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1 lidocaine were all effective for rapid anesthesia with 100% survival. In moderately rapid anesthesia, 40 mg L-1 lidocaine induced loss of equilibrium in Nile tilapia within 20 min exposure and 100% survival. Safety Index (SI values for lidocaine on Nile tilapia indicated that the shorter the exposure time, the higher SI values. Repeated anesthesia in freshly prepared solution of lidocaine did not appear to affect on Nile tilapia sensitivity in terms of anesthetization, recovery and survival. However, results were in contrast and variable when previously prepared (old solutions of lidocaine were used.

H.H.H. Abbas

2006-01-01

269

Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide  

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Full Text Available Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de controle respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I e com succinato (complexo II foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1 na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte.A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3.3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I or succinate (complex II, respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1 in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

F.P. Peixoto

2009-04-01

270

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) / Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus. Abstract in english The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The pu [...] rpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

APT, Medeiros; S, Chellappa; ME, Yamamoto.

2007-11-01

271

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus.

APT Medeiros

2007-11-01

272

The protective role of l-carnitine against cylindrospermopsin-induced oxidative stress in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is one of the most important cyanotoxins in terms of both human health and environmental quality and is produced by several different species of cyanobacteria, including Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. The principal mechanisms of action of CYN involve inhibition of protein and glutathione synthesis. In addition, CYN-mediated genotoxicity results from DNA fragmentation. The results of both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that oxidative stress also plays a significant role in CYN pathogenesis in fish. We investigated the protective effects of l-carnitine (LC) pre-treatment on A. ovalisporum-induced oxidative stress in cells containing CYN and deoxy-CYN, or pure standard CYN, in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that had been acutely exposed via oral administration. Various oxidative stress markers, including lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation, DNA oxidation, and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (?-GCS), were evaluated in the livers and kidneys of fish in the absence and presence of 400 or 880mgLC/kgfish/day during a 21 day period prior to CYN-intoxication. The results of our study demonstrated for the first time the beneficial antioxidant effects of LC dietary supplementation on oxidative stress status in fish. No pro-oxidant effects were detected at any of the LC doses assayed, suggesting that LC is a chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress and may be effective when used for the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxication in fish. PMID:23501490

Guzmán-Guillén, R; Prieto, A I; Vázquez, C M; Vasconcelos, V; Cameán, A M

2013-05-15

273

Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.5470 Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.5470  

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Full Text Available The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lower consumption (p The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lower consumption (p < 0.05 than in other treatments.

Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

2011-09-01

274

Cichlidogyrus sclerosus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalinae) and its host, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), as bioindicators of chemical pollution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental results showed that the gill monogenean Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and its host, the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, exhibited significant numerical and physiological responses after exposure to sediments polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals in comparison with control fishes. After 15 days of exposure, C. sclerosus abundance significantly increased in treatments with low to fairly high sediment pollutant concentrations, but declined at high sediment pollutant concentrations. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia in secondary gill lamellae and the spleen melanomacrophage centers were significantly higher at extremely high sediment pollutant concentrations compared with the controls. Spleen lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly lower at extremely high sediment pollutant concentrations and were significantly correlated with high fluorescent aromatic compound concentrations measured as PAH exposure indicators. A multivariate redundancy analysis showed significant statistical association between sediment pollutant concentration, C. sclerosus abundance, and tilapia physiological variables. The polluted sediments negatively affected monogenean abundance and induced immunosuppression in hosts, consequently increasing histological damage in hosts and allowing persistent C. sclerosus infection. This study documents evidence suggesting that C. sclerosus and its host are indeed excellent models to test environmental quality in tropical freshwater ecosystems. PMID:18163344

Sanchez-Ramirez, Claudia; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Aguirre-Macedo, Maria L; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossanna P; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Sures, Bernd

2007-10-01

275

Antagonistic activity of dietary allicin against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allicin, the main biologically active component of garlic clove extracts, has been evaluated for its' efficacy in preventing deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were fed on 2 different doses of 0.5g and 1g of allicin/ kg diet for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated. Moreover, the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) was analyzed as a lipid peroxidation marker. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. Results show that deltamethrin subacute intoxication (1.46µg/L for 28 days) increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA. At the same time, serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue level of GSH, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT were reduced. Allicin supplemented diets enhanced all the altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissues' lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that feeding allicin can ameliorate deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and might have some therapeutic properties to protect Nile tilapia on subacute deltamethrin toxicity. PMID:25450927

Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Hassan, Ahmed M

2015-01-01

276

In vivo effects of fenthion on oxidative processes by the modulation of glutathione metabolism in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to understand the oxidative stress potential of fenthion, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide and its involvement in glutathione metabolism modulated buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 50 mg/kg) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 100 mg/kg) in the brain of fish, Oreochromis niloticus. A sublethal fenthion concentration (0.45 mg/L) was applied for 24, 48, and 96 h together with injection with BSO or NAC; following treatment, recovery periods for 24, 48, and 96 h were allowed. Total glutathione (tGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation, protein level, and GSH-related enzyme activities were analyzed by using spectrophotometric methods. Fenthion in applied concentration did not change GSH levels, but increased GSSG levels. BSO application in fenthion exposure caused a depletion in GSH, while increasing the GSSG levels. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) specific activity increased in fenthion-applied groups at 24-h treatment. gamma-Glutamylcysteinyl synthetase (gamma-GCS; EC 6.3.2.2) was not detected in the brain. NAC injection in fenthion treatment decreased GSH and increased GSSG levels and GST activity. In conclusion, fenthion in sublethal concentration induced an oxidative stress processes in brain. BSO application provided an evidence for the involvement of fenthion in GSH metabolism. NAC elevated the fenthion-induced effects in spite of its antioxidant properties. Recovery period for 96 h was not adequate to eliminate the fenthion-induced changes. PMID:18000850

Piner, Petek; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Uner, Nevin

2007-12-01

277

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758)  

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Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), corn (Zea mays) gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida), gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis) and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus) exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was a...

Kenan Koprucu; Pinar Tatli Seven; Gulizar Tuna

2004-01-01

278

Avaliação do Status Quo da Tilápia do Nilo Oreochromis Niloticus no Reservatório de Itaipú e na Bacia do Rio Uruguai  

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Resumo: As tilápias, ciclídeos da tribo Tilapiine, possuem grande importância na aquicultura, sendo o terceiro grupo mais produzido na aquicultura mundial e o segundo na aquicultura brasileira, com grande destaque para a Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Contudo, as diversas características que as tornam eficientes para o cultivo potencializam sua capacidade de estabelecimento de populações em uma ampla variedade de ambientes, causando preocupantes impactos ambientais. No Brasil,...

Baggio, Rafael Antunes

2012-01-01

279

Invasive Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Limpopo River system, South Africa : conservation implications  

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This thesis is under restriction until 7 September 2014. © 2012 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Zengeya, TA 2012, Invasive Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Limpopo River syste...

Zengeya, Tsungai Alfred

2012-01-01

280

Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) juveniles  

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This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluated exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L-1). The most appropri...

Simo?es, Larissa N.; Lombardi, Danielle C.; Gomide, Andrea T. M.; Gomes, Levy C.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Toxicity and Efficacy of Lidocaine as an Anesthetic for Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus  

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The anesthetic lidocaine was tested for its toxicity, efficacy and safety on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Toxicity values were variable and depended mainly on concentration and time of exposure. Concentrations of 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1 lidocaine were all effective for rapid anesthesia with 100% survival. In moderately rapid anesthesia, 40 mg L-1 lidocaine induced loss of equilibrium in Nile tilapia within 20 min exposure and 100% survival. Safety Index (SI...

Abbas, H. H. H.; Abdel-gawad, A. S.; Akkr, A. A.

2006-01-01

282

Effects of an experimental challenge with Mycobacterium marinum on the blood parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757)  

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A hundred adult of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) c.f.u. of Mycobacterium marinum. Other 100 speciemns were maintained without inoculation. Blood samples of six inoculated animals were collected at 01, 03, 07, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 84 days after inoculation. Initially, six specimens were taken from the non inoculated group ("time zero"). The haematological parameters determined were: haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin concentration (Hgb), tot...

Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva; Carlos Massatoshi Ishikawa; Augusta Cocuzza das Eiras; Vivian Risaffi da Silveira

2004-01-01

283

Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

Chotipuntu, P.

2005-02-01

284

Effects crude protein levels on female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reproductive performance parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the present work was to study the reproductive performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) female broodstock fed diets containing different levels of crude protein (CP). Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) were used at an average age of 30 months, with 180 females and 60 males. The broodstock were lodged separately in masonry tanks with continuous water flow. The females were stocked in thirty tanks with dimensions of 8 m(3) in a completely randomized design consisting of five treatments and six replications. The treatments consisted of five diets with different levels of CP (32, 34, 36, 38 and 40%) and with digestible energy per gram of protein of 9.5 kg of feed. The crude protein (CP) levels positively influenced (p0.05) observed with regard to spawning weight and female weight. The reproductive parameters studied in the present research indicate that diets formulated with 38% CP with digestible energy per gram of CP of 9.5 were the best diets for tilapia females during the reproductive period. PMID:25201770

de Oliveira, Marinez Moraes; Ribeiro, Tainá; Orlando, Tamira Maria; de Oliveira, Dênio Garcia Silva; Drumond, Mariana Martins; de Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca; Rosa, Priscila Vieira

2014-11-10

285

Histological study of the development of the embryo and early larva of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae).  

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The developmental stages of Oreochromis niloticus are similar to those described in other mouth-breeding tilapias except that, as in zebrafish, no cavity was found in the blastula. Variation in the rate of development of the embryo and larva of O. niloticus was found within a clutch of eggs as well as between clutches. Hatching glands are described for the first time in tilapias. They are widely distributed within the ectoderm covering the head, body, tail, and surface of the yolk sac near its attachment to the embryo. Timing of larval development is similar to that in other mouthbrooding tilapias, but is slower than that found in substrate-spawning tilapias. A pneumatic duct connects the swimbladder to the digestive tract and swimbladder inflation and initiation of feeding occurs at about the same time. The digestive tract of the larva 8 and 9 days after fertilization is similar to that found in the adult, except that there are no digestive glands. An endocrine pancreatic islet was first seen 76 h after fertilization. A prominent thymus gland is present at 100 h. Hematopoietic tissue develops in the vicinity of the pronephros during early larval development. A spleen develops later, 7 days after fertilization. PMID:11223927

Morrison, C M; Miyake, T; Wright, J R

2001-02-01

286

Hematological changes and cytogenotoxicity in the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by sub-chronic exposures to mercury and selenium.  

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Fish bioassays are valuable tools that can be used to elucidate the toxicological potential of numerous substances that are present in the aquatic environment. In this study, we assessed the antagonistic action of selenium (Se) against the toxicity of mercury (Hg) in fish (Oreochromis niloticus). Six experimental groups with six fish each were defined as follows: (1) control, (2) mercury (HgCl2), (3) sodium selenite (Na2Se4O3), (4) sodium selenate (Na2Se6O4), (5) mercury + sodium selenite (HgCl2 + Na2Se4O3), and (6) mercury + sodium selenate (HgCl2 + Na2Se6O4). Hematological parameters [red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and erythroblasts (ERB)] in combination with cytogenotoxicity biomarkers [nuclear abnormalities (NAs) and micronuclei (MN)] were examined after three, seven, ten, and fourteen days. After 7 days of exposure, cytogenotoxic effects and increased erythroblasts caused by mercury, leukocytosis triggered by mercury + sodium selenite, leukopenia associated with sodium selenate, and anemia triggered by mercury + sodium selenate were observed. Positive correlations that were independent of time were observed between WBC and RBC, ERB and MN, and NA and MN. The results suggest that short-term exposure to chemical contaminants elicited changes in blood parameters and produced cytogenotoxic effects. Moreover, NAs are the primary manifestations of MN formation and should be included in a class characterized as NA only. Lastly, the staining techniques used can be applied to both hematological characterization and the measurement of cytogenotoxicity biomarkers. PMID:25216806

Seriani, Robson; França, Jakeline Galvão; Lombardi, Julio Vicente; Brito, Jôse Mara; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José Tavares

2014-09-13

287

Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual aquaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30 as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15 and subordinate (N = 15 fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl, glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl, triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl. However, when isolated (N = 30 and paired (N = 30 tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

Corrêa S.A.

2003-01-01

288

Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil.  

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Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm), total weight (g), reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation), and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full). We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads), reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females), and feeding habits (by stomach contents). The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman's Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I) package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F). Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5 degreeC), and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18 degreeC). The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: Linfinity=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phyto-planktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. PMID:23894941

Novaes, José Luís Costa; Carvalho, Edmir Daniel

2012-06-01

289

Growth performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings reared in Na2CO3 limed waters = Desempenho produtivo de alevinos de tilápia nilótica, Oreochromis niloticus, em aquários submetidos à calagem com Na2CO3  

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Full Text Available Current experiment was undertaken during 6 weeks with Nile tilapia,Oreochomis niloticus, fingerlings (1.28 . 0.03 g to assess the effects of moderate Na2CO3 liming on water quality and fish growth performance. Twenty-four 25 L-aquaria, with 15 fish per aquarium, were used, of which twelve aquaria were placed in the lab’s indoor room and twelve in the outdoor area. Two types of water (clear or green and three different water-quality managements (none, HCl acidification and Na2CO3 liming were simultaneously evaluated in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Total ammonia, calcium hardness, pH and total alkalinity in the green water aquaria were significantly higher than rates in the clear water aquaria. Slight liming acid water with Na2CO3 did not produce any significant effect on its water calcium hardness. No significant differences between controls and theexperimental group were observed for any growth variables. Lime rearing water with Na2CO3 has no significant effect on tilapia growth performance if the initial total alkalinity of water is higher than 20 mg CaCO3 L-1.O presente estudo foi realizado por seis semanas com alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (1,28 . 0,03 g, para avaliar os efeitos da calagem moderada da água de cultivo com Na2CO3 naqualidade da água e no desempenho produtivo dos peixes cultivados. Vinte e quatro aquários de polietileno de 25 L foram utilizados para manter os peixes experimentais (15 peixes por aquário. Doze aquários foram instalados na sala interna do laboratório e 12 aquários na área externa. Dois tipos de águas (claras, sem fitoplâncton ou verdes,ricas em fitoplâncton e três diferentes manejos de qualidade de água (nenhum, acidificação com HCl ou calagem com Na2CO3 foram avaliados simultaneamente em delineamento fatorial 3 x 2. A concentração de amônia total, dureza cálcica, pH e alcalinidade total das águas verdes foram significativamente maiores que para as águas claras. A calagem das águas fracamente ácidas com Na2CO3 não produziu nenhumefeito significativo na dureza cálcica da água. Não se observaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos-controle e o grupo experimental para nenhuma das variáveis de desempenho produtivo observadas. Concluiu-se que fazer a calagem da água de cultivo de tilápias com Na2CO3 não trará nenhum benefício ao desempenho zootécnico dos peixes se a alcalinidade inicial da água exceder 20 mg L-1 de CaCO3.

Davi de Holanda Cavalcante

2010-07-01

290

Characterization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) gonadotropins by modeling and immunoneutralization.  

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In fish, both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) play important roles in reproduction. Here we explored the structure and differential specificity of tilapia (t) gonadotropins (GTHs) to delineate their physiological relevance and the nature of their regulation. We generated structural models of tGTHs and GTH receptors (R) that enabled us to better understand the hormone-receptor interacting region. In tilapia, FSH release is under the control of the hypothalamic decapeptide GnRH, an effect that was abolished by specific bioneutralizing antisera [anti-recombinant (r) tFSH?]. These antisera also reduced the basal secretion and delayed GnRH-stimulated production of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), and dramatically reduced LH levels. Immunoneutralization of tLH using anti-rtLH? significantly reduced its GnRH-stimulated levels. Basal 11KT and FSH levels were also reduced. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism between FSH and LH release in tilapia. PMID:24954479

Aizen, Joseph; Kowalsman, Noga; Niv, Masha Y; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

2014-10-01

291

Ontogenetic diet shifts of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia rendalli of the Barra Bonita reservoir (Tietê river, São Paulo State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.9971  

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Full Text Available The Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and the Congo Tilapia, Tilapia rendalli, are important members of the African cichlids, and have been introduced to many Brazilian lakes and reservoirs. These species exhibit a large feeding flexibility and may modify their habits during their growth. In the Barra Bonita reservoir, these species are well adapted, representing more than 80% of fish. This study aimed to analyze ontogenetic variation with regard to the diet of these species in this important reservoir. Samples were taken monthly, from March 2007 to February 2008, in Anhembi, São Paulo State. Both species were analyzed by grouping individuals according to size classes. The coexistence of these species was observed in this environment, to which fish were introduced, as well as discreet differences in diet, being that Oreochromis niloticus was considered as an detritivorous, since the detritus was constant in the diet of almost all size classes, and presents some changes in its diet according to the different size classes. While T. rendalli may was defined as herbivorous, and the contribution of food resources to the diet of T. rendalli seems to be different from that of O. niloticus along the size classes. 

Edmir Daniel Carvalho

2012-06-01

292

Karyotypical characterization from stock of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, at Londrina State University, PR, Brazil, through several techniques of chromosomes band/ Caracterização cariotípica de um estoque de tilápia do Nilo,Oreochromis niloticus, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, mediante diversas técnicas de bandamento cromossômico  

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Full Text Available 14 specimens of Nile’s tilapia were analyzed cytogenetically, Oreochromis niloticus, that belong to the stock of fish breeding from the Freshwater Aquaculture Station of the Londrina State University in the Paraná, Brazil. All specimens presented the same disploid number of 44 chromosomes. The NORs were observed in four chromosomes with marks in terminal position of the short arm and the hybridization “in situ” (FISH with probe of 18 S also evidenced the presence of two pairs of chromosomes containing ribbosomic cistrons. The treatment with the fluochromes CMA3 and DAPI, respectively, didn’t show shinning bands in any chromosome of the complement. The band C (CBG evidenced regions of heterochromatin distributed on several chromosomes in the centromeric regions, being observed some marks in telomeric regions, mainly on the biggest pair of chromosomes of the complement, a pair presented itself almost totally heterochromatic. The obtained results are in accordance with the data found in literature, nevertheless when the C bands and NORs were analyzed, were evidenced some differences that apparently characterized the local fish population of the Londrina State University. Key words: Cytogenetics, Oreochromis niloticus, NORs, CMA3, DAPI, fish, heterochromatin.Foram analisados citogeneticamente 14 indivíduos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus que fazem parte do estoque de reposição de reprodutores da Estação de Piscicultura da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Todos os indivíduos apresentaram o mesmo número diplóide de 44 cromossomos. As NORs foram observadas em quatro cromossomos com marcações em posição terminal do braço curto e a hibridação “in situ” (FISH com sonda de 18S também evidenciou a presença de dois pares de cromossomos contendo cístrons ribossômicos. O tratamento com os fluorocromos CMA3 e DAPI, respectivamente, não mostrou bandas brilhantes em nenhum cromossomo do complemento. A Banda C (CBG evidenciou, regiões de heterocromatina distribuídas em vários cromossomos nas regiões centroméricas, sendo observadas algumas marcações em regiões teloméricas, principalmente no maior par de cromossomos do complemento, um par apresentou-se quase totalmente heterocromático. Os resultados obtidos estão de acordo com os dados disponíveis na literatura, porém, quando analisadas as bandas C e as NORs, foram evidenciadas algumas diferenças que aparentemente caracterizam a população local de peixes da Universidade Estadual de Londrina.

Julio Hermann Leonhardt

2006-07-01

293

Effects of dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on growth performance, immunological parameters, digestive enzymes, and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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This work investigated the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The dietary supplementation with APS (1500 mg/kg of diet) caused a significant increase in growth parameters (initial and final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI), when compared to non-supplemented control basal diet. In addition, APS upregulated the phagocytic activity, the respiratory burst activity, plasma lysozyme, the bactericidal activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and amylase activity. However, it had no effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) or Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. While APS had no effect of intestinal histology, a slight increase in the villi length was recorded. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary APS supplementation could improve the growth performance and the immune parameters of cultured tilapia fish. PMID:24657260

Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy; Abdelhamid, Fatma; Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Ibrahim, Tarek

2014-05-01

294

Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e farinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue.Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L at a density of 20 fish/aquarium for feeding, between 8a.m. and 5:30 p.m. After this period, they were transferred for aquaria (300 L appropriate for fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined by assessing the difference between the feed and fecal concentrations of the marker. Results of this study indicate that among energetic ingredients, corn, extruded corn, wheat middlings and rice meal had the highest apparent digestibility coefficient and gluten 60, corn gluten meal, canola meal for proteic ingredients. Among animal sources, poultry by-product and fish meal showed high apparent coefficients and, poultry feathers hydrolyzed and blood meal low apparent coefficients for Nile tilapia.

Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

2002-07-01

295

Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm, total weight (g, reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation, and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full. We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads, reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females, and feeding habits (by stomach contents. The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F. Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5°C, and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18°C. The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: L?=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phytoplanktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 721-734. Epub 2012 June 01.La exótica tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus es la especie mayormente capturada en la pesquería artesanal del embalse de Barra Bonita, sudeste de Brasil, de gran importancia socioeconómica para la región y para una población de unos 500 pescadores. El estudio analizo: la reproducción, la dinámica alimentaria y la explotación de O. niloticus, la cual fue capturada en la pesquería del embalse de Barra Bonita. Asimismo, se tomaron muestras mensuales y se analizo un total de 1 715 animales desde julio-2004 a junio-2005. De cada espécimen, se obtuvieron los siguientes datos biológicos y biométricos: longitud estándar (cm, peso total (g, datos reproductivos (sexo y estadio de maduración, contenido estomacal (vacio, parcialmente lleno y lleno. Estos datos fueron utilizados para estimar la proporción de sexo (a través de la observación macroscópica de las gónadas, el periodo reproductivo (a través de la distribución de la frecuencia de los estadios macroscópicos del desarrollo de los ovarios, y la media de la proporción del índice gonadosomático IGS de hembras, así como los hábitos alimentarios (a través de la observación del contenido estomacal. Para verificar

José Luis Costa Novaes

2012-06-01

296

Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e fa [...] rinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L) de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L) de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined [...] for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g) fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L) at a density of 20 fish/aquarium for feeding, between 8a.m. and 5:30 p.m. After this period, they were transferred for aquaria (300 L) appropriate for fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined by assessing the difference between the feed and fecal concentrations of the marker. Results of this study indicate that among energetic ingredients, corn, extruded corn, wheat middlings and rice meal had the highest apparent digestibility coefficient and gluten 60, corn gluten meal, canola meal for proteic ingredients. Among animal sources, poultry by-product and fish meal showed high apparent coefficients and, poultry feathers hydrolyzed and blood meal low apparent coefficients for Nile tilapia.

Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Edma Carvalho de, Miranda; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luis Gabriel Quintero, Pinto; Wilson Massumitu, Furuya; Antonio Celso, Pezzato.

1595-16-01

297

Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.): growth, nutrient utilization and blood parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha platyphylla is a multipurpose and drought-resistant shrub, available in Mexico, locally known as 'sangregrado' and belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein and do not contain the main toxin, phorbol esters present in other Jatropha species. Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal (JPKM) obtained after oil extraction contained 70-75% crude protein (CP); however, it contained phytate, lectin and trypsin-inhibitor. The levels of essential amino acids (except lysine) were higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings a 12-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of the heated JPKM and compare with that of SBM and fishmeal. Fingerlings (15 fish; average weight 13.7 ± 0.21g) were randomly distributed in three treatment groups with five replicates. Fish were fed three isonitrogenous diets (CP 36%): control diet containing fishmeal-based protein and two other diets replacing 62.5% fishmeal protein with JPKM (Jatropha group) and SBM (Soybean group). The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. A lower apparent lipid conversion was observed in the plant protein-fed group than in the control group. RBC count, haematocrit and blood glucose contents were higher in plant-protein fed groups than control group. Other haematological parameters (WBC count, haemoglobin, mean cell volume: calcium and sodium ions, total bilirubin and urea-nitrogen in the blood) and metabolic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase) activities in blood did not differ significantly among the three groups. The results from the present study established that JPKM is a promising and good quality protein source for Nile tilapia feed. PMID:21410563

Akinleye, A O; Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

2012-02-01

298

Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes = Predação de P. mesopotamicus e O. niloticus por larvas de Pantala flavescens de diferentes classes de coprimento  

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The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatm...

Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda; Carmino Hayashi; Eliana Maria Galdioli; Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

2011-01-01

299

Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cylindrospermopsin and the effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine to prevent its toxic effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several cyanobacteria species. It has been demonstrated that CYN is a potent protein and glutathione synthesis inhibitor, and induces genotoxicity and oxidative stress. The present study investigated the protective role of two different doses of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) (22 and 45 mg/fish/day) against the pathological changes induced in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) orally exposed to a single dose of pure CYN or CYN from an Aphanizomenon ovalisporum CYN-producer strain (200 ?g/kg of CYN in both cases). Moreover, an immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was carried out in order to elucidate the CYN distribution in exposed fish. The histological findings were more pronounced when fish were intoxicated with CYN from the cyanobacterial strain, being liver and kidney the main targets for CYN toxicity. NAC pre-treatment was effective reducing the damage induced by CYN, especially at the highest dose employed (45 mg/fish/day), with a total prevention in all organs. The IHC analysis showed that CYN-antigen appeared mainly in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, although it was also present in kidney and gills. In this case, the immunopositive results were more abundant in those fish exposed to pure CYN. NAC reduced the number of immunopositive cases in a dose-dependent way. Therefore, NAC can be considered a useful chemoprotectant in the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxications in fish. PMID:24291634

Gutiérrez-Praena, D; Risalde, M A; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Vasconcelos, V; Cameán, A M

2014-02-01

300

The Role of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) in Growth and Immunity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Its Resistance to Bacterial Infection  

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The current study was designed to optimize the dietary levels of Spirulina platensis in Oreochromis niloticus; this was tested via graded levels. Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried spirulina 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to six equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings for 3 months. Growth performance, non-specific immune parameters, tissue reactions and resistance of tilapias post cha...

Ibrahem, Mai D.; Mohamed, Mohamed F.; Ibrahim, Marwa A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

A qualitative ecological risk assessment of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in a sub-tropical African river system (Limpopo River, South Africa)  

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1. This study outlines the development of a qualitative risk assessment method and its application as a screening tool for determining the risk of establishment and spread of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), within the central sub-catchment of the Limpopo River basin in northern South Africa. 2. The assessment utilised known physiological tolerance limits of O. niloticus in relation to minimum water temperature, presence or absence of dams, seasonality of ...

Zengeya, Tsungai Alfred; Robertson, Mark P.; Booth, Anthony J.; Chimimba, Christian Timothy

2013-01-01

302

Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con e [...] l fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR), electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y de barrido (MEB); como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca). Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos. Abstract in english The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminati [...] ng pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca) were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

G. A, Torres R; S, González P; E, Peña S.

2010-09-01

303

Processing yield of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: head cut types and two weight classes Rendimento do processamento da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus: tipos de corte da cabeça em duas categorias de peso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the best type of head cut of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus resulting in better fillet processing yields. The experiment was carried out at the Pisciculture Station of UEM/Codapar, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. One hundred and twenty specimens were slaughtered, head cut, eviscerated, and had their fin, skin and fillet removed. The fillet processing was undertaken by a single person. Plotting was completely randomized by a 2x3 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of two weight categories ( W1=250-400g and W2=401-550g and three types of head cut (C1=oblique, OB; C2=Contour, CO, and C3=strainght, ST, with 20 replicates. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Mean values of yield were expressed in relation to fish body weight. There was an influence of head cut types and weight categories on the dressed out and fillet yield. The yields in W2 (OB=50.42%, 35.27%; CO=50.70%, 35.18% and ST=48.50%, 33.82% were higher (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o melhor tipo de corte de cabeça para decapitação da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, que resulte em melhores rendimentos de filetagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação de Piscicultura da UEM/Codapar, Maringá, PR. Foram abatidos 120 exemplares cortadas as cabeças, eviscerados, removidas as nadadeiras, pele e filés. O processo de filetagem foi realizado por uma única pessoa. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3. Os tratamentos foram: duas categorias de peso (P1= 250-400 g e P2= 401-550 g e três tipos de corte de cabeça (C1=oblíquo, OB; C2=contornado, CO e C3=reto, RE, com 20 repetições. Cada peixe foi considerado a unidade experimental. Os valores médios de rendimento foram expressos em relação ao peso corporal do peixe. Houve influência do tipo de corte e categoria de peso sobre o rendimento do tronco limpo e filé. Os rendimentos em P2 (OB=50,42%, 35,27%; CO=50,70%, 35,18% e RE=48,50%, 33,82% foram superiores (p 1 (OB=47,35%, 32,64%; CO=47,65%, 31,86% e RE=40,79, 27,72% para tronco e filé, respectivamente. Dentro da menor categoria de peso (P1, os rendimentos de tronco e filé foram influenciados (p 1 (57,13%; 2,45% e 3,75%, respectivamente para as características analisadas. Além disso, a categoria de peso não influenciou a percentagem de pele e outros resíduos, exceto a da cabeça (p 1 foi significativamente superior (30,67% e inferior para P2 (27,07%. Por outro lado, o rendimento e percentagem de subprodutos foram influenciados (p < 0,05 pelo tipo de corte de cabeça, com CO mostrando melhores rendimentos para carcaça sem cabeça (62,47% e músculo abdominal ventral (4,33% e porcentagem de pele (5,99%; e menores percentagens de cabeça (24,79% em comparação ao OB e RE. Não houve influência do corte no músculo hipaxial profundo (OB=4,01%, CO=4,36% e RE=4,03%. Os resultados sugerem que, nestas condições de filetagem, os peixes acima de 400 g de peso corporal são os mais indicados para serem abatidos, utilizando-se o corte contornado e oblíquo para obtenção dos melhores rendimentos de filé e tronco limpo para tilápia.

Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

2000-05-01

304

Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum, used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (7±1g/fish were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC, and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.

A. M. Shalaby

2006-04-01

305

Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF, consumo de ração total (CRT, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA e acréscimo em comprimento (AC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA, 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica.The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect was made during seven subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent digestible energy were determined by indirect method, using 1.0% of Cr(20(3 as an indicator. In the performance assay 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used, with average weight of 0.45g, kept in 1m² hapas, in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG, total feed intake (TFI, apparent feed conversion (AFC and length increase (LI. The randomized outline was used with five treatments and four repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility were: apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, 95.49%; apparent digestibility coefficient of gross protein, 96.66%; apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract, 97.18%; apparent digestibility coeficient of gross energy, 95.44%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 for total feed intake (TFI. One observed a quadratic effect (P<0.01 in the final weight (FWG, apparent feed conversion (AFC and length increase. One concluded that the acid silage of filetage residues should be efficiently used by the Nile tilapia.

Maria Em?lia de Sousa Gomes Pimenta

2008-12-01

306

Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado / Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40%) da silagem ácida em substituição [...] à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF), consumo de ração total (CRT), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA) e acréscimo em comprimento (AC). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA), 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica. Abstract in english The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of the acid silage by substitution of fish [...] meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect was made during seven subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent digestible energy were determined by indirect method, using 1.0% of Cr(2)0(3) as an indicator. In the performance assay 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used, with average weight of 0.45g, kept in 1m² hapas, in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG), total feed intake (TFI), apparent feed conversion (AFC) and length increase (LI). The randomized outline was used with five treatments and four repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility were: apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, 95.49%; apparent digestibility coefficient of gross protein, 96.66%; apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract, 97.18%; apparent digestibility coeficient of gross energy, 95.44%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) for total feed intake (TFI). One observed a quadratic effect (P

Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato; Carlos José, Pimenta; Thiago Archangelo, Freato.

1953-19-01

307

Massive Mortality Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Cage-cultured Red Hybrid Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia  

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Massive mortality of cage-cultured red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia was investigated. Moribund fish showing erratic swimming, sluggishness and hemorrhagic eyes were collected for the study. Water quality parameters were measured on-site. The highest temperature was 32.70°C at the surface while lower temperature was 30.85°C at 6 m. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) was highest 7.05 mg L-1 at 4 m while lowest 6.15 mg L-1 at 1...

Jalal, K. C. A.; Mithun, S.; Khairulbariyyah, Z.; Lee, K. L.; Aqilah, N. I.; Najiah, M.; Shaharom-harrison, F.; Nadirah, M.

2012-01-01

308

Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil / Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), São Paulo, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de dióxido de carbono (CO2), dependendo das características físico-químicas do sistema (difusão e reações desse gás na água), como também do pH, e da produção primária dos microorganismos através do consumo desse compostos. Evidências [...] apontam que as concentrações de CO2 nos lagos são principalmente reguladas pelo metabolismo aquático, ou seja, pelo balanço entre a respiração e a fotossíntese; OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever aspectos do metabolismo do cultivo de tilápias do Nilo, a partir da dinâmica e do equilíbrio das concentrações de oxigênio (OD) e das formas de carbono inorgânico dissolvido (CID): dióxido de carbono (CO2) e bicarbonato (HCO3-). As demais variáveis analisadas foram: fósforo total, transparência da água, alcalinidade total, temperatura da água, pH, radiação subaquática e análise quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica; MÉTODOS: As amostragens ocorreram durante 5 dias consecutivos das 6:00 às 20:00 h (dezembro/2006) em intervalos de 2 h; RESULTADOS: Durante o ensaio foi observada periodicidade nas flutuações das concentrações de CID, sendo CO2 e HCO3-, as frações predominantes. Os valores de CID foram fortemente influenciados pela fração CO2 e no período da tarde ocorreu predominância da fração HCO3-. As concentrações de CO2 variaram de 0.48 µM a 138.94 µM, com concentração média diária de 18,04 µM. Os fluxos de CO2 na interface água atmosfera mostraram variações ao longo do dia. No período da tarde (12:00 h às 18:00 h) ocorreram no sentido atmosfera/viveiro, entretanto, o balanço foi de 576.7 µmol.m-2.h-1 no sentido viveiro/atmosfera; CONCLUSÕES: A dinâmica observada indicou que nas condições deste estudo, o metabolismo dos organismos aquáticos foi a principal função de força desse sistema, fato corroborado pelo intenso processo de eutrofização do viveiro. Abstract in english Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water) as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compou [...] nds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO) and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC): carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006) every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM) the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.

Claudinei José, Rodrigues; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Clovis Ferreira do, Carmo; Andréa, Tucci; João Alexandre Savilo, Osti; Ariane Carolina Di, Genaro.

2010-12-01

309

Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758, São Paulo, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2 emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compounds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC: carbon dioxide (CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006 every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de dióxido de carbono (CO2, dependendo das características físico-químicas do sistema (difusão e reações desse gás na água, como também do pH, e da produção primária dos microorganismos através do consumo desse compostos. Evidências apontam que as concentrações de CO2 nos lagos são principalmente reguladas pelo metabolismo aquático, ou seja, pelo balanço entre a respiração e a fotossíntese; OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever aspectos do metabolismo do cultivo de tilápias do Nilo, a partir da dinâmica e do equilíbrio das concentrações de oxigênio (OD e das formas de carbono inorgânico dissolvido (CID: dióxido de carbono (CO2 e bicarbonato (HCO3-. As demais variáveis analisadas foram: fósforo total, transparência da água, alcalinidade total, temperatura da água, pH, radiação subaquática e análise quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica; MÉTODOS: As amostragens ocorreram durante 5 dias consecutivos das 6:00 às 20:00 h (dezembro/2006 em intervalos de 2 h; RESULTADOS: Durante o ensaio foi observada periodicidade nas flutuações das concentrações de CID, sendo CO2 e HCO3-, as frações predominantes. Os valores de CID foram fortemente influenciados pela fração CO2 e no período da tarde ocorreu predominância da fração HCO3-. As concentrações de CO2 variaram de 0.48 µM a 138.94 µM, com concentração média diária de 18,04 µM. Os fluxos de CO2 na interface água atmosfera mostraram variações ao longo do dia. No período da tarde (12:00 h às 18:00 h ocorreram no sentido atmosfera/viveiro, entretanto, o balanço foi de 576.7 µmol.m-2.h-1 no sentido viveiro/atmosfera; CONCLUSÕES: A dinâmica observada indicou que nas condições deste estudo, o metabolismo dos organismos aquáticos foi a principal função de força desse sistema, fato corroborado pelo intenso processo de eutrofização do viveiro.

Claudinei José Rodrigues

2010-12-01

310

Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vísceras e crisálida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilização de 5% de inclusão das farinhas de peixe (FP), vísceras (FV), carne e ossos (FO), crisálida (FC) e controle (farelo de soja e milho) como atractantes sobre o consumo de ração e desempenho de alevinos tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados [...] 168 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa) revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial médio de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário de 50 L com sete animais. As rações foram formuladas com 32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas, isofíbricas e isoaminoacídicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores médios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com ração contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porém não diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final médio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, não diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que não seria necessária a utilização dos alimentos testados, a 5% de inclusão, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo. Abstract in english The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP), poultry by-products meal (FV), meat and bones meal (FO) and silkworm meal (FC) and a control (soybean meal and corn) as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nil [...] e tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain) sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 ± 0.18 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and five replications, where the experimental unit was constituted of a 50 L aquarium with seven animals. The diets were formulated with 32% of crude protein and 3000 kcal of digestible energy/kg, and were isoprotein, isoenergy, isofiber and isoaminoacid for lysine and methionine + cystine. Average values of weight gain in the control or FV and FP treatments as atractant were higher than the FC or FO treatments. Feed:gain ratio of the animals fed ration with FV was better than FC or FO treatment, however they did not differ significantly from the control and the FP treatments. Average animal final size fed the control treatment was higher than the FC treatment and did not differ from the others. Feed intake and survival rate did not differ among the treatments. It was concluded that it's not necessary to include the evaluated feeds, at a level of 5%, to estimulate feed intake or to promote Nile tilapia fingerlings growth.

Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Carmino, Hayashi; Fábio, Meurer; Claudemir Martins, Soares.

1397-14-01

311

Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vísceras e crisálida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilização de 5% de inclusão das farinhas de peixe (FP, vísceras (FV, carne e ossos (FO, crisálida (FC e controle (farelo de soja e milho como atractantes sobre o consumo de ração e desempenho de alevinos tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 168 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial médio de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário de 50 L com sete animais. As rações foram formuladas com 32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas, isofíbricas e isoaminoacídicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores médios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com ração contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porém não diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final médio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, não diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que não seria necessária a utilização dos alimentos testados, a 5% de inclusão, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, meat and bones meal (FO and silkworm meal (FC and a control (soybean meal and corn as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nile tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 ± 0.18 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and five replications, where the experimental unit was constituted of a 50 L aquarium with seven animals. The diets were formulated with 32% of crude protein and 3000 kcal of digestible energy/kg, and were isoprotein, isoenergy, isofiber and isoaminoacid for lysine and methionine + cystine. Average values of weight gain in the control or FV and FP treatments as atractant were higher than the FC or FO treatments. Feed:gain ratio of the animals fed ration with FV was better than FC or FO treatment, however they did not differ significantly from the control and the FP treatments. Average animal final size fed the control treatment was higher than the FC treatment and did not differ from the others. Feed intake and survival rate did not differ among the treatments. It was concluded that it's not necessary to include the evaluated feeds, at a level of 5%, to estimulate feed intake or to promote Nile tilapia fingerlings growth.

Wilson Rogério Boscolo

2001-10-01

312

Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum), used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish (7±1g/f [...] ish) were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet) added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP) and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.

A. M., Shalaby; Y. A., Khattab; A. M., Abdel Rahman.

2006-04-01

313

The effects of COX2-inhibitors (etoricoxib and etodolac on growth rate and mortality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs represent one of the most commonly detectedcompounds in sewage treatment plant (STP effluent and surface water with scarce informationconcerning possible ecotoxicological risks. As in mammals, COX has been shown to play a role inreproduction in fish. Since studies on human breast cancer cells showed that COXs-inhibitors decreasedaromatase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression at the transcriptional level we tested theeffects of supplementation of COX2-inhibitors (etodolac and etoricoxib in the diet of fry tilapia on growthrate and mortality during the crucial period of sexual differentiation. Highlight on etoricoxibpharmacokinetics was carried out by determination of etoricoxib in fish feces using reversed-phase HighPerformance Liquid Chromatography (RF-HPLC with Evaporative Light Scattering and Photo Diode arraydetector (ELSD-PDA system. At an age of 8 days post-hatched, 30 genetically mixed population ofOreochromis niloticus larvae were stocked in duplicate, into 45 L aquariums in a closed system for sixmonths. Treatments included 5 different experimental diets including, respectively, 0.5% etodolac, 1%etodolac, 2% etodolac, 0.5% etoricoxib, and 1% etoricoxib concentrations and one standard diet servingas control with two repeats for each group from 0.5% groups of diets. Fish were fed experimental dietsfor 8 weeks and were changed to control diet after. Another experiment was conducted using 10 adultsmixed population stocked in triplicate in a closed system and treated as above. Growth rates (GR weresignificantly affected with the highest growth rate obtained with the 0.5% etodolac. However, noincrease or decrease in growth was observed in mixed adults population. GR increased with increasingconcentrations with the highest GR in the aquarium treated with 2% etodolac, followed by 1% etodolac,but 1% etoricoxib showed a decreased GR compared to standard which could indicates a toxic potentialtoward fish at this concentration. No etoricoxib peak was detected on HPLC in feces samples whichreflected, that, it was well absorbed by tilapias, extensively metabolized with no unchanged fractionexcreted, or may undergo enter hepatic circulation, increasing further its toxic potential. No mortalitywas observed in adults mixed population. Mortality rates were 3.7% with 0.5% etodolac, 10% with 0.5%etoricoxib, 30% with 1% etodolac, 37%with 1%etoricoxib, and 50% with 2% etodolac treatments,respectively. It is clear evident that even administration of high concentrations of these drugs was welltolerated by fish.

Mutaz A. Al-Qutob

2011-12-01

314

Growth and economic performance of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. fingerlings f ed diets containing grade d levels of s clerotium  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inclusion of sclerotium as a substitute forsoybean meal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus using growth performance, economy of production,haematological and biochemical parameters as indices. Four experimental diets comprising of control(CTR without sclerotium and other three diets SC1, SC2 and SC3 containing 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 %sclerotium, respectively. The experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish fingerlings (0.81±0.00g average body weight for 70 days. The inclusion of sclerotium at 7.5% level recorded the bestvalues for mean weight gain (MWG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Therewas no significant difference (p>0.05 in the incidence cost (IC and profit index (PI among the dietshowever, the best results were achieved at 10% (SC2 inclusion level. The parked cell volume (PCV,haemoglobin (Hb, neutrophil and lymphocyte showed significant difference (p0.05 in eosinophil among the four diets.Biochemical parameters recorded significant differences (pO. niloticus.

Muyideen O . Lawa

2013-05-01

315

The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. Th [...] e plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

TATIANA S, FIUZA; PAULO C, SILVA; JOSÉ R, PAULA; LEONICE M F, TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T, SABÓIA-MORAIS.

316

The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

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Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

TATIANA S FIUZA

2009-01-01

317

Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities  

Science.gov (United States)

The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

2011-01-01

318

Toxicity of sediments from Bahía de Chetumal, México, as assessed by hepatic EROD induction and histology in nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of environmental pollutants present in sediments obtained from Bahía de Chetumal, a bay on the border between Mexico and Belize, was studied in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) intraperitoneally injected with sediment extracts from six different sites of the Bay. Sediment samples used for the study contained a variety of organic chemicals such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total cytochrome P-450 and EROD activity were measured in fish liver. Haematological and histological analyses were also carried out. Hepatic P-450 content in treated fish increased from 43 to 240%, and EROD activity from 85 to 160% compared to controls. Extracts from two sampling sites inhibited EROD activity. There were positive significant correlations between P-450 content and the levels of PCBs 44 and 128. EROD activity correlated to HCB, op'-DDE, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, mirex and PCB 18 concentrations. Blood examination showed cell degeneration and binucleated leukocytes with abnormal chromatin. Extract treatment also resulted in foci of hyperplasia on the basement of gill lamellae, hypertrophy and oedema in gills and liver necrosis. Control fish showed no abnormalities. The results demonstrate that sediments from Bahía of Chetumal have the potential to cause histopathological, haematological and biochemical alterations in fish. The administration of sediment extracts to fish may serve as a useful test to screen the toxicity of sediments from different areas. PMID:11460723

Zapata-Pérez, O; Simá-Alvarez, R; Noreña-Barroso, E; Güemes, J; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ortega, A; Albores-Medina, A

2000-01-01

319

Toxicidade aguda e efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat na brânquia e no fígado da tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) = Acute toxicity and histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on the gill and liver of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A concentração letal 50% e os efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat para a tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) foram avaliados em três experimentos. Os peixes foram expostos às concentrações de 0; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; e 60 mg de diquat L-1 e a histologia da brânquia e do fígado foi avaliada nos peixes sobreviventes. A CL (I) 50-96h do diquat estimada foi de 37,28 mg L-1, com limite inferior de 33,12 mg L-1 e superior de 41,44mg L-1. No tratamento com 30, 35 e 40 ...

Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares; Claudinei da Cruz; Gabriela Roncada Gomes; Robinson Antonio Pitelli; Marcia Rita Fernandes Machado

2008-01-01

320

Validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) resfriados embalados em atmosfera modificada e irradiados Shelf life of refrigerated tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus) packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos dos processos de irradiação (com dose de 1,5kGy) e embalagem em atmosfera modificada (60% N2 e 40% CO2), aplicados isoladamente ou combinados, na extensão da validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) resfriados. Nos experimentos, foram utilizados 120 filés separados em lotes, de acordo com o tratamento: (T1) embalagem em ar (controle), (T2) embalagem em atmosfera modificada, (T3) embalagem em ar e irradia?...

Maria Lúcia Guerra Monteiro; Eliane Teixeira Mársico; Claudia Emília Teixeira; Sérgio Borges Mano; Carlos Adam Conte Júnior; Helio de Carvalho Vital

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Isolated from Fresh-Marketed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination of seafood by bacteria of fecal origin, especially Escherichia coli, is a widely documented sanitary problem. The objective of the present study was to isolate E. coli strains from the gills, muscle, and body surface of farmed Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) fresh-marketed in supermarkets in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil), to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics of different families (amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim), and to determine the nature of resistance by plasmid curing. Forty-four strains (body surface = 25, gills = 15, muscle = 4) were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Gill and body surface samples yielded 11 isolates resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, 4 of which of plasmidial nature. The multiple antibiotic resistance index was higher for strains isolated from body surface than from gills. The overall high antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli strains isolated from fresh-marketed tilapia was satisfactory, although the occasional finding of plasmidial resistance points to the need for close microbiological surveillance of the farming, handling, and marketing conditions of aquaculture products. PMID:24808957

Rocha, Rafael dos Santos; Leite, Lana Oliveira; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

2014-01-01

322

Species diversity defends against the invasion of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the most widely cultured species globally and has successfully colonized much of the world. Despite numerous studies of this exotic species, how differences in native communities mitigate the consequences of Nile tilapia invasion is unknown. Theory predicts that communities that are more diverse should be more resistant to exotic species, an effect that is referred to as “biotic resistance”, but these effects are spatially dependent and organism-specific. Field surveys and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the theory of “biotic resistance” and ascertain the relationship between native species richness and the invasion of Nile tilapia. In the field, we found that as native species richness increased, the biomass of Nile tilapia was significantly reduced. Consistent with results from the field, our manipulative experiment indicated that the growth of Nile tilapia was negatively related to native species richness. Thus, our study supports the theory of “biotic resistance” and suggests that species biodiversity represents an important defense against the invasion of Nile tilapia.

Gu Dang E.

2014-05-01

323

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Isolated from Fresh-Marketed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination of seafood by bacteria of fecal origin, especially Escherichia coli, is a widely documented sanitary problem. The objective of the present study was to isolate E. coli strains from the gills, muscle, and body surface of farmed Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) fresh-marketed in supermarkets in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil), to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics of different families (amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim), and to determine the nature of resistance by plasmid curing. Forty-four strains (body surface = 25, gills = 15, muscle = 4) were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Gill and body surface samples yielded 11 isolates resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, 4 of which of plasmidial nature. The multiple antibiotic resistance index was higher for strains isolated from body surface than from gills. The overall high antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli strains isolated from fresh-marketed tilapia was satisfactory, although the occasional finding of plasmidial resistance points to the need for close microbiological surveillance of the farming, handling, and marketing conditions of aquaculture products. PMID:24808957

Rocha, Rafael Dos Santos; Leite, Lana Oliveira; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva Dos Fernandes

2014-01-01

324

The role of vitamins A, C, E and selenium as antioxidants against genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on erythrocytes of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of sublethal concentration (5mg L(-1)) of combined metals including Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn (1.25mg L(-1) of each) on erythrocytes of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus after exposure for five and seven days; and to evaluate the protective role of vitamin E alone and a combination of selenium (Se) with vitamins A, C and E which was added to the diet as antioxidants against the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of these metals. This was accomplished by application of micronuclei (MN), binuclei (BN), nuclear abnormalities (NAs) assays in addition to morphological erythrocyte alteration (MAEs) assay. The results revealed that, exposure of O. niloticus to Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn induced the formation of nine genotoxic endpoints including MN, BN and seven patterns of NAs, kidney-shaped nuclei, blebbed nuclei, lobed nuclei, bilobed nuclei, notched nuclei, hook-shaped nuclei and vacuolated nuclei; and five patterns of morphological malformations were recorded as cytotoxic endpoints including echinocytes, acanthocytes, teardrop-like erythrocytes, microcytes and fused erythrocytes. Frequencies of these abnormalities were significantly different (pvitamin E alone to the diet significantly (pfish. But, addition of a combination of Se with vitamins A, C and E in the diet resulted in more significant decrease (pfish treated with metals only and fish treated with metals and supplied with vitamin E alone in the diet. Therefore, this study confirms the powerful protective potential of the vitamin E alone and a combination of SE with vitamins A, C and E as antioxidants against the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in erythrocytes of O. niloticus. Also, confirmed on the validity of MN test and NAs in addition to MAEs as effective indicators and valuable sensitive monitoring tools for detecting genotoxic and cytotoxic agents in the aquatic environment. PMID:24632120

Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Mosleh, Yahia Y I

2014-06-01

325

Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus  

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Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05. The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05. The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05. Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05 in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

Pimolrat, P.

2006-09-01

326

Ecotoxicity of natural insecticide based on tobacco plant extract and hematological effects on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicity and hematological effects of a natural insecticide based on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum extract on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.14131  

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Full Text Available Natural insecticides derived from plant extracts have been used as an alternative to synthetic products in order to reduce environmental contamination. The present study aimed to examine the effects of Fumydro®, a natural insecticide based in the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus by determining the 48-h LC50 and evaluating their effects on hematological variables. Adult specimens of O. niloticus were exposed to four Fumydro® concentrations (200, 300, 400 and 500 ?L L-1. The 48-h LC50 of Fumydro® was determined as 370 ± 50 ?L L-1. Surviving fish showed increasing in the red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The thrombocytes did not change but the percentage of neutrophils increased. These results indicated that the insecticide Fumydro® is toxic to Nile tilapia and the changes of the erythrocyte variables suggested hypoxemia induction with low effect on the immune system.Natural insecticides from plant extracts represent an alternative to the highly toxic synthetic products in order to reduce environmental contamination; however some might also be toxic for non-target organisms. The present study determined the 50% lethal concentration (48h; LC50 for adults Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to the natural insecticide Fumydro®, based on the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum, and evaluated its effect on hematological variables. After preliminary tests, adult specimens of O. niloticus were exposed to four Fumydro® concentrations (200, 300, 400 and 500 ?L L-1. The 48h; LC50 of Fumydro® was determined at 370 ± 50 ?L L-1. The surviving fish after exposure to Fumydro® showed an increase in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The number of thrombocytes and leukocytes has not changed, unlike the differential leukocyte count that presented an increased percentage of neutrophils. The results indicated that the insecticide Fumydro® is highly toxic to Nile tilapia and changes in erythrocyte variables suggested the induction to hypoxemia with low effect on the immune system.

Marisa Narciso Fernandes

2013-05-01

327

Quantification of essential fatty acids in the heads of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with linseed oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do óleo de linhaça sobre as concentrações dos teores de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-6 e n-3 (AGPI) em cabeças de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), um resíduo do pescado normalmente descartado durante o processo de filetagem. A quanti [...] ficação dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados foi realizada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa (CG), sendo a concentração dos ácidos graxos expressa em termos de massa absoluta através da utilização do éster metílico (23:0) como padrão interno e do TCFx (fator de correção teórica do FID). As tilápias receberam dietas com níveis crescentes de óleo de linhaça (0,00, 1,25, 2,50, 3,75 e 5,00%) em substituição ao óleo de girassol (controle) durante um período de cinco meses. A ingestão de LNA causa a dessaturação sequencial e alongamento das cadeias carbônicas de ácidos graxos presentes nas cabeças de peixes, levando a um aumento em todos os AGPIs n-3. Este experimento demonstrou claramente que a adição de óleo de linhaça na ração de tilápia do Nilo aumenta significativamente as concentrações (em 100 g-1 de cabeça) de LNA (100,8 para 973,6 mg), EPA (4,8 para 82,1 mg) e DHA (24,0 para 125,4 mg). Estas alterações contribuem acentuadamente para melhorar a razão AGPI n-6/n-3 e, desta forma, pode ser utilizada em suplementos alimentícios, transformando as cabeças de tilápia em valiosa alternativa como fonte de alimento para dieta humana. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to examine the effects of linseed oil on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid content in the heads of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), these are normally discarded during the filleting process. The quantification of PUFA was carried out in absolute weigh [...] ts through the use of methyl ester (23:0), as an internal standard, and TCFx (theoretical FID correction factor) by GC gas chromatography. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels (0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00%) of linseed oil as a replacement for sunflower oil (control) for a period of five months. The ingestion of LNA causes sequential desaturation and elongation in fish heads, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFAs. This experiment demonstrated clearly that adding linseed oil to the feed of Nile tilapia can markedly increase the amounts (per 100 g-1 of head) of LNA (100.8 to 973.6 mg), EPA (4.8 to 82.1 mg), and DHA (24.0 to 125.4 mg) in their heads, and thus, may be used to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in dietary supplements, and creating a valuable alternative food source in the human diet.

Ana C., Aguiar; Solange M., Cottica; Marcela, Boroski; Cláudio C., Oliveira; Elton G., Bonafé; Polyana B., França; Nilson E., Souza; Jesui V., Visentainer.

328

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (approximately 5.0cm in length were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH; b fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R; c fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH; and d fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N. The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T, and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K; survival percentage (S, feed conversion rate (FCR, percentage weight gain (WG and (v daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group, being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (pActualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT. En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.0cm de longitud, fueron asignados al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque, en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH, b peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R, c los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH, y d los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N. La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra, se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T, Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K, porcentaje de supervivencia (S, la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR, porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH, y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p<0.05 para ambas comparaciones. De manera similar, los altos valores de K se presentaron en los tratamientos R y RGH durante los primeros días de cultivo. Esto puede haber sido asociado con un mejor estado nutricional que afectó tanto el desarrollo de peso y la longitud del cuerpo del pez, como resultado del efecto aditivo de 17-MT y GH. Los tratamientos no andrógenos y los grupos tratados con andrógenos y con HC mostraron un mayor incremento en la ganancia de peso por día, los mayores valores de K y menores tasas de conversión del alimento, lo que sugiere una mayor eficiencia de la alimentación en los peces tratados con hormonas. Peces en el tratamiento RGH mostraron el mayor crecimiento, lo que sugiere una posible interacción entre el 17 de ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT y hormona de crecimiento inyectada.

Marco A. Liñán-Cabello

2013-03-01

329

Massive Mortality Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Cage-cultured Red Hybrid Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Massive mortality of cage-cultured red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia was investigated. Moribund fish showing erratic swimming, sluggishness and hemorrhagic eyes were collected for the study. Water quality parameters were measured on-site. The highest temperature was 32.70°C at the surface while lower temperature was 30.85°C at 6 m. Dissolved Oxygen (DO was highest 7.05 mg L-1 at 4 m while lowest 6.15 mg L-1 at 10 m. The pH value was highest 8.28 at 6 m and lowest 7.52 at surface. The result has shown that un-ionized ammonia levels ranged from 0.00046-0.01 ppm within the optimum range. While Nitrite (0.003 ppm and Nitrate values (0.1-0.7 ppm. The water quality parameters were showed their values within the accepted range of water quality for aquaculture. Bacteria were isolated from diseased fish using blood and nutrient agars, and identified using BBL Crystal™ Enteric/Non-fermenter ID and Gram Positive ID Systems and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility analysis. Results showed the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Burkholderia cepacia in the fish liver and Staphylococcus aureus in the fish eyes, suggesting a possible case of warm-water streptococcosis associated with S. agalactiae with multiple bacterial complications. Nevertheless, a continuous long term monitoring is essential for the sustainable development of cage aquaculture in Como river of Lake Kenyir Malaysia.

K.C.A. Jalal

2012-01-01

330

Pembuatan Pakan Ikan Dari Protein Sel Tunggal Bakteri Fotosintetik Anoksigenik Dengan Memanfaatkan Limbah Cair Tepung Tapioka Yang Diuji Pada Ikan Nila (Oreochromis Niloticus)  

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Penelitian mengenai “Pembuatan pakan ikan dari protein sel tunggal bakteri fotosintetik anoksigenik dengan memanfaatkan limbah tepung tapioka yang diuji Pada ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus)” telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Departemen Biologi, Laboratorium Biokimia Departemen Kimia Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Laboratorium Teknologi Hasil Pertanian (THP) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara dan Laboratorium Air Badan Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan ...

Ummi Mardhiah Batubara

2010-01-01

331

Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae ZQ0910, a Pathogen Causing Meningoencephalitis in the GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Here, we reported the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae strain ZQ0910, which was isolated from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia in Guangdong, China.

Wang, Bei; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Shuanghu; Huang, Yuchong; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

2012-01-01

332

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae ZQ0910, a pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Here, we reported the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae strain ZQ0910, which was isolated from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia in Guangdong, China. PMID:22933761

Wang, Bei; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Shuanghu; Huang, Yuchong; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

2012-09-01

333

Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser / Desempenho produtivo de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentadas em diferentes frequências e períodos com dispensador automático  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) produzidas em tanque-rede, providas de dispensadores automáticos de ração, alimentadas em diferentes frequências - uma vez por hora e a cada duas horas - e períodos - durante o dia, à noite ou ambos. Dezoito tanques-rede de 1.0m³ fo [...] ram colocados em um tanque de 2000m² com dois metros de profundidade e renovação de água de 5%. Cento e setenta tilápias, com peso inicial de 16.0±4.9g foram distribuídas em cada tanque-rede de 1m³ e a taxa alimentar foi ajustada a cada 21 dias junto com as biometrias. As medidas foram coletadas de março a julho (outono e inverno). Observou-se diferença significativa para peso final (P Abstract in english The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours) and periods (daytime, nighttime and both) was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two [...] meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter). Significant difference to final weight (P

R.M.R., Sousa; C.A., Agostinho; F.A., Oliveira; D., Argentim; P.K., Novelli; S.M.M., Agostinho.

2012-02-01

334

In vivo Alterations in Glutathione-Related Processes, Lipid Peroxidation, and Cholinesterase Enzyme Activities in the Liver of Diazinon-Exposed Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Although its usage is partially banned in developed countries, organophosphate (OP) pesticide diazinon finds extensive agricultural application in our country (Turkey). This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of diazinon on total glutathione (tGSH), GSH-related enzymes, cholinesterase (ChE) enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus, a freshwater fish, as a model organism. Fish were exposed to 0.1, 1, and 2 mg/L sublethal concentrations of diazinon for 1, 7, 15, and 30 days. Total GSH levels, GSH-related enzyme and ChE-specific activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric methods. tGSH levels are decreased at 1 day, while they were increased in the long-term period. GSH-related enzyme activities are affected by diazinon exposure, except glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.2.4). Diazinon displayed an oxidative stress-inducing potential and it increased lipid peroxidation. Similar inhibition levels were observed in acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8.) enzyme activities, and these inhibitions were not dose dependent. ChE inhibition-related oxidative stress was observed using its correlation with elevated tGSH levels and increased glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) enzyme activities; that reflects the diazinon-induced oxidative stress in the liver of O. niloticus. According to the results of the present study, tGSH level and GST-specific activity are suitable for reflecting the toxic effects of diazinon in fish. PMID:20020955

Uner, Nevin; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Durmaz, Hülya; Piner, Petek

2007-01-01

335

Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange / Rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en un sistema híperintensivo de recirculación acuícola con mínimo recambio de agua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus sembrados en densidades hiperintensivas en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA) con mínimo remplazo de agua. El sistema experimental consistió en un sistema de precría de cosecha única [...] para obtener peces de 50 g en 60 días. Los peces (2,07 ± 0,14 g) se sembraron por triplicado a densidades de 400 (T1), 500 (T2) y 600 (T3) peces m-3 (0,84; 1,05; 1,22 kg m-3). El SRA funcionó con 12.000 L de agua recirculante y un remplazo diario de 252 L (2,1% por día). La densidad de siembra no afectó significativamente la supervivencia (89,5-93,6%). El biofiltro removió el amonio nitrogenado total con una eficiencia del 46,9 ± 7,0%. La tasa de crecimiento de T1 (0,96 g día-1; 5,01% día-1) y T2 (0,92 g día-1; 4,95% día-1) fue significativamente mayor que T3 (0,83 g día-1; 4,80% día-1). La temperatura influyó 41% en la tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE) de T1. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto (DO) influyó en la variación de peso en T2 (47%) y T3 (44%). La TCE de T3 también se vio afectada por la concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (31%). El aumento de la densidad de siembra afectó el tamaño y la homogeneidad de tallas de los peces, pero no afectó la relación longitud-peso (L-P). Los datos respaldan la conclusión que los juveniles sembrados a densidades de 400 y 500 peces m-3 tienen alto rendimiento durante nueve semanas consecutivas, siempre y cuando la biomasa no se exceda de 37 kg m-3. En este tiempo los peces alcanzan el peso final esperado de precría (50 g) y pueden ser transferidos hacia las instalaciones de engorde. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain [...] 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily). The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%). The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1) and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1) was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1). The specific growth rate (SGR) of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%). The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W). Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g) for transfer to grow-out facilities.

M, Gullian-Klanian; C, Arámburu-Adame.

2013-03-01

336

Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes = Predação de P. mesopotamicus e O. niloticus por larvas de Pantala flavescens de diferentes classes de coprimento  

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Full Text Available The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lowerconsumption (p O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a sobrevivência de larvas de P. mesopotamicus e O. niloticus submetidas à predação por larvas de Pantala flavescens de diferentes classes de comprimento. Foram utilizadas 120 larvas de cada espécie de peixe e 24 larvas de Odonata, distribuídas em 24 aquários (2 L, sendo colocada uma Odonata por aquário. Os tratamentos diferiram quanto à espécie de presa e o tamanho do predador, sendo mantido um tratamento-controle. Um aquário (2 L com uma Odonata e dez larvas de peixe foi consideradauma unidade experimental. As Odonatas foram colocadas nos aquários 1h antes das larvas de peixe. Foram efetuadas contagens a cada 3h (18, 21, 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 e 18h das larvas de peixe remanescentes (vivas em cada unidade experimental, sendo repostas as larvas consumidas, de modo a ter dez larvas de peixe em cada aquário logo após cada contagem. Para ambas as espécies de peixe, foi observado leve aumento no consumo das larvas pelas Odonatas de tamanhointermediário, porém os valores não diferiram estatisticamente (p > 0,05. As larvas de Odonata nos tratamentos em que apresentavam maior comprimento tiveram consumo menor (p < 0,05 que nos demais.

Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda

2011-09-01

337

Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus spp. group B in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in hapas nets and earth nurseries in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Streptococcus spp. in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in net-pens and earth nurseries. Eight intensive tilapia-rearing farms were investigated in north Paraná, Brazil from April 1st 2001 to April 30th 2002. The fish were reared in a system of hapas nets on four farms and in earth nurseries on other four farms. A total of 370 samples were analyzed of material collected from 120 fish (brain, liver, kidney, skin scrapes, ascites liquid and eye that were sown on BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract and sheep blood. Streptococcus spp. was isolated in 36 of the samples (18 brain, eight liver, eight kidney and two ascites liquid from 25 fish. Streptococci were isolated in both systems, almost in the same proportion. First the streptococci were characterized by the catalase and esculin test, growth in methylene blue and sodium chloride at 6.5%. They were classified in groups by the Slidex Strepto-Kit (BioMerieux, France. The phenotypic characteristics were determined by the Api 20 Strep microtest system (BioMerieux, France. The 36 Streptococcus spp. samples did not present hemolysis and were classified as Lancefield group B. Further 16 samples were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae and 20 were not identified by the Api 20 Strep, but presented the same biochemical profile described for the reference strain of Streptococcus difficile (ND-2-22.

Salvador Rogério

2005-01-01

338

Effectiveness of homologous inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine by immersion bath in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusAvaliação da eficácia de vacina autóctone de Streptococcus agalactiae inativado aplicada por banho de imersão em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Tilapia is the most important group between cultivated fish. Intensive handling systems are characterized by high rate of stocking of fish making them susceptible to infectious diseases. The streptococcosis is one of the diseases that cause great economic losses. The objective of the study was to test a vaccine administered by immersion bath (b.i. against Streptococcus agalactiae and challenge with homologous strain. For this study, 421 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with an average weight of 38.38 grams were used. They were divided into two treatments (T1 and T2 and a control group. At T1, the fish were vaccinated with one dose of vaccine by b.i., with a concentration of 5.4 x 108 CFU mL-1. The T2 received two doses of vaccine by b.i., with an interval of 25 days. The control group received a bath of ultrapure water. The fish were challenged by intraperitoneal (i.p. with a concentration of 3.0 x 108 CFU mL-1 43 days after the first or second dose of vaccine, according to the treatment. The fish were monitored for 16 days after challenge. Compared with the control group results were obtained for T1: p = 0.0805, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61 – 1.01 and RPS = 21%. For T2 were: p = 0.0296, RR = 0.74 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.96 and RPS = 26%. Mortality after challenge was 57 fish (40.71% in T1, 51 (38.06% at T2, and 76 (51.7% in the control group. There was no significant difference between T1 and T2, p = 0.7445. This result shows that the vaccine tested by b.i. with one and two doses had low efficacy in vaccination of tilapia.O grupo das tilápias é um dos mais importantes entre os peixes cultivados. O sistema de cultivo mais utilizado é o intensivo, caracterizado por alta taxa de estocagem de peixes tornando-os susceptíveis às doenças infecciosas. A estreptococose é uma das enfermidades que causam grandes prejuízos econômicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar uma vacina de Streptococcus agalactiae inativado aplicada por banho de imersão (b.i e desafio com cepa homóloga. Foram utilizados 421 tilapia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus com peso médio de 38,38 gramas, distribuídas em dois tratamentos (T1 e T2 e um grupo controle. No T1, os peixes foram vacinados com uma dose da vacina por b.i., com concentração de 5,4 x 108 UFC mL-1. O T2 recebeu duas doses da mesma vacina por b.i., com intervalo de 25 dias. O grupo controle recebeu água ultrapura por b.i. Os peixes foram desafiados por via intraperitoneal (i.p., com concentração de 3,0 x 108 UFC mL-1 43 dias após a primeira ou segunda dose da vacina, de acordo com o tratamento. Os peixes dos tratamentos e controle foram monitorados durante 16 dias após o desafio. Comparativamente ao grupo controle os resultados obtidos para o T1 foram: p = 0,0805, RR = 0,79 (IC 95%: 0,61 – 1,01 e RPS = 21%. Para o T2 foram: p = 0,0296, RR = 0,74 (IC 95%: 0,56 – 0,96 e RPS = 26%. A mortalidade após o desafio foi de 57 peixes (40,71% no T1, 51 (38,06% no T2, e 76 (51,7% no grupo controle. Não houve diferença significativa entre T1 e T2 e p=0,7445. Este resultado permite concluir que a vacina testada por b.i. com uma e duas doses apresentou baixa eficácia na imunização das tilápias.

Elaine Longhi

2012-02-01

339

Obtención de hidrolizado de proteína de pescado a partir de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp.) / Obtaining of hydrolyzed fish protein from red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)  

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Suárez Ramírez, Diana Cristina (2010) Obtención de hidrolizado de proteína de pescado a partir de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp.) / Obtaining of hydrolyzed fish protein from red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). Otra thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Sua?rez Rami?rez, Diana Cristina

2010-01-01

340

Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena / Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de contro [...] le respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I) e com succinato (complexo II) foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1) na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte. Abstract in english A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3. [...] 3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I) or succinate (complex II), respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1) in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

F.P., Peixoto; D.L., Santos; S., Vilela; A., Fontaínhas-Fernandes.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Chemical communication in tilapia: A comparison of Oreochromis mossambicus with O. niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In allopatric speciation species differentiation generally results from different selective pressures in different environments, and identifying the traits responsible helps to understand the isolation mechanism(s) involved. Male