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EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS  

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Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological niches, mainly pond aquaculture and reservoir fisheries. Tilapia fish scales found to have more percentage of Type I collagen. Fish collagen is complex structural protein that helps to maintain the strength and flexibility of skin, ligaments, bones, joints, muscles, tendons, gums, eyes, blood vessels, nails and hair. Collagen can be obtained from fish scales, fish skins by advanced enzymatic digestion methods in biotechnology. The Protein content of the above is more than 90% and having 18 kinds of amino acids out of which 7 are essential for human consumption. These products are easily absorbable and having high biological value promoting the absorption of vitamins and minerals. The enzymatic digestion technology process releases a lot of peptides in molecular collagen that helps humans in many physiological functions. Collagen has been used in biomedical pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In this paper we have determined the collagen extracted from Tilapia fish scales and also its clinical importance.

M.Hemanth kumar

2011-10-01

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Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus) Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis / Diferenciación Morfométrica de Dos Especies de Peces Nigerianos (Oreochromis niloticus y Lates niloticus) Utilizando Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análsis Discriminante  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las diferencias morfológicas entre dos poblaciones de peces similares se han investigado en Doma Dam, centro-norte de Nigeria utilizando análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. El propósito fue identificar correctamente las dos especies y asignarlas a los distintos grupos genét [...] icos. Para lograr esto, siete medidas morfométricas (peso corporal, longitud estándar, longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, profundidad del cuerpo, longitud de la aleta dorsal y la longitud de la aleta caudal) se realizaron en cada una de las muestras de los 252 peces estudiados (153 Oreochromis niloticus y 99 Lates niloticus) . El análisis de varianza mostró que de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in Doma Dam, north central Nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. The purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. To achieve this, seven morphometr [...] ic measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length) were made on each of the studied 252 fish specimens (153 Oreochromis niloticus and 99 Lates niloticus). The analysis of variance showed that significantly (P

A, Yakubu; S. A, Okunsebor.

1429-14-01

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In vivo Acute Toxicity Tests of Some Heavy Metals to Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Fingerlings tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus were exposed in laboratory conditions to a range of Copper (Cu, Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb and Zinc (Zn concentrations separately and the mortality rate were registered after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50s and Median Lethal Times (LT50s values were calculated by static bioassays for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h with the 95% fiducial limits through Probit analysis. LC50 and LT50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure times and concentrations, respectively. The LC50s for 96 h for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 1093, 3751, 16177 and 1494 ?g L-1, respectively and the LT50s for maximum concentration used for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 20.25, 11.48, 20.70 and 24.66 h, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in tilapia fish increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu was the most toxic to tilapia fish, The toxicity ranking of the four heavy metals was Cu>Pb>Cd>Zn. Comparison of LC50 values for studied heavy metals for this species with those for other fishes reveals that tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus is equally or less sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested fishes.

M. Shuhaimi-Othman

2013-01-01

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Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis Diferenciación Morfométrica de Dos Especies de Peces Nigerianos (Oreochromis niloticus y Lates niloticus Utilizando Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análsis Discriminante  

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Full Text Available Morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in Doma Dam, north central Nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. The purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. To achieve this, seven morphometric measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length were made on each of the studied 252 fish specimens (153 Oreochromis niloticus and 99 Lates niloticus. The analysis of variance showed that significantly (PLas diferencias morfológicas entre dos poblaciones de peces similares se han investigado en Doma Dam, centro-norte de Nigeria utilizando análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. El propósito fue identificar correctamente las dos especies y asignarlas a los distintos grupos genéticos. Para lograr esto, siete medidas morfométricas (peso corporal, longitud estándar, longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, profundidad del cuerpo, longitud de la aleta dorsal y la longitud de la aleta caudal se realizaron en cada una de las muestras de los 252 peces estudiados (153 Oreochromis niloticus y 99 Lates niloticus . El análisis de varianza mostró que de forma significativa (p<0,05 los valores más altos se registraron en Lates niloticus, en todos los rasgos del cuerpo examinado con excepción de la longitud de la aleta dorsal. A partir del análisis de componentes principales, las diferencias entre las especies se observó principalmente en la longitud de la aleta dorsal, el peso corporal, la longitud de la aleta caudal y longitud de la cabeza. El análisis discriminante reveló que la longitud estándar, longitud aleta dorsal y caudal son las tres variables más discriminatorias de utilidad para distinguir claramente las dos especies en la edad madura. Estas tres variables con fuerte poder de discriminación clasificaron correctamente el 98,0% de los individuos de la muestra de las poblaciones conocidas de peces. La exactitud de la clasificación fue sometida a una validación cruzada utilizando el método de la muestra dividida, la que indicó una tasa de éxito del 97,6% (98,0% de Oreochromis niloticus y 97,0% de Lates niloticus asignados correctamente. Los resultados pueden proporcionar una base científica sólida para el manejo eficaz y la explotación sostenible de los recursos genéticos de las dos especies en condiciones subtropicales.

A Yakubu

2011-12-01

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Biochemical Effects of Short-term Cadmium Exposure on the Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The influences of cadmium, a well known environmental pollutant, on different biochemical parameters in fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sublethal concentration of 9.3 ppm, 0.5 of 96 h LC50, for 1, 4 and 7 days were investigated. Significant increases in the levels of blood glucose and the activities of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in the fish treated with cadmium during all experimental periods. The levels of blood triglycerides and total protein were statistically elevated at second and last periods. Insignificant alterations in the levels of blood cholesterol were noted. The observed hyperglycaemia induced by cadmium might be explained in part by increasing rate of glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis. The observed hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevations of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase may be due to liver dysfunction. The observed hyperproteinaemia in the fish, Oreochromis niloticus following cadmium administration is possibly attribute to disorder of protein metabolism. However, the significance of the toxic effects of sublethal concentration of cadmium on the various biochemical parameters studied is discussed.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2005-01-01

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Cylindrospermopsin induces neurotoxicity in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria, such as Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid known for its ability to inhibit both protein and glutathione synthesis, and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers in mammals and vertebrates. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main CYN targets for this toxin, it also affects other organs. In fish, there is no evidence about the neurotoxicity of CYN yet. In the present study, we aimed to study the potential neurotoxicity of CYN, based on the measure of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and histopathological studies in brain of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) subchronically exposed to repeated concentrations of 10?g CYN/L by immersion in an A.ovalisporum culture for 14 days. The results showed significant inhibition of AChE activity and increases in LPO levels, as well as relevant histopathological alterations in the brain of fish (O. niloticus) subchronically exposed to the toxin. Moreover, we also investigated the potential recovery of these parameters by subjecting the fish to two depuration periods (3 and 7 days) in clean uncontaminated water, showing a recovery of the biochemical parameters since 3 days of depuration, and being necessary 7 days to recover the histopathological changes. In order to support these results, CYN was detected and quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in brain of all the exposed fish and the effects of the depuration periods were also observed. Based on these results, it was demonstrated for the first time the neurotoxicity of CYN and its presence in brain of tilapia fish subchronically exposed to CYN. PMID:25661706

Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Manzano, Inmaculada Lomares; Moreno, Isabel M; Ortega, Ana I Prieto; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

2015-04-01

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Low water conductivity increases the effects of copper on the serum parameters in fish (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The conductivity is largely determined by ion levels in water, predominant ion being Ca(2+) in the freshwaters. For this reason, the effects of copper were evaluated as a matter of conductivity of exposure media in the present study. Thus, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to copper in differing conductivities (77, 163 and 330?S/cm), using acute (0.3?M, 3 d) and chronic (0.03?M, 30 d) exposure protocols. Following the exposure serum parameters of fish were measured. Data showed that there was no significant alteration (P>0.05) in serum parameters of control fish. However, activities of ALP, ALT and AST decreased significantly at the lower conductivities in chronic copper exposure, but not in acute ones. Protein levels did not differ significantly in any of the exposure conditions. However, Cu exposure at the lowest conductivity sharply increased the levels of glucose in the acute exposure, while there was no significant difference in the chronic exposure. Cholesterol levels decreased only at the lower conductivities in chronic exposure, but increased in acute exposure. Similarly, triglyceride levels increased in acute exposures and decreased in chronic exposures at the lowest conductivity. There was no change in Na(+) levels, while there was an increase in K(+) levels and a decrease in Ca(2+) level at the lowest conductivity of acute exposures. However, Cl(-) levels generally decreased at the higher conductivities of chronic exposures. There was a strong negative relationship between significant altered serum parameters and water conductivity. In conclusion, this study showed that copper exposure of fish at lower conductivities caused more toxicities, indicating the protective effect of calcium ions against copper toxicity. Data suggest that conductivity of water may be used in the evaluation of metal data from different waters with different chemical characteristics. PMID:25682007

Canli, Esin G; Canli, Mustafa

2015-03-01

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Changes in Haematological Parameters of the Fish, Oreochromis niloticus Treated with Sublethal Concentration of Cadmium  

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Full Text Available The sub-chronic and chronic exposure of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to sublethal concentration of 5. 5 ppm cadmium (0. 3 of 96 h LC50 for 1, 3 and 5 weeks was studied. Exposure of Tilapia to cadmium resulted into a number of haematological alterations. Erythropenia, a marked decrease in values of haemoglobin content, haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were observed at all experimental periods of cadmium exposure. The values of mean cell volume were decreased at the second and last periods. The levels of mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration decreased significantly at first period compared to the control value.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2005-01-01

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Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 ?g L-1 of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

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Biomarkers in an invasive fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, to assess the effects of pollution in a highly degraded Brazilian River.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paraiba do Sul watershed is one of the most important Brazilian water bodies (5.5 million people depend on the river). It is in a critical environmental situation, polluted by industrial discharges, non-treated urban wastes, and pesticides, which have had cumulatively negative effects. This study analyzes the effects of pollution, with a biomarker approach, by using the invasive fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, as a sentinel species. The approach comprehends a general biomarker of the health of individual fish, the condition factor, a biomarker of genotoxicity, the micronuclei test; and specific biomarkers of contaminant exposure such as metallothionein (MT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The results revealed different effects in fish from diverse locations with varying degrees of pollution. Low AChE activities were found in fish from the region with strong agriculture activity, showing the effects of pesticides. Fish from an industrialized and heavily environmentally degraded area presented high levels of MT and low AChE activities, indicating an intricate polluted condition. It is noteworthy that fish located just upstream of the main water-treatment plant of the metropolitan area Rio de Janeiro presented high levels of MT, showing to be affected by metals. This can be an alert to public health officials. O. niloticus has proven a suitable sentinel species to assess the effects of pollutions in an aquatic system with a complex and serious polluted situation. The present study also shows the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the exposure and the effects of anthropogenic inputs among impacted and reference sites in this water body. PMID:18468656

Linde-Arias, Ana Rosa; Inácio, Alan F; de Alburquerque, Carla; Freire, Marina M; Moreira, Josino C

2008-07-25

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Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) From Four Selected Markets in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) were measured in various organs (such as in liver, gill and muscle) of Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) which were collected from Serdang night market, Bangi night and wet markets and Kajang wet market, in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of metals was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The levels of metal varied as it depended on various tissues. Zinc was the ...

Shuhaimi-othman, M.; Taweel, Abdulali K. A.; Ahmad, A. K.

2012-01-01

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Linkage Relationships and Haplotype Variation of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I A Genes in the Cichlid Fish Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The haplochromine cichlid species flocks of the East African Great Lakes are one of the best examples of adaptive radiation. Analysis of genetic variation among these species provides valuable information on species relationships and timing of speciation events. Although the haplochromine cichlids generally display little genetic variation, the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes have been found to be highly variable. A study of the linkage relationships of the Mhc class I A genes in the cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus was therefore undertaken. Class I loci were identified, and their segregation in seven mothers and their haploid embryos was determined. In total, 56 class I A sequences were found among the seven families. A strong concordance of segregation was observed in five haplotypes among the embryos, indicating a close linkage of all loci. The number of loci per haplotype varied from 11 to 17, while the total number of distinct loci found among all families was 22. These findings show that all class I A loci are linked in a single genetic cluster in O. niloticus. PMID:11246410

Murray, Brent W.; Nilsson, Philomeen; Zaleska-Rutczynska, Zofia; Sültmann, Holger; Klein, Jan

2000-09-01

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Fishborne trematodes in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and wild-caught fish from Thailand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections affect the health of more than 18 million people around the world, particularly in Asian countries. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a white meat fish that has an increasing national and international market. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of FZT metacercarial infections in Nile tilapia from cage and pond aquaculture systems and in wild-caught fish from Suphan Buri, Nakhon Pathom and Chachoengsao provinces, Thailand. Fish were collected from four cages in Suphan Buri and four ponds in Nakhon Pathom provinces between September-October 2011 and April-May 2012 and wild-caught fish were collected in May 2012. All fish were examined for metacercariae by a pepsin digestion and metacercariae identified using morphological and molecular methods. During the first sampling of tilapia the prevalence of metacercariae in cage culture fish were 2.5% and 10% in pond culture fish. During the second sampling, metacercariae was found in 2.0% of tilapia from cage and none from the ponds. Of the 150 wild-caught fish, a total of 80 (53.3%) were found to be infected with metacercariae, mostly the zoonotic species Stellantchasmus falcatus, Haplorchis pumilio and Procerovum varium. The results revealed a low risk for FZT in Nile tilapia cultured in cage and pond aquaculture systems. However, the high prevalence of FZT in wild-caught fish indicates a high potential for spillover from wild reservoir hosts and underscores the need for vigilance and good management practices by the aquaculture sector. Crown Copyright © 2013.

Wiriya, Benjamaporn; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

2013-01-01

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Effect of Lead Nitrate on the Liver of the Cichlid Fish (Oreochromis niloticus: A Light Microscope Study  

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Full Text Available The adverse impacts of heavy metals on fish liver were evident with great variability among organs and species. The present study deals with the histological changes of the hepatocytes of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to 2.5, 5, 10 ppm of lead nitrate for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. The present results revealed that lead nitrate exerts some histological effects on the hepatic tissue after exposure to the first concentration in the form of dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels, vacuolation of hepatic cells, proliferation of connective tissue and hepatic necrosis. Leucocyte aggregation-mostly lymphatic in nature-was seen infiltrating hepatic tissue. These alterations became more pronounced in liver of fishes exposed to second concentrations indicating more progressive signs of necrosis. The presence of eosinophilic oedematous areas surrounding some blood vessels was also observed. Finally, at the third concentration, in addition to the above alterations, melanomacrophages, which store lipofuscin at the site of necrosis, were observed. These histological results imply that the fish liver may serve as a target organ for the toxicity of sublethal concentrations of lead nitrate.

Abdel Salam M.I. Ohaida

2012-01-01

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Elaboration of fish bouillon cubes using pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusElaboração de caldo de peixe em cubos compactados utilizando pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii e tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Broth cubes are packed spices highly prized for their low cost and for the flavor given to dishes, usually carbohydrate-based. The objective of this work was to establish compressed broth cubes, exploiting the nutritional characteristics of pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, seeking a new product to the spice market, and contribute to a proper waste disposal of the fishing industry. A formulation of this pattern was prepared, where 30% was replaced by different forms of processing of the species used, resulting in different fish broth, to which analysis of interest were performed. From the analysis, it was concluded that the fish broth using ground tilapia presented the best characteristics when compared to commercial broth. Chemical composition of fish bouillon cubes with species and tilapia pirambeba showed no major differences, which proves that other waste of fish or the fishing industry may also contribute to the production of broths. The broth commercial was less variety of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low contents of calcium and phosphorus minerals, and more lipids compared to fish broth prepared. Caldos em cubos compactados são temperos muito apreciados por seu baixo custo e por conferir sabor a pratos geralmente à base de carboidratos. Objetivou-se elaborar caldos em cubos compactados, explorando as características nutricionais da pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii e tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, visando um novo produto para o mercado de temperos, além de contribuir para um correto destino de resíduos da indústria pesqueira. Foi elaborada uma formulação padrão onde 30% desta foi substituída pelas diferentes formas de processamento das espécies utilizadas, resultando em diferentes caldos de peixe, para os quais foram realizadas as análises de interesse. A composição centesimal dos temperos contendo espécies tilápia e pirambeba não apresentaram grandes diferenças, o que comprova que outros peixes ou resíduos da indústria pesqueira também podem contribuir para a fabricação de caldos. O caldo comercial apresentou menor variedade de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados, além de baixo teor dos minerais cálcio e fósforo e maior de extrato etéreo quando comparados com os caldos de peixe elaborados.

Katia Lumi Fukushima

2013-03-01

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Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus From Four Selected Markets in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concentrations of cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co were measured in various organs (such as in liver, gill and muscle of Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus which were collected from Serdang night market, Bangi night and wet markets and Kajang wet market, in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of metals was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The levels of metal varied as it depended on various tissues. Zinc was the dominant metal measured during this study. In general, results indicated that all studied heavy metals concentrations were significantly higher (p-1 dry weight (DW less than zinc in fish gill in the same market (55.72 ?g g-1 DW. The highest Cd, Pb and Co concentration in fish liver were observed in Kajang wet market which is 0.44, 0.72 and 02.86 ?g g-1 DW, respectively. Meanwhile, in fish gill, levels of Pb and Co in Serdang night market were the lowest among all sites which is 0.34 and 0.31 ?g g-1 DW, while the highest in gill from Bangi wet market which is 0.63 and 0.41 ?g g-1 DW, respectively. Cd, Zn, Pb and Co levels in fish muscle from Serdang night market were the lowest (0.02, 11.36, 0.10 and 0.25 ?g g-1 DW, respectively, whereas the lowest Ni level was noted in fish muscle from Kajang wet market (03.84 ?g g-1 DW. On the other hand, the highest Cd and Zn level were in Bangi wet market (0.03 and 16.72 ?g g-1 dw, respectively. The results obtained in this study were compared with those reported in all other areas of earlier studies. All studied heavy metals levels are below the limits for fish proposed by World Health Organization and safe within the limits for human consumption in the edible part of studied fish.

M. Shuhaimi-Othman

2012-01-01

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Partial replacement of fish meal with Azola meal in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) affects growth and whole body fatty acid composition  

OpenAIRE

The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, as partial FM substitute. Diet A0 acted as a control. The final weight (51.0-88.3 g), the weight gain (210.8-438.3%) and the SGR (1.3-1.9%day-1) decreased when AM level higher th...

Abou, Youssouf; Adite, Alphonse; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Beckers, Yves; Emile, Fiogbe; Micha, Jean-claude

2011-01-01

18

In vivo Acute Toxicity Tests of Some Heavy Metals to Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

OpenAIRE

Fingerlings tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in laboratory conditions to a range of Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) concentrations separately and the mortality rate were registered after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50s) and Median Lethal Times (LT50s) values were calculated by static bioassays for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h with the 95% fiducial limits through Probit analysis. LC50 and LT50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure time...

Shuhaimi-othman, M.; Abdulali Taweel; Ahmad, A. K.

2013-01-01

19

Heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Serranochromis thumbergi), and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and Lake Kariba, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured the level of heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, herbivorous (Oreochromis niloticus) and carnivorous (Serranochromis thumbergi) fish, and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) from Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT) and Lake Kariba. We used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the levels of seven heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni). The sediment and the herbivorous fish O. niloticus accumulated a very high concentration of Cu in Lake ITT, most likely due to the discharge of Cu waste from a mining area 450 km upstream. The aquatic species we sampled in Lake Kariba had higher concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Pb relative to those in Lake ITT. This is most likely due to anthropogenic activities, such as the use of leaded petrol and antifouling agents in marine paints. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between the coefficient of condition (K) and Ni concentration in the crayfish hepatopancreas. Both O. niloticus and the crayfish had much higher biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, and Cd relative to Cr, Co, Pb, and Ni. The rank of BSAF values for O. niloticus (Cu>Cd>Zn) and C. quadricarinatus (Zn>Cd>Cu) differed from the expected ranks based on the general order of affinity of metals (Cd>Zn>Cu). PMID:20162262

Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Oroszlany, Balazs; Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2010-08-01

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Digestibilidad aparente de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) / Apparent digestibility of fishing waste silage in red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado con tres repeticiones, se determinó la digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes y energía de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). El ensilaje químico se preparo con ácido sulfúrico 98% (20 ml/kg) y á [...] cido fórmico (10 ml/kg) y el ensilaje biológico con miel de caña (150 g/kg) y yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris y streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). Se usó oxido crómico como indicador y las heces se recolectaron por un sifón desde el fondo de los tanques. Se obtuvo que la digestibilidad aparente de algunos nutrientes difirió en función del tipo de ensilaje, entre tanto la proteína digestible fue mayor para el ensilaje químico y la materia seca, calcio y fósforo para el ensilaje biológico. Digestibilidades iguales (P>0,05) se presentó para los lípidos, cenizas y energía. Concluyendoque los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros presentan alto valor nutricional, lo que constituyen una fuente de proteína alternativa en la formulación de raciones para tilapias rojas. Abstract in english By means of a design completely randomized with three repetitions, in vivo digestibility of nutrients and energy in fishing waste silages were determined for red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). Chemical silage prepared with sulphuric acid 98 % (20 ml/kg) and formic acid (10 ml/kg) [...] and the biological with sugar cane molasses (150 g/kg) and of yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris and streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). The chromic oxide was used as inert indicator and fecal sample were recollected by siphon from the bottom of tanks. As a result, the apparent digestibility of some nutrients differed from silage type; meanwhile protein was bigger for the chemical silage and the dry matter, calcium and phosphorus for the biological silage. Similar digestibility (P>0,05) was presented for lipids, ashes and energy. In conclusion, all this showed that the fishing waste silages present high nutritional value, that constitute an alternative- protein source in the formulation of rations for red tilapias.

José E, Llanes; Aliro, Bórquez; José, Toledo; José M, Lazo de la Vega.

2010-12-01

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Effects of Water Pollution in Lake Mariut on Gonadal Free Amino Acid Compositions in Oreochromis niloticus Fish  

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Full Text Available In the present report, we have determined the gonadal free amino acid compositions in Oreochromis niloticus collected from three sites in Lake Mariut: SE basin (less polluted, main basin (moderately polluted and SW basin (highly polluted, in an attempt to develop sensitive biomarker to evaluate pollution effects from multiple sources. Variations of free amino acids (FAAs were apparent in the polluted sites; total FAAs in testes and ovaries exhibited significant increases as compared to the less polluted site. This increase was attributed to increases in all individual amino acids including essential and non-essential ones. ANOVA indicated significant changes in all testicular FAAs, excluding phenylalanine. Levels of non-essential amino acids showed obvious alterations in ovaries. However, the increase in most essential amino acids, although insignificant, yet it was quite observable. In addition, the ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids was insignificantly decreased in gonads. This may be indicative of changes in protein metabolism.

Cecil A. Matta

2007-01-01

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Complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid of Oreochromis niloticus (?)?×?Oreochromis aureus (?).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid of Oreochromis niloticus (?)?×?Oreochromis aureus (?) was determined using PCR-based method. The mitogenome was 16,663?bp in length, containing the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions with the other Cichlid fishes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 putative control region. The overall composition of the mitogenome was 30.92% C, 27.98% A, 25.54% T, 15.56% G, with a slight AT bias of 53.52% occurs in the hybrid mitogenome. All the protein-coding genes were initiated by typical ATG codon, except for COX1 gene with the initiation codon GTG. Eight genes end with the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, while the COX2, COX3, ND3, ND4 and Cytb genes terminated with an incomplete stop codon T. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oreochromis niloticus (?)?×?Oreochromis aureus (?) may provide important DNA molecular data for further elucidation of evolutionary mechanisms in the hybrid fish of Cichlidae. PMID:25259464

Zhu, Xin; Yi, Tan; Chen, Tao; Bin, Shi-Yu

2014-09-26

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Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

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Partial molecular characterization of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) alpha-cardiac muscle actin gene and its relationship to actin isoforms of other fish species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english An alpha actin gene segment, isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was characterized by nucleotide sequencing, predicted amino acid sequence and Southern blot hybridization. Genomic DNA amplification resulted in a 1063-bp fragment corresponding to a partial alpha-cardiac muscle actin g [...] ene containing exons 3 to 6. Southern blot analysis of the restriction-digested DNA revealed that the Nile tilapia genome contains multiple muscle actin isoforms. Although comparison of the nucleotide sequence, amino acid residues and exon-intron organization of the isolated actin gene with those of other vertebrates showed a high level of identity, diagnostic amino acid residues can still be correlated to distinct actin genes in fish species.

Adriane P., Wasko; Fábio E., Severino; Flávia T., Presti; Andréia B., Poletto; Cesar, Martins.

1089-10-01

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Tecnología de producción de alimento semi-húmedo a base de ensilados de residuos pesqueros en la alimentación de tilapia roja (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus - Tecnology of production of semi-moist food on the basic of fishing offals for red tilapias (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus feeding  

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Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar una tecnología de alimento semi-húmedo a base de ensilado de desechos pesqueros como sustituto de la harina de pescado en la alimentación de peces, fueron formuladas dos dietas semi-húmedas (30% de húmeda, y un control (Alimento Comercial. Estas fueron empleadas en la alimentación de tilapia roja (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus de 3,50+0.5 g en tanques triplicados por 60 días al 8% del peso corporal/ día en dos raciones. Los resultados mostraron que existen diferencias significativas (P0.05. Se concluye que el ensilado de pescado es una alternativa a la harina de pescado y con esta tecnología es necesario cuantificar el consumo de materia seca que aporte los requerimientos nutricionales (proteína bruta principalmente de la especie para no afectar el crecimiento. AbstractMoist food production on the basic of fishing offals for red tilapias (O. mossambicus x O. niloticus feeding to evaluate. Two moist diets on the basis of fishing offals that were compared with a commercial food (20% of fish meal for red feeding (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus in triplícate tanks during 60 days at 8% of body weight/ days during 60 days were evaluated. The results showed significant differences (P 0,05.

José E. Llanes Iglesias

2007-09-01

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Physiological Studies on Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus as Influenced by the Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystin  

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Full Text Available The effects of microcystin produced by the toxic cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa on bioaccumulation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase of tilapia fish (collected from Al-Khadoud spring, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia were investigated. The results showed that microcystin contained in cyanobacterial blooms induce CAT and SOD activity in a time-dependent manner. The data also shows that microcystin concentration in muscle was much lower than in liver, as the liver is the target organ of these toxins. In addition, microcystin concentration in faeces increased gradually until the end of the treatment period.

M. A. Al-Kahtani

2008-01-01

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Risk Assessment of Tributyltin Oxide in Aquatic Environment: A. Toxicity and Sublethal Effects on Brain AChE and Gill ATPases Activity of Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity of TBTO and the effects of its sublethal concentration on brain AChE and gill ATPases activity of tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus during acute (3-96 h and subchronic (7-28 d exposure periods. The results showed that TBTO is extremely toxic to O. niloticus with 96 h LC50 of 16.3 ?g L-1 using static renewal bioassay test. Sublethal concentration of 4.1 ?g L-1 (25% of 96 h LC50 of TBTO inhibited brain AChE activity by 24.01 and 24.06% of control at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by 51.8 and 54.5% at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. The activity of gill Mg2+-ATPase was decreased by 26.9 and 24.28% at 96 h and 21 d, respectively. After 7 d of recovery, AChE and Mg2+-ATPase activites were completely recovered. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase was partially recovered but the inhibition was still significant. The inhibition percentages were higher in acute exposure than in subchronic exposure in both AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase, but the opposite result was recorded in Mg2+-ATPase. It can be concluded that there is a need for more evaluation and international regulation to minimize the organotin input to aquatic environment.

Abdul Rahman A. Aba. Alkhail

2004-01-01

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Immersion vaccination of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using a Streptococcus iniae vaccine  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this investigation was to assess immersion Streptococcus iniae vaccination of newly hatched and sex reversed Nile tilapia fry against S. iniae. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; 0.01 g wet weight; 160,000 fish/1500 L) were immunized by bath immersion using a 1/500 dilution of m...

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GROWTH RESPONSE AND ACQUIRED RESISTANCE OF NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS (L.) THAT SURVIVED STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE INFECTION  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determined the growth performance and acquired resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) that survived Streptococcus iniae infection. Tilapia were challenged with three doses of S. iniae (8.8 x 103, 8.8 x 104 and 8.8 x 105 CFU fish-1 for low, medium and high challenges, resp...

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Bacterial distribution and tissue targets following experimental Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

Science.gov (United States)

Edwardsiella ictaluri, a Gram-negative enteric bacterium, is the known etiological agent of enteric septicemia of catfish. In the last few years, different strains have been implicated as the causative agent of mortality events in cultured fish, including Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. Due to...

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Aggression and mortality among Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) maintained in the laboratory at different densities  

Science.gov (United States)

Because Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) density may affect stress levels, metabolism, and survival among tilapia in experimental studies and thus may affect experimental results, tilapia were held in a commonly-used commercial tank system to assess the relationship between fish density and beha...

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Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 ?g/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25231739

Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

2015-02-01

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Expression characterization and promoter activity analysis of the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) myosin light chain 3 promoter in skeletal muscle of fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

A tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) myosin light chain 3 (Mlc3) promoter region (~4.3 kb) was isolated and characterized. Sequence analysis of the clone revealed high similarity with a tilapia gene encoding the Mlc3 promoter region, exon 1, and intron 1. The clone contained several putative binding sequences for transcription factors, including MEF-2, MYOG, MyoD, PKNOX1, and AREB6. Deletion of a region of the tilapia Mlc3 promoter (801 to -3,881 bp) enhanced promoter activity, as determined by direct injection of a luciferase reporter construct into skeletal muscle of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus. These findings suggest that the region between -801 and -3,881 bp may contain negative regulatory elements. Stable germline transgenic strains of the ornamental fish species A. nigrofasciatus var. carrying the Taiwan coral red fluorescent protein (TcRFP) driven by the Mlc3 promoter were established. F1 adult transgenic A. nigrofasciatus var. exhibited brilliant pink fluorescence in skeletal muscles in the daylight. Therefore, our current study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tilapia Mlc3 promoter to drive fluorescence in new fish species, such as Perciformes. PMID:24146265

Lin, Yu-Ho; Peng, Kuan-Chieh; Pan, Chieh-Yu; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Jyh-Yih

2014-02-01

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Caracterización genética de tres líneas de tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Genetic characterization of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la diversidad genética de tres líneas de tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), mediante marcadores RAPDs. Se analizaron 90 individuos adultos (30 de cada línea) de dos piscifactorías ubicadas en las ciudades de Maringá (líneas Bouaké - B y GIFT G) y Guaír [...] a (línea Chitralada - C), en el Estado del Paraná (Brasil). Los 13 oligonucleótidos seleccionados produjeron 72 fragmentos de los cuales 60 (83,3%) fueron polimórficos. Fueron observadas diferencias (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains, through the RAPD markers. Ninety adult individuals (30 of each strain) of two fish farms stations located in the Maringá (Bouaké - B and GIFT - G strains) and Guaíra (Chitralada C strain [...] ) cities, in the Paraná State (Brazil) were analyzed. The 13 selected primers yielded 72 fragments of which 60 (83.3%) were polymorphic. Differences (p

E., Lupchinski Jr.; L., Vargas; N.M., Lopera-Barrero; R.P., Ribeiro; J.A., Povh; E., Gasparino; P.C., Gomes; G.L., Braccini.

2011-12-01

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Active biomonitoring of trace heavy metals using fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) as bioindicator species. The case of Nakivubo wetland along Lake Victoria  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nakivubo wetland in Uganda, which feeds Lake Victoria at Murchison bay, has become severely degraded over recent years and is particularly threatened by the expansion of industry, settlement and cultivation on its fertile fringes. The aim of this study was to actively biomonitor selected trace heavy metals using Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was set in cages at six sampling sites in Murchison bay for a period of six weeks, and sampling was done every 2 weeks for active biomonitoring and weekly for physico-chemical variables. The control (site 7) was at the Aquaculture Research and Development centre, Uganda. Fish tissue was dissected and gills, liver and muscle removed for heavy metal analysis. Water samples and fish tissue from each site were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine metal concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and manganese. Site 4 had the highest average NH 4-N of 14.28 ± 12.73 mg/l which was above effluent standards for Uganda. From the findings, there were significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in fish than in water ( p > 0.01). Fish kills were recorded highest for sites 4 (55%), 5 (77.5%) and 6 (60%) in less than six weeks indicating high levels of pollution. Gills showed the highest accumulation of copper after a period of six weeks as compared to other metals with a mean ± SE of 11.7 ?g/mg wet weight. In general, the order of accumulation of metals in tissue after six weeks was in order; copper > zinc > chromium > manganese and gills > liver > muscle. In conclusion, active biomonitoring was found to be a good tool for monitoring water quality as it integrates responses to combinations of all contaminants thereby indicating overall effects in a water body. To improve the study, there is need to incorporate post mortem studies and biomarker analysis since the later can give early warning of pollution before fish kills are observed.

Birungi, Z.; Masola, B.; Zaranyika, M. F.; Naigaga, I.; Marshall, B.

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Partial molecular characterization of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) alpha-cardiac muscle actin gene and its relationship to actin isoforms of other fish species  

OpenAIRE

An alpha actin gene segment, isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was characterized by nucleotide sequencing, predicted amino acid sequence and Southern blot hybridization. Genomic DNA amplification resulted in a 1063-bp fragment corresponding to a partial alpha-cardiac muscle actin gene containing exons 3 to 6. Southern blot analysis of the restriction-digested DNA revealed that the Nile tilapia genome contains multiple muscle actin isoforms. Although comparison of the nucleot...

Wasko, Adriane P.; Severino, Fa?bio E.; Presti, Fla?via T.; Poletto, Andre?ia B.; Cesar Martins

2007-01-01

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Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.594 Host-parasite relationship in fish from fish farms in the Assis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757  

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Full Text Available Um total de 90 espécimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da água em cada propriedade. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possível observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porém cada propriedade apresenta uma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlação negativa significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o copépode Lamproglena sp. apresentaram correlação positiva significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão nas pisciculturas de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, respectivamente. Em relação ao fator de condição relativo, somente a espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a abundância de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a relação hepatossomática (RHS das tilápias em Palmital, e o ergasilídeo apresentou correlação significativa negativa da abundância de parasitismo e a relação esplenossomática (RES dos hospedeiros em Cândido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in São Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farm featured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp.1 presented a significant negative correlation of abundance to standard host length only at the Palmital fish farm. The Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 species and the Lamproglena sp. copepod displayed a significant positive correlation of abundance to standard length at the Tarumã and Cândido Mota fish farms, respectively. With regard to the relative condition factor, only the species Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 presented a significant negative correlation to the prevalence of parasitism. Lamproglena sp. presented a significant positive correlation with respect to the hepatosomatic index (HI of the tilapias at the Palmital fish farm, and the Ergasilidae presented a significant negative correlation of abundance with respect to splenosomatic index (SI of the host at Cândido Mota.

Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva

2007-12-01

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CYN determination in tissues from freshwater fish by LC-MS/MS: validation and application in tissues from subchronically exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are occurring in eutrophic freshwater lakes and reservoirs throughout the world and, because of the production of toxins such as cylindrospermopsin (CYN), they can present a public safety hazard through contamination of seafood and fish for human consumption. Therefore it is important to develop methods to determine CYN at trace levels in those organisms. A new method for unconjugated CYN determination in tissues (liver and muscle) of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is herein described and discussed; it is based on solvent extraction and purification with C18 and graphitized carbon cartridges, and quantification by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was optimized and suitably validated, with a linear range from 0.125-12.5 µg CYN/g dry weight (dw) in the case of the liver, and 0.02-1 µg CYN/g dw for the muscle. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.07 and 0.12 µg/g dw for the liver, and 0.002 and 0.007 µg/g dw for the muscle, respectively. Mean recoveries ranged 80-110% in liver, and 94-104% in muscle, and intermediate precision values from 6 to 11%. The method is robust against the three factors considered for purification (batch of the graphitized carbon cartridges, time for the sample to pass through the cartridge, and final dissolving water volume). Furthermore, it has been successfully applied to the extraction and quantification of CYN in tissue samples from tilapia subchronically exposed to CYN in the laboratory. This represents a sensitive, reproducible, accurate, and robust method for extraction and determination of unconjugated CYN in tissues of fish exposed to the toxin. This procedure can be used for confirmatory routine monitoring of CYN in fish samples in environmental studies. PMID:25281126

Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Moreno, I; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Soria-Díaz, M Eugenia; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana M

2015-01-01

39

/ Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se realizaron estudios de enero a diciembre de 1993 para conocer la edad y crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus obtenida de las capturas comerciales de la laguna de Coatetelco, Morelos, Mexico. Se colectaron escamas de 318 peces. La moda de longitud patrón que se obtuvo en la captura fue de 10.5-11. [...] 5 cm. Se encontró que la formación de los anillos se realiza en Diciembre. Asimismo, no se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las hembras y los machos para las longitudes retrocalculadas para cada edad. En las escamas se registraron cuatro marcas. Se encontró que de acuerdo a los parametros de la ecuación de crecimiento, los peces tienen baja tasa de crecimiento (k=0.07) y alcanzan un tamaño adecuado (L* =29.19 cm). Los resultados obtenidos por medio del análisis de distribución de frecuencias no difieren significativamente (t-student, p Abstract in english Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus from Lagoon of Coatetelco, Morelos State, Mexico were studied from January through December, 1993. Scales of 318 specimens were collected. Modal length at capture was 10.5-11.5 cm standard length. Scales rings were formed during December. Back-calculated lengt [...] hs-at-age showed no significant differences by sex. Four check marks were recorded. According to the growth curve parameters for population, the fish grow at a low rate (k=0.07) until they achieve a size (L*) of 29.19 cm. Length-frequency analysis (Bhattacharya's Gaussian component determination procedure) do not differ significantly (t-student, p

José Luis, Gómez-Márquez.

1998-12-01

40

Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the ef [...] fect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P

A.L.S., Castro; E., Gonçalves-de-Freitas; G.L., Volpato; C., Oliveira.

2009-04-01

41

Infestation of ectoparasites on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in aquaculture production in the Ashanti region, Ghana  

OpenAIRE

A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence and mean intensities of ectoparasites infestation on the gills and skin mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in some selected fish farms in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Pond water quality was also determined. Oral on-farm interviews on pond management practices were carried out on the farms. The results obtained revealed three types of ectoparasites namely; Trichodina sp., monogeneans and Tetrahymena sp. of which the first two we...

Amoako, Mary

2006-01-01

42

Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné:  

OpenAIRE

An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent macrophyte at the shore from th...

Balirwa, J. S.

1998-01-01

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Toxicidade aguda de herbicidas a tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Acute toxicity to herbicides to Oreochromis niloticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade de alevinos de Oreochromis niloticus a diversos herbicidas. Para isso, foram realizados dois ensaios, sendo, no primeiro, avaliadas concentrações de atrazina (0; 2,5; 5; 10; e 20 mg L-1), visando a determinação da concentração letal a 50% dos [...] indivíduos (CL50), e, no segundo, a sensibilidade às mesclas dos herbicidas alachlor + atrazina (5,33 + 5,33 mg L-1), diuron + MSMA (5,33 + 2,13 mg L-1), paraquat (1,33 mg L-1) e 2,4-D + picloram (1,28 + 0,34 mg L-1), com contagem de mortes 96 horas após exposição aos produtos. No primeiro ensaio foi observado elevado declínio na sobrevivência dos alevinos a partir de 3 mg L-1 do herbicida atrazina, com CL50 estimada de 5,02 mg L-1. No segundo, a mistura alachlor + atrazina promoveu o maior efeito de mortalidade sobre os alevinos de tilápia. Com 72 horas de exposição, a escala de intoxicação evidenciou redução nos números de indivíduos de, aproximadamente, 17,4% para os produtos paraquat, 2,4-D + picloram e diuron + MSMA e de 100% para alachlor + atrazina. Os dados permitem concluir que a CL50 obtida para o atrazina é inferior àquela mencionada como tóxica para truta e que a mistura alachlor + atrazina pode ser caracterizada como de risco para O. niloticus, mesmo quando aplicada em doses normais de uso. Abstract in english Two assays were carried out to evaluate Oreochromis niloticus sensitivity to different herbicides. In the first experiment, atrazin concentrations (0; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mg L-1) were evaluated aiming to determine lethal concentration (LC50) to O. niloticus. In the second assay, the effects of the her [...] bicide mixtures alachlor + atrazin (5.33 + 5.33 mg L-1), diuron + MSMA (5.33 + 2.13 mg L-1 ), paraquat (1.33 mg L-1 ) and 2,4-D + picloran (1.28 + 0.34 mg L-1 ), were evaluated on O. niloticus survival after 96 h of exposure. In the first assay, a sharp decrease in fingerlings survival was observed from 3 mg L-1 of atrazin with CL50 value of 5.02 mg L-1 and a high biomass decrease due to herbicide presence. In the second assay, a greater negative effect was observed on fingerlings by alachlor + atrazin. . After 72 h of incubation, intoxication rate showed a reduction in the number of individuals of 17.4% for paraquat, 2,4 D + picloram and diuron + MSMA, and of 100% for alachlor + atrazin. It was concluded that CL50 obtained for atrazin is inferior to that listed as toxic to trouts and that the alachlor + atrazin mixture can be characterized as a risk to O. niloticus, even when applied at commercially recommended rates.

R.G., Botelho; J.B., Santos; T.A., Oliveira; R.R., Braga; E.C.M., Byrro.

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IMMERSION VACCINATION OF NEWLY HATCHED AND SEX REVERSED NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) USING A STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE VACCINE  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this investigation was to assess immersion Streptococcus iniae vaccination of newly hatched and sex reversed Nile tilapia fry against S. iniae. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; 0.01 g wet weight; 160,000 fish/1500 L) were immunized by bath immersion using a 1/500 dilution of m...

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BIOLOG MICROLOG® IDENTIFICATION OF Lactococcus garvieae INFECTION IN NILE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus AND PINTADO Pseudoplathystoma corruscans FROM BRAZIL  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactococcus garvieae infection in cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans from Brazil is reported. This is the first evidence of the presence of this pathogen from Brazilian fish and the first report of L. garvieae infection in either Nile tilapia or ...

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Growth Response and Acquired Resistance of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Following Infection or Vaccination with Streptococcus iniae  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth performance and acquired resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) that survived Streptococcus iniae infection was determined. Tilapia were challenged with three doses of S. iniae (8.8 x 10 to the 3rd power, 8.8 x 10 to the 4th power and 8.8 x 10 to the 5th power CFU fish-1 for ...

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Effect of Some Water Pollutants on the Biology of the Nile Bolti, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Samples of water and Oreochromis niloticus fish were collected from El-Mahmoudya channel near Alexandria for contaminants determination. The data show that El Mahmoudya channel water includes relatively high levels of Fe, Cu and chlordane and much higher levels of Zn and lindane. Most of the dissolved, metals and organic contaminants or their metabolites were monitored in the fish and then eggs. The above pollutants were found to affect spawning behaviour and duration. The average number of eggs per spawn were higher in the control groups than the contaminated ones. The residue levels monitored in the eggs affected the fry survival of the Nile fish.

K.K. Barakat

2004-01-01

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Salinity Tolerance and Preference of Hatchery Reared Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linneaus 1758  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted in fisheries laboratory of Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Nigeria on salinity tolerance and preference of hatchery reared Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linneaus, 1758. Tilapias are important candidate species for aquaculture and are increasingly cultured in polyculture system with shrimp. Thus creating a demand for Tilapia genotypes well suited to elevated salinities. O. niloticus is a member of the Family Cichlidae and one of most cultured fish species in Nigeria. It is known for its high prolific rate of breeding and multiplication. Six hundred and sixty (660 fingerlings of the fish measuring between 53-140 mm TL and weighing 8.96 to 21.56 g BW were subjected to salinity regimes of 0-10‰ for 28 days. All the fish survived in 0-7‰, and 100% death was recorded in 9 and 10‰. Different levels of behavioural responses to threat and feeding were observed among the fish. Salinities 0-7‰ were tolerated by the fish, however the most preferred salinity was 1‰. The present study as demonstrated in the laboratory therefore, suggests the possibility of culturing Nile tilapia, O. niloticus in both fresh and low brackish water environments and as added data to the existed reviews on this economically valued fish species. The salinity regimes well that were tolerated and preferred for optimal survival, growth and behavioural performances of O. niloticus are therefore investigated.

E.O. Lawson

2011-03-01

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Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

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Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using {sup 203}Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

Wang Rui [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-08-15

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Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using 203Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

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Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.  

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Full Text Available Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition: 1 visual contact (V; 2 chemical contact (Ch; 3 chemical and visual contact (Ch+V; 4 no sensory contact (Iso - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning and gonadosomatic index (GSI of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test, induced spawning in females (3 spawning in V and also 3 in Ch+V condition, and increased GSI in males (mean ± SEM; V: 1.39 ± 0.08, Ch+V: 1.21 ± 0.08, Ch: 1.04 ± 0.07, Iso: 0.82 ± 0.07%; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test. Chemical communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

A.L.S. Castro

2009-04-01

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Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium  

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Full Text Available Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é idêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses.The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other teleostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

S. Garcia-Santos

2007-04-01

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Selection for growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in low-input environments  

OpenAIRE

Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus,is one of the most important species farmed in the world and is the mainstay of many resource-poor fish farmers. The majority of its culturing is carried out in semi-intensive systems with a wide array of pond inputs from the farm. These systems are characterized by poor fish growth and low yields. Studies have shown that only a small percentage of the nutrient input in these systems is converted to harvestable products. Efficient breeding programs are neede...

Charo-karisa, H.

2006-01-01

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Comparative assessment of bioload of healthy and diseased Oreochromis niloticus as means of food security  

OpenAIRE

Thirty-one (31) samples each of diseased and healthy Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from Otamiri River, in Nekede, Owerri West; Imo State Nigeria was examined to detect the presence of bacterial and helminth fauna. The intestine, liver, gill, tissue and skin of the fish were examined. Bacteriological analysis revealed counts of healthy diseased organs to fall between 6.0 x 104 – 3.5 x 107 cfu/g and 5.7 x 106 – 1.9 x 1011 cfu/g respectively. The result however indicated that the bact...

Ogbulie, Toochukwu Ekwutosi; Nwigwe, Harriet Chinyelu; Anyadoh, Sylvia Onyinyechi

2011-01-01

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Morphometric Characters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Thailand  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to describe the morphometric characteristics of a Thailand strain of Oreochromis niloticus. The total length of experimental fish ranged from 7.96-17.36 cm. Body measurement and their proportions are extensively used in identification of this species. These following 18 measurements were determined for each fish: Total length (TL; Standard length (SL; Body depth (BD; Pre-dorsal length (PDL; Pre-pectoral length (PPCL; Pre-pelvic length (PPVL; Pre-anal length (PAL; Depth of caudal peduncle (DCP; Length of caudal peduncle (LCP; Head length (HL; Eye diameter (ED; Snout length (SNL; Upper jaw length (UJL; Lower jaw length (LJL; Caudal fin length (CFL; Pectoral fin length (PFL; Length of dorsal fin base (LDFB; Length of anal fin base (LAFB. The rate of growth of different morphological body parts of the fish in relation to its total length were studies. Additional, the total length and body weight relationship was found to be straight line in logarithmic scale expressed as Log BW=3.026 Log TL-1.839. The value of regression co-efficient obtained for the length-weight relationship 3.026. Our finding suggested that selection for growth using this equation was a good alternative for measuring weight in field when accurate weighing balances were not available. Hence, the present study was provided the information of the various body parts measurement of Tilapia and to establish mathematical equations relating to these various morphometric relationships which could be utilized for the conversion of one measurement into another.

Piya KOSAI

2014-10-01

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Effect of an Insecticide Abamectin on Some Biochemical Characteristics of Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis Niloticus)  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Presence of pesticide in streams and lakes is largely due to the runoff from agricultural fields. Pesticides are not highly selective but are generally toxic to many macrophytes, non-target organisms such as fish. Fish, generally accumulate contaminants from aquatic environments and have been largely used in food safety studies. Approach: The toxic effect of the insecticide abamectin on oxygen consumption and some biochemical characteristics (total prote...

Al-kahtani, Mohammed A.

2011-01-01

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Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus from Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Al-Khadoud Spring is one of the largest spring in Al-Hassa governorate (Saudi Arabia. Due to the extended domestic activities and urbanization as well as the continuous industrial and agricultural growth of the region, spring water quality is potentially changing. Approach: This study was conducted to measure toxic heavy metal concentrations in water and fish samples along the spring channel. Filtered spring water and tissues (liver and muscle of captured fish were analyzed for heavy metals in an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer equipped with a Varian Model. Results: The concentrations of metals in water were found in the following order: Fe2+>Zn2+>Cu2+ >Pb2+>Mn2+>Cd2+. The levels of heavy metals recorded in water in this study were generally low, when compared to WHO and USEPA recommended levels in water, except iron which was found to be higher than the recommended levels. In fish samples collected from the polluted spring, metal levels were significantly higher than the levels in water, indicating bioaccumulation. The highest levels of metals were generally reported in fish liver than muscle. Hepatic metal levels were ranked as follow: Zn2+>Cu2+>Pb2+>Cd2+. Conclusion: The present results showed that, the fishes, based on the higher levels of metal bioaccumulation, could be unsafe for human consumption. Consequently, very close monitoring of heavy metal loads in Al-Khadoud spring is recommended in view of the possible risks to health of consumers.

Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

2009-01-01

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Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano.

Lia Ferraz de Arruda

2006-12-01

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Physiological Studies on Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystin  

OpenAIRE

The effects of microcystin produced by the toxic cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa on bioaccumulation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) of tilapia fish (collected from Al-Khadoud spring, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia) were investigated. The results showed that microcystin contained in cyanobacterial blooms induce CAT and SOD activity in a time-dependent manner. The data also shows that microcystin concentration in muscle was much lower than in liver, as the liver ...

Al-kahtani, M. A.; Fathi, A. A.

2008-01-01

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Health Condition of a Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Earthen Ponds, Northern Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Investigation on health conditions of a farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in two upazilas of Mymensingh District were carried out through clinical and histopathological observation during September, 2010 to March, 2011. Fish sample and water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia) were monitored on a monthly basis. Clinical observations of the fish were also done for any kind of abnormalities at monthly intervals. Samples of skin, muscle, l...

Shamsuddin, M.; Belal Hossain, M.; Khatun, T.; Ahmed, G. U.

2012-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in tilapia (Oreochromis aureus × Oreochromis niloticus) after intravenous and oral administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetics of doxycycline was studied in plasma after a single dose (20 mg/kg) of intravenous or oral administration to tilapia (Oreochromis aureus × Oreochromis niloticus) reared in fresh water at 24 °C. Plasma samples were collected from six fish per sampling point. Doxycycline concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a 0.005 ?g/mL limit of detection, then were subjected to noncompartmental analysis. Following oral administration, the double-peak phenomenon was observed, and the first (Cmax1 ) and second (Cmax2) peaks were 1.99 ± 0.43 ?g/mL at 2.0 h and 2.27 ± 0.38 ?g/mL at 24.0 h, respectively. After the intravenous injection, a Cmax2 (12.12 ± 1.97 ?g/mL) was also observed, and initial concentration of 45.76 ?g/mL, apparent elimination rate constant (?z) of 0.018 per h, apparent elimination half-life (t1/2?z) of 39.0 h, systemic total body clearance (Cl) of 41.28 mL/h/kg, volume of distribution (Vz) of 2323.21 mL/kg, and volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss) of 1356.69 mL/kg were determined, respectively. While after oral administration, the ?z, t1/2?z, and bioavailability of doxycycline were 0.009 per h, 77.2 h, and 23.41%, respectively. It was shown that doxycycline was relatively slowly and incompletely absorbed, extensively distributed, and slowly eliminated in tilapia, in addition, doxycycline might undergo enterohepatic recycling in tilapia. PMID:24479741

Yang, F; Li, Z L; Shan, Q; Zeng, Z L

2014-08-01

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Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

2006-03-15

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Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers (? and ?) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels

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Lack of association between Flavobacterium columnare genomovar and virulence in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) × Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner).  

Science.gov (United States)

Columnaris disease can be problematic in tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) production. An understanding of the pathogenesis and virulence of Flavobacterium columnare is needed to develop prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the virulence of genetically defined isolates of F. columnare in sex-reversed hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) × O. aureus (Steindachner). A series of immersion challenge trials were performed using isolates of the five established genomovars of F. columnare: I, II, II-B, III and I/II. The mean per cent mortality of fish challenged with genomovar I, II and III isolates ranged from 0 to 100, 3.3-78 and 3.3-75%, respectively. The mean per cent mortality of fish challenged with genomovar II-B ranged from 35 to 96.7%, and the only genomovar I/II isolate tested caused no mortality. Contrary to previous work in other fish species, there did not appear to be an association between F. columnare genomovar and virulence in tilapia. The challenge model used resulted in acute mortality. An alternative challenge model was tested by cohabitating healthy fish with dead fish infected with F. columnare. This method resulted in rapid appearance of clinical signs and mortality, suggesting the potential for F. columnare to increase in virulence upon growth on/in a fish host. PMID:24909885

Shoemaker, C A; LaFrentz, B R

2015-05-01

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Induction of testis-ova in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to 17?-estradiol  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs, 17?-estradiol was tested on the fish Oreochromis niloticus in order to understand the intersex relationship of fish, in which sequential hermaphrodism can consist of a male changing into a female (protandry or a female changing into a male (protogyny. The fish were equally divided into 3 groups. The first group was the control group; the second and third groups were treated with 10 and 100 mg L-1 of 17?-estradiol, respectively, for 30 days. The overall result in this experiment had no significant effect on the growth parameters. Among the two treated groups, the low concentration group shows results similar to those of the control groups. The high concentration group shows changes to the male reproductive system with the appearance of the testis-ova present resulting in an intersex condition of the male gonads. With this experiment, it can be concluded that 17?-estradiol at high concentration reveals positive changes towards the male reproductive system of the fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

Chaivira Sachamahithinant

2011-03-01

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Heritability of cold tolerance in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles  

OpenAIRE

The inability of tilapia to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern as it reduces their growing season and leads to over winter mortality. In this study, cold tolerance of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated and heritability estimates obtained. A total of 80 maternal full-sib families were produced by mating each sire with two dams. Fry were grown in hapas suspended in earthen ponds fertilized with chicken manure, and were 41¿91 days post-hatch at th...

Charo-karisa, H.; Rezk, M. A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

2005-01-01

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Impact of Introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on Non-native Aquatic Ecosystems  

OpenAIRE

The global invasion of non-native aquatic ecosystems by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is well documented and coincides with their increased use as an aquaculture species. Aquaculture can be defined as the farming of fish or other aquatic organisms and it varies considerably in terms of production practices. Generally, freshwater finfish, such as Nile tilapia, are reared in inland ponds (closed systems). However, in several countries, floating cages are increasingly used to rear Nile ti...

Fonseca-alves, C. E.; Vicente, I. S. T.

2013-01-01

68

PROTECTIVE ANTIBODY RESPONSES FOLLOWING VACCINATION WITH STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE IN NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were conducted to further characterize a highly efficacious Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine containing extracellular products [ECP] and formalin-killed whole cells. One study assessed the efficacy of stored reconstituted S. agalactiae vaccine,...

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Natural mating in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) : implications for reproductive success, inbreeding and cannibalism  

OpenAIRE

Niletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.) is one of the most important species among the commercially farmed tilapias. Both small-scale and commercial production of tilapia is rapidly expanding in many countries of the world because tilapias meet many of the desirable characteristics for an ideal species for aquaculture: fast growth, high acceptability to consumers and tolerance of a wide range of culture conditions. Fry production inNiletilapia, Oreochromis niloticus is typically achieved by m...

Fessehaye, Y.

2006-01-01

70

Parasite fauna of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites-Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae-were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers. PMID:21688067

Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Nattabi, Juliet K; Agoe, Catherine; Schiemer, Fritz

2012-01-01

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Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803 and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857, from the Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire  

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Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii found in Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire. Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight, endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight, as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83 and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84 and with pp’DDT (R = 0.81. In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91. The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Helene Roche

2007-01-01

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Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

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Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage / Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os [...] objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus) após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano. Abstract in english One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of incr [...] easing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.

Lia Ferraz de, Arruda; Ricardo, Borghesi; Aelson, Brum; Marisa Regitano, D' Arce; Marília, Oetterer.

2006-12-01

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Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de va [...] rredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h. Adicionalmente, alguns dos resultados obtidos pela análise em microscopia de luz foram confirmados com o recurso da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Abstract in english Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of [...] control O. niloticus (freshwater group) was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.

António, Fontaínhas-Fernandes; Ana, Luzio; Sofia, Garcia-Santos; João, Carrola; Sandra, Monteiro.

1057-10-01

75

Organic insecticide spinosad causes in vivo oxidative effects in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinosad is an organic insecticide derived from a naturally occurring soil bacterium and is used in organic farming worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo toxic effects of spinosad in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus as a model organism. The fish were exposed to sublethal spinosad concentrations (25, 50, 75 mg L(-1) ) for 24-48-72 h to determine tGSH, GSH, GSSG, and TBARS contents, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GPx, GR, GST enzymes activities using spectrophotometrical methods, and Hsp70 content by an ELISA technique. Spinosad caused elevations in the contents of tGSH, GSH, GSSG, Hsp70, and reductions in the ratio of GSH/GSSG and GPx activity and an induction in the GR activity. The results indicated that spinosad had oxidative effects in the brain tissue by altering the parameters in GSH-related antioxidant system and Hsp70. It was also suggested that spinosad-induced free-radicals were eliminated by GSH-related antioxidant system in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus. PMID:22223469

Piner, Petek; Uner, Nevin

2014-03-01

76

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

Suanyuk, N.

2005-02-01

77

Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three specimens of O. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylis sp.) and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp.) were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems. PMID:25054495

Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Garcia, Fabiana; Schalch, Sérgio Henrique Canello; Gozi, Kátia Suemi; Silva, Reinaldo José da

2014-01-01

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Effect of ionizing radiation on Tailpipe (Oreochromis niloticus) protein biofilms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New alternatives to traditional packaging have considered the use of renewable sources as raw material to form films including proteins. In this paper we used myofibrillar protein from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), that in our country, is commercialized at competitive prices comparative to these practiced in developing country. The films were prepared according a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol. The films were irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 1.5 MeV at dose range from 0 kGy to 200 kGy. The samples were kept at 25 deg C and 58% relative moisture until the analysis. The main properties studied were color, opacity, solubility, and mechanical properties. (author)

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Comparative assessment of bioload of healthy and diseased Oreochromis niloticus as means of food security  

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Full Text Available Thirty-one (31 samples each of diseased and healthy Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus from Otamiri River, in Nekede, Owerri West; Imo State Nigeria was examined to detect the presence of bacterial and helminth fauna. The intestine, liver, gill, tissue and skin of the fish were examined. Bacteriological analysis revealed counts of healthy diseased organs to fall between 6.0 x 104 – 3.5 x 107 cfu/g and 5.7 x 106 – 1.9 x 1011 cfu/g respectively. The result however indicated that the bacterial load of the diseased fish samples were higher than those of the apparently healthy fish. Identification tests of the probable bacterial isolates revealed the isolation of Vibrio sp, Renibacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Yersinia sp, Pseudomonas sp, Nocardia sp, Lactobacillus sp, Sporocytophaga, Staphylococcus sp, Mycobacterium sp, Serratia sp Proteus sp and Edwardsiella sp. Twenty-nine (29 ie 46.8% of the 62 samples studied were found to be infected by helminth fauna identified as Camallanus sp, Procamallanus beviconchus, Capillaria sp, Clinostonium tilapiae, Euclinostonium heterostoma, Cleidodiscus sp and Bothricephalus acheilognathi. Percentage helminth infestation was found to be higher in males than females with sub adults recording the highest infection rate of 56.08%. Hence helminth infestation varies amongst age group. This study therefore reveals the bacterial & helminth load of cultured organs of Oreochromis niloticus with a view to provide information on the state of environmental and personal hygiene in the environment, the level of contamination of water and the security and/or insecurity nature of using fish as food.

Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

2011-05-01

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Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus) na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência), características de ca [...] rcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático) e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo) dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05) nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival), characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fil [...] let, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index) and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract) of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05) for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P

Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Anderson, Coldebella; Guilherme Wolff, Bueno; Aldi, Feiden.

2010-12-01

81

Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudiamos la tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) en la reserva de Opa, Nigeria, desde octubre 1997 hasta febrero del 2000. Recolectamos 1 430 especímenes con red lanzada y red de arrastre. El diámetro de los huevos varía entre los 2.12 mm y 2.69 mm con un promedio de 2.47±0.02. El índice gona [...] dosomático de las hembras fue de 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637), y en machos fue de 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789). En la reserva este pez se reprodujo durante todo el periodo de estudio. Hay cuido materno: la hembra lleva los huevos y alevines en la boca. La proporción machos/hembras fue aproximadamente 1:1. La fecundidad varía entre 73 y 1 810 huevos por hembra con un promedio de 815 huevos. Abstract in english The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) in Opa reservoir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods em [...] ployed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied between 2.12 mm and 2.69 mm with a mean of 2.47±0.02. Female gonadosomatic index was 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637). The male gonadosomatic index was 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789). In Opa reservoir, O. niloticus bred throughout the study period. The species was a maternal mouth brooder with the female fish carrying eggs and fry in the buccal cavities. The sex ratio of O. niloticus was approximately 1:1 in the reservoir. The fecundity of the species was between 73 eggs and 1 810 eggs per female with a mean fecundity of 815 eggs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2): 595-602. Epub 2007 June, 29.

O.O, Komolafe; G.A.O, Arawomo.

2007-06-01

82

Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus in Opa reservoir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods employed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied between 2.12 mm and 2.69 mm with a mean of 2.47±0.02. Female gonadosomatic index was 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637. The male gonadosomatic index was 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789. In Opa reservoir, O. niloticus bred throughout the study period. The species was a maternal mouth brooder with the female fish carrying eggs and fry in the buccal cavities. The sex ratio of O. niloticus was approximately 1:1 in the reservoir. The fecundity of the species was between 73 eggs and 1 810 eggs per female with a mean fecundity of 815 eggs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 595-602. Epub 2007 June, 29.Estudiamos la tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus en la reserva de Opa, Nigeria, desde octubre 1997 hasta febrero del 2000. Recolectamos 1 430 especímenes con red lanzada y red de arrastre. El diámetro de los huevos varía entre los 2.12 mm y 2.69 mm con un promedio de 2.47±0.02. El índice gonadosomático de las hembras fue de 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637, y en machos fue de 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789. En la reserva este pez se reprodujo durante todo el periodo de estudio. Hay cuido materno: la hembra lleva los huevos y alevines en la boca. La proporción machos/hembras fue aproximadamente 1:1. La fecundidad varía entre 73 y 1 810 huevos por hembra con un promedio de 815 huevos.

O.O Komolafe

2007-06-01

83

Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) as a reproductive enhancer agent for the adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tilapias are becoming increasingly popular culture fish because of their superior culture adaptability. In recent years, there has been a great interest in the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg commercial diet, referred to treatments numbers T1, T2, T3, and T4, for males and T5, T6, T7, and T8 treatments for females) of a new probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) on hematological and biochemical parameters, serum sex hormones, and the reproductive efficiency parameters of the adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 8 weeks. Results revealed that high levels of probiotics diet, 15 g (T4, ?) and 10 g (T7, ?) probiotic/kg diet, significantly (P ? 0.05) enhanced the physiological responses (hematological as well as serum biochemical parameters) together with, reproductive performances (sex hormones, testes and sperm quality parameters, absolute and relative fecundity, and ovarian measurements). Therefore, it could be conclude that Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) is useful at levels of 15 g (T4) and 10 g (T7)/kg diet in improving the reproductive efficiency of adult O. niloticus males and females, respectively. Thus, the use of Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) may be economically important for fish hatcheries. PMID:25240678

Mehrim, Ahmed I; Khalil, Fathy F; Hassan, Montaha E

2015-04-01

84

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de Vitamina E no desempenho e qualidade de carcaça de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Os experimentos foram conduzidos no ranário experimenta do Departamento de Biologia Animal, UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de 09/01/ 2005 a 25/04/2005, t [...] otalizando 106 dias. Foram utilizadas 400 pós larvas revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus)em um experimento com um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina E monofosfato) numa ração isoproteíca 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com quatro repetições. Não se observou efeito significativo para peso final, para ganho de peso total, para ganho de peso diário dos animais, para taxa de eficiência protéica e para taxa de sobrevivência. Para o índice viscerossomático houve diferença significativa para o tratamento sem suplementação, com 100 mg e com 150 mg/kg desta vitamina. Para o ácido graxo oléico (C18:1) a utilização do tratamento sem vitamina E foi significamente maior em relação aos outros tratamentos. O ácido graxo eicosapentaenóico EPA (C20:5?3) foi estatisticamente significativo para o tratamento sem suplementação de vitamina E. O ácido graxo linoléico (C18:2?6), ácido graxo ?-linolênico (C18:3?6), ácido graxo ?-linoléico (C18:3?3) e ácido graxo araquidônico (C20:4?6) aumentaram de forma quadrática até o nível estimado de 110 mg, 111 mg, 113 mg e 140 mg de vitamina E por kg de ração, respectivamente. Abstract in english The effect of vitamin E supplementation on performance and carcass quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The research was carried out in the experimental frog raising facilities at the Department of Animal Biology, UFV, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Four hundred post larva reversed (Oreochr [...] omis niloticus) were used for studies. The experiments were randomly designed with five treatments (supplying 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of vitamin E mono-phosphate) in an isoproteic ration with 36% CP and isocaloric with 3600 kcal/kg of DE with four repetitions. It was not observed significant effect for final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain, protein efficiency rate and survivor rate. The viscerosomatic index showed significant differences for the treatment without vitamin E supplementation and with 100 and 150 mg of this vitamin. For oleic fatty acid, the treatment without vitamin E was significantly higher. The eicosapen-taenoic fatty acid (C20:5?3) was statistically significant for the treatment without vitamin E. The fatty acids linoleic (C18:2?6), ?-linolenic (C18:3?6), ?-linoleic (C18:3?3), and arachidonic (C20:4?6) increased in a quadratic way up to the estimated levels of 110 mg, 111mg, 113 mg, and 140 mg of vitamin E/kg of ration, respectively.

R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; D.P., Veloso; D.O., Fontes; R.F., Silva.

2010-06-01

85

Requerimientos nutricionales para Tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nutritional requirements / Exigências nutricionais para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Estarevisão foi realizada com o objetivo de recolher informação dos recentesavanços sobre as exigências de alguns nutrientes para a tilápia Nilótica (Oreochromisniloticus).Asexigências de proteína bruta estão sendo substituídas pela exigência especificade aminoácidos, como no caso da lisina e da met [...] ionina, aplicando o conceito deproteína ideal. Asexigências nutricionais da tilápia do Nilo recomendadas pelo NRC (1993),diferem em algumas quantidades das exigências nutricionais estimadas paratilápia em condições tropicais. O fornecimento de ração atendendo as exigênciasde nutrientes para as diferentes fases de vida da tilápia permite obter ótimosrendimentos no ganho de peso e na conversão alimentar, garantindo um statussanitário alto na produção desta espécie. Abstract in spanish Estarevisión fue realizada con objetivo de acopiar información de los recientesavances sobre los requerimientos de algunos nutrientes para la tilapianilótica(Oreochromisniloticus). Los requerimientos de proteína bruta, estánsiendo substituidos por el requerimiento específico de aminoácidos, como en [...] elcaso de lisina y metionina, aplicando el concepto de proteína ideal. Losrequerimientos nutricionales de tilapia delNilo sugeridos por NRC (1993),difieren en algunas cantidades a los requerimientos nutricionales estimadospara tilapia en condiciones tropicales. El suministro de raciones atendiendolas exigencias de nutrientes para las diferentes fases de vida de la tilapia,permite obtener óptimos rendimientos en ganancia de peso y conversiónalimenticia, garantizando un status sanitario alto en la producción de estaespecie. Abstract in english The purpose of this review was tocompile information regarding recent advances concerning some Nile tilapia (OreochromisNiloticus) nutrient requirements. The raw protein requirements are beingsubstituted for specific amino acid requirements, such as lysine andmethionine, applying the ideal protein c [...] oncept. Nile tilapia"s nutritionalrequirements suggested by NRC (1993) differ by some amounts from thenutritional requirements estimated for tilapia in tropical conditions. Thesupply of rations attending to the nutrient demand from the different phases oftilapia"s lifecycle lead to optimum yield being obtained regarding weight gainand feed conversion, guaranteeing high sanitary status when producingthis specie.

Torres-Novoa, Diana M.; Hurtado-Nery, Víctor L..

2012-06-01

86

Exigência de lisina pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), na fase de terminação / Lysine requirement of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), for grow-out phase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de lisina pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Setenta e dois peixes revertidos sexualmente e com peso vivo médio inicial de 117,9 ± 0,67g foram alimentados por 50 dias com quatro rações (25% proteína bruta e 3090kcal de energia di [...] gestível kg-1) contendo diferentes teores de inclusão de L-Lisina HCl: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7%, correspondente a rações com 1,13; 1,27; 1,42 e 1,57% de lisina, respectivamente. Os peixes foram distribuídos em 12 tanques com volume de 1000L cada, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e seis peixes por unidade experimental. Não foram observadas diferenças na temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica e transparência da água nos diferentes tratamentos. Não foi observado efeito (P>0,05) dos teores de inclusão de lisina sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar, gordura visceral, índice hepato-somático e rendimento de carcaça. Foi observado efeito quadrático (P Abstract in english The present study was carried out to determine the lysine requirement for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Seventy two reversed fish with average weight initial of 117.9 ± 0.67g were for by 50 days with four diets (25% of crude protein and 3090kcal kg-1 of digestible energy) containing differen [...] t values of inclusion of L-Lysine HCl: 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7%, corresponding to rations with 1.13; 1.27; 1.42 and 1.57% of lysine, respectively. Fish were distributed in 12 tanks of 1000-L each, in a completely randomized design with four treatments, three replicates and six fish per experimental unit. No differences were observed in the temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity of the water in the different treatments. No effects (P>0.05) of lysine inclusion were observed on survival rate, feed conversion, visceral fat, hepatosomatic index and carcass yield. There was no sign of quadratic effect (P

Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Daniele, Botaro; Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Lilian Carolina Rosa, Silva; Carmino, Hayashi.

1571-15-01

87

Exigência de lisina pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, na fase de terminação Lysine requirement of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, for grow-out phase  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de lisina pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Setenta e dois peixes revertidos sexualmente e com peso vivo médio inicial de 117,9 ± 0,67g foram alimentados por 50 dias com quatro rações (25% proteína bruta e 3090kcal de energia digestível kg-1 contendo diferentes teores de inclusão de L-Lisina HCl: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7%, correspondente a rações com 1,13; 1,27; 1,42 e 1,57% de lisina, respectivamente. Os peixes foram distribuídos em 12 tanques com volume de 1000L cada, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e seis peixes por unidade experimental. Não foram observadas diferenças na temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica e transparência da água nos diferentes tratamentos. Não foi observado efeito (P>0,05 dos teores de inclusão de lisina sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar, gordura visceral, índice hepato-somático e rendimento de carcaça. Foi observado efeito quadrático (PThe present study was carried out to determine the lysine requirement for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Seventy two reversed fish with average weight initial of 117.9 ± 0.67g were for by 50 days with four diets (25% of crude protein and 3090kcal kg-1 of digestible energy containing different values of inclusion of L-Lysine HCl: 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7%, corresponding to rations with 1.13; 1.27; 1.42 and 1.57% of lysine, respectively. Fish were distributed in 12 tanks of 1000-L each, in a completely randomized design with four treatments, three replicates and six fish per experimental unit. No differences were observed in the temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity of the water in the different treatments. No effects (P>0.05 of lysine inclusion were observed on survival rate, feed conversion, visceral fat, hepatosomatic index and carcass yield. There was no sign of quadratic effect (P<0.05 on weight gain and protein efficiency ratio, estimating the requirements values of 1.42% (5.7% of crude protein or 4.8mg of lysine kcal-1 of digestible energy in diet and 1.35% of lysine (5.4% of crude protein, respectively. Considering the performance, a requirement value of 1.42% of lysine (5.7% of protein or 4.8 mg of lysine/kcal of digestible energy in diet was obtained for Nile tilapia, in grow-out phase.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya

2004-10-01

88

High temperature-induced sterility in the female Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

High temperature treatments induce germ cell loss in gonads of vertebrate animals, including fish. It could be a reliable source for induction of sterility if the treatments led to a permanent loss of germ cells. Here we report that heat treatment at 37°C for 45-60days caused a complete loss of germ cells in female Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and that sterility was achieved in fish at all stages of their life cycle. Unlike previous observations, germ cells did not repopulate even after returning them to the water at control conditions suggesting permanent depletion of germ cells. Gonadal somatic cells immunopositive for 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) were clustered at one end of the germ cell depleted gonads close to the blood vessel. Serum level of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17?-estradiol was significantly decreased in sterile fish compared to control. Body weight of sterile fish was higher than control fish at the end of experiment. Our observations of increased growth and permanent sterilization in the high temperature-treated fish suggest that this method could be an appropriate and eco-friendly tool for inducing sterility in fish with a higher thermal tolerance. PMID:25745814

Pandit, Narayan Prasad; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Nakamura, Masaru

2015-03-01

89

EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05 differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR, condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein retention (NPR, apparent net energy retention (ANER and hepatosomatic index (HSI values. The diet containing a mixture of all the 4 dietary lipids in equal proportions (3.5g of each lipid per 100g of diet produced the best results (SGR, I. 73%; condition factor, 2.95; FCR, 1.27; PER, 2.06; NPR, 29.30% and ANER, 20.21% whereas the diet containing beef tallow showed the poorest performance (SGR, 1.50%; condition factor, 2.76; FCR, 1.53; PER, 1.73; NPR, 26.26% and ANER, 18.53%. The growth performance of fish fed on diet containing beef tallow was however, significantly (P< 0.05 better than that of lipid free diet. The diets containing corn oil, olive oil, and cod liver oil did not show any significant difference in the growth performance of fish. The hepatosomatic index (HSI value increased in fish fed diets containing lipids (maximum 1.55% in case of corn oil as compared to those fed lipid free diet ( 1.31 %. No significant differences were observed in the feed consumption of fish fed different diets. The type of dietary lipid significantly affected the body composition of fish. The data on the body composition of fish is very much correlated with the growth performance data. The fish fed on diets containing lipids showed higher body fat and crude protein but lower moisture and gross energy contents as compared to those fed lipid free diet. The fish fed on diet containing beef tallow however showed similar body protein and ash contents as those fed lipid free diet. The results of the present study suggest that diet supplemented with a mixture of different types of lipids will produce the best growth response in Oreochromis niloticus.

Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

2000-04-01

90

CARACTERES HEMATOLÓGICOS EN INDIVIDUOS DE TILAPIA NILÓTICA (Oreochromis niloticus, Trewavas 1983) CON PESOS ENTRE 50-150 g y 150-250 g, ESTACIÓN PISCÍCOLA, UNIVERSIDAD DE CALDAS, COLOMBIA / HEMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus, Trewavas 1983) INDIVIDUALS WEIGHING BETWEEN 50 AND 150 g AND 150 AND 250 g, FISH STATION, UNIVERSIDAD DE CALDAS, COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se compararon parámetros hematológicos en O. niloticuscon pesos entre 50-150 g y 150-250 g, para obtener referentes de comparación, realizados en la Estación Piscícola, de la Universidad de Caldas, Colombia. Se utilizo un diseño completamente al azar con submuestreos; las pruebas hematológicas se de [...] positaron en tubos de ensayo con EDTA, para su análisis en laboratorio. Se aplicó el software SPSS, la prueba Kolmogorow-Smirnow, la prueba T, de Levene, y de Kruskal Wallis, para las correlaciones entre los parámetros hematológicos evaluados. Al correlacionar los dos rangos de peso en O. niloticus no existen diferencias significativas en los valores hematológicos. Los análisis estadísticos encontrados fueron similares en los dos rangos de peso así: número de eritrocitos de 1,95±0,58 y 2,19±0,64 x10(6)/mm³, hemoglobina 9,32±2,63 y 9,94±2,84 g/dL; hematocrito de 32,44±5,78 y 33,56±6,86%, proteínas plasmáticas 31,86±6,14 y 32,20±6,50 g/dL y una velocidad de segmentación eritrocitaria de 7,56±5,52 y 7,94±5,17 mm/h, un volumen corpuscular medio 183,43±75,44 y 165,76±60,80 u³, hemoglobina corpuscular media 50,56±22,39 y 49,19±21,27 uug y concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media de 28,68±5,39 y 29,61±5,08%, respectivamente. El referente de leucocitos para el primer rango es de 2,11±1,03 y para el segundo rango es de 2,18±0,97 células x10(5) mm³, utilizado para evaluar la línea blanca como son: trombocitos, linfocitos, neutrófilos, monocitos, eosinófilos y basófilos. Para el grado de asociación entre cada una de las variables, existe una correlación positiva entre el peso, longitud y altura, así como entre la longitud y altura. Para el nivel de hemoglobina se obtuvo una correlación positiva con neutrófilos y CHCM, el índice eritrocitarios VCM se relacionó igualmente de manera positiva con HCM y de forma negativa con el número total de eritrocitos, el índice CHCM posee correlación positiva con neutrófilos, los leucocitos totales se correlacionaron con el recuento diferencial de trombocitos, linfocitos y neutrófilos, por último se observó una correlación positiva entre trombocitos y neutrófilos, siendo similares a estudios reportados en otras condiciones ambientales. Abstract in english Hematological parameters were compared in O. niloticus weighing between 50-150 g and 150-250 g, for comparison referents, carried out at the Fishing Station, Universidad de Caldas, Colombia. A completely randomized design was used with sub-sampling; the blood samples were placed in test tubes with E [...] DTA for analysis in the laboratory. SPSS software, the Kolmogorow-Smirnov test, T test, Levene and the Kruskal Wallis tests were applied for correlations between hematologic parameters evaluated. When correlating the two weights ranges in Oreochromis niloticus no meaningful differences were found in the hematologic values. Statistical analyses found were similar in the two weight ranges as follows: erythrocyte count of 1.95±0.58 and 2.19±0.64 x10(6)/mm³, hemoglobin 9.32±2.63 and 9.94±2.84 g/dL, hematocrit of 32.44±5.78 and 33.56 ± 6.86%, plasma protein 31.86±6.14 and 32.20±6.50 g/dL and a speed erythrocyte segmentation of 7.56±5.52 and 7.94±5.17 mm/h, a mean corpuscular volume of 183.43±75.44 and 165.76±60.80 u³, mean corpuscular hemoglobin of 50.56±22.39 and 49.19±21.27 uug and concentration mean corpuscular hemoglobin of 28.68±5.39 and 29.61±5.08%, respectively. The leukocytes referent for the first range is 2.11±1.03 and for the second range it is 2.18±0.97 cells x10(5)mm³, used to evaluate the white line as: thrombocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophil's and basophils. For the degree of association between each of the variables, there is a positive correlation between weight, length and height, as well as between length and height. For the hemoglobin level a positive correlation was obtained with neutrophils and CHCM, VCM erythrocyte index also related with HCM positively and negatively to the total number of erythroc

Christine M., Hahn-von-Hessberg; Adriana, Quiroz-Bucheli; Alberto, Grajales-Quintero.

2014-06-01

91

Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

Wanderson Pantoja MF

2012-04-01

92

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina C / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin C  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de vitamina C no desempenho produtivo de tilápias revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizadas 400 pós-larvas revertidas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C monofosfato de ácido ascórbico [...] L) numa ração isoprotéica de 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com 4 repetições. Observou-se efeito significativo no peso médio final e ganho de peso com 50, 100 e 200 mg de vitamina C por kg. Não foi observada diferença significativa para o comprimento total. No entanto, para o comprimento padrão foi observada diferença significativa com os tratamentos 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg. Verificou-se efeito significativo na taxa de eficiência protéica com suplemen-tação de 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou a porcentagem de MS, proteína bruta e porcentagem de proteína no ganho de peso. Não foi observada diferença significativa dos tratamentos para extrato etéreo, porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou significativamente a concentração de glicogênio no músculo. Não foi observada diferença significativa para glicogênio do fígado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin C in the productive performance of reverted tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus). Four hundred tilapias were used. The experiment was mounted according to a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 [...] mg/kg of vitamin C monophosphate of ascorbic acid L) in a ration isoproteinic (36% of PB) and isocaloric (3600 kcal of DE/kg) with 4 repetitions. Significant effect was observed in final weight and weight gain for in treatments of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. It was not observed significant difference for the total length. However, for the standard length was observed significant difference in treatments 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Significant effect was observed for protein efficiency rate with supplementation of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Vitamin C supply did not influenced MS percentage, crude protein and protein percentage in weight gain. Significant difference was not observed for ether extract and fat percentage in weight gain. Vitamin C supply did not influence significantly the concentration of muscle glycogen. It was not observed significant difference for liver glycogen.

R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; L.M., Botion; F.K.S., Pereira; R.F., Silva; T.E.F., Maciel.

2010-12-01

93

Biochemical alterations in caged Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Joinville is an important industrial city in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and also a risk factor for the Babitonga drainage basin. Oxidative stress-related parameters were evaluated in caged tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed for 7 days (sites S1 and S2) in a Babitonga drainage basin tributary river. Site S1 showed enhanced levels of hepatic CYP1A, CYP2B-like and glutathione S-transferase activity, while site S2 showed decreased levels of glutathione and increased lipoperoxidation indexes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity. Correlation analyses revealed that oxidative stress-related parameters behaved like a group of interrelated variables, while CYPs and glutathione S-transferase seem to be independent. New putative biomarkers were evaluated in the tilapia brain. Caspase-3 activation (both sites), decreased in p38MAPK phosphorylation (site S2) and decreased expression in HSP70 (site S1) were observed. Data indicate that employed variables, when used as a group (oxidative stress-related parameters, CYP1A/2B-like, caspase-3, HSP70 and protein kinases) can be useful as predictors of pollution. PMID:20346509

Franco, Jeferson Luis; Trevisan, Rafael; Posser, Thais; Trivella, Daniela B B; Hoppe, Roberto; Martins Rosa, Juliana; Fernandes Dinslaken, Daniel; Decker, Helena; Inês Tasca, Carla; Bainy Leal, Rodrigo; Freire Marques, Maria Risoleta; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso; Luiz Dafre, Alcir

2010-07-01

94

Control of Reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) Using Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Linn.) Leaf Meal as Reproduction Inhibitor  

OpenAIRE

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf (HLM) was added to a basal diet (350g crude protein and 18.5MJ gross energy/kgdiet) at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg diets and fed to mixed-sex Oreochromis niloticus for 60 days to evaluate theeffects on growth, feed conversion ratio, reproduction traits, and histology of gonads. There were no variations(p >0.05) in growth parameters and feed conversion ratio. Indices of reproduction traits decreased withincreasing dietary HLM levels. Fish fed with the basal diet ha...

Jegede, Temitope

2010-01-01

95

EFEITO DO Lactobacillus plantarum NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE Oreochromis niloticus / Lactobacillus plantarum EFFECT ON INTESTINAL TRACT OF Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações na microbiota do trato intestinal e desempenho zootécnico de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentados com dietas suplementadas com Lactobacillus plantarum. Cento e vinte alevinos revertidos sexualmente foram distribuídos em s [...] eis caixas, divididos em dois tratamentos, em triplicata: alevinos alimentados com dieta suplementa com L. plantarum e alevinos alimentados com dieta controle. Após 42 dias, as tilápias alimentadas com a dieta suplementada com L. plantarum apresentaram maior número de bactérias ácido-lácticas, 3,5x104 UFC e 1,1x102 UFC por g de trato, e menor de bactérias totais, 5,8x106 UFC e 5,2x107 UFC por g de trato intestinal, em relação aos alimentados com dieta controle, além de incrementar em 3,9% o ganho em peso semanal, 15,6% a biomassa final e 15,5% eficiência alimentar. O uso de probiótico na alevinagem de tilápia eleva a produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided i [...] nto two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

Adolfo, Jatobá; José Luís Pedreira, Mouriño.

2015-03-01

96

Control of Reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758 Using Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Linn. Leaf Meal as Reproduction Inhibitor  

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Full Text Available Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf (HLM was added to a basal diet (350g crude protein and 18.5MJ gross energy/kgdiet at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg diets and fed to mixed-sex Oreochromis niloticus for 60 days to evaluate theeffects on growth, feed conversion ratio, reproduction traits, and histology of gonads. There were no variations(p >0.05 in growth parameters and feed conversion ratio. Indices of reproduction traits decreased withincreasing dietary HLM levels. Fish fed with the basal diet had higher and better indices of reproduction traits(Ptissues, and no lesions were observed. Fish fed 1.0g HLM/kg diet showed slight increase in interstitial cells intestes. Fish fed 2.0g HLM/kg diet showed swollen spermatids nuclei, increased interstitial cells and focalnecrosis in testes; and hydropic degeneration, ruptured follicles, granulomatous inflammation in the insterstitiumand necrosis in ovaries. Fish fed 3.0g HLM/kg diet exhibited atrophy of seminiferous tubules in testes. Fish fed4.0g HLM/kg diet, there was disintegration of spermatids and necrosis in testes and severe atretic follicles inovaries. Reproduction traits and histological observations of gonads in O. niloticus fed high dietary HLM levelsrevealed that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves may be effective as a reproduction inhibitor in O. niloticus.

Temitope JEGEDE

2010-11-01

97

Determination of selenium toxicity to Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters=Determinação da toxicidade do Selênio por meio de análises hematológicas em Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Selenium (Se is described as an essential micronutrient and participates in different biological functions, as the antioxidant defense systems maintenance and regulation. However, when in high concentrations, Se may cause toxic effects as well as hematological changes in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of selenium in the form of sodium selenate (Na2Se6+O4 in Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters, after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.14 and 1.4 mg Se6+ L-1. The erythrocytic and leukocytic series were examined over 14 days at intervals of 0, 3, 5, 7,10 and 14 days. The erythrocytic series showed significant alterations in the first 7 days, including the control group. Neutrophils and monocytes showed variations in the first 3 days at a concentration of 1.40 mgSe6+ L-1 characterizing an acute response. The total number of leukocytes was different in relation to time zero on all Se concentrations. The thrombocyte count also differed statistically from time zero and control in the first 3 days at 0.14 mgSe6+ L-1. These results indicate that different concentrations induce an acute response with diminution of total leukocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis and thrombocytosis.O selênio (Se é descrito como um micronutriente essencial e participa de diversas funções biológicas. No entanto, quando em concentrações elevadas, o Se pode causar efeitos tóxicos, bem como alterações hematológicas em peixes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a toxicidade do selênio na forma de Selenato de sódio (Na2Se6+O4 em Oreochromis niloticus com base em parâmetros hematológicos, após a exposição a diferentes concentrações (0,01, 0,14 e 1,4 mg + Se6+ L-1. A série eritrocitária e leucocitária foram examinadas por 14 dias, em intervalos de 0, 3, 5, 7,10 e 14 dias. A série eritrocítica mostrou alterações significativas nos primeiros 7 dias, incluindo o grupo controle. Neutrófilos e monócitos apresentaram variações nos primeiros 3 dias na concentração de 1,40 mgSe6+ L-1, caracterizando uma resposta aguda. O número total de leucócitos foi diferente em relação ao tempo zero em todas as concentrações de Se. A contagem de trombócitos também diferiram estatisticamente entre o tempo zero e os primeiros 3 dias a 0,14 mgSe6+ L-1. O resultados indicam que diferentes concentrações induzem a resposta aguda com diminuição dos leucócitos totais, neutrofilia, monocitose e trombocitose.

Silmara Regina Siqueira

2012-04-01

98

Quantification of Essential Fatty Acids and Assessment of the Nutritional Quality Indexes of Lipids in Tilapia Alevins and Juvenile Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

OpenAIRE

To determine the nutritional quality of the lipid segment in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) during different periods of development (alevins and juveniles), the total lipids (TL), linolenic (LNA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DHA), linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids were quantified , and the lipid nutritional quality indexes were calculated for the tilapia. The lipid profile showed that the species present high indexes of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty aci...

Ivane Benedetti Tonial; Debora Francielly Oliveira; Alexandre Rodrigo Coelho; Makoto Matsushita; Fabio Augusto Garcia Coró; Nilson Evelazio Souza; Jesui Vergilio Visentainer

2014-01-01

99

The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets / Uso de bacterias ácido lácticas aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) como promotores de crecimiento en peces alimentados con dietas bajas en proteína  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto como promotores de crecimiento de cinco cepas de bacterias ácido lácticas (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I y Streptococcus sp. II) aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus). Se formularon ocho dietas isocalóri [...] cas: una conteniendo 40% de proteína como control positivo y siete con 27% de proteína. Cinco dietas con 27% de proteína fueron suplementadas con cada una de las bacterias aislada a una concentración de 2,5x10(6) ufc g-1 de alimento. Un probiótico comercial a base de S. faecium y Lactobacillus acidophilus a la misma concentración de inclusión bacteriana a una dieta con 27% de proteína como dieta comparativa, y la última dieta no fue suplementada con bacterias (control negativo). Juveniles de tilapia (280 mg de peso basal) fueron distribuidos en acuarios de 15 L de capacidad, a una densidad de dos juveniles por litro, alimentados durante 12 semanas con las dietas experimentales. Los resultados mostraron que los organismos alimentados con las dietas suplementadas con bacterias nativas presentaron crecimiento y asimilación del alimento significativamente mayor que las dietas control. El tratamiento con Streptococcus sp. I, aislada del intestino de la tilapia, produjo el mejor crecimiento y la mejor eficiencia alimenticia, sugiriendo que esta bacteria es apropiada como un promotor de crecimiento nativo de tilapia. Abstract in english In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II), isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: on [...] e containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6) cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control). Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight) stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

Maurilio, Lara-Flores; Miguel A, Olvera-Novoa.

2013-07-01

100

Fecal strings Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Science.gov (United States)

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were experimentally-infected with Streptococcus agalactiae for several infectivity and vaccine studies. Some of the S. agalactiae-infected tilapia produced considerably longer (up to 20 cm in length) fecal waste strings than historically observed from tilapia at...

101

Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus agalactiae Strains Isolated from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Farms in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2009-2011, two clinical and one environmental strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farms in Thailand. Draft genome sequences of two clinical isolates comprise 2,048,343 and 2,105,006 bp, while environmental isolates comprise 2,097,115 bp, having 1,573 to 1,578 coding sequences, respectively. PMID:25502682

Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

2014-01-01

102

EFFECT OF DIETARY BOVINE LACTOFERRIN ON DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth pe...

103

Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3 and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001. Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

José E. P. Cyrino

2012-01-01

104

Individual protein balance strongly influences ?15N and ?13C values in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Science.gov (United States)

Although stable isotope ratios in animals have often been used as indicators of the trophic level and for the back-calculation of diets, few experiments have been done under standardized laboratory conditions to investigate factors influencing ?15N and ?13C values. An experiment using Nile tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was therefore carried out to test the effect of different dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%) on ?15N and ?13C values of the whole tilapia. The fish were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-synthetic diets at a relatively low level. ?15N and ?13C values of the lipid-free body did not differ between the fish fed the diets with different protein contents, but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased with increasing protein accretion in the individual fish, for N from 6.5‰ to 4‰ and for C in the lipid-free body from 4‰ to 2.5‰. This is the first study showing the strong influence of the individual protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the individual physiological condition and the feeding rate may lead to erroneous results.

Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

105

Prediction of cannibalism in juvenile Oreochromis niloticus based on predator to prey weight ratio, and effects of age and stocking density  

OpenAIRE

Factors influencing size-dependent cannibalism in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were investigated in controlled conditions. First, individual-based trials were conducted to develop a linear regression model to predict the occurrence of cannibalism based on body measurements. Oral gape (G, mm), body depth (D, mm) and weight (W, g) of 140 fish were measured and we estimated maximum prey weight (Wprey) for a given predator weight (Wpredator): Log10Wprey = 1.03Log10Wpredator - 1.13. This m...

Fessehaye, Y.; Kabirb, A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

2006-01-01

106

Phenotype and genetic parameters for body measurements, reproductive traits and gut lenght of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in low-input earthen ponds  

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In this study we present estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for body size measurements, reproductive traits, and gut length for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in fertilized earthen ponds for two generations. Throughout the experiment, ponds were fertilized daily with 50 kg dry matter, (dm)/ha chicken manure. No supplementary feeds were added. For the analysis, 6429 fully pedigreed experimental fish from G0, G1 and G2 were used. Generations were discrete a...

Charo-karisa, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M. A.; Ponzoni, R. W.; Arendonk, J. A. M.; Komen, J.

2007-01-01

107

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

OpenAIRE

Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3). However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW) as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Different concentration (0.05...

Wong, S. K.; Idris, M. H.; Hamli, H.

2013-01-01

108

First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia.

Abdel-baki, Abdel-azeem S.; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Al-quraishy, Saleh

2014-01-01

109

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not affected...

Al-ruqaie, Ibrahim M.

2007-01-01

110

Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil / Parásitos protozoarios y metazoarios de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus criadas en Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir la parasitofauna y el factor de condición relativa (Kn) de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) en granjas piscícolas del estado de Amapá. Materiales y métodos. 123 peces, de cuatro granjas piscícolas del Estado del Amapá, Brasil, fueron necropciados para real [...] izarles un análisis parasitólogico y el análisis Kn. Resultados. De los peces examinados, 64.2% estaban con las branquias infectadas por Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 y ParaTrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). La mayor prevalencia fue de Monogenoidea C. tilapiae, mientras que la menor fue de los parásitos Trichodinidae. Sin embargo, I. multifiliis fue el parásito que mostró la mayor intensidad y abundancia. Las diferencias encontradas estuvieron en las tasas de infección parasitaria de diferentes granjas piscícolas debido a las causas aquí discutidas. El parasitismo no influenció el factor de condición relativa (Kn). Este fue el primer registro de P. Africana para el Brasil, en la Amazonía Oriental. Conclusiones. En el Brasil, Lamproglena sp es un parásito emergente en las regiones del Sur y Suroeste, pero este crustáceo no fue encontrado en la tilapia del Nilo del Estado de Amapá. En la tilapia del Nilo criada en el Brasil, las infecciones parasitarías son causadas por especies de protozoarios, monogenoideas, crustáceos y digenéticos; las diferencias regionales en las tasa de prevalencia e intensidad son discutidas aquí. Abstract in english Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and [...] Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae); Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Para Trichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn) of fish. This was the first record of P. Africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

Wanderson, Pantoja MF; Ligia Neves R, Fishing Engineer; Márcia Dias RD, Fishing Engineer; Renata Marinho GB, Biologist; Daniel Montagner, Zoo Technician; Marcos, Tavares-Dias.

2812-28-01

111

EFECTO DE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN PESQUERA DEL EMBALSE EL GUÁJARO ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA / EFFECT OF TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus OVER THE FISHERIES IN EL GUÁJARO RESERVOIR ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus sobre la producción pesquera en el embalse de El Guájaro, departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El embalse tiene un área aproximada de 14.000 ha y allí pescan diariamente 2.500 pescadores provenientes de ocho municipi [...] os que rodean el ecosistema. Por medio de evaluaciones mensuales del desembarco durante 48 horas en todos los puertos, fue evaluada la composición y abundancia de las capturas en 1988 y 2002. Los resultados de la evaluación hecha en 2002 fueron comparados con los obtenidos en 1988. Resultados. 38 especies de peces, perteneciendo a 14 familias fueron identificadas. Sólo las dos especies que dominan las capturas, presentaron una variación en su participación global. La producción durante 2002 fue de 431 ton/mes, superior a las 84 ton/mes evaluadas en el año 1988. Durante 2002, las capturas fueron dominadas por tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (53%) y arenca Triportheus magdalenae (36%) lo que representa una variación en la composición de las capturas que, durante 1988 fueron respectivamente de 13% y 73%. Esta variación no afectó la proporción de herbívoros y carnívoros que se mantuvo en 90-10%. Conclusiones. La variación en la composición y abundancia de la producción total implica el desplazamiento de una especie nativa (Triportheus magdalenae) por una exótica (Oreochromis niloticus), hecho que viene siendo observado en toda la cuenca del Magdalena en esta década. Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate the effect of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, over the fisheries in the El Guájaro reservoir, located in the Atlantico state, north of Colombia. Materials and methods. The reservoir has approximately 14.000 ha, and support the daily effort of 2.500 fisherman, coming from the e [...] ight Municipalities around. Through landing samplings carried out during 48 hours and a monthly frequency in all the ports, the abundance and composition of the captures were evaluated during 2002 and compared with the production during 1988 in the same ecosystem. Results. 38 fish species, belonging to 14 families, were identified. It was found that the production in 2002 was 431 ton/month, against 84 ton/month in 1988. During 2002, the composition of the captures was dominated by Oreochromis niloticus (53%) and Triportheus magdalenae (36%) this means a variation in the composition of the captures that during 1988 were respectively of 13% and 73%. This data however, did not affect the proportion of herbivores - carnivorous that stayed constant in 90-10 percent in the two periods of study. Conclusions. The changes in composition and abundance of the whole production suggest a displacement of a native species (Triportheus magdalenae) by an exotic (Oreochromis niloticus), which is being observed throughout the Magdalena river basin in this decade.

Pedro, Caraballo G.

1796-18-01

112

Assessment Study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya Seeds to Control Oreochromis niloticus Breeding  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of pawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day and high dose (6 g/kg/day of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs count, hemoglobin (Hb content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.

Wafaa T. Abbas

2011-01-01

113

Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in adult tilapia oreochromis niloticus in Southern part of Laguna de Bay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, one of the most important fish species in Philippine aquaculture, is grown abundantly in Laguna de Bay. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the levels of accumulated mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the muscle tissue of this fresh water fish collected from February (wet season) to March (dry season) 2008 in the southern part of Laguna de Bay. Heavy metal analyses using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) showed a higher concentration of Hg and Cd during the wet season than in the dry season. However, analysis of variance revealed significant seasonal variation on only in Cd (P=0.0253). Lead, on the other hand, was not detected in the fish samples. The mean concentration set by FAO but the mean level of Cd (0.161 ppm) was almost equal to the limit given for fish. This could represent a significant health risk to the consuming public. (author)

114

Triguilho na alimentação da tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.: digestibilidade e desempenho Wheat midlings in the nile tilapia feeding (Oreochromis niloticus L.: digestibility and performance  

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Full Text Available No presente experimento objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa da proteína bruta (PB e da energia bruta (EB do triguilho para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e avaliar a inclusão do triguilho sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo. Para a determinação dos CDa, foram utilizadas 40 tilápias com peso e comprimento médios de 80,00g e 15,9cm, respectivamente, submetidas à coleta das fezes por sedimentação. Para a avaliação do desempenho, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, com peso inicial médio de 0,80g, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. As rações experimentais continham níveis de inclusão de 0,00; 7,97; 14,94; 23,91 e 31,88% de triguilho substituindo até 100% do milho. Os CDas da PB e EB do triguilho foram de 91,03 e 78,72%, respectivamente, apresentando 11,92% de proteína digestível e 3134Kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Não foi observada diferença (P>0,05 no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com as rações contendo os diferentes níveis de inclusão do triguilho. O triguilho é um alimento com bons CDa da PB e EB e pode ser incluído em até 31,88% em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo sem causar prejuízo no desempenho.This experiment was aimed at determining the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of the raw protein (RP and of raw energy (RE of the wheat middling given to the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and evaluating the inclusion of wheat middling on the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. In order to determine the ADC, 40 tilapias with the average weight and length of 80g and 15.9cm, respectively, were used and submitted to the collection of the excrements by sedimentation. To the evaluation of the performance 125 fingerlings of Nile tilapia were used, with an initial average weight of 0.80g, distributed into 25 aquariums with a 30L capacity at a random design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The experimental fish feed had inclusion levels of 0.00; 7.97; 14.94; 23.91 and 31.88% of wheat middling, substituting corn up to 100%. The ADCs of RP and RE of the wheat middling were 91.03% and 78.72, respectively, presenting 11.92% of digestible protein and 3134kcal kg-1 of digestible energy. No difference was observed (P>0.05 in the performance of the fish fed with the fish feed having the different levels of inclusion of the wheat middling. The wheat middling is a feed with good ADC of RP and RE and can be included in up to 31.88% in fish food for Nile tilapia fingerlings without causing damage in its performance.

Arcangelo Augusto Signor

2007-08-01

115

Farinha de peixe em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L., linhagem tailandesa Fishmeal in the diets of Nile tilapia fingerlings Oreochromis niloticus (L., Thai strains  

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Full Text Available O objetivo desse experimento foi determinar o nível adequado de incorporação de farinha de peixe (FP em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae linhagem tailandesa. Foram distribuídos 300 animais com peso inicial médio de 0,42 ± 0,01 g, em 25 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos (0, 4, 8, 16 e 20% de FP na ração e cinco repetições. Foi observado efeito quadrático (p 0,05 dos níveis da FP sobre a sobrevivência e rendimento de carcaça. Conclui-se que o nível adequado de inclusão de farinha de peixe em rações para alevinos de tilapia do Nilo é de 12,15%.The adequate fishmeal (FM inclusion level in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae Thai strain, is provided. Three hundred fishes with initial mean average weight of 0.42 ± 0.01 g were distributed in 25 net ponds in a randomized block design with five treatments (0, 4, 8, 16 e 20% of FM in diet and five repetitions. Quadratic effect (p 0,05 did not affect survival and carcass yield. It may be concluded that the appropriate fishmeal inclusion is 12.15% in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Eliana Maria Galdioli

2001-05-01

116

Responses of the Mullet, Liza auratus and the Cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzala (Egypt to Heterophyd Infection  

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Full Text Available In this study, the occurrence of heterophyid infection in two well-known hosts of heterophyd in Egyptian lake (Manzala; the mullet, Liza auratus and the cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. Furthermore, the potential factors that possibly affect the occurrence of the infection including host sex, length, weight and seasonal variation were considered. The pathological response of the two fish host to the infection was studied. Results showed that the prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection in the two fish host greatly affected by the factor considered in contradictory way. The responses to infection and the possible effect of the interaction between all the considered factors are discussed in details. In addition, metacercarial infection caused alterations in the histological architecture of the infected tissues and in the composition of the muscle proteins as well which was more pronounced in O. niloticus and L. auratus, respectively. In conclusion, many biological and environmental factors do affect the occurrence of heterophyid infection in addition to the anthropogenic activity. L. auratus was more susceptible to the infection as compared to O. niloticus from the same habitat.

E.A. Hassan

2010-01-01

117

Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Wastes Produced by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. Fed Azolla-Diets in Earthen Ponds  

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Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P wastes produced by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla, an aquatic atmospheric nitrogen fixing fern, was evaluated for 90 days in pond experiment. Six isonitrogenous (29.2% crude protein and isoenergetic (16.9 Kj·g–1 diets A0, A10, A20, A30, A40 and A50, containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of Azolla meal (AM respectively, as partial fishmeal (FM substitutes, was provided to experimental fish. The Azolla-free diet A0 served as a control. Fish specific growth rate (SGR was higher with the control diet, the lower values being obtained in A50-fed fish (P Azolla could be used in diet to sustain Nile tilapia growth and as “environmentally-friendly” ingredient to limit P loss, while providing N to the field, beneficially in tropical marshland pond where this nutrient is already limiting.

Jean-Claude Micha

2012-06-01

118

Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism. PMID:24996943

Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

2014-11-01

119

Molecular characterization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. in Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Fishery plays an important role in the supply of food for the increasing population. Tilapia production exceeded twomillion tons, being the second most important group of fish worldwide. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusLinnaeus, 1758 is the most important species due to the fast growth rates and good acceptance by the consumer.Fish genetic improvement is highly based on molecular genetics, including RAPD, and the knowledge obtained inthe last decades gave good results in terms of molecular marker-assisted breeding. In the present work the geneticvariability of four populations of Nile tilapia was assessed using molecular techniques. Modifications in the DNAextraction protocol described by Bardakci and Skibinski (1994 were evaluated, which was followed by theapplication of the RAPD technique, using eight primers and twenty specimens of four tilapia lineages (Bouaké,Chitralada, GST and GIFT. The results from the PCR amplifications were evaluated using the programs NTSysand PopGen. GIFT was the most polymorphic group, with 37% of its loci showing polymorphism, and the groupthat presented the highest Shannon index (0,17. All primers but one (OPA-12 for the lineage Chitralada showedbands that can be used as a diagnostic tool for lineage differentiation. The dendrogram generated with thepolymorphic bands clearly separated the four populations; GIFT and Chitralada presented the highest geneticsimilarity (0,88, whereas GIFT and GST presented the highest genetic distance (0,23.

Gustavo Emygdio Halfen

2012-01-01

120

Effect of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) on some blood constituents of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is an urban drinking water purification substance that was introduced recently in Sudan and used to substitute polymer poly diallyl dimethyl aluminium chloride (DADMAC) and aluminium sulphate in water purification treatments. This study was conducted to determine its effects on fish health, which is is considered a biological indicator and an essential component of fresh water ecosystem. In this experiment, PAC was used in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/1) in experimental tanks to achieve the desirable doses for the study. The tanks were populated by Nile Tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average weight ranging between 70 and 100 grams. Exposure of this fish to PAC resulted in an immediate signification reduction (P<0.01) in haemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes count, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of experimental fingerlings blood. The degree of reduction in these parameters was directly proportional to the concentration of PAC used. (Author)

121

Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil / Ectoparasitas de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) criadas em tanques-rede em um reservatório de usina hidrelétrica no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar análise parasitológica de tilápias-do-Nilo, (Oreochromis niloticus) criadas em tanques-rede no Reservatório de Água Vermelha, Sudeste do Brasil, bem como verificar suas inter-relações com as características limnológicas, sazonalidade e fase de criação. D [...] urante o período de março de 2010 a março de 2011, espécimes de O. niloticus, pertencentes a três fases de criação (inicial, intermediária e final), foram colhidos, totalizando 63 indivíduos. Todos os peixes estavam infestados por pelo menos uma espécie de ectoparasita (prevalência = 100%). Foi observada a ocorrência de cinco espécies de protozoários (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare e Epistylis sp.), assim como cinco espécies de monogenóides (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis e Gyrodactylus sp.). A abundância de Trichodina spp. e prevalência de Epistylis sp. foram maiores no período seco, e a prevalência de C. halli foi maior no período chuvoso. Para a maioria dos ectoparasitas encontrados neste estudo, os peixes pertencentes às fases intermediária e final apresentaram maiores taxas de parasitismo do que aqueles pertencentes à fase inicial. Os dados apresentados neste estudo podem ser de grande importância para piscicultores, de forma a auxiliá-los no conhecimento da dinâmica dos parasitas da espécie de peixe estudada em sistemas de tanques-rede. Abstract in english For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three speci [...] mens of O. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylis sp.) and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp.) were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems.

Aline Cristina, Zago; Lidiane, Franceschini; Fabiana, Garcia; Sérgio Henrique Canello, Schalch; Kátia Suemi, Gozi; Reinaldo José da, Silva.

2014-04-01

122

Efeito da cor do ambiente sobre o estresse social em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Effect of background color on the social stress of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudaram-se as respostas comportamentais e fisiológicas de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) submetidos a diferentes cores de ambientes e situações sociais. Os animais foram mantidos isolados em aquários recobertos com papel-cartão colorido, compondo cinco tratamentos (preto, verde [...] , marrom, azul e branco).Utilizando-se filmagens semanais realizadas em etapas distintas e alternadas (isolamento e presença de um espelho), registraram-se os seguintes parâmetros: distribuição na coluna d'água, coloração, atividade locomotora, confrontos agonísticos, posição da nadadeira dorsal e postura. Para quantificação dos níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, proteínas totais e cortisol, coletaram-se amostras de sangue após cada filmagem. As médias obtidas foram analisadas estatisticamente pelo método não-paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. Os peixes mantidos nos ambientes preto e verde apresentaram baixas freqüências de confrontos agonísticos, enquanto aqueles mantidos no ambiente branco, altas freqüências, porém com redução do padrão ameaça e não alterando sua locomoção. Animais submetidos às cores marrom e azul apresentaram as mais altas freqüências de comportamentos agonísticos e maior atividade locomotora. Os peixes permaneceram em todos os tratamentos com a coloração clara, ocupando, com maior freqüência, a região inferior da coluna d'água. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para as concentrações de glicose, triglicerídeos e proteínas totais entre os tratamentos, porém obteve-se elevado nível de cortisol para os animais mantidos nos ambientes azul e marrom, quando submetidos à reflexão da própria imagem em espelho. Estes resultados mostraram que existe influência da cor do ambiente sobre o estresse social, em particular nas interações agonísticas entre coespecíficos e na concentração do hormônio cortisol. Concluiu-se que as cores verde e preta são recomendadas à manutenção da espécie, por amenizarem as interações agonísticas e o estresse, enquanto a marrom e azul devem ser evitadas por estimularem estas respostas. Abstract in english It was studied the behavior and physiologic answers of juvenile of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, submitted the different backgrounds colors and social situations. The animals were maintained isolated in fishbowls covered with colored paper-card, composing five treatments (black, green, brown, [...] blue and white). Through weekly filmings and in different and alternate stages (isolation and presence of a mirror), it enrolled the following parameters: distribution in the column of water, coloration, motility, agonistic behaviors, position of the dorsal fin and posture. For quantification of the glucose, triglycerides, total proteins and cortisol levels, were collected samples of blood after each filming. The obtained averages were analyzed statistically through the no-parametric Kruskal-Wallis method. The fish maintained in the black and green background presented low frequencies of agonistic behaviors, while those maintained in the white background, high frequencies, even so with low numbers of the alert pattern and not altering its motility. Animals submitted to the brown and blue colors presented the highest frequencies of agonistic behaviors, and larger motility. The fish stayed in all the treatments with the clear coloration, occupying, with larger frequency, the bottom of the column of water. Significant differences were not observed for the glucose, triglycerides and total proteins concentrations among the treatments, even so it was obtained a high level of cortisol for the animals maintained in the blue and brown backgrounds when submitted to the reflection of the own image in mirror. These results showed that there is influence of the background color on the social stress, in particular in the agonistic interactions among individuals of the same specie and in the concentration of the hormone cortisol. It was ended that the green and black colors are re

Giovana Krempel Fonseca, Merighe; Elyara Maria, Pereira-da-Silva; João Alberto, Negrão; Sandra, Ribeiro.

2004-08-01

123

Desempenho da tilápia nilótica Oreochromis niloticus (L.) em gaiolas de pequeno volume / Performance of the nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) raised in small volume cages  

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Full Text Available Alevinos de tilápia nilótica Oreochromis niloticus (L.) com peso médio de 18,85 g, foram estocados em gaiolas de 1,7 m3 cada, em densidades de 75, 150, 300 e 600 peixes/m3 (T75; T150; T300 e T600), num delineamento inteiramente casualizado (4 tratamentos e 3 repetições), e criados por 196 dias, com [...] ração comercial extrusada, flutuante, contendo 28% de proteína bruta. A cada 30 dias, 20% do lote de peixes de cada gaiola foi medido e pesado para determinar ganho de peso (GDP) e conversão alimentar (CA) de cada tratamento. Os resultados finais de CA e GDP para cada tratamento foram, respectivamente: para T75, 6,31:1 e 71,52g; para T150, 4,08:1 e 65.14g; para T300, 3,57:1 e 59,60g; e para T600, 2,96:1 e 69,17g. Em relação ao ganho de peso, T600 e T75 foram semelhantes (P > 0,01) sendo que T600 apresentou melhor CA que T75 (P Abstract in english To determine the carrying capacity and overall performance of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in small volume cages, 5,850 sexually inverted fingerlings, averaging 18.85 g of live weight, were stocked in 1.3 m3 cages, at densities of 75, 150, 300, and 600 fish/m3 (T75; T150; T300, and T6 [...] 00). The 196-day long trial was set up in a totally randomized design, with 4 treatments and 3 replicates. Cages were set up in a 4-ha, 2 m average depth reservoir. Twenty percent (20%) of each cage stock were weighed and measured every 30 d to determine growth rate as weight gain (WG), and feed conversion rate (FCR). Fish were fed twice-a-day (09:00 and 17:00 h) an extruded, floating, 28% crude protein commercial diet. Feed consumption, mortality and water temperature were recorded at feeding time, and pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and water transparency were recorded monthly. The first evaluation (30-d) showed FCR values between 0.68 and 2.40:1, and WG between 11.19 and 21.52 g. Best FCR values were recorded for T600. However, the stock could not repeat or maintain the initial performance level, and final results showed: FCR = 6.31:1 and WG = 71.52 g for T75; FCR = 4.08:1 and WG = 65.14 g for T150; FCR = 3.57:1 and WG = 59.60 g for T300; and FCR = 2.96:1 and WG = 69.17 g for T600. The best WG result was attained by T600, which was not significantly different of T75 (P

Gustavo Luiz Naslausky, Bozano; Samer Ramos Monteiro, Rodrigues; Alexsandra Carmen, Caseiro; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

1999-10-01

124

Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Reared in Fertilized Tanks  

OpenAIRE

Juvenile monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed four dietary protein levels (17%, 25%, 30% and 35%) to investigate their effects on growth performance, carcass composition and survival rate. The experiment was carried out in concrete tanks (2.9m x 1.4m x 1m), stocking each tank with 160 fish (50 fish/m3). The diets were offered to the fish (2.5±0.1g average initial weight ) at a level of 3% of body weight, six days a week for 180 days. In addition to the experimental diet, ino...

Bahnasawy, Mohamed H.

2009-01-01

125

Effect of Crowding Stress on Some Physiological Functions of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) Fed Different Dietary Protein Levels  

OpenAIRE

Oreochromis niloticus (L.) Fed dietary protein levels to chronic stress induced by doubling fish density. In this study, Nile tilapia (15?1 g) was randomly distributed into the aquaria at a rate of 15 or 30 fish/100 L. The temperature was adjusted at 27?1?C. Fish of each density were fed either a diet containing 25, 35 or 45% Crude Protein (CP) with a feeding rate of 3% of life body weight twice daily for two weeks. The results of this study showed that Hb and Ht were slightly reduced and no ...

Sharaf, Safaa M.; Mousa, Mamdouh A. A.; Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab; Ahmad, Mohammad H.

2005-01-01

126

Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses  

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Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

Andréia B. Poletto

2008-01-01

127

Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa) sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those o [...] f other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

Andréia B., Poletto; Adriane P., Wasko; Claudio, Oliveira; Alexandre, Azevedo; Robson F., Carvalho; Maeli Dal Pai, Silva; Fausto, Foresti; Cesar, Martins.

128

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)  

OpenAIRE

The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed t...

Apt, Medeiros; Chellappa, S.; Me, Yamamoto

2007-01-01

129

Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo State, Brazil / Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia [...] do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses), compreendendo a água de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos. Abstract in english Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) rearing. Sa [...] mpling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months), taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.

Jeniffer Sati, Pereira; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; André Martins, Vaz-dos-Santos; Clóvis Ferreira do, Carmo; João Alexandre Saviolo, Osti.

2012-12-01

130

Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Na aquicultura, as atividades com anestésicos são normalmente empregadas a fim de assegurar o bem-estar dos peixes cultivados, permitindo a manipulação fora da água diminuindo desta forma o trauma por estresse. Atualmente, não há nenhuma informação sobre a ação anestésica do eugenol em fases iniciai [...] s de vida de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar diferentes concentrações de eugenol para larvas e juvenis de tilápia do Nilo. Sessenta animais foram usados em cada grupo de peso, o grupo I = 0,02 g; grupo II = 0,08 g; grupo III = 0,22 g; grupo IV = 2,62 g; e grupo V = 11,64 g. As concentrações de eugenol testadas foram 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 e 175 mg L-1. Não houve mortes durante os testes com eugenol. Larvas de tilápia com 0,02 g e juvenis em torno de 11,64 g podem ser anestesiados com concentrações de eugenol entre 150 e 175 mg L-1, uma vez que determinam o menor tempo de sedação (23 e 72 segundos, para o grupo de peso menor e maior, respectivamente). Abstract in english In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis [...] niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively).

Paula A.P., Ribeiro; Kleber C., Miranda-Filho; Daniela C. de, Melo; Ronald K., Luz.

2015-03-01

131

Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Al-Khadoud Spring is one of the largest spring in Al-Hassa governorate (Saudi Arabia). Due to the extended domestic activities and urbanization as well as the continuous industrial and agricultural growth of the region, spring water quality is potentially changing. Approach: This study was conducted to measure toxic heavy metal concentrations in water and fish samples along the spring channel. Filtered spring water and tissues (liver and muscle) of captured fish were analyz...

Al-kahtani, Mohammed A.

2009-01-01

132

Exigência de lisina pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), na fase de terminação Lysine requirement of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), for grow-out phase  

OpenAIRE

O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de lisina pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Setenta e dois peixes revertidos sexualmente e com peso vivo médio inicial de 117,9 ± 0,67g foram alimentados por 50 dias com quatro rações (25% proteína bruta e 3090kcal de energia digestível kg-1) contendo diferentes teores de inclusão de L-Lisina HCl: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7%, correspondente a rações com 1,13; 1,27; 1,42 e 1,57% de lisina, respectivamente. Os pei...

Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Daniele Botaro; Patrícia Ribeiro Neves; Lilian Carolina Rosa Silva; Carmino Hayashi

2004-01-01

133

The Effects of Different Oils Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 600 juvenile fish with average initial weight of 2.540.07 g were enrolled to this study to investigate the effects of different oil sources (fish oil, soybean oil, linseed oil and beef tallow on the growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L. during 14 weeks. Experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous (30.76% CP and isocaloric (13.09 MJ DE kg-1. At the end of the study, it was observed that there were no significant differences among the groups for average live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, Condition Factor (CF, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Specific Growth Rate (SGR and survival rate (p>0.05 but carcass composition (p<0.05.

Sezai A. Bozaoglu

2012-01-01

134

Genetic analysis of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) selection line reared in two input environments.  

OpenAIRE

Ascertaining the appropriate selection environment for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Africa is a critical issue. Two data sets derived from two selection lines originating from a common base population were analysed in this study. The lines were selected in two different input environments, here named ‘low input’ and ‘high input’. Both data sets were combined and jointly analyzed to estimate the phenotypic and genetic parameters, with a special focus on the examination of ge...

Khaw, H. L.; Bovenhuis, H.; Ponzoni, R. W.; Rezk, M. A.; Charo, H.; Komen, J.

2009-01-01

135

Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis  

OpenAIRE

Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis...

Mohamed Tabita Kamara; Wenshui Xia; Betty Mabel Foh; Issoufou Amadou; Mohamed Beva Kelfala Foh

2010-01-01

136

Assessment of heavy metals in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Langat River and Engineering Lake in Bangi, Malaysia, and evaluation of the health risk from tilapia consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were determined in the liver, gills and muscles of tilapia fish from the Langat River and Engineering Lake, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. There were differences in the concentrations of the studied heavy metals between different organs and between sites. In the liver samples, Cu>Zn>Ni>Pb>Cd, and in the gills and muscle, Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Cd. Levels of Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in the liver samples from Engineering Lake were higher than in those from the Langat River, whereas the Ni levels in the liver samples from the Langat River were greater than in those from Engineering Lake. Cd levels in the fish muscle from Engineering Lake were lower than in that from the Langat River. Meanwhile, the Cd, Zn and Pb levels in the fish muscle from the Langat River were lower than in that from Engineering Lake, and the Ni levels were almost the same in the fish muscle samples from the two sites. The health risks associated with Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni were assessed based on the target hazard quotients. In the Langat River, the risk from Cu is minimal compared to the other studied elements, and the concentrations of Pb and Ni were determined to pose the greatest risk. The maximum allowable fish consumption rates (kg/d) based on Cu in Engineering Lake and the Langat River were 2.27 and 1.51 in December and 2.53 and 1.75 in February, respectively. The Cu concentrations resulted in the highest maximum allowable fish consumption rates compared with the other studied heavy metals, whereas those based on Pb were the lowest. A health risk analysis of the heavy metals measured in the fish muscle samples indicated that the fish can be classified at one of the safest levels for the general population and that there are no possible risks pertaining to tilapia fish consumption. PMID:23642778

Taweel, Abdulali; Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Ahmad, A K

2013-07-01

137

Neurotoxic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin modulated by piperonyl butoxide in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of pyrethroid pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin by the modulation of cytochrome P450 with piperonyl butoxide in the brain of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were exposed to 0.48 ?g L(-1) (1/6 of the 96-h LC50 ) lambda-cyhalothrin and 10 ?g L(-1) piperonyl butoxide for 96 h and 15 days. tGSH, GSSG, TBARS contents, GPx, GR, GST, and AChE enzymes activities were determined by spectrophotometrical methods and Hsp70 content was analyzed by ELISA technique. Lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on the components of GSH redox system, lipid peroxidation and Hsp70 levels but inhibited AChE activity. In the presence of piperonyl butoxide, lambda-cyhalothrin caused increases in tGSH, GSSG, TBARS and Hsp70 contents, GST activity, and decrease in AChE activity. Present results showed that in the presence of piperonyl butoxide, lambda-cyhalothrin caused neurotoxic effects by increasing oxidative stress. Adaptation to its oxidative stress effects may be supplied by GSH-related antioxidant system. Piperonyl butoxide revealed neurotoxic effect of lambda-cyhalothrin. PMID:23460558

Piner, Petek; Üner, Nevin

2014-11-01

138

ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus WASTE  

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Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis niloticus was the first Tilapia species to be taken up for large Scaleaquaculture. It is consumed widely due to its deliciousness and rich source of protein. During its processing, the scales, Fins, Skins etc are expelled out as waste Acid solubilized collagen (ASC and Pepsin Solubilizedcollagen (PSC were extracted from these processing wastes. Initial extraction by acid yielded 22% of collagen and subsequent digestion with pepsin yielded 56% on dry weight basis. The total protein of ASC and PSC was determined by Bradford method which contains 68.34mg/ml,23.24 mg/ml respectively. The FT-IR Spectrumshowed that ASC and PSC are helpful in prediction and confirmation of Secondary structure of proteins. The denaturation temperature of ASC was 32?C while for PSC it is 29?C.SEM micrograph showed the fibrousnature of Collagen. This report indicates that Tilapia waste might be useful as a new source of collagen apart from usual bovine and pig skin.

S.Sujithra

2013-06-01

139

Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively). PMID:25806995

Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

2015-03-01

140

Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species  

OpenAIRE

The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (kgDE). Furthermore, literature data on kgDE across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient composition. A total of twelve groups of fish were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two diets (‘fat’ v. ‘starch’) and two feeding levels (‘low’ v. ‘high’). In the ‘fat’-diet, 125 g...

Schrama, J. W.; Saravanan, S.; Geurden, I.; Heinsbroek, L. T. N.; Kaushik, S. J.; Verreth, J. A. J.

2012-01-01

141

Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under Different Exposure Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw), and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L) for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days). The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms. PMID:24406981

Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Risalde, María de los Ángeles; Moyano, Rosario; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Ángeles; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana María

2014-01-01

142

Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus under Different Exposure Conditions  

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Full Text Available Cylindrospermopsin (CYN is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw, and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days. The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms.

Remedios Guzmán-Guillén

2014-01-01

143

EFECTO DE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN PESQUERA DEL EMBALSE EL GUÁJARO ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus sobre la producción pesquera en el embalse de El Guájaro, departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El embalse tiene un área aproximada de 14.000 ha y allí pescan diariamente 2.500 pescadores provenientes de ocho municipios que rodean el ecosistema. Por medio de evaluaciones mensuales del desembarco durante 48 horas en todos los puertos, fue evaluada la composición y abundancia de las capturas en 1988 y 2002. Los resultados de la evaluación hecha en 2002 fueron comparados con los obtenidos en 1988. Resultados. 38 especies de peces, perteneciendo a 14 familias fueron identificadas. Sólo las dos especies que dominan las capturas, presentaron una variación en su participación global. La producción durante 2002 fue de 431 ton/mes, superior a las 84 ton/mes evaluadas en el año 1988. Durante 2002, las capturas fueron dominadas por tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (53% y arenca Triportheus magdalenae (36% lo que representa una variación en la composición de las capturas que, durante 1988 fueron respectivamente de 13% y 73%. Esta variación no afectó la proporción de herbívoros y carnívoros que se mantuvo en 90-10%. Conclusiones. La variación en la composición y abundancia de la producción total implica el desplazamiento de una especie nativa (Triportheus magdalenae por una exótica (Oreochromis niloticus, hecho que viene siendo observado en toda la cuenca del Magdalena en esta década.

Pedro Caraballo G, M.Sc.

2009-12-01

144

DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO, COMPOSICIÓN Y BIODISPONIBILIDAD RELATIVA DE SELENIO EN TILAPIA NILÓTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPLEMENTADA CON SELENIO ORGÁNICO E INORGÁNICO / PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE SELENIUM BIOAVAILABILITY IN NILE TILAPIA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SELENIUM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desempeño productivo, la composición corporal y la biodisponibilidad relativa de selenio en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada con selenio dietario. Una dieta basal fue suplementada con selenio en forma de selenito de sodio o seleno-levadura en niveles crecientes de s [...] uplementación (0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80 y 1.60 mg/kg de dieta). Un total de 336 individuos de tilapia nilótica, con un peso inicial de 13.41±0.12 g, fueron distribuidos de forma aleatoria en 48 acuarios de vidrio (80 l, 4 réplicas, 7 peces por acuario). No se detectó selenio en el agua de abastecimiento. Los peces fueron alimentados hasta saciedad aparente 3 veces al día por un período de 9 semanas. El desempeño productivo de la tilapia nilótica no se vio afectado (P>0.05) por la suplementación con selenio dietario. El selenio corporal se incrementó de forma lineal (P Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance, whole body selenium retention and relative selenium bioavailability in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A practical basal diet was supplemented with either sodium selenite or seleno-yeast at tilapia fish (n=336) with an initial w [...] eight of 13.41±0.12 g were randomly distributed into forty-eight glass aquaria (80 l, 4 replicates, 7 fish per aquarium). There was no detectable selenium in supply water. Fish were fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation three times daily for nine weeks. Selenium supplementation did not affect the productive performance of Nile tilapia (P>0.05). Total whole body selenium increase linearly in response to dietary selenium supplementation (P

J. E, Vinchira; G. A, Wills; A. P, Muñoz.

2014-08-01

145

Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P0.05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein proeasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved growth performances, feed and nutrients utilization and whole body composition (dry matter, protein and energy content) in Nile tilapia fry. (author)

146

The Effects of Different Oils Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)  

OpenAIRE

A total of 600 juvenile fish with average initial weight of 2.540.07 g were enrolled to this study to investigate the effects of different oil sources (fish oil, soybean oil, linseed oil and beef tallow) on the growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) during 14 weeks. Experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous (30.76% CP) and isocaloric (13.09 MJ DE kg-1). At the end of the study, it was observed that there were no significant differences amo...

Bozaoglu, Sezai A.; Murat Bilguven

2012-01-01

147

Determination of some heavy metals in oreochromis niloticus, clarias gariepinus and synodontis spp from the coastal water of Ondo State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Mn, and Cr) were determined in Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias graiepinus and Synodontis spp obtained from the coastal water of Ondo State. All metals examined and detected in all fish samples. Iron, manganese and cadmium were found to be the most abundant metals in the fish samples with an average values of 35.8, 31.3, and 12.5 mg kg-1 respectively. Except for manganese, iron and cadmium, Syndrontis spp has the highest concentration for virtually all the metals under examination. (author)

148

Contrasting mercury accumulation patterns in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and implications on somatic growth dilution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary ingestion constitutes a major pathway for mercury (Hg) accumulation in freshwater fish, thus the ingestion rate (IR) may greatly influence the Hg bioaccumulation through its effect on Hg influx and other biokinetic processes. To explore the complex influence of IR, we conducted long-term bioaccumulation experiments by accurately controlling the IRs in the freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The dietary accumulation of both inorganic mercury (Hg[II]) and methylmercury (MeHg) in tilapia under different IRs was monitored over a period of 30 days by feeding the fish with uniformly radiolabeled crustaceans. The biokinetic parameters under various IRs were concurrently determined. With the increase of IR from 0.01 g g?¹ d?¹ to 0.12 g g?¹ d?¹, the dietary assimilation efficiency of Hg(II) in the tilapia decreased by 43% while the elimination rate increased by a factor of 1.8; both biokinetic changes slowed down the overall Hg(II) bioaccumulation at high IRs. In contrast to Hg(II), the biokinetics of MeHg was not significantly influenced, but its bioaccumulation increased disproportionally with increasing IR, showing slower increase at higher IR. We then employed a biokinetic model to simulate the long-term mercury bioaccumulation patterns in tilapia at various IRs. The modeling results indicated that the growth effect could not be ignored in long-term accumulation process. A rapid growth of fish driven by food availability could significantly reduce the MeHg concentrations in the tilapia. Our results demonstrated for the first time the contrasting influences of dietary ingestion on the long-term bioaccumulation of Hg(II) and MeHg. The somatic growth dilution was much more likely to occur for MeHg than for Hg(II). PMID:22417761

Wang, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2012-06-15

149

Morformetria e desenvolvimento gonadal em (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Morphometry and development of gonad in (Oreochromis niloticus) with supplementation of vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da suplementação de vitamina E na morfometria e no desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). Para peso da gônada, índice gonadossomático (IGS), espessura do testículo e porcentagem de lúmen foram observadas diferenças para tratamento 150 mg/kg de vitam [...] ina E. Para epitélio germinativo foi observada diferença para o tratamento com 150 mg e para porcentagem de células de Leydig do tratamento com 50 mg de vitamina E por kg. Para vasos sanguíneos foi maior com 50 e 150 mg. A exigência de vitamina E para desenvolvimento gonadal da tilápia é de 150 mg/kg. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in the morphometry and gonadal development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Considering the weight of the gonad, gonadossomatic index, testes thickness and lumen percentage, significant differences were observed for the tre [...] atment with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. There were observed significant differences for percentage of germinative epithelium to 150 mg/kg of vitamin E and for percentage of Leydig cells in treatment with 50 mg/kg of vitamin E. The percentage of blood vessels was higher in both treatments with 50 and 150 mg. The vitamin E requirement for gonadal development of tilápia is 150 mg/kg.

R.D., Navarro; S.L.P., Matta; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; W.M., Ferreira; D.C., Miranda; F.K.S., Pereira.

2010-12-01

150

Qualidade microbiológica de filés de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) durante o armazenamento em gelo / Microbiological quality of the Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets in ice storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o frescor microbiológico de filés sem pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), cultivada durante o seu armazenamento em gelo. Os filés com peso médio de 120g foram acondicionados em caixas isotérmicas, com gelo em escama, na proporção de 1:1 (filé: [...] gelo). Estas caixas foram armazenadas em uma câmara fria, com temperatura externa e interna de aproximadamente 4°C e 0ºC, respectivamente. Realizaram-se análises microbiológicas a cada 72 horas, a partir do tempo zero, em triplicata. A qualidade microbiológica das amostras de tilápia foi aceitável durante o armazenamento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological freshness of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skinless fillets, during storage in ice. The average weight of 120g fillets were packed in cool boxes with scale ice, 1:1 ratio (fillet: ice). These boxes were stored in a cold room with [...] internal and external temperature of about 4°C and 0°C, respectively. Microbiological analyzes were performed every 72 hours from time zero in triplicate. The microbiological quality of the tilapia samples was acceptable during storage.

Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva, Soares; Alex Augusto, Gonçalves; Lara Barbosa de, Souza.

2273-22-01

151

Risk assessment, bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) facing degraded aquatic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two sampling sites contaminated with high aqueous metal concentrations in the vicinity of metal-related factories (site2) and 7 km downstream (site3) were selected along river Nile. These sites were compared to reference fish farm (site1) that fed on unpolluted water source. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, Mn and Cd) in Oreochromis niloticus showed a tissue-specific pattern with high rate of accumulation in gills, liver and kidney. The lowest concentrations of almost all metals were observed in muscle. The accumulated pattern was confirmed by histopathological examination of gills, liver and kidneys. Tissues from site2 and 3 revealed various histopathological alterations ranging from compensatory histological changes to histological damage. Evaluation of human health hazard using metals hazard index values in skin and muscle showed that all metals were in the safe limits for human intake except in the case of zinc and cadmium in skin at subsistence consumption level. PMID:25341621

Abdel-Khalek, Amr A

2015-01-01

152

Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab

153

Optimisation of the pond rearing of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The impact of stunting processes and recruitment control  

OpenAIRE

Stunting is often considered as a major bottleneck for the pond rearing ofNiletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) and was a major topic in this study. Neonteny: the earlier breeding of tilapia in ponds takes place, but is not a bottleneck as with appropriate feeding levels the somatic growth is maintained. The study indicated that aggravation of the living conditions is not a major cause of the observed earlier breeding. Real stunting takes place at low feeding levels but can be avo...

Graaf, G. J.

2004-01-01

154

Effect of Feeding Different Grain Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings Fed in Outdoor Hapas  

OpenAIRE

The study investigated the growth performance and body composition of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L) fingerlings (4.70g ? 0.09) fed Isonitrogenous and Isoenergetic diet of 25% crude protein containing different grain sources (maize, wheat, rice, sorghum and millet) designated DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 respectively. The study lasted for 56 days. Fish fed a diet containing maize gave the highest mean weight gain (MWG) of 6.05g; highest specific growth rate (SGR) of 1.47; best food...

Solomon, S. G.; Tiamiyu, L. O.; Agaba, U. J.

2007-01-01

155

Growth and fatty acid composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla-diets, in tanks and in earthen ponds: A comparative study  

OpenAIRE

Two 90-day experiments were conducted in the same period in tanks and in earthen ponds to study the effects of culture systems on growth and fatty acid (FA) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (mean weight: 16.3 g) fed Azolla, as partial replacement for fish meal (FM). Diets were isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ?g?1) containing 0% (A0), 10% (A10), 20% (A20), 30% (A30), 40% (A40) and 50% (A50) of Azolla meal (AM) respectively. Diet A0, without AM, acted as...

Youssouf Abou; Aina, Martin P.; Fiogbe?, Emile D.; Jean-Claude Micha

2013-01-01

156

Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Wastes Produced by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) Fed Azolla-Diets in Earthen Ponds  

OpenAIRE

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) wastes produced by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla, an aquatic atmospheric nitrogen fixing fern, was evaluated for 90 days in pond experiment. Six isonitrogenous (29.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (16.9 Kj·g–1) diets A0, A10, A20, A30, A40 and A50, containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of Azolla meal (AM) respectively, as partial fishmeal (FM) substitutes, was provided to experimental fish. The Azolla-free diet A0 served as a control...

Jean-Claude Micha; Fiogbe?, Emile D.; Daouda Mama; Youssouf Abou; Aliou Saidou

2012-01-01

157

Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2 in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3 and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5µg/g body weight to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24 hr post injection (P < 0.001, while the treatment with an anti-thyroid, MMI (100 ppm for 6 days significantly reduced kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05. gnrh2, gnrh3 and thyrotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect.

SatoshiOgawa

2013-11-01

158

Radical scavenging and reducing ability of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzymatically hydrolyzed fish protein hydrolysates could be used as a source of antioxidative nutraceuticals. In our current work, we have investigated alkali-solubilized tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for their reducing power. Tilapia protein isolate was prepared by an alkaline solubilization technique and used as a substrate for enzyme hydrolysis. Cryotin, protease A 'Amano' 2, protease N 'Amano', Neutrase and Flavourzyme, were used separately to determine their effectiveness in hydrolyzing tilapia protein isolate. ROS scavenging ability was quantified using an isoluminol enhanced chemiluminescent assay in the presence of a) hydrogen peroxide or b) mononuclear cells isolated from human blood. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the hydrolysates using 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) or 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), were also investigated. Results showed that, in general, the TEAC, FRAP values and ROS scavenging ability of the hydrolysates increased with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Among the different hydrolysates, those prepared using Cryotin were most effective and Amano A2 hydrolysates were least effective in scavenging ABTS*(+) and ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide. However, FRAP assay showed that hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme were most effective, and Amano N and Neutrase hydrolysates were least effective in reducing ferric ions. No significant difference was observed among the hydrolysates produced with different enzymes in their ability to scavenge ROS generated by phorbol myristate acetate stimulated mononuclear cells. These results shed light on the in vitro ROS scavenging ability of alkali solubilized tilapia protein hydrolysates, as well as potential nutraceutical use of these hydrolysates. PMID:18828605

Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

2008-11-12

159

Oxidative stress and apoptosis was induced by bio-insecticide spinosad in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus.  

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This study was conducted to investigate acute toxic effects of spinosad on Glutathione-related oxidative stress markers, lipid peroxidation, heat shock proteins, apoptosis in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus selected as a model organism. The fish were exposed to sublethal spinosad concentrations (25, 50, 75 mg/L) for 24-48-72 h. tGSH, GSH, GSSG, and TBARS contents, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GPx, GR, GST and caspase enzyme activities were measured using spectrophotometrical methods, and Hsp70 content was measured by ELISA technique. The results demonstrated that spinosad exposure caused significant alterations in the GSH-related oxidative stress markers, and also caused increases in lipid peroxidation and stress proteins with inducing ROS generation in the liver. Apoptosis initiated with the induction of caspase-3 and Hsp70 could not protect the liver cells. Our results indicated that GSH-related antioxidant system tried to protect the liver cells from spinosad-induced hepatotoxicity however, the oxidative stress resulting from induction of ROS generation induced apoptosis in the liver of O. niloticus. PMID:24051243

Piner, Petek; Üner, Nevin

2013-11-01

160

Morphological and quantitative evaluation of the ovarian recrudescence in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after spawning in captivity.  

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The Nile tilapia is one of the most important fish species for aquaculture worldwide. Understanding their reproductive biology is essential for improving their aquaculture methods. The morphological and quantitative dynamics of ovarian recrudescence of Oreochromis niloticus was studied for 21 days postspawning. To accomplish this, breeding females were kept in controlled conditions and ovarian samples were collected weekly for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric analyses. Ovarian follicle morphology revealed an intense synthesis activity of the follicular cells, which actively contributed to formation of the zona radiata and oocyte development following spawning. Recently spawned ovaries contained follicles at all developmental stages, but they were predominantly early primary growth (? 42%) and full-grown follicles (? 20%). Remnants of spawning, postovulatory follicle complexes represented approximately 5% of the former ovarian follicles immediately after spawning, and less than 1% after 7 days. Atretic follicles accounted for approximately 2% of the follicles studied during the period. The stock of primary growth follicles was stable during ovarian recrudescence, indicating their availability for continuous recruitment. Only the frequency of full-grown follicles significantly increased in the ovaries during recrudescence, representing approximately 35% of the follicles 21 days postspawning. The diameters of all follicles were significantly different between the periods analyzed. The ovaries' morphological characteristics, the maintenance of young follicles stocks and the gradual and significant increase in the proportion and diameter of full-grown follicles showed a rapid ovarian recovery and follicular growth of O. niloticus, in 21 days at 29.5°C, necessary for the next spawning. PMID:24136463

Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Martins, Yuri Simões; Teixeira, Edgar de Alencar; Luz, Ronald Kennedy; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

2014-03-01

161

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758  

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Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

Kenan Koprucu

2004-01-01

162

Efectos individuales de la ciclidogiriasis y estreptococosis inducidas en la bioquímica sanguínea de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus / Individual effects of cichlidogyriasis and streptococosis induced on the blood biochemistry of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available En este estudio se propone evaluar la posibilidad de utilizar los datos de la bioquímica sanguínea como diagnóstico presuntivo de un proceso infeccioso en tilapias Oreochromis niloticus, mediante infecciones inducidas por Streptococcus sp. o por la activación de la respuesta inmune inducida por antí [...] genos de Cichlidogyrus spp. Específicamente, se evaluó la variabilidad de algunos metabolitos de la bioquímica sanguínea de tilapias O. niloticus, desafiadas de manera individual con inyecciones intraperitoneales (IP) de cultivos celulares de Streptococcus sp. (Grupo STREP, n = 10) y extractos tisulares de Cichlidogyrus spp. (Grupo C-EXP, n = 10). Adicionalmente, a 10 tilapias, se les inyectó búfer salino de fosfato (PBS) (pH = 7), para ser usados como control de inmunizaciones (Grupo solución salina, SS). Además, 70 tilapias se mantuvieron en condiciones acuaculturales usuales y conformaron el grupo línea base (LB). Diez peces más, libres de infección, sirvieron como control negativo (Grupo CN). La bioquímica sanguínea (metabolitos y iones), se analizó por el método de microplaca. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo diferencias entre los grupos LB y CN (p > 0.05). En los peces STREP y C-EXP se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de glucosa, proteínas totales, albúmina y globulinas al compararlos con los peces LB (p 0.05). Para esta especie y en las condiciones de cultivo establecidas, las variaciones producidas por la infección con Streptococcus sp. y los antígenos de Cichlidogyrus spp., modificaron algunos parámetros de su bioquímica sanguínea, los cuales pueden servir como indicadores de posibles patologías infecciosas. Abstract in english In this study, we propose to evaluate the blood biochemistry as diagnosis technique of a pathologic process in tilapias Oreochromis niloticus by means of infections induced by Streptococcus sp. or by the activation of the immune response induced by antigens of Cichlidogyrus spp. Specifically, variat [...] ions of some metabolites from the blood biochemistry were evaluated in experimentally infected tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The organisms were intraperitoneally challenged (IP) with individual antigenic extracts of Streptococcus sp. (STREP Group, n = 10) and Cichlidogyrus spp. (C-EXP Group, n = 10), respectively, while 10 other tilapia were inoculated with a saline solution buffer (SS Group) and were used as immunization control. Another group of 70 tilapias was maintained in aquaculture conditions included the baseline group (LB). The negative control (CN) included 10 fish free of infection. The blood chemistry (metabolites and ions) were tested in a microplate format. No differences were observed between the LB and the CN groups (p > 0.05). Only fish injected with Streptococcus sp. (STREP) and Cichlidogyrus spp. (C-EXP) were significantly different with the values of glucose, total proteins, albumin, and globulins, when comparing with LB fish (p 0.05). The results from the induced infections with Streptococcus sp. and Cichlidogyrus spp., respectively, modified some parameters of the blood biochemistry of tilapia that could be used for some preliminary diagnosis of infectious diseases.

Juan José, Sandoval-Gío; Miguel, Rosado-Vallado; Rossanna, Rodríguez-Canul.

2013-12-01

163

Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces): A methodological comparison  

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The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13) and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis test, our results rev...

Christofoletti, Cintya A.; David, Jose? Augusto O.; Fontanetti, Carmem S.

2009-01-01

164

Production algale et consommation par le Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., au Lac Muhazi (Rwanda). Résumé de thèse de doctorat  

OpenAIRE

Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda). The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS) project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

Mukankomeje, R.

1992-01-01

165

Production algale et consommation par le Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., au Lac Muhazi (Rwanda. Résumé de thèse de doctorat  

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Full Text Available Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda. The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

Mukankomeje, R.

1992-01-01

166

GROWTH, IMMUNE FUNCTION, AND DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF JUVENILE NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED GRADED LEVELS OF BOVINE LACTOFERRIN  

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Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth performanc...

167

Toxicidade aguda e efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat na brânquia e no fígado da tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus = Acute toxicity and histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on the gill and liver of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A concentração letal 50% e os efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat para a tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados em três experimentos. Os peixes foram expostos às concentrações de 0; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; e 60 mg de diquat L-1 e a histologia da brânquia e do fígado foi avaliada nos peixes sobreviventes. A CL (I 50-96h do diquat estimada foi de 37,28 mg L-1, com limite inferior de 33,12 mg L-1 e superior de 41,44mg L-1. No tratamento com 30, 35 e 40 mg L-1, ocorreram início de fusão apical das lamelas secundárias; com 45 e 50 mg L-1 ocorreram congestão nas lamelas primárias e no tratamento com 55 mg L-1, ocorreu congestão sangüínea nas lamelas secundárias. O fígado dos peixes dos tratamentos controle, 30 e 35 mg L-1 estavam com organização cordonal dos hepatócitos. Nos tratamentos com 40 e 45 mg L-1, ocorreram hipertrofia dos hepatócitos; com 50 e 55 mg L-1 ocorreram fusão celular e presença de vacúolos. O diquat apresentoubaixo risco de intoxicação à tilápia nilótica e as alterações histopatológicas mais severas ocorreram somente nas concentrações mais elevadas.The lethal concentration of 50% (LC (I 50-96h and the histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fish were evaluated in three experiments. The fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 mg diquat L-1, and gill and liver histology were evaluated in the surviving fishes. The estimated LC (I (50-96h of diquat was37.28 mg L-1, with lower limits of 33.12 mg L-1 and upper limits of 41.44 mg L-1. In the treatment with 30, 35 and 40 mg L-1, signs of apical fusion of the secondary lamellae were observed; with 45 and 50 mg L-1, congestion of the primary lamellae was observed; in thetreatment with 55 mg L-1, congestion of blood vessels on secondary lamellae took place. The livers of fishes in treatments with 0, 25, 30 and 35 mg L-1 showed cordonal organization of hepatocytes. In the treatments with 40 and 45 mg L-1, hypertrophy of hepatocytes took place; with 50 and 55 mg L-1, cell fusion and the presence of vacuolesinside hepatocytes were observed. Diquat presented low risk of toxicity for nile tilapia, as the more severe histopathologic alterations occurred only in higher concentrations.

Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares

2008-01-01

168

The effect of increased light intensity on the aggressive behavior of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Animals show behavioral and physiological changes that emerge in response to environmental perturbations (i.e., emergency life-history stages). In this study, we investigate the effects of light intensity on aggressive encounters and social stability in groups of adult male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis [...] niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). The study compared the behavior observed under low (280.75 ± 50.60 lx) and high (1394.14 ± 520.32 lx) light intensities, with 12 replicates for each treatment. Adult fish were isolated in 36-L aquaria for 96 hours, and three males were grouped for 11 days in 140-L aquaria. Agonistic behavior was video-recorded (10 min/day) on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th day to quantify aggressive interactions and social stability. There was an effect of light intensity and day of observation on the total number of agonistic behaviors performed by the fish group. Besides, increased frequency of aggressive interactions (the sum of the four sessions) by the alpha, beta and gamma fish occurred at the higher light intensity. The dominance ranks of the fish remained unchanged across the observation sessions under both the low and high light intensities. We concluded that enhanced light intensity has a cumulative effect that increases the aggressiveness of the Nile tilapia but that this effect is not sufficiently strong to destabilize the social hierarchy.

Thaís B., Carvalho; Francine Z., Mendonça; Roselene S., Costa-Ferreira; Eliane, Gonçalves-de-Freitas.

2013-04-01

169

The Influence of Some Phytobiotics on Haematological and Some Biochemical Indices at Oreochromis Niloticus – Linnaeus, 1758  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluated the influence of some phytobiotics on haematological profile, leukocyte reaction and some biochemical indices at Oreochromis niloticus species, reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. This experiment was conducted six weeks. The experimental variants were: V1 – control; V2 – 1% Rosmarinus officinalis / kg feed; V3 – 1% Hippophae rhamnoides / kg feed and V4 – 1% Zingiber officinale / kg feed. Blood was analyzed using standard techniques. At the end of the experiment the following parameters were determined: RBCc (x106cells/µL, Hb (g/dL, PVC (%, MCV (µm3, MCH (pg, MCHC (g/dL, TP (g/dL, GLU (mg/dL, cortisol (ng/mL, lysozyme activity (U/mL, absolute number of blood cells (x103 cells/µL and leukogram (%. The results showed that the administration in feed of some phytobiotics lead to signifiant differences (p<0.05 of following parameters: RBCc (x106cells/µL, MCV (µm3, glucose (mg/dL, lysozyme activity (U/mL, monocyte (% and in absolute number of leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. In conclusion, due to decreasing of RBCc, PVC, Hb, MCHC, cortisol, GLU and due to normal concentration of TP, we can say that the administration of sea buckthorn and ginger, but even rosemary administration, in diet improves the physiological status at Oreochromis niloticus species.

Alina Antache

2014-05-01

170

Modulation of genotoxicity and endocrine disruptive effects of malathion by dietary honeybee pollen and propolis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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The present study aimed at verifying the usefulness of dietary 2.5% bee-pollen (BP) or propolis (PROP) to overcome the genotoxic and endocrine disruptive effects of malathion polluted water in Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). The acute toxicity test was conducted in O. niloticus in various concentrations (0-8 ppm); mortality rate was assessed daily for 96 h. The 96 h-LC50 was 5 ppm and therefore 1/5 of the median lethal concentration (1 ppm) was used for chronic toxicity assessment. In experiment (1), fish (n = 8/group) were kept on a diet (BP/PROP or without additive (control)) and exposed daily to malathion in water at concentration of 5 ppm for 96 h "acute toxicity experiment". Protective efficiency against the malathion was verified through chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronucleus (MN) and DNA-fragmentation assessment. Survival rate in control, BP and PROP groups was 37.5%, 50.0% and 100.0%, respectively. Fish in BP and PROP groups showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the frequency of CA (57.14% and 40.66%), MN (53.13% and 40.63%) and DNA-fragmentation (53.08% and 30.00%). In experiment (2), fish (10 males and 5 females/group) were kept on a diet with/without BP for 21 days before malathion-exposure in water at concentration of 0 ppm (control) or 1 ppm (Exposed) for further 10 days "chronic toxicity experiment". BP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced CA (86.33%), MN (82.22%) and DNA-fragmentation (93.11%), prolonged the sperm motility when exposed to 0.01 ppm of pollutant in vitro and increased the estradiol level in females comparing to control. In conclusion, BP can be used as a feed additive for fish prone to be raised in integrated fish farms or cage culture due to its potency to chemo-protect against genotoxicity and sperm-teratogenicity persuaded by malathion-exposure. PMID:25685536

Kandiel, Mohamed M M; El-Asely, Amel M; Radwan, Hasnaa A; Abbass, Amany A

2014-11-01

171

Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos  

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Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas substâncias antimicrobianas e também contra a rifampicina; o isolado bacteriano de pacu foi a única linhagem resistente a tetraciclina. Isolados de pacu e tilápia apresentaram resistência intermediária frente a eritromicina. O uso de medicamentos em pisciculturas comerciais no Brasil pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de linhagens bacterianas resistentes em espécies de peixes nativos, como já observado em espécies exóticas comercialmente produzidas há mais tempo.

Andréa Belém-Costa

2006-06-01

172

EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Samuel Olubodun Obasa

2013-10-01

173

Immunostimulatory effects of artificial feed supplemented with a Chinese herbal mixture on Oreochromis niloticus against Aeromonas hydrophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) composed of astragalus, angelica, hawthorn, Licorice root and honeysuckle on immune responses and disease resistant of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain) were investigated in present study. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0% CHM (w/w) for 4 weeks. And series of immune parameters including lysozyme, cytokine genes TNF-? and IL-1?, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured during test period. After four weeks of feeding, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that feeding Nile tilapia with CHM-supplementation diet stimulated lysozyme activity, SOD activity and POD activity in serum, induced TNF-? and IL-1? mRNA expression in head kidney and spleen, but decreased serum MDA content. All CHM-supplemental groups showed reduced mortalities following A. hydrophila infection compared with the group fed the control diet. These results suggested that this CHM can be applied as a tilapia feed supplement to elevate fish immunity and disease resistance against A. hydrophila. PMID:24925761

Tang, Jufen; Cai, Jia; Liu, Ran; Wang, Jiamin; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

2014-08-01

174

Honey bee pollen improves growth, immunity and protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

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The mode of action of honey bee pollen (HBP) was investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Thus, fish with an average weight of 29 ± 3 g were divided into four groups, and fed with HBP-free diet (control), and 1%, 2.5% and 4% (w/v) HBP incorporated into basal diet for 10, 20 and 30 days. Immunological, hematological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured, and sub-groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection. HBP significantly increased the growth performance parameters [body weight, length, average daily gain (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed efficiency ratio (FER)] and immunological (phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and nitroblue tetrazolium assay (NBT)), hematological (hematocrit (Hct), leucocrit (Lct), the numbers of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) and biochemical parameters (serum total protein, albumin and globulin ratios). Furthermore, all treated fish exhibited significant protection against challenge with A. hydrophila, with the highest protection (93%) observed in the group fed with 2.5% (w/v) HBP for 20 and 30 days. PMID:25086230

El-Asely, Amel M; Abbass, Amany A; Austin, Brian

2014-10-01

175

Physiological and oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to pendimethalin-based herbicide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish are relatively sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment, including increasing pollution. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of contamination with the pendimethalin-based herbicide; Stomp(®) 50% EC (50% pendimethalin as emulsive concentrate) on adults of the monosex Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. A total of 260 fish with body weights of 90?±?5.0 g were used in the determination of the 96-h LC50 value and of the impacts of acute exposure to pendimethalin on physiological parameters, and oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers. The 96-h median lethal concentration (96-h LC50 ) value of pendimethalin for monosex Nile tilapia was determined as 4.92 mg/L. Abnormal behavioral responses of the fish and the toxic symptoms of pendimethalin exposure are described. Acute exposure to pendimethalin induced leukocytosis, hyperglobulinemia, and hyperglycemia, but resulted in nonsignificant changes in other hemato-biochemical parameters. Moreover, pendimethalin increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased levels of reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase in both liver and gill tissues, in a time-dependent manner, with maximum alterations observed in the gills rather than the liver. We conclude that although pendimethalin is moderately toxic, it does not cause hepatorenal toxicity. However, this herbicide pollutant induces major disturbances to the antioxidant system; induction of oxidative stress and LPO is the proposed toxicodynamic pathway for such stress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 430-438, 2015. PMID:24293324

El-Sayed, Yasser S; Samak, Dalia H; Abou-Ghanema, Ismail Y; Soliman, Magdy K

2015-04-01

176

Digestibilidade e desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de silagem ácida de pescado Digestibility and performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus fed diets with different levels of acid silage  

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Full Text Available Os experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus para alevinos de tilápia nilótica e o desempenho dos alevinos recebendo níveis crescentes (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 % da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe na ração. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 2,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita durante 7 dias seguintes e a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e energia metabolizável aparente foi feita por metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 1% de Cr2O3 como indicador incorporado à ração. No desempenho, foram utilizados 2000 alevinos revertidos sexualmente com peso médio de 0,45 g, acondicionados em "hapas" de 1m², dispostos em um viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF, consumo de ração total (CRT, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, acréscimo em altura (AA e em comprimento (AC. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, 95,49%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, 96,66%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo, 97,18%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta, 95,44%, e energia digestível aparente 2.880,02 kcal/kg. Não houve diferença significativa (P> 0,05 para ganho de peso final, consumo de ração total, conversão e acréscimo em altura. Observou-se aumento linear (PThe experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. This silage was given to Nile tilapia juvenile and their performance was taken. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collection was made during 7 subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent metabolizable energy were determined by indirect method, 1% of Cr(20(3 was used as an indicator . In the performance assay a total of 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight of 0.45g, they also were kept in 1m² "hapas" in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG, total feed intake (TFE, apparent feed conversion (AFC, height increase (HI and length increase (LI. The randomized design was used with 5 treatments and 4 repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility coefficients were: dry matter, 95.49; gross protein, 96.66; ethereal extract, 97.18; gross energy, 95.44; and apparent digestible energy (kcal/kg was 2880.02. No significant difference (P>0.05 were found for final weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion and height increase. A linear increase (P<0.01 was observed in length. It was concluded that the acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus should be efficiently used by tilapia Nile juvenile.

Marinez Moraes de Oliveira

2006-12-01

177

Metallic Micropollutants in the Harvest of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757)from Polluted Waters: Wildlife and Human Concerns  

OpenAIRE

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were sampled at four locations along Lake Mary?t for eleven metal residues. Data were compared to certified levels for possible metal contamination. Generally, cadmium, lead, mercury, manganese and copper were above standard levels for unpolluted waters. The kidneys in O. niloticus were the principal store organs for most of the metals tested. In an outstanding result, the muscular edible tissue in O. niloticus was the principal destination for mercury. ...

Adham, K. G.

2001-01-01

178

Integrated multi-trophic culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Amazon river prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum) in brackish water / Cultivo multi-trófico integrado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e camarão da Amazônia (Macrobrachium amazonicum) em água salobra  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a viabilidade do cultivo multitrófico integrado da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e do camarão-da-amazônia (Macrobrachium amazonicum) em água salobra, mediante a avaliação de suas características limnológicas e de seu desempenho econômico. O experimento [...] foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições: tratamento controle somente com tilápia-do-nilo, estocado com duas tilápias/m² (P2C0) e três tratamentos de cultivo multitrófico integrado, estocados com duas tilapias/m² e camarões nas densidades de quatro, oito e 16 camarões/m² (P2C04, P2C08 e P2C16, respectivamente). As variáveis limnológicas temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, turbidez, amônia, ortofosfato e clorofila "a" foram avaliadas e, durante todo o experimento, mantiveram-se dentro dos limites recomendados para o cultivo. O experimento durou 150 dias, com amostragem mensal dos animais. Diferenças significativas não foram observadas para a biomassa total de peixe nem para a taxa de sobrevivência total em peixes e camarões. Entretanto, o peso individual do camarão diminuiu à medida que a densidade de estocagem aumentou. A receita bruta não foi significativamente diferente entre os tratamentos, assim como a rentabilidade. A rentabilidade foi 40,1% (P2C0), 36,7% (P2C04), 41,2% (P2C08) e 50,1% (P2C16). Conclui-se que, apesar de viável do ponto de vista da larvicultura, o cultivo multitrófico integrado de M. amazonicum e O. niloticus não influenciou significativamente a rentabilidade quando comparado com o sistema de monocultura. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of integrated multi-trophic culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Amazon River prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum) in brackish water by evaluating its limnological characteristics and economic performance. The experiment was completely r [...] andomized with four treatments and four repetitions: control treatment with Nile tilapia only, stocked with 2 tilapias/m² (P2C0) and three integrated multi-trophic culture treatments stocked with 2 tilapias/m² and prawns at densities of 4, 8 and 16 prawns/m² (P2C04, P2C08 and P2C16, respectively). The limnological variables of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, ammonia, orthophosphate and chlorophyll "a" were evaluated and throughout the experiment remained within the limits recommended for culture. The experiment lasted 150 days with monthly animal sampling. No significant differences were observed for total fish biomass or for fish and prawn total survival rates. However, prawn individual weight decreased as stocking density increased. Gross revenue was not significantly different between treatments, as well as profitability. The profitability was 40.1% (P2C0), 36.7% (P2C04), 41.2% (P2C08) and 50.1% (P2C16). It is concluded that although feasible from the view point of husbandry, the integrated multi-tropic culture of M. amazonicum and O. niloticus did not influence significantly profitability compared to the monoculture system.

G.G., Henry-Silva; C.S.P., Maia; R.S.T., Moura; A.P., Bessa Junior; W.C., Valenti.

2015-02-01

179

Functionality and antioxidant properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as influenced by the degree of hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 3-(2-pyridyl) 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine), radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P 8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%). They have 'U' shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients. PMID:20480046

Foh, Mohamed Beva Kelfala; Amadou, Issoufou; Foh, Betty Mabel; Kamara, Mohamed Tabita; Xia, Wenshui

2010-01-01

180

Effect of cortisol on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus L., after transference from freshwater to seawater  

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Full Text Available This trial was conducted in order to determine the effects of cortisol on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Tilapia (n=42 were injected intraperitoneally with cortisol and then were directly transferred from freshwater (FW to 15‰ salt water (SW. Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-, plasma level of cortisol and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity were measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after transference to 15‰ SW. Plasma osmolality and Cl- increased immediately after transference until 12-24 h. The fish injected with cortisol (F showed higher plasma levels of cortisol than those from control group (C that maintained the initial levels during the experiment. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of C fish began to increase at first hours after transference and peak at 48h. The differences between gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of F and C groups were significant (P<0.05 in FW, which confirm the effect of exogenous cortisol.

Fontaínhas-Fernandes A.

2003-01-01

181

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758) através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, [...] SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g) e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2) correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (Ht), volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), trombócitos totais (Tr), contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc). Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus. Abstract in english Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758) was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days) exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg). Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control g [...] roup. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr). There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.

Nilton Massuo, Ishikawa; Maria José Tavares, Ranzani-Paiva; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; Cláudia Maris, Ferreira.

2007-07-01

182

Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in ?-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against ?-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to ?-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to ?-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. (author)

183

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae)  

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Full Text Available Actualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC) con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT). En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (5.0cm de longitud), fueron asignados [...] al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque), en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a) peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH), b) peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R), c) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH), y d) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N). La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra), se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T) y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T), Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K), porcentaje de supervivencia (S), la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR), porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP) y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH), y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p Abstract in english Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in len [...] gth) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (p

Marco A., Liñán-Cabello; Cindy M., Robles-Basto; & #8224; Alfredo, Mena-Herrera.

2013-03-01

184

Custos de produção de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em um modelo de propriedade da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produção da piscicultura praticada na região oeste do Paraná. Os custos são apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se à exploração comercial de uma área de 24.000m², em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produção de 14,4t de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus por ciclo de produção, com o peso unitário médio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantação, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao mês e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o último representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo variável representou 70,18% do custo total de produção e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que são bastante sensíveis às variações nos preços das matérias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsável pela governança da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivência.The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m² area, in eight tanks, which enable the production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of raw material prices. The necessity of the establishment of a responsible agent for the leadership of the food chain was exposed to guarantee its survival.

Rafael Luiz Barboza de Andrade

2005-02-01

185

Concentrado protéico de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus): caracterização físico-química e aceitação sensorial / Protein concentrate from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): physical-chemical characterization and sensory acceptance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou o aproveitamento da carne mecanicamente separada (CMS) de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) na obtenção de um concentrado protéico de tilápia (CPT) para o consumo humano, caracterizando-o quanto aos parâmetros físico-químicos e sens [...] oriais. O CPT foi caracterizado quanto aos seguintes aspectos: rendimento, umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, atividade de água (Aw) e aceitação sensorial. O CPT apresentou rendimento de 18,34%, baixos níveis de umidade e cinza e alto conteúdo protéico e lipídico, quando comparado à matéria-prima original (CMS) e baixa Aw. Na avaliação sensorial do CPT, a freqüência de aceitação dos provadores foi de 60,4% para a cor, 51,1% para o aspecto geral e 41,7% para o aroma. A descrição do aroma com termos como característico de pescado foi relatada por 44,2% dos provadores, sugerindo a necessidade de uma desodorização parcial do material, e indicando um equilíbrio em relação ao grupo dos provadores que não perceberam o odor característico. Esta pesquisa mostra agregação de valor a um material de descarte, gerando possibilidades de oferta de uma fonte proteica alternativa, de custo relativamente baixo. Abstract in english This study aimed to use mechanically separated mince (MSM) from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) to obtain a protein concentrate for human consumption and to assess its proximal composition and sensory characteristics. Yield, proximal composition, [...] water activity and sensory evaluation were analyzed on the dry TPC. The TPC has a yield of 18.34%, and contained 1.38% moisture, 62.39% protein, 32.63% fat, 2.26% ash and had 0.16 Aw. Sensory evaluation of dry FPC powder expressed as frequency of acceptance by panelists was 60.4% for color, 51.1% for general appearance and 41.7% for aroma. Description of flavor using terms like "typical of fish" was reported by only 44.2% of the panelists, suggesting the need for a more efficient deodorizing process and showing a balance in relation to the group of panelists that did not notice the characteristic smell. The study shows the possibility of adding value to a residual food material offering an alternative source of protein at a relatively low cost.

Juliana Maria Aderaldo, Vidal; Maria do Carmo Passos, Rodrigues; Jorge Fernando Fuentes, Zapata; Janaína Maria Martins, Vieira.

2011-03-01

186

Silagem de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), com ácido fórmico - análise Bromatológica, físico-química e microbiológica / Silage of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) filetage residues with formic acid Bromatological, phisico-chemical and microbiological analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento avaliou o valor nutritivo da silagem ácida da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758), visando sua utilização em substituição à farinha de peixe na alimentação de organismo aquático. A silagem consistiu de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia (carcaça) e 3% de á [...] cido fórmico, armazenada em temperatura ambiente (máxima média de 21,5ºC) e temperatura mínima média de 15ºC, por trinta dias, em baldes de polietileno com um orifício, por onde os gases saiam. O pH foi monitorado no 1º, 15º e 30º dia. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas para contagem total de microrganismos e coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC. O pH apresentou média de 3,95 ao final dos 30 dias. Nas análises microbiológicas observou-se a ausência de coliformes a 45ºC e, que a quantidade de microrganismos diminuiu gradativamente. Do ponto de vista microbiológico, a silagem ácida de resíduo da filetagem de tilápia mostrou-se como alimento alternativo viável para a alimentação animal. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out for evaluate the nutritional value of the silage of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758) filetage residues with formic acid as a replace of fish meal in aquatic organisms feeding as protein source. The silage consisted of tilapia filetage residues (carca [...] ss) and 3% formic acid, and it was stored in environmental temperature with a maximum average of 21,5º C and a minimum average of 15 º C, during thirty days, in polyethylene pails with an orifice for the exhaustion of gases. The pH was monitored on the 1st, 15th and 30th day. The microbiological analyses were made for the total count of microorganisms and coliforms at 35º C and 45º C. The average pH was 3.95 at the end of 30 days. The microbiological analyses showed absence of coliformes at 45º C and a gradual reduction in the quantity of microorganisms. From the microbiological standpoint, the acid silage of tilapia residues was shown to be an alternative viable diet for animal feeding.

Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Antônio Cléber da Silva, Camargo; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Carlos José, Pimenta.

1218-12-01

187

Silagem de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, com ácido fórmico - análise Bromatológica, físico-química e microbiológica Silage of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus filetage residues with formic acid Bromatological, phisico-chemical and microbiological analyses  

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Full Text Available O experimento avaliou o valor nutritivo da silagem ácida da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758, visando sua utilização em substituição à farinha de peixe na alimentação de organismo aquático. A silagem consistiu de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia (carcaça e 3% de ácido fórmico, armazenada em temperatura ambiente (máxima média de 21,5ºC e temperatura mínima média de 15ºC, por trinta dias, em baldes de polietileno com um orifício, por onde os gases saiam. O pH foi monitorado no 1º, 15º e 30º dia. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas para contagem total de microrganismos e coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC. O pH apresentou média de 3,95 ao final dos 30 dias. Nas análises microbiológicas observou-se a ausência de coliformes a 45ºC e, que a quantidade de microrganismos diminuiu gradativamente. Do ponto de vista microbiológico, a silagem ácida de resíduo da filetagem de tilápia mostrou-se como alimento alternativo viável para a alimentação animal.The experiment was carried out for evaluate the nutritional value of the silage of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 filetage residues with formic acid as a replace of fish meal in aquatic organisms feeding as protein source. The silage consisted of tilapia filetage residues (carcass and 3% formic acid, and it was stored in environmental temperature with a maximum average of 21,5º C and a minimum average of 15 º C, during thirty days, in polyethylene pails with an orifice for the exhaustion of gases. The pH was monitored on the 1st, 15th and 30th day. The microbiological analyses were made for the total count of microorganisms and coliforms at 35º C and 45º C. The average pH was 3.95 at the end of 30 days. The microbiological analyses showed absence of coliformes at 45º C and a gradual reduction in the quantity of microorganisms. From the microbiological standpoint, the acid silage of tilapia residues was shown to be an alternative viable diet for animal feeding.

Marinez Moraes de Oliveira

2006-12-01

188

Custos de produção de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) em um modelo de propriedade da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil / Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produção da piscicultura praticada na região oeste do Paraná. Os custos são apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se à exploração comercial de uma área de 24.000m², em oito tanques, o que proporciona [...] a produção de 14,4t de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) por ciclo de produção, com o peso unitário médio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantação, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao mês) e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o último representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo variável representou 70,18% do custo total de produção e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que são bastante sensíveis às variações nos preços das matérias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsável pela governança da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivência. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m² area, in eight tanks, which enable th [...] e production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month) and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of raw material prices. The necessity of the establishment of a responsible agent for the leadership of the food chain was exposed to guarantee its survival.

Rafael Luiz Barboza de, Andrade; Ricardo Luiz, Wagner; Ilson, Mahl; Ricardo Silveira, Martins.

2005-02-01

189

Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus=Purification, physical and chemical characterization, and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1. O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II, eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I e 23,80 (F II UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS, suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I and 23.80 (F II IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

2011-07-01

190

Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces): a methodological comparison  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13) and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. [...] Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis test, our results revealed that pH 12.1 is more effective, although both pHs can be used. Our findings also suggest that silver staining can substitute ethidium bromide, an expensive and highly toxic stain that requires specific equipment for examination.

Cintya A., Christofoletti; José Augusto O., David; Carmem S., Fontanetti.

191

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

Sabato, S. F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P. J. A.

2007-11-01

192

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction

193

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A. [Food Engineering Department, ZEA/FZEA/USP, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, 13635 900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

2007-11-15

194

Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

195

Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at <-70 ??C. Frozen fillets were individually homogenized, extracted, and FFA concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Florfenicol amine is rapidly eliminated from tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance limit, calculated as the 99th percentile of the potential residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 ??g/g maximum residue level by 6.14 d after the dosing period.

Gaikowski, M.P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schleis, S.M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R.G.

2010-01-01

196

Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus);Efeitos da irradiacao e refrigeracao na qualidade e no valor nutritivo da tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

2001-07-01

197

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g. Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1 and without (type-2 were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

2007-01-01

198

Two Myxobolus spp. infecting the kidney of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the River Nile at Beni-Suef governorate, Egypt, and the associated renal changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Myxobolus spp. are described from the kidney of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from the River Nile, Egypt. The prevalence of infection was 61 % (47/77), with the infected fish in each case parasitized by the two Myxobolus species simultaneously. The infection was exhibited as free spores in Bowman capsules and renal glomeruli, which makes their original structures difficult to discern. In some cases, the infection appeared as a fibrous plasmodia-like structure containing degenerated developmental stages and spores in the interstitium. The paper identifies each species based on the morphological characteristics of its spores and identifies the histological impacts of Myxobolus infection in this species of fish. PMID:25566769

Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Abdel-Haleem, Heba M; Sakran, Thabet; Zayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

2015-03-01

199

The Role of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in Growth and Immunity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Its Resistance to Bacterial Infection  

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Full Text Available The current study was designed to optimize the dietary levels of Spirulina platensis in Oreochromis niloticus; this was tested via graded levels. Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried spirulina 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to six equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings for 3 months. Growth performance, non-specific immune parameters, tissue reactions and resistance of tilapias post challenge infection with Pseudomonas fluorescens were estimated monthly. There were significant increase in growth performance parameters and survival rates in spirulina-supplemented groups at concentration level of 10 g/kg for 2 months. Significant increases in hematocrit, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme activity were observed in most of the supplemented groups. Bacterial challenge infections resulted in significantly lower mortality rate in all Spirulina groups with remarkable increase in protection of fish received 10 g/kg. In sum, it advisable to incorporate 10 g/kg diet of spirulina for 2 months for maximum growth performance, immunity and disease resistance in O. niloticus.

Mai D. Ibrahem

2013-05-01

200

Toxicity and Efficacy of Lidocaine as an Anesthetic for Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus  

OpenAIRE

The anesthetic lidocaine was tested for its toxicity, efficacy and safety on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Toxicity values were variable and depended mainly on concentration and time of exposure. Concentrations of 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1 lidocaine were all effective for rapid anesthesia with 100% survival. In moderately rapid anesthesia, 40 mg L-1 lidocaine induced loss of equilibrium in Nile tilapia within 20 min exposure and 100% survival. Safety Index (SI) values for lidocaine on Nil...

Abbas, H. H. H.; Abdel-gawad, A. S.; Akkr, A. A.

2006-01-01

201

Antagonistic activity of dietary allicin against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allicin, the main biologically active component of garlic clove extracts, has been evaluated for its' efficacy in preventing deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were fed on 2 different doses of 0.5 g and 1 g of allicin/kg diet for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated. Moreover, the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) was analyzed as a lipid peroxidation marker. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. Results show that deltamethrin subacute intoxication (1.46 µg/L for 28 days) increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA. At the same time, serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue level of GSH, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT were reduced. Allicin supplemented diets enhanced all the altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissues' lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that feeding allicin can ameliorate deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and might have some therapeutic properties to protect Nile tilapia on subacute deltamethrin toxicity. PMID:25450927

Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Hassan, Ahmed M

2015-01-01

202

Parasite community of wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzalah, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 323 O. niloticus (168 wild fishes and 155 cultured fishes) were collected from Lake Manzala, Egypt from July to September 2010. The fish samples were examined for both ectoparasites and endoparasites. The parasite community of wild and cultured, O. niloticus consisted of ten parasitic species, one protozoon (Trichodina spp.), six monogenea (Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. halli typicus, C. tilapiae, C. ergensi, C. tiberianus), one acanthocephalan (Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae) and two crustacean species (Lernaea cyprinacea and Ergasilus sp.). Mean parasite species richness significantly differed between wild (4.9 +/- 0.3) and cultured (6.6 +/- 0.8). The overall prevalence of infection in cultured O. niloticus (54.84%) was significantly higher as compared to that in wild fish (39.9%). The most prevalent parasite was C. thurstonae (37.46%) and C. sclerosus (35.91%) while the less prevalent one was Ergasilus sp. (14.55%). Host sex and host body size significantly affect parasitism in most parasite species. PMID:22435161

Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Soliman, Maha F M

2011-12-01

203

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) / Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus. Abstract in english The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The pu [...] rpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

APT, Medeiros; S, Chellappa; ME, Yamamoto.

2007-11-01

204

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus.

APT Medeiros

2007-11-01

205

Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena / Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de contro [...] le respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I) e com succinato (complexo II) foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1) na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte. Abstract in english A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3. [...] 3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I) or succinate (complex II), respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1) in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

F.P., Peixoto; D.L., Santos; S., Vilela; A., Fontaínhas-Fernandes.

2009-04-01

206

Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) / Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos  

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Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg [...] , 1887) e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas substâncias antimicrobianas e também contra a rifampicina; o isolado bacteriano de pacu foi a única linhagem resistente a tetraciclina. Isolados de pacu e tilápia apresentaram resistência intermediária frente a eritromicina. O uso de medicamentos em pisciculturas comerciais no Brasil pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de linhagens bacterianas resistentes em espécies de peixes nativos, como já observado em espécies exóticas comercialmente produzidas há mais tempo. Abstract in english One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreoc [...] hromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.

Andréa, Belém-Costa; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

2006-06-01

207

Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual aquaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30 as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15 and subordinate (N = 15 fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl, glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl, triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl. However, when isolated (N = 30 and paired (N = 30 tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

Corrêa S.A.

2003-01-01

208

Quantification of fatty acids in tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed with different sources of vegetable oilsQuantificação de ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais  

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Full Text Available The present work aimed to quantify the fatty acids in total lipids of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed with different sources of vegetable oils mechanically extracted. Were used 320 tilapias (O. niloticus with average initial weight and average total initial length of 2.55±0.57 g and 5.59±0.43 cm, respectively, fed for a period of 60 days, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replications. The diets were prepared with 320 g/kg crude protein and 3.500 kcal of digestible energy per kg of feed enriched with eight different oils: sunflower, canola, sesame, linseed, peanut, Para’s nut soy and macadamia, with an addition of 4%. Among the major fatty acids the oleic, palmitic, linolenic and linoleic were obtained in higher concentration (mg/g of LT in fish from all treatments. The sums of polyunsaturated fatty acids after 60 days of cultivation had increased in all treatments compared to the 30 days of the experiment. This is due to the addition of oils with high contents of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The fatty acids in the carcass are a reflection of the energy source of oil used. As a conclusion it is recommended the use of linseed oil in the diet of tilapia fingerlings due to great improvement in the relationship between n-6/n-3. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar os ácidos graxos nos alevinos de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais extraídos mecanicamente. Foram utilizadas 320 tilápias com peso inicial médio e comprimento total inicial médio de 2,55±0,57 g e 5,59±0,43 cm, respectivamente, alimentados por um período de 60 dias, num delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram elaboradas com 320 g/ kg proteína bruta (PB e 3.500 kcal de energia digestível (ED por kg de ração, enriquecidas com oito diferentes óleos: girassol, canola, gergelim, linhaça, amendoim, castanha do Pará, soja e macadâmia, com uma inclusão de 4%. Dentre os ácidos graxos majoritários o oléico, palmítico, linolênico e linoléico foram os obtidos em maior concentração (mg/g de LT nos peixes em todos os tratamentos. As somatórias dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados aos 60 dias de cultivo apresentaram aumento em todos os tratamentos em comparação aos 30 dias de experimento. Isto se deve a adição dos óleos com alto conteúdo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 nas rações. Os ácidos graxos na carcaça são o reflexo da fonte energética de óleo utilizada. Como conclusão recomenda-se o uso do óleo de linhaça na alimentação de alevinos de tilápias, devido à grande melhoria na razão entre n-6/n-3.

Leticia Hayashi Higuchi

2013-09-01

209

Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm, total weight (g, reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation, and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full. We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads, reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females, and feeding habits (by stomach contents. The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F. Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5°C, and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18°C. The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: L?=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phytoplanktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 721-734. Epub 2012 June 01.La exótica tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus es la especie mayormente capturada en la pesquería artesanal del embalse de Barra Bonita, sudeste de Brasil, de gran importancia socioeconómica para la región y para una población de unos 500 pescadores. El estudio analizo: la reproducción, la dinámica alimentaria y la explotación de O. niloticus, la cual fue capturada en la pesquería del embalse de Barra Bonita. Asimismo, se tomaron muestras mensuales y se analizo un total de 1 715 animales desde julio-2004 a junio-2005. De cada espécimen, se obtuvieron los siguientes datos biológicos y biométricos: longitud estándar (cm, peso total (g, datos reproductivos (sexo y estadio de maduración, contenido estomacal (vacio, parcialmente lleno y lleno. Estos datos fueron utilizados para estimar la proporción de sexo (a través de la observación macroscópica de las gónadas, el periodo reproductivo (a través de la distribución de la frecuencia de los estadios macroscópicos del desarrollo de los ovarios, y la media de la proporción del índice gonadosomático IGS de hembras, así como los hábitos alimentarios (a través de la observación del contenido estomacal. Para verificar

José Luis Costa Novaes

2012-06-01

210

Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

Felix Walter, Gutierrez; Máximo, Quispe; Luz, Valenzuela.

2013-12-01

211

Qualidade do sêmen em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de vitamina C - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.7836 Semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, fed with diets containing different vitamin C levels - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.7836  

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Full Text Available A vitamina C atua na proteção de danos celulares provocados pelos radicais livres, sendo a suplementação considerada essencial para a maioria das espécies de peixes, uma vez que não a sintetizam em função da ausência da enzima L-gulonolactona oxidase. Assim, avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de 0, 75, 150 e 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração na qualidade do sêmen em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Os parâmetros quali-quantitativos do sêmen não foram influenciados pela suplementação de vitamina C, exceto a motilidade progressiva que aumentou linearmente com adição de vitamina C. Conclui-se que os reprodutores de tilápias do Nilo devem ser suplementados com 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração.Vitamin C acts as cellular protection from damage by free radicals, and vitamin C supplementation is considered essential for most fish species, as they do not synthesize it due to the absence of enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase. Thus, the effect of supplementation with 0, 75, 150 and 225 mg of vitamin C kg-1 of ration was evaluated in the semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Seminal parameters were not influenced by vitamin C supplementation except progressive motility, which increased linearly with the addition of vitamin C. It was concluded that Nile tilapia reproducers should be supplemented with 225 mg vitamin C kg-1 ration.

Gentil Vanini de Moraes

2010-09-01

212

Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207  

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Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

Ary Gomes da Silva

2013-08-01

213

Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

Chotipuntu, P.

2005-02-01

214

Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con e [...] l fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR), electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y de barrido (MEB); como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca). Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos. Abstract in english The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminati [...] ng pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca) were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

G. A, Torres R; S, González P; E, Peña S.

2010-09-01

215

Processing yield of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: head cut types and two weight classes Rendimento do processamento da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus: tipos de corte da cabeça em duas categorias de peso  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the best type of head cut of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus resulting in better fillet processing yields. The experiment was carried out at the Pisciculture Station of UEM/Codapar, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. One hundred and twenty specimens were slaughtered, head cut, eviscerated, and had their fin, skin and fillet removed. The fillet processing was undertaken by a single person. Plotting was completely randomized by a 2x3 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of two weight categories ( W1=250-400g and W2=401-550g and three types of head cut (C1=oblique, OB; C2=Contour, CO, and C3=strainght, ST, with 20 replicates. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Mean values of yield were expressed in relation to fish body weight. There was an influence of head cut types and weight categories on the dressed out and fillet yield. The yields in W2 (OB=50.42%, 35.27%; CO=50.70%, 35.18% and ST=48.50%, 33.82% were higher (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o melhor tipo de corte de cabeça para decapitação da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, que resulte em melhores rendimentos de filetagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação de Piscicultura da UEM/Codapar, Maringá, PR. Foram abatidos 120 exemplares cortadas as cabeças, eviscerados, removidas as nadadeiras, pele e filés. O processo de filetagem foi realizado por uma única pessoa. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3. Os tratamentos foram: duas categorias de peso (P1= 250-400 g e P2= 401-550 g e três tipos de corte de cabeça (C1=oblíquo, OB; C2=contornado, CO e C3=reto, RE, com 20 repetições. Cada peixe foi considerado a unidade experimental. Os valores médios de rendimento foram expressos em relação ao peso corporal do peixe. Houve influência do tipo de corte e categoria de peso sobre o rendimento do tronco limpo e filé. Os rendimentos em P2 (OB=50,42%, 35,27%; CO=50,70%, 35,18% e RE=48,50%, 33,82% foram superiores (p 1 (OB=47,35%, 32,64%; CO=47,65%, 31,86% e RE=40,79, 27,72% para tronco e filé, respectivamente. Dentro da menor categoria de peso (P1, os rendimentos de tronco e filé foram influenciados (p 1 (57,13%; 2,45% e 3,75%, respectivamente para as características analisadas. Além disso, a categoria de peso não influenciou a percentagem de pele e outros resíduos, exceto a da cabeça (p 1 foi significativamente superior (30,67% e inferior para P2 (27,07%. Por outro lado, o rendimento e percentagem de subprodutos foram influenciados (p < 0,05 pelo tipo de corte de cabeça, com CO mostrando melhores rendimentos para carcaça sem cabeça (62,47% e músculo abdominal ventral (4,33% e porcentagem de pele (5,99%; e menores percentagens de cabeça (24,79% em comparação ao OB e RE. Não houve influência do corte no músculo hipaxial profundo (OB=4,01%, CO=4,36% e RE=4,03%. Os resultados sugerem que, nestas condições de filetagem, os peixes acima de 400 g de peso corporal são os mais indicados para serem abatidos, utilizando-se o corte contornado e oblíquo para obtenção dos melhores rendimentos de filé e tronco limpo para tilápia.

Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

2000-05-01

216

EVALUACIÓN DE UN SISTEMA DE ALIMENTACIÓN ORGÁNICO SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO DE LA TILAPIA NILÓTICA (Oreochromis niloticus) CULTIVADA EN ESTANQUES DE TIERRA / EVALUATION OF AN ORGANIC FEEDING SYSTEM ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) IN EARTHEN PONDS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de un sistema de alimentación integrado por dietas formuladas con recursos alternativos orgánicos y diferentes niveles de fertilización orgánica sobre parámetros zootécnicos en peces de consumo cultivados en estanques de tierra. Se utilizaron 1.324 juveniles de Tilapia nilótica ( [...] Oreochromis niloticus) cuyo peso inicial promedio fue de 161,9 ± 7,0 g, solo machos sexados manualmente, sin reversión hormonal. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos y tres repeticiones, distribuidos en 9 estanques de tierra (200 m² cada uno), cultivados bajo las normas de Naturland (2007, 2008, 2011) para la acuicultura orgánica. Durante 180 días se suministraron dietas (levante: 27% PB y 4.120 cal/g EB; finalización: 21% PB y 4.200 cal/g EB) formuladas con recursos provenientes de producción agrícola orgánica certificada. Se implementaron tres variables: un control sin fertilizante y dos diferentes niveles de fertilización con gallinaza orgánica (T1: Abonamiento intensivo con 5 g/m²/día; T2: Abonamiento periódico con 14 g/m²/semana y T3: Sin abonamiento). Se evaluó el efecto de los tratamientos sobre parámetros productivos: ganancia diaria de peso, conversión alimenticia aparente, tasa de crecimiento específico, rendimiento en filete, índices viscerosomático, hepatosomático y de grasa visceral, relación de eficiencia proteica, valor productivo de proteína y eficiencia de retención de energía. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las variables evaluadas (p>0.05). Los resultados indican la posibilidad de implementar un sistema de alimentación orgánico como alternativa productiva que logra parámetros productivos que se aproximan a lo reportado para explotaciones convencionales de tilapia y con el potencial de posicionar un producto final en eco-mercados diferenciales siendo sustentable en su obtención. Abstract in english It was evaluated the effect of a feeding system that included formulated diets with organic alternative resources and different levels of organic fertilization on animal production evaluation parameters in fish farmed in earthen ponds. 1,324 juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with initial [...] weight of 161.9 ± 7.0 g, male manually sexed without hormonal reversal were used. It was used a completely randomized design with three treatments and three replicates, randomly distributed in 9 earthen ponds of 200 m² each. The husbandry management was under the Naturland standards for organic aquaculture. During 180 days fish were fed diets (growth: 27% CP and 4,120 cal/g GE; finish: 21% CP and 4,200 cal/g GE) formulated using resources from certified organic agricultural production. Were handled without fertilizer control and two different levels of organic chicken manure fertilization (T1: intensive fertilization with 5g/m²/day; T2: periodically fertilization with 14g/m²/week and T3: no fertilization). The effect of treatments was evaluated on: daily weight gain, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, fillet yield, viscerosomatic, hepatosomatic and visceral fat index, protein efficiency ratio, protein production value and energy retention efficiency. There were not significant differences in the variables evaluated (p

A, Bermúdez; A. P, Muñoz-Ramírez; G. A, Wills.

2012-12-01

217

Digestibilidade e desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus) alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de silagem ácida de pescado / Digestibility and performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) fed diets with different levels of acid silage  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) para alevinos de tilápia nilótica e o desempenho dos alevinos recebendo níveis crescentes ( [...] 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 %) da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe na ração. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 2,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita durante 7 dias seguintes e a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e energia metabolizável aparente foi feita por metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 1% de Cr2O3 como indicador incorporado à ração. No desempenho, foram utilizados 2000 alevinos revertidos sexualmente com peso médio de 0,45 g, acondicionados em "hapas" de 1m², dispostos em um viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF), consumo de ração total (CRT), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA), acréscimo em altura (AA) e em comprimento (AC). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, 95,49%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, 96,66%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo, 97,18%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta, 95,44%, e energia digestível aparente 2.880,02 kcal/kg. Não houve diferença significativa (P> 0,05) para ganho de peso final, consumo de ração total, conversão e acréscimo em altura. Observou-se aumento linear (P Abstract in english The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This silage was given to Nile tilapia juvenile and their performance was taken. The treatment [...] s were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collection was made during 7 subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent metabolizable energy were determined by indirect method, 1% of Cr(2)0(3) was used as an indicator . In the performance assay a total of 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight of 0.45g, they also were kept in 1m² "hapas" in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG), total feed intake (TFE), apparent feed conversion (AFC), height increase (HI) and length increase (LI). The randomized design was used with 5 treatments and 4 repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility coefficients were: dry matter, 95.49; gross protein, 96.66; ethereal extract, 97.18; gross energy, 95.44; and apparent digestible energy (kcal/kg) was 2880.02. No significant difference (P>0.05) were found for final weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion and height increase. A linear increase (P

Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Carlos José, Pimenta; Antonio Cleber da Silva, Camargo; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato.

1196-12-01

218

Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF, consumo de ração total (CRT, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA e acréscimo em comprimento (AC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA, 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica.The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect was made during seven subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent digestible energy were determined by indirect method, using 1.0% of Cr(20(3 as an indicator. In the performance assay 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used, with average weight of 0.45g, kept in 1m² hapas, in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG, total feed intake (TFI, apparent feed conversion (AFC and length increase (LI. The randomized outline was used with five treatments and four repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility were: apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, 95.49%; apparent digestibility coefficient of gross protein, 96.66%; apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract, 97.18%; apparent digestibility coeficient of gross energy, 95.44%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 for total feed intake (TFI. One observed a quadratic effect (P<0.01 in the final weight (FWG, apparent feed conversion (AFC and length increase. One concluded that the acid silage of filetage residues should be efficiently used by the Nile tilapia.

Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes Pimenta

2008-12-01

219

Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado / Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40%) da silagem ácida em substituição [...] à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF), consumo de ração total (CRT), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA) e acréscimo em comprimento (AC). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA), 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica. Abstract in english The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of the acid silage by substitution of fish [...] meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect was made during seven subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent digestible energy were determined by indirect method, using 1.0% of Cr(2)0(3) as an indicator. In the performance assay 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used, with average weight of 0.45g, kept in 1m² hapas, in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG), total feed intake (TFI), apparent feed conversion (AFC) and length increase (LI). The randomized outline was used with five treatments and four repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility were: apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, 95.49%; apparent digestibility coefficient of gross protein, 96.66%; apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract, 97.18%; apparent digestibility coeficient of gross energy, 95.44%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) for total feed intake (TFI). One observed a quadratic effect (P

Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato; Carlos José, Pimenta; Thiago Archangelo, Freato.

1953-19-01

220

Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil / Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), São Paulo, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de dióxido de carbono (CO2), dependendo das características físico-químicas do sistema (difusão e reações desse gás na água), como também do pH, e da produção primária dos microorganismos através do consumo desse compostos. Evidências [...] apontam que as concentrações de CO2 nos lagos são principalmente reguladas pelo metabolismo aquático, ou seja, pelo balanço entre a respiração e a fotossíntese; OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever aspectos do metabolismo do cultivo de tilápias do Nilo, a partir da dinâmica e do equilíbrio das concentrações de oxigênio (OD) e das formas de carbono inorgânico dissolvido (CID): dióxido de carbono (CO2) e bicarbonato (HCO3-). As demais variáveis analisadas foram: fósforo total, transparência da água, alcalinidade total, temperatura da água, pH, radiação subaquática e análise quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica; MÉTODOS: As amostragens ocorreram durante 5 dias consecutivos das 6:00 às 20:00 h (dezembro/2006) em intervalos de 2 h; RESULTADOS: Durante o ensaio foi observada periodicidade nas flutuações das concentrações de CID, sendo CO2 e HCO3-, as frações predominantes. Os valores de CID foram fortemente influenciados pela fração CO2 e no período da tarde ocorreu predominância da fração HCO3-. As concentrações de CO2 variaram de 0.48 µM a 138.94 µM, com concentração média diária de 18,04 µM. Os fluxos de CO2 na interface água atmosfera mostraram variações ao longo do dia. No período da tarde (12:00 h às 18:00 h) ocorreram no sentido atmosfera/viveiro, entretanto, o balanço foi de 576.7 µmol.m-2.h-1 no sentido viveiro/atmosfera; CONCLUSÕES: A dinâmica observada indicou que nas condições deste estudo, o metabolismo dos organismos aquáticos foi a principal função de força desse sistema, fato corroborado pelo intenso processo de eutrofização do viveiro. Abstract in english Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water) as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compou [...] nds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO) and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC): carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006) every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM) the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.

Claudinei José, Rodrigues; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Clovis Ferreira do, Carmo; Andréa, Tucci; João Alexandre Savilo, Osti; Ariane Carolina Di, Genaro.

2010-12-01

221

Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:9253615

Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

1997-07-01

222

Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vísceras e crisálida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilização de 5% de inclusão das farinhas de peixe (FP, vísceras (FV, carne e ossos (FO, crisálida (FC e controle (farelo de soja e milho como atractantes sobre o consumo de ração e desempenho de alevinos tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 168 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial médio de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário de 50 L com sete animais. As rações foram formuladas com 32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas, isofíbricas e isoaminoacídicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores médios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com ração contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porém não diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final médio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, não diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que não seria necessária a utilização dos alimentos testados, a 5% de inclusão, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, meat and bones meal (FO and silkworm meal (FC and a control (soybean meal and corn as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nile tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 ± 0.18 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and five replications, where the experimental unit was constituted of a 50 L aquarium with seven animals. The diets were formulated with 32% of crude protein and 3000 kcal of digestible energy/kg, and were isoprotein, isoenergy, isofiber and isoaminoacid for lysine and methionine + cystine. Average values of weight gain in the control or FV and FP treatments as atractant were higher than the FC or FO treatments. Feed:gain ratio of the animals fed ration with FV was better than FC or FO treatment, however they did not differ significantly from the control and the FP treatments. Average animal final size fed the control treatment was higher than the FC treatment and did not differ from the others. Feed intake and survival rate did not differ among the treatments. It was concluded that it's not necessary to include the evaluated feeds, at a level of 5%, to estimulate feed intake or to promote Nile tilapia fingerlings growth.

Wilson Rogério Boscolo

2001-10-01

223

The effects of COX2-inhibitors (etoricoxib and etodolac on growth rate and mortality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs represent one of the most commonly detectedcompounds in sewage treatment plant (STP effluent and surface water with scarce informationconcerning possible ecotoxicological risks. As in mammals, COX has been shown to play a role inreproduction in fish. Since studies on human breast cancer cells showed that COXs-inhibitors decreasedaromatase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression at the transcriptional level we tested theeffects of supplementation of COX2-inhibitors (etodolac and etoricoxib in the diet of fry tilapia on growthrate and mortality during the crucial period of sexual differentiation. Highlight on etoricoxibpharmacokinetics was carried out by determination of etoricoxib in fish feces using reversed-phase HighPerformance Liquid Chromatography (RF-HPLC with Evaporative Light Scattering and Photo Diode arraydetector (ELSD-PDA system. At an age of 8 days post-hatched, 30 genetically mixed population ofOreochromis niloticus larvae were stocked in duplicate, into 45 L aquariums in a closed system for sixmonths. Treatments included 5 different experimental diets including, respectively, 0.5% etodolac, 1%etodolac, 2% etodolac, 0.5% etoricoxib, and 1% etoricoxib concentrations and one standard diet servingas control with two repeats for each group from 0.5% groups of diets. Fish were fed experimental dietsfor 8 weeks and were changed to control diet after. Another experiment was conducted using 10 adultsmixed population stocked in triplicate in a closed system and treated as above. Growth rates (GR weresignificantly affected with the highest growth rate obtained with the 0.5% etodolac. However, noincrease or decrease in growth was observed in mixed adults population. GR increased with increasingconcentrations with the highest GR in the aquarium treated with 2% etodolac, followed by 1% etodolac,but 1% etoricoxib showed a decreased GR compared to standard which could indicates a toxic potentialtoward fish at this concentration. No etoricoxib peak was detected on HPLC in feces samples whichreflected, that, it was well absorbed by tilapias, extensively metabolized with no unchanged fractionexcreted, or may undergo enter hepatic circulation, increasing further its toxic potential. No mortalitywas observed in adults mixed population. Mortality rates were 3.7% with 0.5% etodolac, 10% with 0.5%etoricoxib, 30% with 1% etodolac, 37%with 1%etoricoxib, and 50% with 2% etodolac treatments,respectively. It is clear evident that even administration of high concentrations of these drugs was welltolerated by fish.

Mutaz A. Al-Qutob

2011-12-01

224

Effects of chronic exposure of methomyl on the antioxidant system in liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The chronic effect of methomyl on the antioxidant system in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0.2, 2, 20 and 200?gL(-1) for 30 days, and then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. Hepatic antioxidant parameters, including Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione reductase (GR), Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), were measured at 10min (day 0), 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after starting the experiment and at 18 days after transferring to methomyl-free water. There were no significant changes in enzymatic activity and content of antioxidants in liver of tilapia exposed to 0.2?gL(-1) methomyl compared to controls. However, the results showed significant increases in activities of GST, GR, GPx and levels of GSSG accompanied by a decrease in GSH levels following methomyl exposure in tilapia to 2, 20 or 200?gL(-1) over the 30-day exposure period and the highest induction rates in GST, GR, GPx and GSSG were 150.87%, 163.21%, 189.76%, and 179.56% of the control respectively, and the highest inhibition rate in GSH was 50.67% of the control, suggesting the presence of oxidative stress. Thus it would appear that the 0.2?gL(-1) methomyl might be considered as the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Recovery data showed that the effects produced by lower concentration of methomyl 20?gL(-1) were reversible but not at the higher 200?gL(-1) concentration. PMID:24507119

Meng, Shun Long; Chen, Jia Zhang; Hu, Geng Dong; Song, Chao; Fan, Li Min; Qiu, Li Ping; Xu, Pao

2014-03-01

225

Masculinización de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) por inmersión en Fluoximesterona y Testostesterona enantato / Masculinization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) by immersion in fluoximesterone and testosterone enanthate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la fluoximesterona (F) y testosterona enantato (T) en el crecimiento, supervivencia y proporción sexual de la progenie de Oreochromis niloticus. En estanques de 50 l se colocaron 38 larvas por unidad experimental. Los tratamientos por triplicado fueron F [...] 4 400 ?g?l-1; F12 1.200 ?g?l-1;F20 2.000 ?g?l-1; y T4 400 ?g?l-1; T12 1.200 ?g?l-1; T20 2.000 ?g?l-1; así como los controles agua (A) y agua más alcohol (AE). Se determinó la tasa específica de crecimiento en longitud total (TEC-L) y en peso húmedo (TEC-P), el experimento finalizó cuando los peces tenían una edad de 138 días después de la fecundación (DPF). La proporción sexual se evaluó mediante la observación directa de la gónada en un estereoscopio y microscopio compuesto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en TEC-P, TEC-L y en la supervivencia entre los tratamientos. Sin embargo, en la proporción sexual se encontraron diferencias significativas, indicando que F20 (93 %) valor superior a los controles A (58 %) y AE (62 %), y a los tratamientos F12 (72 %), T4 (69 %), T20 (65 %) y semejante estadísticamente a F4 (79 %), y T12 (73 %). Los tratamientos F4, F12, T4, T12 y T20, no presentaron diferencias significativas con respecto a los controles A y AE. La masculinización obtenida con el tratamiento por inmersión en F (2000 ?g?1-1) permite considerar este procedimiento como eficiente para la producción de progenie masculina de tilapia Abstract in english The effect of the hormone fluoximesterone (F) and testosterone enanthate (T) were evaluated in the growth, survival and the sex ratio of offspring of Oreochromis niloticus. In 50 liter tanks, 38 larvae were placed in each experimental unit. Treatments were triplicated: F4 400 ?g?l-1; F12 1.200 ?g?l- [...] 1;F20 2.000 ?g?l-1; y T4 400 ?g?l-1; T12 1.200 ?g?l-1; T20 2.000 ?g?l-1, as well as controls for water (A) and water plus alcohol (EA). The rate of growth was measured in length (TEC-L) and in weight (TEC-P). The experiment ended when the fish had reached an age of 138 days after fertilization (DPF). The sex ratio was determined by the direct observation of the gonad using a stereoscope and a compound microscope. After the experiment concluded, there were no significant differences in TEC-P, TEC-L, nor in survival in the treatments and controls. In the sex ratio, there were significant differences between treatments, indicating that F20 (93%) was significantly higher than controls A (58%) and AE (62%) and treatments F12 (72%), T4 (69% ), T20 (65%). F20 was statistically similar to F4 (79%) and T12 (73%). Treatments F4, F12, T4, T12 and T20, showed no significant differences compared to controls A and AE. The masculinization obtained with treatment by fluoxymesterone immersion (2000 ?g?1-1) allows us to consider this procedure as efficient for the production of male progeny of tilapia

Pablo, Torres-Hernández; Graciela Beatriz, Nucamendi-Rodríguez; Pablo, Pintos-Terán; José Alberto, Montoya-Márquez.

2010-09-01

226

Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles: modelling spatial correlations between hapas  

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The aim of this study was to quantify the environmental and genetic effects on early growth of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in hapa-in-earthen pond systems. In a pilot study, we grew swim-up fry with or without supplementary feed in hapas suspended in fertilized ponds at 5, 10, 15, and 20 fry/m2 densities. In the main experiment, we reared swim-up fry from 25 full-sib families separately for 42 days at 15 fry/m2 density in hapas suspended in two earthen ponds. Hapas were arranged in t...

Charo-karisa, H.; Komen, J.; Rezk, M. A.; Reynolds, S.; Ponzoni, R. W.; Bovenhuis, H.

2006-01-01

227

The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

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Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

TATIANA S FIUZA

2009-01-01

228

The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. Th [...] e plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

TATIANA S, FIUZA; PAULO C, SILVA; JOSÉ R, PAULA; LEONICE M F, TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T, SABÓIA-MORAIS.

229

Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities  

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The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

2011-01-01

230

Quantification of essential fatty acids in the heads of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with linseed oil  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do óleo de linhaça sobre as concentrações dos teores de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-6 e n-3 (AGPI) em cabeças de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), um resíduo do pescado normalmente descartado durante o processo de filetagem. A quanti [...] ficação dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados foi realizada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa (CG), sendo a concentração dos ácidos graxos expressa em termos de massa absoluta através da utilização do éster metílico (23:0) como padrão interno e do TCFx (fator de correção teórica do FID). As tilápias receberam dietas com níveis crescentes de óleo de linhaça (0,00, 1,25, 2,50, 3,75 e 5,00%) em substituição ao óleo de girassol (controle) durante um período de cinco meses. A ingestão de LNA causa a dessaturação sequencial e alongamento das cadeias carbônicas de ácidos graxos presentes nas cabeças de peixes, levando a um aumento em todos os AGPIs n-3. Este experimento demonstrou claramente que a adição de óleo de linhaça na ração de tilápia do Nilo aumenta significativamente as concentrações (em 100 g-1 de cabeça) de LNA (100,8 para 973,6 mg), EPA (4,8 para 82,1 mg) e DHA (24,0 para 125,4 mg). Estas alterações contribuem acentuadamente para melhorar a razão AGPI n-6/n-3 e, desta forma, pode ser utilizada em suplementos alimentícios, transformando as cabeças de tilápia em valiosa alternativa como fonte de alimento para dieta humana. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to examine the effects of linseed oil on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid content in the heads of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), these are normally discarded during the filleting process. The quantification of PUFA was carried out in absolute weigh [...] ts through the use of methyl ester (23:0), as an internal standard, and TCFx (theoretical FID correction factor) by GC gas chromatography. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels (0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00%) of linseed oil as a replacement for sunflower oil (control) for a period of five months. The ingestion of LNA causes sequential desaturation and elongation in fish heads, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFAs. This experiment demonstrated clearly that adding linseed oil to the feed of Nile tilapia can markedly increase the amounts (per 100 g-1 of head) of LNA (100.8 to 973.6 mg), EPA (4.8 to 82.1 mg), and DHA (24.0 to 125.4 mg) in their heads, and thus, may be used to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in dietary supplements, and creating a valuable alternative food source in the human diet.

Ana C., Aguiar; Solange M., Cottica; Marcela, Boroski; Cláudio C., Oliveira; Elton G., Bonafé; Polyana B., França; Nilson E., Souza; Jesui V., Visentainer.

231

Determining the safety and suitability of fluorescein dye for characterization of skin ulcerations in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus  

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Full Text Available There is a need to identify the presence of lesions in fish skin as soon as they erupt. Fish skin lesions are either macroscopic (can be visualized by the naked eye or microscopic (difficult to detect with the naked eye. Skin wounds resulting in loss of the epithelium (superficial or deep ulcers are serious as they may interfere with osmoregulation and open portals for opportunistic pathogens. Herein, we report on the use of a fluorescein dye for the detection of skin ulcers that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Due to their importance in aquaculture endeavors in Egypt, this study focused on two indigenous species, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the scale-less African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Fluorescein dye was tested for safety to fish without interfering with microbiological analysis. Parallel to the use of the flourescein dye, the detected ulcers were examined for the presence of bacteria or tissue alterations. Further, we experimentally induced the formation of skin ulcers in O. niloticus physically or by injecting Aeromons hydrophila, and then assessed the utility of fluorescein dye in detecting the induced skin lesions. Results obtained in this study demonstrated that fluorescein dye application is harmless to Nile tilapia at concentrations up to 0.5 mg fluorescein/ml water for up to 15 min. Indeed, a low dose of fluorescein (0.10 mg/ml for 5 min could identify very minute skin abrasions. We highly recommend the use of fluorescein dye for the evaluation of skin health in farmed fish species and the visualization of minute skin abrasions.

Mai D. Ibrahem

2010-10-01

232

HYPOXIC CONDITIONS INDUCE HSP70 PRODUCTION IN THE BLOOD, BRAIN AND HEAD KIDNEY OF JUVENILE NILE TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS(L.)  

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The levels of constitutive and inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was measured in blood, brain, liver, muscle and head kidney tissues of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), subjected to increasingly severe hypoxic stress (dissolved oxygen ~ 4.9 - 0.1 mg L-1) for 48 h. A highly sig...

233

Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae ZQ0910, a Pathogen Causing Meningoencephalitis in the GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Here, we reported the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae strain ZQ0910, which was isolated from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia in Guangdong, China.

Wang, Bei; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Shuanghu; Huang, Yuchong; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

2012-01-01

234

Influence of Dietary Lipid Sources on the Growth Performance, Immune Response and Resistance of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptoccus iniae Challenge  

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This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, body fatty acid composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae infection. Six isocaloric (13.4 MJ kg-1) and isonitrogenous (340 g ...

235

Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser / Desempenho produtivo de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentadas em diferentes frequências e períodos com dispensador automático  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) produzidas em tanque-rede, providas de dispensadores automáticos de ração, alimentadas em diferentes frequências - uma vez por hora e a cada duas horas - e períodos - durante o dia, à noite ou ambos. Dezoito tanques-rede de 1.0m³ fo [...] ram colocados em um tanque de 2000m² com dois metros de profundidade e renovação de água de 5%. Cento e setenta tilápias, com peso inicial de 16.0±4.9g foram distribuídas em cada tanque-rede de 1m³ e a taxa alimentar foi ajustada a cada 21 dias junto com as biometrias. As medidas foram coletadas de março a julho (outono e inverno). Observou-se diferença significativa para peso final (P Abstract in english The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours) and periods (daytime, nighttime and both) was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two [...] meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter). Significant difference to final weight (P

R.M.R., Sousa; C.A., Agostinho; F.A., Oliveira; D., Argentim; P.K., Novelli; S.M.M., Agostinho.

2012-02-01

236

Spatial and temporal variation in population genetic structure of wild Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus across Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructing the evolutionary history of a species is challenging. It often depends not only on the past biogeographic and climatic events but also the contemporary and ecological factors, such as current connectivity and habitat heterogeneity. In fact, these factors might interact with each other and shape the current species distribution. However, to what extent the current population genetic structure reflects the past and the contemporary factors is largely unknown. Here we investigated spatio-temporal genetic structures of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus populations, across their natural distribution in Africa. While its large biogeographic distribution can cause genetic differentiation at the paleo-biogeographic scales, its restricted dispersal capacity might induce a strong genetic structure at micro-geographic scales. Results Using nine microsatellite loci and 350 samples from ten natural populations, we found the highest genetic differentiation among the three ichthyofaunal provinces and regions (Ethiopian, Nilotic and Sudano-Sahelian (RST = 0.38 - 0.69. This result suggests the predominant effect of paleo-geographic events at macro-geographic scale. In addition, intermediate divergences were found between rivers and lakes within the regions, presumably reflecting relatively recent interruptions of gene flow between hydrographic basins (RST = 0.24 - 0.32. The lowest differentiations were observed among connected populations within a basin (RST = 0.015 in the Volta basin. Comparison of temporal sample series revealed subtle changes in the gene pools in a few generations (F = 0 - 0.053. The estimated effective population sizes were 23 - 143 and the estimated migration rate was moderate (m ~ 0.094 - 0.097 in the Volta populations. Conclusions This study revealed clear hierarchical patterns of the population genetic structuring of O. niloticus in Africa. The effects of paleo-geographic and climatic events were predominant at macro-geographic scale, and the significant effect of geographic connectivity was detected at micro-geographic scale. The estimated effective population size, the moderate level of dispersal and the rapid temporal change in genetic composition might reflect a potential effect of life history strategy on population dynamics. This hypothesis deserves further investigation. The dynamic pattern revealed at micro-geographic and temporal scales appears important from a genetic resource management as well as from a biodiversity conservation point of view.

Bezault Etienne

2011-12-01

237

Growth and fatty acid composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla-diets, in tanks and in earthen ponds: A comparative study  

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Full Text Available Two 90-day experiments were conducted in the same period in tanks and in earthen ponds to study the effects of culture systems on growth and fatty acid (FA of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. fingerlings (mean weight: 16.3 g fed Azolla, as partial replacement for fish meal (FM. Diets were isonitrogenous (29.2% CP and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ?g?1 containing 0% (A0, 10% (A10, 20% (A20, 30% (A30, 40% (A40 and 50% (A50 of Azolla meal (AM respectively. Diet A0, without AM, acted as a control. In both experiments, fish growth decreased as AM level increased in diets (P P 30-A50. Interestingly, those fish were rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3. Consequently, the n-3/n-6 values decreased in tanks, whereas an increasing trend was found in ponds, and values were significantly higher in ponds than in tanks (0.35 - 0.53 vs. 0.08 - 0.17. The results suggest raising Nile tilapia with Azolladiets in ponds to improve growth and produce fish with a better FA composition, for the wellbeing of consumers.

Youssouf Abou

2013-01-01

238

Production of oocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for in vitro fertilization via hormonal treatments.  

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Only a few studies have described hormonal treatments for induction of synchronicity and gamete collection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), both important for assortative matings in breeding programmes and essential for polyploidy technologies. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of carp pituitary extract (CPE), Nile tilapia pituitary extract (TPE), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) protocols on the induction of spawning and egg production in Nile tilapia. Among the hormonal treatments analysed, only hCG was effective for producing viable gametes for in vitro fertilization. To verify the viability of this hormonal treatment, hCG was tested using different doses (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 IU/kg) in a large number of females (208 animals) from two Nile tilapia lines. The results indicated that hCG doses between 1000 and 5000 IU/kg could be used to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia with collection of stripped oocytes. This is the first study to report differential reproductive responses to hormonal treatment between tilapia lines: line 1 was more efficient at producing eggs and post-hatching larvae after hCG induction than line 2. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hCG protocol may be applied on a large scale to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia. The development of a protocol for in vitro fertilization in Nile tilapia may aid in breeding programmes and biotechnological assays for the development of genetically modified lines of Nile tilapia. PMID:23834584

Fernandes, A F A; Alvarenga, É R; Oliveira, D A A; Aleixo, C G; Prado, S A; Luz, R K; Sarmento, N L A F; Teixeira, E A; Luz, M R; Turra, E M

2013-12-01

239

Sperm quality analysis in XX, XY and YY males of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), individuals with atypical sexual genotype are commonly used in farming (use of YY males to produce all-male offspring), but they also constitute major tools to study sex determinism mechanisms. In other species, sexual genotype and sex reversal procedures affect different aspects of biology, such as growth, behavior and reproductive success. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sexual genotype on sperm quality in Nile tilapia. Milt characteristics were compared in XX (sex-reversed), XY and YY males in terms of gonadosomatic index, sperm count, sperm motility and duration of sperm motility. Sperm motility was measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) quantifying several parameters: total motility, progressive motility, curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, average path velocity and linearity. None of the sperm traits measured significantly differed between the three genotypes. Mean values of gonadosomatic index, sperm concentration and sperm motility duration of XX, XY and YY males, respectively ranged from 0.92 to 1.33%, from 1.69 to 2.22 ×10(9) cells mL(-1) and from 18'04? to 27'32?. Mean values of total motility and curvilinear velocity 1 min after sperm activation, respectively ranged from 53 to 58% and from 71 to 76 ?m s(-1) for the three genotypes. After 3 min of activity, all the sperm motility and velocity parameters dropped by half and continued to slowly decrease thereafter. Seven min after activation, only 9 to 13% of spermatozoa were still progressive. Our results prove that neither sexual genotype nor hormonal sex reversal treatments affect sperm quality in male Nile tilapias with atypical sexual genotype. PMID:22494673

Gennotte, V; François, E; Rougeot, C; Ponthier, J; Deleuze, S; Mélard, C

2012-07-01

240

Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus spp. group B in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in hapas nets and earth nurseries in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Streptococcus spp. in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in net-pens and earth nurseries. Eight intensive tilapia-rearing farms were investigated in north Paraná, Brazil from April 1st 2001 to April 30th 2002. The fish were reared in a system of hapas nets on four farms and in earth nurseries on other four farms. A total of 370 samples were analyzed of material collected from 120 fish (brain, liver, kidney, skin scrapes, ascites liquid and eye that were sown on BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract and sheep blood. Streptococcus spp. was isolated in 36 of the samples (18 brain, eight liver, eight kidney and two ascites liquid from 25 fish. Streptococci were isolated in both systems, almost in the same proportion. First the streptococci were characterized by the catalase and esculin test, growth in methylene blue and sodium chloride at 6.5%. They were classified in groups by the Slidex Strepto-Kit (BioMerieux, France. The phenotypic characteristics were determined by the Api 20 Strep microtest system (BioMerieux, France. The 36 Streptococcus spp. samples did not present hemolysis and were classified as Lancefield group B. Further 16 samples were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae and 20 were not identified by the Api 20 Strep, but presented the same biochemical profile described for the reference strain of Streptococcus difficile (ND-2-22.

Salvador Rogério

2005-01-01

241

EFEITO DO LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided into two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

José Luís Pedreira Mouriño

2015-01-01

242

Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the performance and fatty acid profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings = Influência das dietas contendo diferentes óleos vegetais na performance e perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0, oleic (18:1n-9, linoleic (18:2 n-6, and linolenic (18:3 n-3 acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%, while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended. Foram examinados o perfil de ácidos graxos nas carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes óleos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os resultados indicaram que o ácido palmítico (16:0, esteárico (18:0, oléico (18:1n-9, linoleico (18;2n-6 e linolênico (18:3n-3 foram os ácidos predominantes em todas as frações analisadas (no óleo vegetal, dietas e carcaças dos peixes. O óleo de linhaça apresentou o maior valor de ácido linolênico (45,63%, quanto aos outros óleos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os óleos vegetais não afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relação a qualidade nutricional o uso do óleo de linhaça é recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilápia.

Nilson Evelázio de Souza

2006-07-01

243

Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia e proteína da silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo tanino pela tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent digestibility coefficients of energy and protein of low and high tannin silage sorghum for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da energia bruta e proteína bruta da silagem de sorgo de baixo tanino (SSBT e da silagem de sorgo de alto tanino (SSAT para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. A ração referência foi misturada aos ingredientes-teste na proporção de 60:40. Os peixes (53,26 ± 12,94g foram alimentados até a saciedade aparente e as fezes foram coletadas após sedimentação. A fibra em detergente neutro foi utilizada como indicador endógeno. Os CDA da energia bruta e proteína bruta da SSBT e SSAT variaram entre 70,17 e 68,37% e 84,94 e 82,40%, respectivamente. Os valores de energia digestível foram de 3049,81 e 2954,74kcal kg-1 para SSBT e SSAT, respectivamente. A SSBT apresentou valores significa-tivamente (PThis study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of gross energy and crude protein of low tannin silage sorghum (LTSS and high tannin silage sorghum (HTSS for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 60:40 ratio. Fish (53.26 ± 12.94g were fed to apparent satiation and faeces were collected other sedimentation The neutral detergent fiber was used as an endogenous indicator. ADC for gross energy and crude protein of LTSS and HTSS varied between 70.17 and 68.37% and 84.94 and 82.40%, respectively. Digestible energy values were 3,049.81 and 2,954.74kcal kg-1 for LTSS and HTSS, respectively. LTSS produced significantly (P<0.05 higher energy and protein digestibilities than HTSS. Results indicated that Nile tilapia can utilize the gross energy and crude protein of sorghum silage efficiently.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya

2004-08-01

244

Effects of chito-oligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, intestinal cytokine expression, autochthonous gut bacteria and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?.  

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We investigated the effects of incorporating chitinase (ChiB565)-hydrolyzed shrimp shell chitin into the diet of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?) with regard to production, intestinal immune status and autochthonous gut bacteria, and protection against bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Five experimental diets were formulated by supplementing the basal diet with the hydrolyzed shrimp shell chitin (0.0%, T1 control; 0.8%, T3; 1.6%, T4; or 2.4%, T5) or 0.1% commercial chitosan-oligosaccharides as commercial recommendation dose (T2, positive control). After a 35-day feeding trial, we found no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion ratio or survival rate in tilapia among all treatment groups. However, the levels of mRNAs encoding the pro-inflammatory protein tumor necrosis factor-? and the stress-response protein heat shock protein 70 were much lower in groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 (p shrimp shell chitin supplementation respectively changed marginally their autochthonous gut bacteria (0.60 < Cs < 0.80). When challenged with A. hydrophila, the mortality of groups fed chito-oligosaccharides was lower than the control, especially in groups T4 and T5 (p < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary intake of chito-oligosaccharides can improve intestinal health, changed autochthonous gut bacteria, and improve resistance to infection by A. hydrophila, even with higher efficiency than receiving the manufacturer recommended dose of the commercial chitosan-oligosaccharides. PMID:25038280

Qin, Chubin; Zhang, Yuting; Liu, Wenshu; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; Zhou, Zhigang

2014-09-01

245

The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum indicum and raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa replaced fishmeal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 30, 70 and 100% test materials inclusion levels. Each dietary treatment was randomly duplicated in tanks stocked with twenty fingerlings (2.71 0.003 g and fed three times (08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h to satiation for 56 days. The result revealed best live weight gain and feed utilization in the fish fed diet D4 followed by diet D1 and D3 with the least value recorded in fish fed diet D2 level. Generally, there was significant increase (p4 and control. The result supports the suggestion that tilapia can be fed with mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed and raw African locust bean which is hoped will reduce tremendously the over dependence on fishmeal protein and human utilization of the very scarce fish meal.

S.A. Binga

2008-01-01

246

Distribution of trace elements in muscle and organs of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, from lakes Awassa and Ziway, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Samples of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were collected from Lakes Awassa and Ziway during December 2002–March 2003. The moisture content of freeze-dried organs (muscle, bone, gill and liver collected from six sites ranged between 76.0 and 80.7% (m/m. An optimal procedure required 12 mL of tertiary mixture consisting of HNO3, HClO4, and H2O2 to mineralize powdered samples in open refluxed digestion vessels: 1.0 g bone or muscle, 0.5 g gill or liver. The concentrations of 8 elements in muscle, bone, gill and liver determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer varied, respectively, (mg element/kg dry mass: Cd 0.44–1.43, 4.58–4.93, 2.20–2.85, and 1.08–1.90; Co 2.47–3.59, 17.1–18.9, 8.28–10.1, and 10.2–13.0; Cu 1.68–4.95, 6.65–7.58, 7.08–8.58, and 602–797; Fe 18.7–53.0, 81.9–94.3, 120–196, and 635–7139; Mn 1.03–6.78, 23.1–146, 26.1–107, and 8.80–24.5; Ni 7.80–15.9, 64.1–71.0, 34.8–42.4, and 14.1–21.3; Pb 1.65–2.69, 39.5–42.3, 17.1–23.1, and 2.20–3.37; Zn 34.6–38.6, 61.9–78.8, 82.3–97.1, and 85.6–115.9. Results revealed organ specific distribution of trace metals in Tilapia, which has been discussed in terms of physiological role in fish and/or the likely influence of anthropogenic origin on lakes. Application of the statistical t-test on trace elements data further showed significant difference between the two lakes, which could be attributed to anthropogenic influences.

Taddese Wondimu

2004-12-01

247

Conservação de filés de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em salga seca e salga úmida Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus preservation by means of dry salting and saturated brine  

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Full Text Available Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento dos processos da salga em salmoura saturada (salga úmida e salga seca de filés de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e avaliaram-se algumas características indicativas de qualidade do produto durante a estocagem. Os processos foram acompanhados por 156 horas na salga úmida e por 96 horas na salga seca, e os filés salgados foram estocados, respectivamente, por 60 e 45 dias à temperatura ambiente. Os teores máximos de cloreto nos filés (14% foram atingidos com 72 horas na salga úmida e com 36 horas na salga seca. Os filés de tilápia salgados em salmoura mantiveram as características próprias do produto por um período de 45 dias, e os submetidos à salga seca apresentaram baixo teor de umidade (6% e alta concentração de extrato etéreo (4,6%. Recomenda-se somente o processo de salga em salmoura saturada como forma de conservação dos filés de tilápia-do-nilo.The processes of salting of Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to saturated brine and dry salting were observed, and some characteristics that indicate the quality of the product during the storage were evaluated. The brine saturated process was followed up to 156 hours and the dry salting was followed up to 96 hours. When the salting finished, fillets were stored for 45 (dry salting and 60 days (saturated brine, respectively. The highest values for chloride in fillets (14% were reached within 72 hours in brine salting and 36 hours in dry salting. The tilapia fillets salted in brine kept the proper characteristics of the product for a period of 45 days and the fillets submitted to dry salting showed low moisture ratios (6% and a high concentration of lipids (4.6%. Thereby, it is only recommended the salting process in saturated brine to be used as a mean of conservation for Nile tilapia fillets.

F.S. Aiura

2008-12-01

248

Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser Desempenho produtivo de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas em diferentes frequências e períodos com dispensador automático  

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Full Text Available The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours and periods (daytime, nighttime and both was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter. Significant difference to final weight (PAvaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus produzidas em tanque-rede, providas de dispensadores automáticos de ração, alimentadas em diferentes frequências - uma vez por hora e a cada duas horas - e períodos - durante o dia, à noite ou ambos. Dezoito tanques-rede de 1.0m³ foram colocados em um tanque de 2000m² com dois metros de profundidade e renovação de água de 5%. Cento e setenta tilápias, com peso inicial de 16.0±4.9g foram distribuídas em cada tanque-rede de 1m³ e a taxa alimentar foi ajustada a cada 21 dias junto com as biometrias. As medidas foram coletadas de março a julho (outono e inverno. Observou-se diferença significativa para peso final (P<0.05 entre os tratamentos. O aumento da frequência alimentar melhorou o desempenho produtivo de tilápias-do-nilo produzidas em tanque-rede e permitiu melhor manejo alimentar. A melhor conversão alimentar para alta frequência, 24 vezes dia-1, pode resultar em uma economia de até 360kg de ração por tonelada de peixe produzido, melhorando a sustentabilidade econômica para produção de tilápia e sugerindo menor poluição ambiental.

R.M.R. Sousa

2012-02-01

249

Tilapia by-product meal in rations for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings/ Farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Objectifying to evaluate the inclusion of tilapia processing residues (FT in the feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings, 125 Nile tilapia fingerlings (with average initial weight of 0.72±0.19g were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions in 25 aquariums (30L. The rations were formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15% of FT and 0% FT plus methionine (0+met. Isoproteics, isocalcitics, isophosphorics and isoenergetics diets were used. After 28 days of experiment, final weight (PF, weight gain (GP, feed conversion ratio (CA and survival (SO, were evaluated. No differences were observed (P>0.05 for the studied parameters. It was concluded that the FT can be used up to 15% in substitution to the soybean meal in the diet of nile tilapia fingerlings.Objetivando avaliar a inclusão de farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias (FT na alimentação de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo com peso inicial médio de 0,72±0,19g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em 25 aquários (30L cada. As rações foram formuladas de forma a conterem 0, 5, 10, 15% de FT e 0% de FT mais metionina (0+met, sendo as mesmas isoenergéticas isoprotéicas, isocalcíticas e isofosfóricas. Após 28 dias de experimento foram avaliados as médias de peso final (PF, ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar aparente (CA e sobrevivência (SO. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 entre os parâmetros avaliados. Conclui-se que a FT pode ser utilizada em até 15% em substituição ao farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia sem causar prejuízo ao seu desempenho.

Adilson Reidel

2005-06-01

250

Avaliação de dois métodos de determinação do coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente com a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. Evaluation of two methods to determine the digestibility apparent coefficients in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo, no primeiro experimento, avaliar a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e extrato etéreo (EE, de uma ração purificada marcada com o indicador externo Cr2O3, nos três terços do intestino (proximal, intermédio e distal da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L (Perciformes Cichlidae. No segundo, objetivou-se comparar os coeficientes de digestibilidade obtidos pelos métodos da excreção natural em aquário de digestibilidade e os coeficientes resultantes da técnica da dissecação intestinal. Concluiu-se que na porção distal do intestino ocorre um incremento na absorção da ração, que o método da dissecação subestima a digestibilidade do material colhido (MS=41,79%a; PB=48,98a; EE=35,10%b, que são mais confiáveis e reais os coeficientes de digestibilidade medidos pelo método indireto, com fezes colhidas nos aquários de coleta (MS=63,99%b; PB=85,62b; EE=73,60%b.The objective of this study was, in the first experiment, to evaluate the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE of purified diet using chromic oxide as inert marker, in the three parts of intestine (proximal, middle and distal of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L (Perciformes Cichlidae. In the second experiment, the aim was to compare the digestibility coefficients obtained by natural excretion in the digestibility aquarium and by intestine dissection. The results showed that in the distal portion there was an increase in the absorption, the dissection method underestimates the digestibility of collected material (DM=41.79%a, CP=48.98a, EE=35.10%b and that the digestibility coefficients obtained by indirect method with feces collected in the digestibility aquariums are more reliable and real (DM=63.99%b, CP=85.62b, EE=73.60%b.

Margarida Maria Barros

2002-04-01

251

COEFICIENTES CONVECTIVOS DE TRANSFERENCIA DE CALOR DURANTE EL FREÍDO DE LÁMINAS DE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) / DETERMINATION OF CONVECTIVE COEFFICIENTS OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING FRYING OF SHEET TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinaron los coeficientes convectivos de transferencia de calor durante el freído por inmersión de láminas de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus en aceite de palma a diferentes temperaturas. Se cortaron filetes de tilapia en forma de placa y sumergieron en aceite a 130, 150, y 170 °C en una freido [...] ra eléctrica de acero inoxidable de seis litros. Las propiedades termofísicas se midieron en función de la temperatura y composición del alimento, usando el programa computacional DEPROTER. Los coeficientes convectivos fueron determinados a partir de gráficas de relaciones adimensionales tiempo -vs- temperatura, y estos disminuyeron al aumentar la temperatura del aceite, presentando valores de 46.76, 34.61 y 32.66 W/m²K a 130, 150 y 170 °C respectivamente. Se observa que a mayor temperatura del medio de fritura, mayor es la tasa de pérdida de agua desde el producto, y menor su energía interna, y por tanto menor es el coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de calor. Abstract in english The convective heat transfer coefficients during deep-fat frying of Oreochromis niloticus fillets in palm oil at different temperatures were determined. Tilapia fillets were plate-shaped cut and dipped in oil at 130, 150, and 170 °C in an electric fryer six liter stainless steel. Thermophysical prop [...] erties were measured as a function of temperature and composition of the food, using the computer program DEPROTER. The convective coefficients were determined from plots of time -vs- dimensionless temperature relationships, and these decreased with increasing oil temperature, with values of 46.76, 34.61 and 32.66 W/m²K at 130, 150 and 170 °C respectively. It was observed that the higher is the temperature of the frying medium, the greater is the rate of water loss from the product, and lower is the internal energy, and therefore lower is the convective heat transfer coefficient.

Diego F, Tirado; Diofanor, Acevedo; Luis E, Guzmán.

252

Complexo zinco aminoácido em dietas práticas para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1716 Zinc-amino acid complex in practical diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1716  

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Full Text Available As dietas balanceadas para piscicultura são suplementadas com fonte inorgânica de zinco, sendo o óxido de zinco (ZnO a fonte mais utilizada no Brasil. Complexos organometálicos, contudo, podem aumentar a absorção do mineral no trato digestório. Nesse sentido, comparou-se os efeitos de um complexo zinco-aminoácido (Zn-AA sobre o desempenho produtivo e a composição da carcaça de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L., em relação ao verificado com o uso do ZnO. Dietas experimentais, isoprotéicas e isocalóricas, à base de farelo de soja e fubá de milho, foram fornecidas aos peixes durante 75 dias, sendo suplementadas com 30, 90, 150 ou 210mg Zn/kg, a partir do ZnO ou do Zn-AA. Os peixes (1,79 ± 0,10g foram distribuídos em 36 caixas de água de 250L, sendo alimentados ad libitum, quatro vezes ao dia. Ao final do período experimental, os peixes alimentados com as dietas suplementadas com ZnO, independentemente do nível de suplementação, apresentaram ganho em peso significativamente maior que os animais arraçoados com as dietas contendo Zn-AA (P0,05. Os resultados do presente trabalho permitem concluir que, em relação ao observado com o uso do ZnO, o Zn-AA acarretou pior desempenho produtivo nos peixes estudados.Commercial diets for fish culture are supplemented with an inorganic zinc sources. Zinc oxide (ZnO is the most utilized Zn supplementation in Brazil. However, organic metal complexes may increase mineral absorption in the digestive tract. Based on this knowledge, the effects of a amino acid zinc complex (Zn-AA upon growth performance and carcass composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., fingerlings, were compared to the ones observed for ZnO. Isoproteic and isoenergetic soybean meal/corn-based diets were offered to fish for 75 days, supplemented with 30, 90, 150 or 210mg Zn/kg, from ZnO or Zn-AA. Fish (1.79 ± 0.10g were allocated in thirty six 250-L tanks, and fed ad libitum four times a day. Fish fed with ZnO-supplemented diets, regardless of the supplementation level, showed a significantly higher weight gain than the animals fed with Zn-AA-supplemented diets (P0.05 for different experimental treatments. The experiment showed that Zn-AA supplementation produced worse fish growth performance than ZnO.

Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

2004-04-01

253

Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil) / Parasitos de populações de Cichlidae nativos e invasora Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) em tributário do Rio Amazonas (Brasil)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo é a primeira investigação da aquisição de parasitos na invasora O. niloticus por espécies de parasitos Cichlidae nativos da bacia Igarapé Fortaleza, Norte do Brasil. Foram examinados 576 espécimes pertencentes a 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos e à invasora O. niloticus coletados no cana [...] l principal e área da planície de inundação deste tributário do Rio Amazonas. A invasora O. niloticus foi pobremente parasitada, pois teve somente Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana e Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) e Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea) e não adquiriu qualquer espécie comum à ictiofauna nativa da região. Em contraste, as espécies de ciclídeos nativos apresentaram uma rica fauna de parasitos com predominância de espécies de helmintos Monogenoidea, larvas e adultos de Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea e Acanthocephala, além de quatro espécies de Protozoa e quatro Crustacea. Porém, somente T. nobilis foi encontrado em peixe nativo, Aequidens tetramerus, que é um novo hospedeiro para esse Trichodinidae exótico. Em O. niloticus, já bem estabelecida na região, o reduzido número de espécies de helmintos pode estar associado à sua rusticidade, boa adaptação ao novo ambiente e também à presença de parasitos nativos com relativa especificidade, mas sem habilidade em completar seu ciclo de vida nesse hospedeiro invasor desse ecossistema. Abstract in english This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the ma [...] in channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem.

Luana Silva, Bittencourt; Douglas Anadias, Pinheiro; Melissa Querido, Cárdenas; Berenice Maria, Fernandes; Marcos, Tavares-Dias.

2014-03-01

254

Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil = Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nastilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número delinfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pigmanure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest values of total leukocyte count were observed in A and C from Blumenau and Ituporanga. Tilapia exposed to pig dung showed the highest number of lymphocyte in the circulating blood. Haematological values of carp did not show significant changes that were related to the environment.

Luciana Ghiraldelli

2006-10-01

255

ISOLASI DAN PENAPISAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DARI SALURAN PENCERNAAN IKAN SEBAGAI PROBIOTIK UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT STREPTOCOCCOSIS DAN LACTOCOCCOSIS PADA IKAN NILA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)  

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Isolasi dan identifikasi bakteri asam laktat yang memiliki potensi antibakteri terhadap bakteri penyebab penyakit streptococcosis/Lactococcosis dari usus ikan Lele Clarias gariepinus dan ikan gabus Ophiocephalus striatus telah dilakukan untuk mengatasi penyakit tersebut pada ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus. Sebanyak masing-masing 20 ekor ikan lele dan ikan gabus dibedah secara aseptic dengan mengambil bagian usus dan lambungnya dan selanjutnya usus dibedah secara aseptic dan selanjutnya melet...

Hasni Azis; Hilal Anshary; Gunarto Latama

2013-01-01

256

Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein called treatment SF), no substrate plus feed (S0F), Substrate plus no feed (SF0) and no feed and substrate (control). All ponds were stocked with tilapia and freshwater prawn juveniles at a stockin...

Uddin, M. S.; Azim, M. E.; Wahab, M. A.; Verdegem, M. C. J.

2009-01-01

257

Technical evaluation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) monoculture and tilapia-prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in earthen ponds with or without substrates for periphyton development  

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The effects of periphyton grown on bamboo substrate, on growth and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain) in monoculture and polyculture with the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were studied and economically evaluated. The experiment had 2 × 2 factorial design: The first factor was presence or absence of substrate for periphyton development, the second factor was related to culture system. The first system was monoculture o...

Uddin, S.; Farzana, A.; Fatema, M. K.; Azim, M. E.; Wahab, M. A.; Verdegem, M. C. J.

2007-01-01

258

Genetic characterization of a betanodavirus isolated from a clinical disease outbreak in farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Thailand.  

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Betanodavirus infection was diagnosed in larvae of farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in central Thailand. Extensive vacuolar degeneration and neuronal necrosis were observed in histological sections with positive immunohistochemical staining for betanodavirus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the nucleotide sequences (1333 bases) of the capsid protein gene. The virus strain was highly homologous (93.07-93.88%) and closely related to red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). PMID:24164433

Keawcharoen, J; Techangamsuwan, S; Ponpornpisit, A; Lombardini, E D; Patchimasiri, T; Pirarat, N

2015-01-01

259

Modulatory role of dietary Chlorella vulgaris powder against arsenic-induced immunotoxicity and oxidative stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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Arsenic intoxicant have long been regarded as an impending carcinogenic, genotoxic, and immunotoxic heavy metal to human and animals as well. In this respect, we evaluated biomarkers of the innate immune response and oxidative stress metabolism in gills and liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after arsenic exposure, and the protective role of Chlorella vulgaris (Ch) dietary supplementation were elucidated. Protective role of C. vulgaris (Ch), as supplementary feeds (5% and 10% of the diet) was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic induced toxicity (NaAsO2 at 7 ppm) for 21 days exposure period. A significant down-regulation in innate immune response; including, respiratory burst, lysozyme, and bactericidal activity followed due to deliberately As(+3) exposure. Similarly, oxidative stress response; like nitric oxide (NO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly decreased. Combined treatment of Ch and As(+3) significantly enhanced the innate immune response and antioxidant activity. Strikingly, Ch supplementation at 10% has been considered the optimum for Nile tilapia since it exhibited enhancement of innate immune response and antioxidant activity over the level 5%, and even better than that of control level. Thus, our results concluded that dietary Ch supplementation could protect Nile tilapia against arsenic induced immunosuppression and oxidative stresses. PMID:25304544

Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy

2014-12-01

260

Development of the embryo, larva and early juvenile of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Developmental staging system.  

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We described the developmental stages for the embryonic, larval and early juvenile periods of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to elucidate sequential events of craniofacial development. Craniofacial development of cichlids, especially differentiation and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal skeleton, progresses until about 30 days postfertilization (dpf). Because there is no comprehensive report describing the sequential processes of craniofacial development up to 30 dpf, we newly defined 32 stages using a numbered staging system. For embryonic development, we defined 18 stages (stages 1-18), which were grouped into seven periods named the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula and hatching periods. For larval development, we defined seven stages (stages 19-25), which were grouped into two periods, early larval and late larval. For juvenile development until 30 dpf, we defined seven stages (stages 26-32) in the early juvenile period. This developmental staging system for Nile tilapia O. niloticus will benefit researchers investigating skeletogenesis throughout tilapia ontogeny and will also facilitate comparative evolutionary developmental biology studies of haplochromine cichlids, which comprise the species flocks of Lakes Malawi and Victoria. PMID:17501907

Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro

2007-05-01

261

Determination of selenium toxicity to Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8755  

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Full Text Available Selenium (Se is described as an essential micronutrient and participates in different biological functions, as the antioxidant defense systems maintenance and regulation. However, when in high concentrations, Se may cause toxic effects as well as hematological changes in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of selenium in the form of sodium selenate (Na2Se6+O4 in Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters, after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.14 and 1.4 mg Se6+ L-1. The erythrocytic and leukocytic series were examined over 14 days at intervals of 0, 3, 5, 7,10 and 14 days. The erythrocytic series showed significant alterations in the first 7 days, including the control group. Neutrophils and monocytes showed variations in the first 3 days at a concentration of 1.40 mgSe6+ L-1 characterizing an acute response. The total number of leukocytes was different in relation to time zero on all Se concentrations. The thrombocyte count also differed statistically from time zero and control in the first 3 days at 0.14 mgSe6+ L-1. These results indicate that different concentrations induce an acute response with diminution of total leukocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis and thrombocytosis. 

Julio Vicente Lombardi

2012-03-01

262

Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus(L.  

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Full Text Available The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g on the weight gain (WG, food conversion FC, retained protein (PR, retained energy (ER and protein efficiency ratio (PER in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” (Oreochromis niloticus. Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between the experimental diets. In diets with 30% proteins, the increase of digestible energy significantly enhances WG, FC, PR, ER and PER, where the level of 3.7 kcal/g had the best performance. With 35% protein, the increase of digestible energy had not significant influence on the GP, CA, PR, ER and PER, however the growth of sex reversal Nile Tilapia was improved with the level of 3.3 kcal/g. When were compared both diets, were not find significant differences. Considering the protein cost, it can be concluded that best response was obtained with a diet containing 30 % of protein and 3.7 kcal/g of digestible energy and optimum digestible energy/ digestible protein ratio of 13.75 kcal/g protein.

Felix Walter Gutierrez

2014-03-01

263

Development of the lateral plate mesoderm in medaka Oryzias latipes and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: insight into the diversification of pelvic fin position.  

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The position of the pelvic fins among teleost fishes has tended to shift rostrally during evolution. This positional shift seems to have led to the diversification of feeding behavior and allowed adaptation to new environments. To understand the developmental basis of this shift in pelvic fin position among teleosts, we investigated the embryonic development of the lateral plate mesoderm, which gives rise to the pelvic fins, at histological levels in the medaka Oryzias latipes (abdominal pelvic fins) and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (thoracic pelvic fins). Our histological analyses revealed that the lateral plate mesodermal cells expand not only ventrally but also rostrally to cover the yolk during embryogenesis of both medaka and Nile tilapia. In medaka, we also found that the lateral plate mesoderm completely covered the yolk prior to the initiation of the pelvic fin buds, whereas in Nile tilapia the pelvic fin buds appeared in the body wall from the lateral plate mesoderm at the thoracic level when the lateral plate mesodermal cells only covered one-third of the yolk. We discuss the relevance of such differences in the rate of the lateral plate mesoderm expansion on the yolk surface and the position of the pelvic fins. PMID:25345789

Kaneko, Hiroki; Nakatani, Yuki; Fujimura, Koji; Tanaka, Mikiko

2014-12-01

264

Non-lethal detection of DNA from Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalinae) in gill mucus of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

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Infection of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus by monogeneans of the genus Cichlidogyrus is harmful. Currently, diagnosis of this infection is based on invasive techniques and the identification of isolated parasites by their morphology. To facilitate diagnosis, we have developed a non-lethal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for detection of Cichlidogyrus spp. DNA in the gill mucus of O. niloticus, using 5 pairs of specific primers based on Cichlidogyrus sclerosus 28S rRNA (Cicly 1 to Cicly 5) which generate fragments of approximately 188, 180, 150, 159 and 189 bp, respectively. PCR specificity was tested using genomic DNA extracted individually from 175 isolated Cichlidogyrus spp., 75 Gyrodactylus cichlidarum and 75 endopararasitic Enterogyrus spp., as well as from 75 protozoans Trichodina spp. The Cicly primers were used to detect Cichlidogyrus spp. DNA in mucus from the gills of 23 Nile tilapia confirmed to be infected with the parasite. Negative controls consisted of 45 uninfected Nile tilapia. The limit of sensitivity of the assay was 1.2 ng of purified parasite DNA. The Cicly primers did not amplify DNA from the mucus of non-infected Nile tilapia, G. cichlidarum, Trichodina spp. or Enterogyrus spp. In all cases, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100%. The sequences of all the amplified fragments showed a high similarity to that of the 28S rRNA region of C. sclerosus (93 to 100% identical to GenBank Accession No. DQ157660.1). We provide evidence for a safe and non-invasive DNA-based diagnostic method for the presence of Cichlidogyrus in the gill mucus of O. niloticus. PMID:22436463

Ek-Huchim, Juan Pablo; Jimenez-Garcia, Isabel; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

2012-03-20

265

Eco-Histopathology of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus from Industrially Contaminated Locations of Ologe Lagoon, South-western, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical, heavy-metals parameter and Histopathology of adult fish specimen of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus collected from effluents sources of Ologe lagoon. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of industrial effluents on the lagoon, and on the health of resident fish fauna. 5 sample stations were marked out. Water samples were collected in triplicates; once every two months from each sample station. Effluent samples from the three point sources were also analyzed. Mean values for physico-chemical parameters, heavy-metals and three other effluent sources monitored ranges are pH, 6.17±0.42-10.25±1.18, DO, 1.18±0.50-6.13±1.03 mg/l, TDS, 86.6±19.17-621.97±16.22 mg/l, hardness, ND–58.03±0.90 mg/l, alkalinity, 22.06±8.08-352.37±14.58 mg/l, Cl-1, 31.09±18.16-268.98±31.41 mg/l, acidity, ND-73.73±13.00 mg/l, Zn, 0.07±0.01-0.65±0.18 mg/l, Fe, ND-1.40±0.50 mg/l, Cu, 0.001±0.001-0.53±0.36 mg/l, Cd, ND-0.07±0.02 mg/l, and Pb, ND-10.15±21.83 mg/l. Several live lesions have been observed in the study as tissue bio-makers consistent with the exposure of fish to effluent. These include pigmented macrophage aggregation, hepatocytes vacoulation, multi foci coagulative necrosis and liver fatty degeneration. The preponderance of these lesions in fish from contaminated waters bordering urban locations similar to our test location has been firmly established and described by other researchers. Therefore, the extent of deformities and cell injuries is as a result of toxicant actions of the industrial effluents.

Akintade O Adeboyejo

2013-01-01

266

Dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis on hematology and non-specific immunity of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus raised at different stocking densities.  

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An 84-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, body composition, intestinal probiotic recovery, hematology, and non-specific immunity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at two stocking densities. Five hundred twenty male Nile tilapias (32.63 ± 1.25 g) were distributed in 16,800-L tanks. The experimental design was completely randomized using four replications and a 2 × 2 factorial scheme with two stocking densities (18.75 fish m(-3) 62.50 fish m(-3)) and two diets (control and with probiotic). The probiotic-supplemented diet included 5 × 10(6) CFU g feed(-1). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the growth performance, body composition, and levels of cortisol and glucose between the animals fed with the control diet and the animals fed with the probiotic-supplemented diet. Differences in the growth performance were observed between the fish reared at different stocking densities; in particular, the fish raised at the high stocking density exhibited reduced weight gain, feed intake, and specific growth rate compared with those raised at the low stocking density. The B. subtilis remained viable after its inclusion in the feed, storage, and passage through the stomach, which demonstrations the feasibility of using this bacteria as a probiotic. Higher values (P immune system of Nile tilapia by decreasing the stress associated with exposure to a high stocking density, increasing the mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and improving the innate immune system (lysozyme and phagocytic activities of macrophages). PMID:24878743

Telli, Guilherme Silveira; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José Tavares; Dias, Danielle de Carla; Sussel, Fabio Rosa; Ishikawa, Carlos Massatoshi; Tachibana, Leonardo

2014-08-01

267

Análise parasitológica e hematológica em tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757, da represa de Guarapiranga, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1334 Parasitological and hematological analysis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757 from Guarapiranga reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1334  

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Full Text Available Foram coletadas na represa de Guarapiranga, São Paulo, entre agosto de 1996 e abril de1998, 206 tilápias, Oreochromis niloticus, com o objetivo de relacionar a condição de saúde desses animais à ocorrência de parasitos. Foram analisados: hematócrito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos. Foram feitos raspados de pele e brânquias, sendo estas removidas e fixadas para a identificação de Monogenoidea. Nas brânquias, foram encontrados: Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838, Ichthyophtirius multifiliis (Fouquet, 1876, Cryptobia, amebas e Monogenoidea (Cichlidogyrus sp., e na pele: Trichodina sp., Cryptobia sp. e Henneguya sp. A prevalência de alguns parasitos parece estar associada à temperatura e ao nível de oxigênio dissolvido da água. O hematócrito e a porcentagem dos leucócitos apresentaram pouca variação. Apenas basófilos demonstram diferença significativa entre os valores médios mensais. A porcentagem de eosinófilos foi mais alta nos peixes parasitados por I. multifiliis e Cichlidogyrus sp. e nos não parasitados. Durante esse período, não houve mortalidade de peixes. Conclui-se que os peixes estavam em boas condições de saúde, embora as condições da água da represa não estivessem ideaisA total of 206 adult specimens of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were collected from the Guarapiranga Reservoir, Sao Paulo, from August 1996 to April 1998, to relate their health condition with parasite infestation. Hematocrits and the differential leukocyte counts were analyzed. Scrapings of skin and gills were performed and this last removed and fixed for the identification of monogeneans. In the gills, Trichodina, Ichthyophtirius multifiliis, Cryptobia, amoebas and monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus sp. were found, and in the skin, Trichodina, Cryptobia and Henneguya. The prevalence of some parasites seemed to be associated with water temperature and the level of dissolved oxygen. The hematocrit and leukocyte cells percentage showed little variation during the sampling period. Only basophils demonstrated a significant difference between monthly mean values. The eosinophil percentage was higher in fish parasitized with I. multifiliis and Cichlidogyrus sp. and in non-parasitized animals. There was no detection of fish mortality. It could be concluded that the fish were in good health even though the condition of the Reservoir water was not ideal

Nilza Nunes Felizardo

2005-03-01

268

Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).  

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This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

2014-03-01

269

The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level  

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Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

Mai D. Ibrahem

2014-01-01

270

INAA and ICP-MSHS. Metal pollutants in fish tissues Nile tilapia (Oreochromic niloticus) in Pampulha Lake, Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

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Pampulha Lake, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is being polluted via its tributaries, Sarandi and Ressaca. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry high resolution were applied to determine Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, Zn and Ti in Nile tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus. The organs analyzed were: intestine, spleen, heart, testicle, kidney, liver, gills and muscle. The results demonstrated relatively high concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, P and Ti in gills, Al and Cu in liver, Al in intestine and Fe in muscle and spleen. (author)

271

Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: effect on digestibility and growth performance / Uso de residuos de la industria del atún en dietas para alevines de tilapia del Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus: efecto sobre la digestibilidad y el rendimiento del crecimiento  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Durante el proceso de enlatado de atún se desecha aproximadamente el 52-54% del peso total de los peces. Estos desechos pueden ser usados para producir harina de desechos de atún (TBM) o estabilizados como subproductos hidrolizados de atún (TSH). Ambos productos se probaron como sustitutos de harina [...] de soya (SBM), en dietas para alevines de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus. Seis dietas con igual contenido de proteína (35%) y energía (19 kJ g-1): una dieta basal con SBM como principal fuente de proteína (TSH0); y cuatro dietas experimentales se prepararon con crecientes niveles de TSH en reemplazo de 25, 50, 75 y 100% de la proteína de soya. La sexta dieta fue preparada con TBM como única fuente de proteína y un alimento comercial fue incluido como dieta referencia (RD). Estas dietas se ofrecieron por triplicado durante ocho semanas a grupos de 15 alevines cada uno, con un peso medio inicial de 0,89 ± 0,29 g. Los peces alimentados con la dieta preparada con TBM presentaron mayor ganancia de peso, mayor consumo de alimento y factor de conversión más eficiente que los alimentados con las dietas RD, TSH25 y TSH50. Con las dietas antes mencionadas, se obtuvieron resultados similares entre sí, mientras que los peces que recibieron dietas TSH0, TSH75% y TSH100% dieron las menores respuestas de crecimiento. Abstract in english During the tuna canning process, about 52~54% of the total weight of the fish is discarded as waste, which can be processed in order to obtain tuna byproducts meal (TBM), or stabilized as tuna silage hydrolysates (TSH). Both products were tested as replacements of soybean meal (SBM), in diets for fi [...] ngerling male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Seven test diets were isonitrogenous (35% CP) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1): a basal diet contained SBM as main protein source (TSH0); four experimental diets had increasing inclusion levels of TSH replacing 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the SBM protein. The sixth diet contained TBM as sole protein source, and a commercial feed for tilapia was used as reference diet (RD). The diets were fed for eight weeks to triplicate tanks, each with 15 fry tilapia (initial weight of 0.89 ± 0.29 g). Tilapia fed the TBM diet had greater weight gain and feed intake, and lower feed conversion ratios than those fed diets containing with TSH. The RD, TSH25 and TSH50 diets gave the similar growth response. Fish fed diets TSH0, TSH75% and TSH100% showed reduced growth performance.

Crisantema, Hernández; Miguel A, Olvera-Novoa; Domenico, Voltolina; Ronald W, Hardy; Blanca, González-Rodriguez; Patricia, Dominguez-Jimenez; Martin, Valverde-Romero; Samuel, Agramon-Romero.

2013-07-01

272

Avaliação de variáveis limnológicas e suas relações com uma floração de Euglenaceae pigmentada em viveiro povoado com tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2018 Limnologic variables evaluation and its relation to a pigmented Euglenaceae bloom in Nile Tilapia pond (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, São Paulo, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2018  

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Full Text Available Ocorrência de floração de euglenas (Euglenophyceae pigmentada em viveiro povoado com tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus (Cichlidae foi estudada no Núcleo de Aquicultura de Pindamonhangaba, localizado a22º55´S, 45º27´W, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Durante um mês (Fevereiro de 2001, a cada três dias variáveis da água foram monitoradas. Destas, a amônia, os pigmentos totais, a transparência da água, o fósforo e o oxigênio dissolvido tiveram seus valores fora do recomendado. Os resultados levaram a supor que a entrada de nitrogênio e de fósforo advinda da fertilização inorgânica por superfosfato e sulfato de amônio e do arraçoamento ocasionaram a floração algácea. A mortandade de peixes provavelmente relacionou-se às baixas concentrações de oxigênio e aos níveis de amônia. Os valores baixos de oxigênio poderiam relacionar-se diretamente ao excesso de algas ou à própria decomposição da matéria orgânica advinda do arraçoamento e das células algais em senescênciaThe occurrence of algal bloom in a fish pond with Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus (Cichlidae was recorded at the Experimental Fish Culture Station in Pindamonhangaba, located at 22º55´S, 45º27´W, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. During one month (February 2001 at every three days of study the water quality was performed. From results, it was observed that the ammonia, total pigments, water transparency, phosphate and dissolved oxygen showed values out of the recommended limit. The algal bloom was associated to the loads phosphate and nitrogen and the fish mortality to the low oxygen and toxic ammonia. The low oxygen values were associated to the bloom and the organic material in decomposition

Cleide Schmidt Romeiro Mainardes Pinto

2003-04-01

273

Parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) sob estresse por exposição ao ar / Hematological parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) under air exposure stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliaram-se os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos de exemplares adultos de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) sob a influência do fator estresse fisiológico em animais submetidos à exposição ao ar durante a engorda em sistema raceway. Foram analisados o eritrograma, teor de h [...] emoglobina, volume globular, o volume corpuscular médio (VCM), a hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM), a concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), o leucograma, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, o plaquetograma, a glicose, a proteína total, o colesterol, o triglicerídeo e os eletrólitos (cálcio, cloretos, sódio e potássio). Os resultados revelaram que houve uma homogeneidade de distribuição para hemácias, volume globular, hemoglobina, índices hemantimétricos, proteína total, glicose, colesterol, e íons séricos, indicados pelos valores relativamente baixos do coeficiente de variação. Houve correlação positiva somente para leucócitos totais, células de defesa orgânica (neutrófilos e linfócitos), glicose, colesterol, sódio e cálcio. Quanto ao leucograma, à medida que os animais foram expostos ao ar, o número de leucócitos diminuiu gradativamente (leucopenia), ocorrendo simultaneamente neutrofilia e linfopenia. O índice glicêmico constituiu um bom indicador de estresse fisiológico, devido à hiperglicemia (82,0±20,88mg/dL) demonstrada nos tratamentos. A exposição ao ar constituiu um fator de desequilíbrio na homeostase iônica, e na síntese de colesterol endógeno. Entretanto, o tempo de recuperação não ocasionou a completa reabilitação fisiológica frente ao desafio imposto. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the hematological and biochemical parameters of adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under the influence of the physiological stress factor in animals submitted to air exposure during fattening in raceway system. Blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular [...] volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), leukogram, differencial leukocyte count, platelet, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and electrolytes (calcium, chloride, sodium and potassium) were analyzed. The results showed a uniform distribution for red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, secondary Wintrobe indices, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and serum ions, indicated by a relatively low variation coefficient. There was positive correlation only for total white blood cells, organic defense cells (neutrophils and lymphocytes), glucose, cholesterol, sodium and calcium. As for the leukocytes (WBC), as the animals were exposed to aeration, the number of leukocytes gradually decreased (leukopenia), simultaneously occurring neutrophilia and lymphopenia. The glycemic index was a good indicator of physiological stress due to hyperglycemia (82.0±20.88mg/dL) demonstrated in the treatments. The air exposure constituted an imbalance factor at the ion homeostasis and at the endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Besides, the recovery time did not result in the complete physiological rehabilitation face the imposed challenge.

Roberta Dias da, Silva; Laudicéia Oliveira, Rocha; Bruno Duarte Alves, Fortes; Dirson, Vieira; Maria Clorinda Soares, Fioravanti.

2012-12-01

274

Microbiological and bromatologic evaluation of acid silage gotten from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus filletage industry residues / Avaliação microbiológica e bromatológica da silagem ácida obtida de resíduos da indústria de filetagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The experiment constituted in evaluating the acid silage prepared from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus filletage industry residues. This silage was prepared in a filetage industry through the residues milling and 5% of ascetic acid addition and stock piling in a period up to until 201 days. Storaged silages in a period of 7, 12, 22, 27, 41, 48, 61, 75, 84, 91, 96, 110, 140, 151, 181, 187 and 201dias were evaluated. Bromatologics analyses of rude protein(PB, etereal extract (EE, humidity (UM, ashes (CZ and microbiological analyses of Salmonella, total coliforms, faecals and Escherichia coli of the storaged silages in a period of 7, 91 and 201 days were realized. The pH was evaluated in all the storaged periods. Differences (P > 0.05 in the substance of PB, EE, UM and CZ were not observed. A linear increase in PH was observed, being stabilizing in plateau of 4.74. In relation to the microbiological analysis the presence of Salmonella, total coliforms, faecals and E. Coli were not found. Was concluded that the acid silage gotten from tilapia filetage residues produced with the use of 5% ascetic acid can be stored during 201 days without having Salmonella, total coliforms and faecals proliferation.O experimento constituiu em avaliar a silagem ácida preparada a partir dos resíduos de filetagem de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus. Esta silagem foi preparada em uma indústria de filetagem mediante a moagem dos resíduos e adição de 5% de ácido acético e estocagem por um período de até 201 dias. Foram avaliadas silagens estocadas por 7, 12, 22, 27, 41, 48, 61, 75, 84, 91, 96, 110, 140, 151, 181, 187 e 201dias. Foram realizadas análises bromatológicas de proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, umidade (UM, cinzas (CZ e análises microbiológicas de Salmonella, coliformes totais, fecais e Escherichia coli das silagens estocadas por 7, 91 e 201 dias. O pH foi avaliado em todos os períodos estocados. Não foram observadas diferenças (P > 0,05 nos teores de PB, EE, UM e CZ. Observou-se um aumento linear no pH, estabilizando-se em platô em 4,74. Com relação à análise microbiológica não foram constatadas a presença de Salmonella, coliformes totais, fecais e E. coli. Concluiu-se que a silagem ácida obtida a partir de resíduos de filetagem de tilápias produzidas com a utilização de 5% de ácido acético pode ser armazenada durante 201 dias sem que haja a proliferação de Salmonella e coliformes totais fecais.

Arcangelo Augusto Signor

2010-07-01

275

Morphological characteristics of ovarian development of two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains in mixed-culture systems Características morfológicas do desenvolvimento ovariano de duas linhagens de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, em sistemas de cultivo misto  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to morphologically characterize and classify the stages of gonad development in different Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus. Eighty-four and ninety-two ovaries from Bouaké and Chitralada strains, respectively, were evaluated at different ovarian developmental phases: initial (104 days of culture, intermediate (152 days of culture, and the final (279 days of culture. The ovaries were microscopically evaluated and submitted to histological processing and hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine their characteristics and be classified. No morphological differences in ovaries between strains were observed during the initial phase (stage A - immature. During the intermediate growing phase, higher gonad development was observed for Chitralada strain (stage B - maturation in comparison with Bouaké strain (stage A - immature. During the final growing phase, no differences between strains were observed for morphological characteristics (stage C - mature. Despite the similarities in reproductive behavior of the Bouaké and Chitralada females at the end of the final growing phase (gain weight phase, differences for macroscopic and microscopic aspects and oocytes during the initial and intermediate growing phases of the strains were observed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfologicamente e classificar os estádios de desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus de linhagens distintas. Foram avaliados 84 ovários da linhagem Bouaké e 92 da linhagem Chitralada, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento: inicial (imatura - 104 dias de cultivo, intermediária (crescimento - 152 dias de cultivo e final (ganho de peso - 279 dias de cultivo. Os ovários foram analisados macroscopicamente e submetidos a procedimento histológico, corados com hematoxilina-eosina, para determinação das características microscópicas e subsequente classificação. Não foram observadas diferenças morfológicas nos ovários entre as linhagens na fase inicial (estádio A - imaturo. Na fase intermediária, os ovários revelaram diferenças morfológicas, evidenciando maior desenvolvimento gonadal para a linhagem Chitralada, (estádio B - maturação em relação à Bouaké (estádio A. Na fase final (ganho de peso os ovários não apresentaram diferenças morfológicas entre as linhagens (estádio C - maduro. Apesar de semelhanças no comportamento reprodutivo das fêmeas das linhagens Bouaké e Chitralada, na fase final (ganho de peso, diferenças, em relação à classificação da fase intermediária nos aspectos macroscópicos e microscópicos e diâmetro dos ovócitos, foram observadas.

P.R. Neves

2009-10-01

276

Direct and indirect effects of measures and reasons morphometric on the body yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus / Efeitos diretos e indiretos de medidas morfométricas e razões sobre o rendimento do corpo de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar quais medidas e razões morfométricas estão mais diretamente relacionadas com os rendimentos corporais da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, em duas classes de peso. Foram analisados os dados de 257 exemplares de tilápia divididos em duas catego [...] rias de peso: p1 = 400 a 599 g e p2 = 600 a 900 g. As medidas morfométricas comprimento padrão (CP), comprimento da cabeça (CC), altura do corpo (AC) e largura do corpo (LC), e as razões entre estas medidas (CC / CP, AC / CP, LC / CP, LC / CC, LC / AC, CC / AC) foram avaliadas. Os rendimentos corporais calculados foram: carcaça (RCAR), filé (RFILE) e cabeça (RCAB). Os dados foram inicialmente submetidos ao procedimento 'stepwise' para eliminar os problemas de multicolinearidade entre as variáveis morfométricas, em seguida, as correlações entre as variáveis dependentes (rendimentos corporais) e as variáveis independentes (medidas e razões morfométrica) foram calculados. Posteriormente estas correlações foram desdobradas em efeitos diretos e indiretos por meio de análise de trilha e as contribuições diretas e indiretas de cada variável foram quantificadas percentualmente. A razão morfométrica LC / CC, para ambas as classes de peso, foi a variável mais altamente correlacionada e com o maior efeito direto sobre RFILE e RCAB, mostrando ser a variável morfométrica estudada mais importante para determinação das características de carcaça da tilápia. Abstract in english The study was carried out with the objective of verifying which measures and morphometric ratios are more directly related to the body yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in two weight classes. Data were analyzed from 257 specimens of tilapia divided into two weight classes: p1 = 400 to 59 [...] 9 g and p2 = 600 to 900 g. The morphometric measurements standard length (SL), head length (HL), body height (BH) and body width (BW), and the ratios of these measures (HL / SL, BH / SL, BW / SL, HL / BH, BW / BH, BW / HL) were evaluated. The following body yields were calculated: carcass (RCAR), fillet (RFILE) and head (RCAB). The data were initially submitted to the "stepwise" procedure to eliminate problems of multicollinearity among the morphometric variables, then the correlations between the dependent variables (body yield) and the independent variables (measured and morphometric relationships) were calculated. Later, these correlations were divided into direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable measured in percentage terms. The morphometric ratio BW/HL, for both weight classes, was the variable most highly correlated and with the highest direct effect on RFILE and RCAB, showing to be the most important morphometric variable studied for tilapia carcass trait determination.

Carlos Cicinato Vieira, Melo; Rafael Vilhena, Reis Neto; Adriano Carvalho, Costa; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Thiago Archangelo, Freato; Ulisses Nascimento de, Souza.

2013-12-01

277

Efeito da vitamina C sobre o hematócrito e glicemia de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em transporte simulado Effect of vitamin C over the haematocrit and glycemia of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus alevins in simulated transport  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do ascorbato sobre o hematócrito e glicemia em alevinos de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus submetidos à simulação de práticas relacionadas ao transporte. Foram utilizadas três dietas experimentais com diferentes níveis de vitamina C (16, 500 e 1000mg de vitamina C/kg, fornecidas durante os 14 dias anteriores à simulação do transporte que se estendeu por 14 horas. O tratamento que continha 16mg de vitamina C/kg foi o que apresentou a glicemia mais elevada logo após a simulação, 108,5mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 91mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. A concentração de 1000mg de vitamina C/kg foi a mais eficiente no controle do aumento da glicemia, 94,6mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 74,4mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Para a concentração de 500mg de vitamina C/kg foram observados os níveis de 91,4mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 103,8mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Os valores do hematócrito não apresentaram variação significativa (P>0,05. A suplementação com 1000mg de vitamina C/kg por 14 dias anteriores ao transporte pode ser utilizada de forma profilática em alevinos de tilápia nilótica para amenizar o aumento da glicemia relacionado ao estresse.The effects of ascorbate on the haematocrit and blood glucose level were evaluated in Nile tilapia alevins (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to a transport simulation. Three experimental diets with different levels of vitamin C (16, 500 and 1000mg/kg were given for 14 days before the simulation of the transport. The treatment containing 16mg of vitamin C showed the highest level of glucose after the simulation (108.5mg/dl immediately after the transport and 91mg/dl 12 hours after the transport. The vitamin C concentration of 1000mg/kg was the most efficient treatment to control glycemia increases (94.6mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 74.4mg/dl 12 hour after simulation. In the 500mg/kg treatment, the glucose level was 91.4mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 103.8mg/dl 12 hours after the simulation. The haematocrit values did not show any significative variation (P<0.05. The supplementation with 1000mg/kg of vitamin C for a 14 days period can be used in a prophylactic way to soften glycemia increases in Nile tilapia alevins submitted to transport stress.

D. Okamura

2007-08-01

278

Digestibilidade aparente de macrófitas aquáticas pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e qualidade da água em relação às concentrações de nutrientes / Apparent digestibility of aquatic macrophytes by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and water quality in relation nutrients concentrations  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da proteína bruta e dos aminoácidos de duas espécies de macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Eichhornia crassipes e Pistia stratiotes) pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e verificar a qualidade da água do [...] s aquários de digestibilidade em relação às concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo. Foram elaboradas três rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de cromo-III, sendo uma ração-referência (purificada) e as demais contendo 30% de cada uma das macrófitas aquáticas. As tilápias-do-nilo (58,8 + 18,5 g) foram alimentadas até a saciedade aparente e a coleta de fezes foi feita pelo sistema Guelph modificado. Os CDA médios da proteína e dos aminoácidos foram, respectivamente, 93,17 e 93,32% para a ração-referência; 59,23 e 60,35% para E. crassipes; e 52,24 e 57,40% para P. stratiotes. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas entre os valores de CDA da proteína e dos aminoácidos dos ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram reduzida eficiência da tilápia-do-nilo em assimilar a maioria dos aminoácidos de E. crassipes e P. stratiotes. As excretas das tilápias-do-nilo contribuíram para o aumento das concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo na água dos aquários, independentemente da ração fornecida. Abstract in english The objectives of this trial were to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of crude protein and amino acids for two species of free floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes) by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine the water quality o [...] f digestibility aquariums in relation nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Tree feeds were developments, containing 0.10% of chromic oxide - III, one being the reference diet (purified) and the others containing 30% of aquatic macrophytes. The Nile tilapias (58.8 + 18.5 g) were fed to apparent satiation and the faeces were collected by modified Guelph system. The average ADC of crude protein and amino acids were, respectively, 93.17 and 93.32% for diet reference; 59.23 and 60.35% for E. crassipes; and 52.24 and 57.40% for P. stratiotes. No significant differences were observed among the ADC of protein and of amino acids of the plants ingredients. The results showed lower efficiency by tilapia of Nile in assimilate the most amino acids of the E. crassipes and P. stratiotes. It is possible to conclude that excretory products in the Nile tilapia increase the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, independent of feed.

Gustavo Gonzaga, Henry-Silva; Antonio Fernando Monteiro, Camargo; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

2006-06-01

279

Digestibilidade aparente de macrófitas aquáticas pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e qualidade da água em relação às concentrações de nutrientes Apparent digestibility of aquatic macrophytes by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and water quality in relation nutrients concentrations  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da proteína bruta e dos aminoácidos de duas espécies de macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Eichhornia crassipes e Pistia stratiotes pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e verificar a qualidade da água dos aquários de digestibilidade em relação às concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo. Foram elaboradas três rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de cromo-III, sendo uma ração-referência (purificada e as demais contendo 30% de cada uma das macrófitas aquáticas. As tilápias-do-nilo (58,8 + 18,5 g foram alimentadas até a saciedade aparente e a coleta de fezes foi feita pelo sistema Guelph modificado. Os CDA médios da proteína e dos aminoácidos foram, respectivamente, 93,17 e 93,32% para a ração-referência; 59,23 e 60,35% para E. crassipes; e 52,24 e 57,40% para P. stratiotes. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas entre os valores de CDA da proteína e dos aminoácidos dos ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram reduzida eficiência da tilápia-do-nilo em assimilar a maioria dos aminoácidos de E. crassipes e P. stratiotes. As excretas das tilápias-do-nilo contribuíram para o aumento das concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo na água dos aquários, independentemente da ração fornecida.The objectives of this trial were to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of crude protein and amino acids for two species of free floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine the water quality of digestibility aquariums in relation nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Tree feeds were developments, containing 0.10% of chromic oxide - III, one being the reference diet (purified and the others containing 30% of aquatic macrophytes. The Nile tilapias (58.8 + 18.5 g were fed to apparent satiation and the faeces were collected by modified Guelph system. The average ADC of crude protein and amino acids were, respectively, 93.17 and 93.32% for diet reference; 59.23 and 60.35% for E. crassipes; and 52.24 and 57.40% for P. stratiotes. No significant differences were observed among the ADC of protein and of amino acids of the plants ingredients. The results showed lower efficiency by tilapia of Nile in assimilate the most amino acids of the E. crassipes and P. stratiotes. It is possible to conclude that excretory products in the Nile tilapia increase the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, independent of feed.

Gustavo Gonzaga Henry-Silva

2006-06-01

280

Efeito da vitamina C sobre o hematócrito e glicemia de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em transporte simulado / Effect of vitamin C over the haematocrit and glycemia of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) alevins in simulated transport  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito do ascorbato sobre o hematócrito e glicemia em alevinos de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) submetidos à simulação de práticas relacionadas ao transporte. Foram utilizadas três dietas experimentais com diferentes níveis de vitamina C (16, 500 e 1000mg de vitamina C/kg), f [...] ornecidas durante os 14 dias anteriores à simulação do transporte que se estendeu por 14 horas. O tratamento que continha 16mg de vitamina C/kg foi o que apresentou a glicemia mais elevada logo após a simulação, 108,5mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 91mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. A concentração de 1000mg de vitamina C/kg foi a mais eficiente no controle do aumento da glicemia, 94,6mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 74,4mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Para a concentração de 500mg de vitamina C/kg foram observados os níveis de 91,4mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 103,8mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Os valores do hematócrito não apresentaram variação significativa (P>0,05). A suplementação com 1000mg de vitamina C/kg por 14 dias anteriores ao transporte pode ser utilizada de forma profilática em alevinos de tilápia nilótica para amenizar o aumento da glicemia relacionado ao estresse. Abstract in english The effects of ascorbate on the haematocrit and blood glucose level were evaluated in Nile tilapia alevins (Oreochromis niloticus) submitted to a transport simulation. Three experimental diets with different levels of vitamin C (16, 500 and 1000mg/kg) were given for 14 days before the simulation of [...] the transport. The treatment containing 16mg of vitamin C showed the highest level of glucose after the simulation (108.5mg/dl immediately after the transport and 91mg/dl 12 hours after the transport). The vitamin C concentration of 1000mg/kg was the most efficient treatment to control glycemia increases (94.6mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 74.4mg/dl 12 hour after simulation). In the 500mg/kg treatment, the glucose level was 91.4mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 103.8mg/dl 12 hours after the simulation. The haematocrit values did not show any significative variation (P

D., Okamura; F.G., Araújo; P.V.R., Logato; L.D.S., Murgas; R.T.F., Freitas; R.V., Araújo.

2007-08-01

281

Criopreservação do sêmen de tilápia-nilótica Oreochromis niloticus, var. Chitralada: crioprotetores, soluções ativadoras e refrigerador criogênico / Cryopreservation of the semen of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, var. Chitralada: cryoprotectants, spermatozoa activating solutions and cryogenic refrigerator  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realizaram-se experimentos relativos a crioprotetores, diluentes e soluções ativadoras pós-descongelamento com o sêmen de tilápia-nilótica Oreochromis niloticus, var. Chitralada. Utilizaram-se soluções crioprotetoras contendo DMSO ou metanol, em várias concentrações. O sêmen diluído na solução criop [...] rotetora foi envazado em palhetas de 0,5 mL, congelado em botijão de vapor de nitrogênio líquido e, então, armazenado em nitrogênio líquido. A motilidade espermática do sêmen descongelado foi avaliada em soluções ativadoras de NaHCO3 119mM, NaCl 25 mM e água destilada. As taxas de motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento obtidas com sêmen criopreservado com metanol (concentração final = 7,5-12 %) foram de 31-46% e quando o crioprotetor utilizado foi o DMSO (concentração final = 5-8%), de 20-35%. Em ambas as condições, o sêmen foi ativado com solução de NaHCO3 119mM. A diluição do sêmen em diferentes proporções (1:1 a 1:4; sêmen: diluente) não produziu diferenças significativas nas taxas de motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento. Abstract in english Experiments were conducted concerning cryoprotectants, extenders, and post thawing activating solutions for the semen of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, var. Chitralada. The extender solutions contained DMSO or methanol in various concentrations. The semen was previously diluted in the extender, [...] drawn into 0.5 mL straws, frozen in the cryogenic shipper and then stored in liquid nitrogen. Motility of the thawed sperm was evaluated with NaHCO3 119mM, NaCl 25 mM and distilled water. Motility rate of thawed sperm, cryopreserved with methanol (final concentration = 7.5-12%) and activated with NaHCO3 119mM, was 31-46%. When DMSO replaced methanol, the motility of frozen/thawed sperm activated, also with NaHCO3 119mM, was 20-35%. Semen:extender dilutions of 1:1 to 1:4 did not show significant effects on the post-thawing sperm motility rate.

Hugo Pereira, Godinho; Vanessa Márcia da Cunha, Amorim; Marco Túlio Diniz, Peixoto.

1537-15-01

282

Effects of an experimental challenge with Mycobacterium marinum on the blood parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cem exemplares adultos de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus, foram inoculadas intraperitonealmente com 10(8) UFC de Mycobacterium marinum e outras 100 foram mantidas sem inoculação. Inicialmente, o sangue de 6 exemplares não inoculados foi colhido e considerado como "tempo zero". Do grupo dos inoculado [...] s foi retirado sangue de 6 animais por colheita, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 e 84 dias após inoculação. Os parâmetros hematológicos: hematócrito (Hct), taxa de hemoglobina (Hgb), contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), foram determinados e os índices hematológicos (VCM, HCM e CHCM), calculados. Foram determinados também o número de trombócitos e o número total e diferencial de leucócitos. Não ocorreram alterações nos valores de Hct, Hgb, HCM e CHCM. Entretanto houve diminuição dos valores de RBC e VCM. Os valores médios de RBC e Hct dos animais no "tempo zero" foram maiores e os de VCM e HCM, menores que os dos animais inoculados. Ocorreu neutrofilia e, após 3 dias de inoculação, ocorreram linfocitose e neutropenia nos animais. No 49º. dia após inoculação bacteriana, ocorreu monocitose. Abstract in english A hundred adult of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) c.f.u. of Mycobacterium marinum. Other 100 speciemns were maintained without inoculation. Blood samples of six inoculated animals were collected at 01, 03, 07, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 84 days after [...] inoculation. Initially, six specimens were taken from the non inoculated group ("time zero"). The haematological parameters determined were: haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin concentration (Hgb), total erythrocytes count (RBC), hematological indexes (MCV, MCH and MCHC), thrombocyte count (Tr), leukocyte count (WBC) and leukocyte differential count. There were no changes in Hct, Hgb, MCH and MCHC. However, the mean values for RBC and MCV decreased. The mean values for RBC and Hct of specimens from the "time zero" group were higher and the MCV and MCH lower than in inoculated animals. Occurred neutrophilia, and, at 72 h there was lymphocytosis and neutropenia. By the 49th day after bacterial inoculation, there was monocytosis.

Maria José Tavares, Ranzani-Paiva; Carlos Massatoshi, Ishikawa; Augusta Cocuzza das, Eiras; Vivian Risaffi da, Silveira.

2004-11-01

283

Técnicas de controle de qualidade utilizadas na criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471 Quality control techniques used in the breeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471  

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Full Text Available Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, de 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14g, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 180 dias. Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de destilaria alcooleira. Os resultados médios obtidos para os parâmetros limnológicos no controle da qualidade da água através de análises físico-químicas e gráficos de controle foram normais durante todo o período experimental. Os valores da temperatura média mensal revelaram estar “fora de controle estatístico”, e mostraram, através da aplicação dos índices de capacidade (Cp e Cpk, que 35,20% estão abaixo do limite inferior de especificação (LIE. A análise dos resultados obtidos, através da aplicação das técnicas de Pareto e Problema da Mochila, evidenciou a solução ótima para resolver os problemas de predadores, biometrias e doenças com a função objetivo Z* maximizada. A utilização das técnicas de controle de qualidade permite um aumento da taxa de estocagem nos tanques sem redução da taxa de crescimento individual e com obtenção de altas produções de peixes de boa qualidade.Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus, 45 days old, sexually reverted, with initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14g, distributed in a totally randomized design during 180 days, were used in this experiment. Effects of substitutions of 10%, 20% and 30% of the rations by yeast obtained from alcohol distillery were evaluated. Average results obtained for the limnological parameters in water quality control by means of chemical analyses and control graphs were considered normal during the entire experimental period. Values of monthly average temperature were statistically out of control and by the application of the capacity rates (Cp and Cpk showed that 35.20% were below the lowest specification limit (LSL. By means of Pareto’s techniques and knapsack problem used, results presented the best solution for problems of predators, biometry and diseases with the maximized function Z* objective. Quality control techniques have made possible an increase of stocking rate in the tanks without a reduction of the individual growth rate and with high productions of good quality fish.

Júlio Hermann Leonhardt

1998-07-01

284

Pesquisa de comparação entre a taxa de crescimento do Acará Geophagus brasiliensis e a Tilápia Oreochromis niloticus em condições de monocultivo intensivo utilizando ração e alimento vivo - Research to compare the growth rate between the Acara Geophagus brasiliensis and Tilapia Oreochromis nioticus in conditions of intensive monoculture utilizing ration and live food  

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Full Text Available SummaryThe state of Santa Catarina, because of its climate conditions and lack of alternative native species with commercial interest, does its pisciculture mainly of exotics species. It is one of the main localities for the culture of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 and also where it will find many regions with favorable conditions for its growth. To those conditions, we have to add an excellent acceptance of this species by the market ofcompanies that process fish, and also by the consumer in general. Acara or Cara is the generic name assigned to various fishes of the family of Ciclideos, same family that the Tilapia belongs. The most common species of fresh water fish in Brazil is Geophagus brasiliensis (QUOY & GAIMARD, 1824, which can grow up to 25cm long and adapts very well to hot and cold regions. The objective of this research is to evaluate the reproductive potential, growth rate and adaptability of the Geophagus brasiliensis to offer the isciculturist an alternative of native species of commercial cultivation.ResumoO Estado de Santa Catarina, em função das condições climáticas e da falta de alternativas de espécies nativas de interesse comercial, faz sua piscicultura com a maioria de espécies exóticas. É um dos locais onde mais se cultiva a Tilápia Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 e também onde ela encontra muitas regiões em condições favoráveis para o seu crescimento. A estas condições, deveremos incorporar a excelente aceitação desta espécie, pelo mercado das empresas de manipulação e beneficiamento do pescado, bem pelo consumidor em geral. O Acará ou cará é o nome genérico atribuído a diversos peixes da família dos Ciclídeos, mesma família a que pertence a Tilápia.

Hilton Amaral Junior

2011-09-01

285

Physiological and haematological response of Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae exposed to single and consecutive stress of capture - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1719 Resposta fisiológica e hematológica de Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae exposto ao estresse único e consecutivo de captura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1719  

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Full Text Available This work is a sequence of studies on tropical fish of economic importance that evaluated the effects of two different stress of handling on the physiology and haematology of Oreochromis niloticus L. acclimated for 10 days before the essay. The stress consisted in net capture of all fish from each aquarium for 30s emersion. Fish exposed to single stress (SS the samples were collected in the times 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300min. after stress. In the consecutive stress (CS the samples were collected in the times 0; 15min. after the first stress; 15min. after the second stress; 15min. after the third stress and 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240min. after the fourth stress totalizing four stimuli every 60min. Fish exposed to SS showed increased cortisol and glucose concentrations at 60min. as well as in the leucocytes number and hematocrit at 50min. after stress. Cortisol did not alter in fish exposed to CS, but glucose increased 15min. after the third stress. On the other hand, CS provoked reduction in the leucocytes number and later hematocrit increasing. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia were related to SS and CS.Este trabalho é seqüência de estudos com peixes tropicais de importância econômica avaliando os efeitos de dois tipos de estresse sobre a fisiologia e hematologia de O. niloticus L, aclimatados durante 10 dias antes do experimento. O estresse consistiu na captura de todos os peixes do aquário com rede e emersão por 30 s. Nos animais submetidos ao estímulo único de captura (EU as amostras foram coletadas nos tempos 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240 e 300min. após o estresse. No estímulo consecutivo (EC as amostras foram coletadas nos tempos 0; 15min. após o primeiro estresse; 15min. após o segundo estresse; 15min. após o terceiro estresse e 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240min. após o quarto estresse totalizando quatro estímulos a cada 60min. Os peixes expostos ao EU apresentaram aumento nas concentrações de cortisol e glicose 60min., bem como no número de leucócitos e hematócrito 50min. após o estresse. Não houve alteração do cortisol nos peixes do EC, mas a glicose aumentou 15min. após o terceiro estresse. Por outro lado, o EC provocou redução no número de leucócitos e aumento tardio do hematócrito. Observou-se neutrofilia e linfopenia após o EU e EC.

Karina Ribeiro

2004-04-01

286

Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.9400 Purification, physical and chemical characterization, and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.9400  

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Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1. O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II, eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I e 23,80 (F II UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS, suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I and 23.80 (F II IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

Glácio Souza Araújo

2011-07-01

287

Verification of contamination by dimetoato and aldicarb in liver of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus collected in two cold-storages in the State of Paraná / Verificação da contaminação por dimetoato e aldicarb em fígado de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus coletados em dois frigoríficos do Estado do Paraná  

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Full Text Available The importance of fish as a protein source in food is unquestionable, but its role as an indicator of environmental contamination is also very important. This study aimed to analysis the livers of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, collected from commercial cold-storages in two municipal districts in the State of Parana, for investigation of contamination by organophosphorus compounds and carbamates. It was collected 30 samples of Nile tilapias (O. niloticus liver in the cold-storage A and 45 samples in the cold-storage B, totaling 75 samples. At each location were three visits, and at random, collected the samples from July 2006 to May 2007. For extraction and analysis of samples it was used the qualitative methodology of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Patterns of organophosphate and carbamate used in the analysis of the TLC were respectively Dimethoate and Aldicarb. Of the samples tested were found cabarmate in seven samples, one of the samples collected in the cold-storage A and six collected in the cold-storage B. The organophosphate compound was found in fifteen samples from 75 samples, seven of the cold-storage A and eight samples from the cold-storage B. The results infer the possibility of contamination of the tanks in the creation of farms and the need for constant monitoring for the presence of residues of pesticides in this important food matrix.A importância dos peixes como fonte protéica na alimentação humana é indiscutível, porém seu papel como indicador de contaminação ambiental também é muito relevante. O presente trabalho objetivou a análise de fígados de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, coletados em frigoríficos comerciais de dois municípios do Estado do Paraná para averiguação de contaminação pelos compostos organofosforados e carbamatos. Coletou-se 30 amostras de fígado de Tilápia do Nilo (O. niloticus no frigorífico A e 45 amostras no frigorífico B, totalizando 75 amostras analisadas. Em cada local foram realizadas três visitas, e de forma aleatória, coletadas as amostras no período de julho de 2006 a maio de 2007. Para extração e análise das amostras utilizou-se a metodologia qualitativa de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada (CCD. Os padrões de organofosforado e carbamato utilizados na análise de CDD foram respectivamente o Dimetoato e Aldicarb. Nas amostras analisadas foi encontrado o praguicida cabarmato em sete amostras, sendo uma das amostras coletada no frigorífico A e seis coletadas no frigorífico B. O composto organofosforado foi encontrado em quinze amostras das 75 amostras analisadas, sendo sete amostras do frigorífico A e oito das amostras do frigorífico B. Os resultados obtidos inferem na possibilidade da contaminação dos tanques de criação nas pisciculturas e da necessidade de monitoramento constante quanto à presença de resíduos de praguicidas nesta importante matriz alimentícia.

Alexandre Nabuhiro Tajiri

2009-12-01

288

The effects of rearing density on growth, size heterogeneity and inter-individual variation of feed intake in monosex male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth dispersion of farmed fish is a subject of increasing interest and one of the most important factors in stocking density. On a duration of 60 days, the effect of stocking density on the growth, coefficient of variation and inter-individual variation of feed intake (CVFI) of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (14.9 ± 1.2 g) were studied in an experimental tank-based flow-through system. Groups of fish were stocked at four stocking densities: 200, 400, 600 and 800 fish/m3, corresponding to a density of ?3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/m3 and referred to as D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. Each treatment was applied to triplicate groups in a completely randomized design. No treatment-related mortality was observed. The fish densities increased throughout the experiment from 3 to 23.5, 6 to 43.6, 9 to 56.6 and 12 to 69 kg/m3. Results show that mass gain and specific growth rate (SGR, %M/day) were negatively correlated with increased stocking density. Groups of the D1 treatment reached a mean final body mass (FBM) of 119.3 g v. 88.9 g for the D4 groups. Feed conversion ratios (FCRs) were 1.38, 1.54, 1.62 and 1.91 at D1, D2, D3 and D4 treatments, respectively. Growth heterogeneity, expressed by the inter-individual variations of fish mass (CVM), was significantly affected by time (P stocking density (P stocking density. Similarly, radiographic study shows that CVFI was also found to be significantly greater for groups reared at high stocking densities (D3 and D4) than the other treatments (D1 and D2). These differences in both CVM and CVFI related to the stocking density need to be taken into account by husbandry practices to assure the production of more homogeneous fish size. A simple economic analysis indicates a parabolic relationship between profit and density with optimal final density at the peak of the curve. Given reasonable assumptions about production costs, the optimal final density (D opt) is 73.7 kg/m3. A sensitivity analysis shows that changes in the fixed cost have no effects on the optimal final density. However, small change in variable costs, such as feed and juvenile costs, may have substantial effect on the optimal density. PMID:23915501

Azaza, M S; Assad, A; Maghrbi, W; El-Cafsi, M

2013-11-01

289

Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic T ilapia zillii and native O reochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai , Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detritus, blue green algae, diatoms, green algae, Ceratium, Euglena,and Phacus constituted foods of plant origin, whereas chironomid larvae, Copepoda, Cladocera,Rotifera, Nematoda, fish eggs, and fish scales constituted foods of animal origin. Foods of the latter type such as Ephemeroptera and mollusks were also noted in the diet of adult T. zillii.Despite the extensive overlap in food habits of the two species, however, the food items were found in the diet of the species with different average percentage frequencies of occurrence. The level of gonad maturation and gonadosomatic index (GSI values showed that in Lake Zwai breeding was year-round for both T. zillii and O. niloticus, with a peak during April-September and February-August respectively, indicating extended breeding season overlap in reproduction. The two species were always found together in the catches from the sampling sites, which indicated some niche overlap between them.

Padanillay C. Prabu

2008-05-01

290

Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish La exótica tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) es la especie mayormente capturada en la pesquería artesanal del embalse de Barra Bonita, sudeste de Brasil, de gran importancia socioeconómica para la región y para una población de unos 500 pescadores. El estudio analizo: la reproducción, la diná [...] mica alimentaria y la explotación de O. niloticus, la cual fue capturada en la pesquería del embalse de Barra Bonita. Asimismo, se tomaron muestras mensuales y se analizo un total de 1 715 animales desde julio-2004 a junio-2005. De cada espécimen, se obtuvieron los siguientes datos biológicos y biométricos: longitud estándar (cm), peso total (g), datos reproductivos (sexo y estadio de maduración), contenido estomacal (vacio, parcialmente lleno y lleno). Estos datos fueron utilizados para estimar la proporción de sexo (a través de la observación macroscópica de las gónadas), el periodo reproductivo (a través de la distribución de la frecuencia de los estadios macroscópicos del desarrollo de los ovarios), y la media de la proporción del índice gonadosomático IGS de hembras, así como los hábitos alimentarios (a través de la observación del contenido estomacal). Para verificar las posibles relaciones entre los factores abióticos y el periodo reproductivo fue aplicada la correlación de Spearman. El software FiSAT (ELEFAN I) fue utilizado para evaluar los parámetros de crecimiento, tasa de mortalidad e inferir el grado de explotación, en donde se usaron los datos de frecuencia de longitud estándar. La población de O. niloticus presento una proporción de sexo 1.3:1 (M:H). Los resultados indicaron que hembras fueron muestreadas durante todo el ano, pero ha sido más frecuente en el invierno-2004-59.0% (temperatura media=20.05°C) y primavera-2004-60.5% (temperatura media=21.18°C). Los valores medios del IGS fueron: invierno-2004=1.71, primavera- 2004=1.72, verano-2005=0.80 y otoño-2005=1.19. La correlación de Spearman fue positiva para pH, oxigeno disuelto, conductividad eléctrica, transparencia y clorofila a, y negativo para temperatura, pluviosidad acumulada y variación del nivel del agua en el embalse. Los principales ítems de alimentación fueron fitoplancton y algas perifiticas observadas en 99.6% de los estómagos analizados. Los parámetros estimados del crecimiento y mortalidad fueron los siguientes: L?=33.60cm, k=0.63/año, longevidad= 4.76 años, Z= 2.81/año, M=1.20/año y F=1.61año. La relación peso-longitud fue Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. Los valores de producción por reclutamiento estimado fueron=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 y E0.5=0.349. Estos resultados indican que la población de O. niloticus está bien establecida en el embalse de Barra Bonita. Además, su reproducción ocurre durante todo el ano, pero es más intensa en el invierno y primavera; su dieta tiene como base el fitoplancton. Los resultados indican que no está ocurriendo sobrepesca de O. niloticus, por tanto, recomendamos que, debido a su naturaleza exótica, no se tomen restricciones a la hora de su pesca. Abstract in english Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In [...] the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm), total weight (g), reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation), and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full). We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads), reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal av

José Luis, Costa Novaes; Edmir Daniel, Carvalho.

2012-06-01

291

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantity and composition of the bacterial microbiota in the rearing water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus collected every 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 120 after stocking for grow-out culture in 6 earthen brackish water ponds in the Philippines were examined. The total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts obtained in the water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1), 10(3)-10(5), 10(5)-10(7) and 10(4)-10(7) c.f.u. g(-1), respectively. In terms of composition, a total of 20 bacterial genera and 31 species were identified with the preponderance of gram-negative bacteria constituting 84 % of all bacterial isolates examined. Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Vibrio cholerae were the dominant bacteria identified in the gills and intestine of tilapia. These bacteria also dominated in the pond sediment and rearing water, except for the nil isolation of S. putrefaciens and V. cholerae in the water samples examined, indicating that resident bacteria in the pond water and sediment congruently typify the composition of bacterial microbiota in the gills and intestine of tilapia which under stressful conditions may propel the ascendance of disease epizootics. PMID:25555375

Pakingking, Rolando; Palma, Peter; Usero, Roselyn

2015-02-01

292

Criopreservação do sêmen de tilápia-nilótica Oreochromis niloticus, var. Chitralada: crioprotetores, soluções ativadoras e refrigerador criogênico  

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Full Text Available Realizaram-se experimentos relativos a crioprotetores, diluentes e soluções ativadoras pós-descongelamento com o sêmen de tilápia-nilótica Oreochromis niloticus, var. Chitralada. Utilizaram-se soluções crioprotetoras contendo DMSO ou metanol, em várias concentrações. O sêmen diluído na solução crioprotetora foi envazado em palhetas de 0,5 mL, congelado em botijão de vapor de nitrogênio líquido e, então, armazenado em nitrogênio líquido. A motilidade espermática do sêmen descongelado foi avaliada em soluções ativadoras de NaHCO3 119mM, NaCl 25 mM e água destilada. As taxas de motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento obtidas com sêmen criopreservado com metanol (concentração final = 7,5-12 % foram de 31-46% e quando o crioprotetor utilizado foi o DMSO (concentração final = 5-8%, de 20-35%. Em ambas as condições, o sêmen foi ativado com solução de NaHCO3 119mM. A diluição do sêmen em diferentes proporções (1:1 a 1:4; sêmen: diluente não produziu diferenças significativas nas taxas de motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento.

Godinho Hugo Pereira

2003-01-01

293

Changes in the quality of fishburger produced from Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) during frozen storage (-18 degrees C)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, the chemical and sensory qualities of fishburger produced from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated during frozen storage (-18 degreesC) over 8 months. The ratios of crude protein, lipid, moisture, crude ash, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in tilapiaburger were found to be 17.82%, 5.29%, 66.68%, 2.56% and 7.95% respectively. At the end of the study, the total volatile basic nitrogen value was found to have fluctuated throughout the storage periods. The highest thiobarbituric acid value was found at the 7th month as 0.142 mg malonaldehyde/kg. The peroxide value was 0.18 meq/kg at the beginning of the storage but increased to 5.03 meq/kg at 6th month of storage and then decreased to 0.82 meq/kg at the 8th month. The level of free fatty acids was 2.73% oleic acid at the beginning but reached 4.14% in the first month of storage and then increased to 5.92% at the end of the storage. pH values ranged between 8.01 and 7.97. At the end of the storage period, sensory quality criteria were scored as quite near those of the fresh samples.

Tokur, B.; Polat, A.

2004-01-01

294

Shelf life of air and modified atmosphere-packaged fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets stored under chilled and superchilled conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal packaging and storage conditions for fresh tilapia fillets were established by evaluating sensory and microbiological changes, as well as monitoring physicochemical properties. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in recirculation aquaculture system was filleted, deskinned, and packaged in air and 50% CO2/50% N2 prior to chilling and superchilling storage at 1°C and ?1°C. Sensory analysis of cooked samples revealed a shelf life of 13–15 days for air-packaged fillets during storage at 1°C and 20 days at ?1°C. At the end of shelf life in air-packaged fillets, total viable counts (TVC) and pseudomonads counts reached log 8 colony-forming units (CFU) g?1. In 50% CO2/50% N2-packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria were extended and recorded counts were below the limit for consumption (indicator of tilapia fillets quality and a major factor in influencing retail purchase decisions. In view of that, air packaged at ?1°C storage temperature was the optimal condition for fresh tilapia fillets. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and trimethylamine (TMA) were not good indicators of spoilage of tilapia fillets in this study. PMID:24804022

Cyprian, Odoli; Lauzon, Hélène L; Jóhannsson, Ragnar; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Arason, Sigurjón; Martinsdóttir, Emilía

2013-01-01

295

Molecular Characterization and Expression of Lck in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) plays a critical role in effective signal transductions that are fundamental to T cell differentiation, proliferation, and effector functions. In this paper, the Lck gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-Lck), was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed important structural characteristics required for T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-Lck, and the deduced genomic structure of On-Lck was similar to the known Lck. In healthy Nile tilapia, the On-Lck transcripts were mainly detected in the thymus, spleen, head kidney, and gill. When immunized with inactivated S. agalactiae, the On-Lck mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in the thymus, spleen, and head kidney. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-Lck after immunization, and the expression reached the highest level at 48 h in the spleen and thymus and at 72 h in the head kidney, respectively. This is the first report on the expression of Lck induced by intracellular bacteria vaccination in teleosts. These findings indicated that On-Lck may play an important role in the immune response to intracellular bacteria in Nile tilapia. PMID:25492689

Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Lu, Yishan; Zhu, Weiwei; Huang, Yu; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe

2015-03-01

296

Identification of conserved microRNAs and their target genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by bioinformatic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation of target genes. miRNAs are involved in multiple biological processes by degrading targeted mRNAs or repressing mRNA translation in various organisms. Their conserved nature in various organisms makes them a good source of new miRNA discovery using comparative genomic approaches. In the present study, conserved Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) miRNAs were identified using a bioinformatic strategy based on expressed sequence tag and genome survey sequence databases. A total of 21 new miRNAs were detected and were found to belong to 17 families. Using mature miRNA sequences as queries, potential targets for tilapia miRNAs were predicted using a local BLAST program and the miRanda software. Target proteins identified using miRanda and BLAST analyses included transcription factors and molecules important in metabolism, transportation, immunity, stress-related activity, growth, and development. These miRNAs and their targets in tilapia may increase the understanding of the role of miRNAs in regulating the growth and development of tilapia. PMID:25867427

Li, X H; Wu, J S; Tang, L H; Hu, D

2015-01-01

297

Molecular and functional characterization of CD59 from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

CD59, the major inhibitor of membrane attack complex, plays a crucial role in regulation of complement activation. In this paper, a CD59 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD59) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for complement-inhibitory activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD59. In healthy Nile tilapia, the On-CD59 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the brain. When immunized with inactivated S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD59 in the skin, brain, head kidney, thymus and spleen, with quite different kinetic expressions. The assays for the complement-inhibitory activity suggested that recombinant On-CD59 protein had a species-selective inhibition of complement. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-CD59 protein may possess both binding activities to PGN and LTA and inhibiting activity of S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-CD59 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. PMID:25661843

Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Yishan; Zhu, Weiwei; Tang, Jufen; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe

2015-05-01

298

The effect of water quality on the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells and gonadotropin-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present experiments investigated the effect of water quality characteristics on the condition factor, the ovarian activity, cortisol level, and the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH- and melanin stimulating hormone; MSH- and somatolactin; SL- secreting cells) and gonadotropin (GTH)-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. After 3 months of exposure to mixtures of water from different sources (Tap and Lake Manzalah waters), with high levels of minerals and heavy metals, water quality affected the number, size, and immunostaining of stress-response-immunoreactive (ir) cells and GTH-ir cells, which showed a dramatic decrease in their size. The integrated optical density (IOD) of immunoreactivity of MSH- and GTH- cells was significantly increased; however, it was significantly decreased for ACTH- and SL- cells. Also, high levels of cortisol were observed in females exposed to waters with high concentrations of minerals and heavy metals. In parallel, low values of gonadosomatic index (GSI%) and the ovarian histology revealed a decrease of maturing follicles concomitant with an increase of atretic follicles in females exposed to Lake Manzalah polluted water. Taken together, the increased activity of stress-response-ir pituitary cells, serum cortisol level and ovarian atretic follicles in response to elevated concentrations of minerals and heavy metals, supports the possible role of ACTH, MSH, and SL in the adaptive stress response of fish. Therefore, minerals and heavy metals must be considered when discussing tilapia aquaculture status. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 146-159, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25675939

Mousa, Mostafa A; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Hashem, Amal M; Khalil, Noha A

2015-03-01

299

Effect of flaxseed oil in diet on fatty acid composition in the liver of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Efecto de la dieta com aceite de linaza sobre la composición de ácidos grasos en el hígado del tilapia de Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Este estudio analiza los efectos de diversas concentraciones del aceite de linaza (AL) en la composición centesimal y el contenido del ácido alfa-linolenico (LNA, 1 [...] 8:3 n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3), y (DHA, 22:6 n-3), los ácidos grasos docosahexaenoic en el hígado del tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) criada em cautiverio. Durante un período de cinco meses, a las tilapias le fueron administradas dietas con concentraciones crecientes de AL (0,00%; 1,25%; 2,50%; 3,75%, y 5,00%) como reemplazo del aceite de girasol (control). No se encontró diferencia significativa en el contenido de humedad y de ceniza en el hígado entre los tratamientos. Los valores de la proteina variaron entre 12,1% (tratamiento II) y (al tratamiento 13,9% V) y los lípidos totales entre el 5,6% (tratamiento V) y 7,2% (tratamiento II). No se encontró diferencia significativa entre la mayoría de los tratamientos. Los ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos (FAMEs) fueron analizados cuantitativamente por cromatografía de gas capilar contra la CA. 23:0 estándares internos. Las variaciones en concentraciones (en mg g-1 de lípidos totales) de ácidos grasos entre el tratamiento I y el tratamiento V variaron entre 4,2 y 51,2 (LNA), 0,2 y 2,3 (EPA), y 10,6 a 56,2 (DHA), respectivamente. Esto experimento demostró que cantidades crecientes de LNA en la alimentación puede aumentar significativamente las cantidades de LNA, de EPA, y de DHA en el hígado de la tilapia del Nilo Abstract in english This study analyzed the effects of different concentrations of flaxseed oil (FO) on the proximate composition and the contents of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-3) fatty acids in the liver of cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis ni [...] loticus). During the fivemonth culture period, tilapias were given diets with incremental concentrations of FO (0.00%; 1.25%; 2.50%; 3.75%, and 5.00%) as a replacement of sunflower oil (control). There was no significant difference in moisture and ash content in the liver between treatments. Protein values ranged from 12.1% (treatment II) to 13.9% (treatment V) and total lipids ranged from 5.6% (treatment V) to 7.2% (treatment II). There was no significant difference between most treatments. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were quantitatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography against a C23:0 internal standard. Variations in concentrations (in mg g-1 of total lipids) of fatty acids between treatment I and treatment V ranged from 4.2 to 51.2 (LNA), from 0.2 to 2.3 (EPA), and from 10.6 to 56.2 (DHA), respectively. This experiment demonstrated that increasing amounts of LNA in feed may markedly increase the amounts of LNA, EPA, and DHA in the liver of Nile tilapia

Ana Carolina, Aguiar; Damila, Rodrigues Morais; Leandra, Pereira Santos; Flavia, Braidotti Stevanato; Jeane Eliete, Laguila Visentainer; Nilson, Evelázio de Souza; Jesuí, Vergilio Visentainer.

2007-09-01

300

Efeito da lavagem e da adição de aditivos sobre a estabilidade de carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) durante estocagem a -18 ºC / Effect of washing and increase of additives on minced stability of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during storage under -18 ºC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da lavagem e da adição de eritorbato de sódio e tripolifosfato de sódio na estabilidade de Carne Mecanicamente Separada (CMS) de tilápia de Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) durante 6 meses de armazenamento a -18 ºC. A CMS obtida por meio de máquina sep [...] aradora de carne e ossos foi dividida em quatro tratamentos (CMS lavada com e sem aditivos, e CMS não lavada com e sem aditivos) e mantida sob congelamento a -18 ºC, por 180 dias. A estabilidade foi avaliada por meio de análises microbiológicas e determinações de nitrogênio não proteico (NNP), bases nitrogenadas voláteis (BNV), substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), pH e drip (perda de água no descongelamento). O processo de lavagem causou redução de aproximadamente 41, 44 e 66% nos teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas, respectivamente, reduzindo também os valores iniciais de NNP, BNV e TBARS. Durante o armazenamento, foram observados aumentos (p 0,05) os teores de TBARS. Os parâmetros microbiológicos avaliados não ultrapassaram os limites permitidos pela legislação. As CMS permaneceram estáveis e em boas condições de utilização, independentemente da inclusão de aditivo, sendo viável sua estocagem a -18 ºC por 180 dias. Abstract in english This study evaluates the influence of washing and adding sodium erythorbate and sodium tripolyphosphate on the stability of minced Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during 6 months of storage under -18 ºC. The minced fish was obtained using a meat bone separator and was divided into four treatmen [...] ts (washed minced fish with or without additives and non-washed minced fish with or without additives) and kept at -18 ºC for 180 days. The stability of the minced fish was evaluated by microbiological analyses and the following parameters non-proteic nitrogen (NNP), total nitrogen volatile bases (BNV), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), pH, and Drip (loss of water in thaw process) were evaluated. The washing process caused a reduction of approximately 41, 44, and 66% in total protein, lipid, and ash values, respectively reducing also the initial values of NNP, BNV, and TBARS. During the storage, an increase (p > 0,05) was observed in the NNP, BNV, and pH values for all treatments, except for the non-washed minced with additives which did not show statistic increase in the NNP and pH values. The use of additives in the minced fish caused a decrease of the drip during the storage, but it did not affect (p > 0,05) the TBARS values. Microbiological parameters do not exceed the values allowed by the legislation. the minced fish was maintained at stable and good conditions for use regardless of the addition of additives, so it can be stored for up 180 days at -18 ºC.

Peter Gaberz, Kirschnik; Elisabete Maria, Macedo-viegas.

2009-03-01

301

Shaping of the lower jaw bone during growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and a Lake Victoria cichlid Haplochromis chilotes: a geometric morphometric approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

East African cichlids have evolved feeding apparatus morphologies to adapt to diverse feeding environments. However, little is known about how the morphologies are formed during development. Here, we assessed the shape changes of the lower jaw bone during growth of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and a Lake Victoria cichlid Haplochromis chilotes using geometric morphometric methods. 'Early Juvenile to Late Juvenile' and 'Late Juvenile to Adult' transitions of the shape change during growth of both O. niloticus and H. chilotes were detected. The 'Early Juvenile to Late Juvenile' transition of the shape change in H. chilotes occurred slightly earlier than in O. niloticus. We also compared the shape changes during growth of the two cichlids. Principal component analysis showed both commonalities and differences in the morphological changes between the cichlids. Our data suggest that most shape change may have a similar pattern during the growth of O. niloticus and H. chilotes, and that the differences in adult shapes may be due to differences arising early in development, not to the difference of shape change during growth. These data provide a basis for understanding the developmental mechanisms underlying this adaptive trait of East African cichlids. PMID:18707606

Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro

2008-10-01

302

Influência das dietas contendo diferentes óleos vegetais na performance e perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v28i2.1169 Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the performance and fatty acid profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v28i2.1169  

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Full Text Available Foram examinados o perfil de ácidos graxos nas carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes óleos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os resultados indicaram que o ácido palmítico (16:0, esteárico (18:0, oléico (18:1n 9, linoleico (18;2n 6 e linolênico (18:3n 3 foram os ácidos predominantes em todas as frações analisadas (no óleo vegetal, dietas e carcaças dos peixes. O óleo de linhaça apresentou o maior valor de ácido linolênico (45,63%, quanto aos outros óleos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os óleos vegetais não afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relação a qualidade nutricional o uso do óleo de linhaça é recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilápiaThe fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0, oleic (18:1 n 9, linoleic (18:2 n 6, and linolenic (18:3 n 3 acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%, while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended

Sandra Terezinha Marques Gomes

2006-03-01

303

Effects of stocking density on production and economics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in periphyton-based systems  

OpenAIRE

The present research investigated the effect of stocking density on pond (75 m2, depth 1.2 m) production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stocked at a fixed 3:1 tilapia:prawn ratio. Three stocking densities were tried in triplicate: 20 000 ha¿1 (treatment TP-20), 30 000 ha¿1 (TP-30) and 40 000 ha¿1 (TP-40). The ponds were provided with bamboo as substrate for periphyton development. Bamboo poles (mean diameter 5.5 cm and 5.0 poles m¿...

Uddin, S.; Rahman, S. M. S.; Azim, M. E.; Wahab, M. A.; Verdegem, M. C. J.; Verreth, J. A. J.

2007-01-01

304

Haematological Assessment of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Portland Cement Powder in Solution  

OpenAIRE

The effects of sub lethal concentrations of Portland cement powder in solution on some haematological parameters of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.)) mean weight 8.20 0.25 g was investigated using static bioassay system for 70 days. The sub lethal concentrations used were 19.60, 9.80, 4.90, 2.45, 1.23 and 0.00 (control) mg L-1. There were significant differences (p0.05) in both test tanks and the control. Haematological parameters examined include: Pack Cell Volume (PCV), H...

Audu Bala Sambo; Adamu Kabir Mohammed

2008-01-01

305

Effect of Orally-Administered 17a-Methyltestosterone at Different Doses on the Sex Reversal of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linneaus 1758)  

OpenAIRE

In order to obtain all male population, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) larvae which just finished the yolk sac were fed with feed containing 17a-Methyltestosterone at five different doses (0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mgMT kg-1 feed) for 28 days. As a result of the experiment repeated twice, it was found out that the sex reversal rates among the groups were at the levels of 57.1, 69.8, 69.4, 70.9, 86.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the highest sex reversal r...

Pinar Celik; Yusuf Guner; Ihsan Celik

2011-01-01

306

Distribution of trace elements in muscle and organs of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, from lakes Awassa and Ziway, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Samples of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were collected from Lakes Awassa and Ziway during December 2002–March 2003. The moisture content of freeze-dried organs (muscle, bone, gill and liver) collected from six sites ranged between 76.0 and 80.7% (m/m). An optimal procedure required 12 mL of tertiary mixture consisting of HNO3, HClO4, and H2O2 to mineralize powdered samples in open refluxed digestion vessels: 1.0 g bone or muscle, 0.5 g gill or liver. The concentrations of 8 elements in m...

Taddese Wondimu; Aweke Kebede

2004-01-01

307

Composição físico-química, microbiológica e rendimento do filé de tilápia tailandesa (Oreochromis niloticus Physicochemical and microbiological composition and yield of thai-style tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram determinados o rendimento do filé e a composição físico-química da tilápia quanto ao teor de umidade, proteína, cinza, lipídeos e atividade de água. Para as análises, foram utilizados 19 exemplares de tilápia com peso médio e comprimento de 989,6 g e 38,9 cm, respectivamente. Os peixes foram pesados, medidos (comprimento, largura e espessura e após a filetagem calculou-se o rendimento. Foi realizada a determinação da composição físico-química, que apresentou teores de: 77,13% de umidade; 2,60% lipídios; 19,30% proteína; 1,09% cinza; e atividade de água de 0,983. As relações de peso filé/peixe e peixe/resíduo apresentaram boas correlações lineares. Foi realizada também a análise microbiológica do peixe in natura; a matéria-prima estava dentro dos limites exigidos pela legislação brasileira, portanto apta para o processamento e/ou consumo.The fillet yield of Thai-style tilapia and its physicochemical composition, including moisture content, protein, ash lipids and water activity, were determined. The analysis involved 19 specimens of tilapia with average weight and length of 989.6 g and 38.9 cm, respectively. The fish were weighed, measured (length, width and thickness, filleted, and the yield was calculated. The chemical composition presented the following contents: 77.13% moisture, 2.60% lipids, 19.30% protein, 1.09% ash, and 0.983 water activity. The fillet/fish to fish/residue weight ratios presented good linear correlations. The raw fish was also subjected to a microbiological analysis, which indicated that it met the safety limits established by Brazilian legislation and was therefore safe for processing and consumption.

Marcia Regina Simões

2007-09-01

308

Feminilização de larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) a partir de banhos de imersão com valerato-de-estradiol / Feminization of larvae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) by immersion baths with estradiol valerate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Determinou-se o período ontogênico de maior sensibilidade das larvas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) aos tratamentos de feminilização, por banhos de imersão de 36 horas, em solução contendo 2,0 mg de valerato-de-estradiol (VE).L-1. O experimento foi realizado em duas fases - a primeira c [...] om tratamentos hormonais e a segunda na fase de alevinagem. Foram utilizadas 1.200 larvas, provenientes de um mesmo lote de reprodutores, distribuídas em 24 recipientes plásticos de volume útil de 0,5 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Considerou-se a unidade experimental um recipiente plástico contendo 0,5 L de solução hormonal e 50 larvas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se no banho de imersão das larvas em diferentes fases ontogênicas, correspondentes a 175,2 UTAs (dias-grau) ou 6,5 DPE (dias após a eclosão); 217,2 UTAs ou 8 DPE; 273,2 UTAs ou 10 DPE; 329,0 UTAs ou 12 DPE; 383,9 UTAs ou 14 DPE; e 438,1 UTAs ou 16 DPE. Após os tratamentos, as larvas foram cultivadas até atingirem comprimento-padrão de 25,0 mm, para posterior avaliação dos resultados. Os resultados de feminilização foram melhores para larvas mais jovens (6,5 DPE ou 175,2 UTAs), produzindo 39,20% de fêmeas, o que demonstra relação linear negativa entre o período ontogênico e a taxa de feminilização. Os índices de comprimento e peso final médio, fator de condição e sobrevivência não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O período ontogênico mais adequado para a reversão sexual com VE correspondeu àquele em que as larvas apresentaram 175,2 UTAs ou 6,5 DPE, o que produziu 39,20% de fêmeas. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out to in two steps (the first was hormonal treatments and the other the larvae grow up phase) to determine the best ontogenic periods for larvae of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) regarding the feminization hormonal treatments by immersion baths during 36 hours wi [...] th a 2.0 mg solution of estradiol valerate17 (VE).L-1. One thousand and two hundred larvae of Nile tilapia, from the same reproduction bunch were used. Larvae were allotted to 24 0.5 L plastic containers in a completely randomized experimental design with six treatments and four replicates. An experimental unit consisted of a 0.5L plastic container with hormonal solution and 50 larvae. Treatments comprised immersion of larvae at different ontogenic phases, or rather, 175.2 UTA (days - degrees) or 6.5 DAE (days after eclosion); 217.2 UTA or 8 DAE; 273.2. UTA or 10 DAE; 329.0 UTA or 12 DAE; 383.9 UTA or 14 DAE; and 438.1 UTA or 16 DAE. After treatments, the larvae were cultivated until they reached a standard length of 25 mm and thus their results could be estimated. Feminization results were best for younger larvae, with 6.5 DAE or 175.2 UTA, with 39.20% females. Results also suggested a negative linear relationship between the ontogenic period and feminization rates. There was no difference in treatments regarding indexes of average final length and weight, final condition factor and mortality. It was concluded that 175.2 UTA or 6.5 DAE is the best period for sexual reversion with EV, with 39.20% females.

Robie Allan, Bombardelli; Carmino, Hayashi.

2005-04-01

309

Feminilização de larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. a partir de banhos de imersão com valerato-de-estradiol Feminization of larvae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. by immersion baths with estradiol valerate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determinou-se o período ontogênico de maior sensibilidade das larvas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus aos tratamentos de feminilização, por banhos de imersão de 36 horas, em solução contendo 2,0 mg de valerato-de-estradiol (VE.L-1. O experimento foi realizado em duas fases - a primeira com tratamentos hormonais e a segunda na fase de alevinagem. Foram utilizadas 1.200 larvas, provenientes de um mesmo lote de reprodutores, distribuídas em 24 recipientes plásticos de volume útil de 0,5 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Considerou-se a unidade experimental um recipiente plástico contendo 0,5 L de solução hormonal e 50 larvas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se no banho de imersão das larvas em diferentes fases ontogênicas, correspondentes a 175,2 UTAs (dias-grau ou 6,5 DPE (dias após a eclosão; 217,2 UTAs ou 8 DPE; 273,2 UTAs ou 10 DPE; 329,0 UTAs ou 12 DPE; 383,9 UTAs ou 14 DPE; e 438,1 UTAs ou 16 DPE. Após os tratamentos, as larvas foram cultivadas até atingirem comprimento-padrão de 25,0 mm, para posterior avaliação dos resultados. Os resultados de feminilização foram melhores para larvas mais jovens (6,5 DPE ou 175,2 UTAs, produzindo 39,20% de fêmeas, o que demonstra relação linear negativa entre o período ontogênico e a taxa de feminilização. Os índices de comprimento e peso final médio, fator de condição e sobrevivência não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O período ontogênico mais adequado para a reversão sexual com VE correspondeu àquele em que as larvas apresentaram 175,2 UTAs ou 6,5 DPE, o que produziu 39,20% de fêmeas.An experiment was carried out to in two steps (the first was hormonal treatments and the other the larvae grow up phase to determine the best ontogenic periods for larvae of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus regarding the feminization hormonal treatments by immersion baths during 36 hours with a 2.0 mg solution of estradiol valerate17 (VE.L-1. One thousand and two hundred larvae of Nile tilapia, from the same reproduction bunch were used. Larvae were allotted to 24 0.5 L plastic containers in a completely randomized experimental design with six treatments and four replicates. An experimental unit consisted of a 0.5L plastic container with hormonal solution and 50 larvae. Treatments comprised immersion of larvae at different ontogenic phases, or rather, 175.2 UTA (days - degrees or 6.5 DAE (days after eclosion; 217.2 UTA or 8 DAE; 273.2. UTA or 10 DAE; 329.0 UTA or 12 DAE; 383.9 UTA or 14 DAE; and 438.1 UTA or 16 DAE. After treatments, the larvae were cultivated until they reached a standard length of 25 mm and thus their results could be estimated. Feminization results were best for younger larvae, with 6.5 DAE or 175.2 UTA, with 39.20% females. Results also suggested a negative linear relationship between the ontogenic period and feminization rates. There was no difference in treatments regarding indexes of average final length and weight, final condition factor and mortality. It was concluded that 175.2 UTA or 6.5 DAE is the best period for sexual reversion with EV, with 39.20% females.

Robie Allan Bombardelli

2005-04-01

310

Determinación y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp. , en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivada en Campeche, México / Determination and prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. , in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp. , en granjas de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) en el Municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Materiales y métodos. La colecta de organismos se realizó en tres granjas de cultivo de tilapia nilótica del municipio de Cha [...] mpotón, Campeche, México. Los organismos se examinaron externa e internamente y se tomó una muestra de riñón la cual fue sembrada en forma de estría en medios de cultivo: Löwesntein-Jensen, TCBS, KF y en TSA; las placas fueron incubadas a 35°C de 24 a 48 horas, los órganos fueron fijados en formalina tamponada al 10% para ser procesados para histología de rutina para análisis posteriores. Asimismo, muestras de cultivo bacteriológico y de tejido fueron teñidas con la técnica de Ziel-Neelsen con el fin de observar la presencia de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la presencia de Mycobacterium spp. , es constante y en alta prevalencia y puede ser un factor que este mermando la rentabilidad del cultivo. Conclusiones. La presencia de Mycobacterium spp. , representa un riesgo para el cultivo de tilapia en el municipio de Champotón, por ser una enfermedad muy persistente y difícil de erradicar una vez ocurrido e brote de infección, por lo cual es importante llevar estudios más detallados de la presencia de este género bacteriano, así como, medidas de prevención y dispersión de este patógeno en los cultivos adyacentes. Abstract in english Objective. Determine the presence and prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. , at tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farms in the municipality of Champotón, Campeche, Mexico. Materials and methods. The collection of organisms was conducted in three farms of Nile tilapia at Champotón township, Campeche, Mexic [...] o. The organisms were examined externally and internally and a kidney sample was inoculated in different growth media: Löwestein-Jensen, TCBS, KF and TSA. The plates were incubated at 35°C for 24 to 48 hours, the organs were fixed in 10% buffered formalin to be processed for routine histology for further analysis. Likewise, bacterial culture samples and tissue were stained through the Ziel-Neelsen technique to observe the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Results. The results suggest that the presence of Mycobacterium spp. , is constant and its high prevalence and could be an undermining issue in the profitability of this culture. Conclusions. The presence of Mycobacterium spp. , represents a risk for tilapia culture in the municipality of Champotón, it is a very persistent and difficult to eradicate disease once an outbreak has occurred, reason for which it is important to bring more detailed studies of the presence of this bacterial genus, as well as prevention and spread of this pathogen in adjacent cultures.

Maurilio, Lara-Flores; Sara, Balan-Zetina; Ana, Zapata; Karina, Sonda-Santos.

2013-01-01

311

Masculinização da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, utilizando diferentes rações e diferentes doses de 17 a-metiltestosterona / Masculinization of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using different diets and different doses of 17 a-methyltestosterone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar a eficiência de duas rações 1 (NUTRAVIT) e 2 (IP), ambas com 40% de proteína bruta, contendo o andrógeno sintético 17 a-metiltestosterona (MT), e analisar a dosagem mais efetiva desse hormônio na reversão sexual da Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, por [...] intermédio da análise histológica das gonadas e da sexagem dos exemplares. Foram utilizadas 9600 larvas de tilápia do Nilo, com 7 dias de vida, recebendo os seguintes tratamentos, por um período de 45 dias: A - 30 mg MT/kg de ração 1; B - 60 mg MT/kg de ração 1; C - 30 mg MT/kg ração 2; D - 60 mg MT/kg ração 2 e dois grupos controle: E e F, rações 1 e 2, respectivamente, sem hormônio. Os resultados dos testes qui-quadrado das freqüências de indivíduos machos e fêmeas analisados histológica e macroscopicamente mostram que o número de machos obtidos nos tratamentos A, B, C e D foi maior que o dos grupos controle e a dosagem de 60 mg MT/kg de ração, nas rações 1 e 2, foi mais eficiente, resultando em 98% de machos. Entre as rações, o tratamento com a ração 1 apresentou o melhor resultado, para a dosagem de 30 mg MT/ kg de ração, não havendo, pois, diferença entre rações para a dose de 60 mg MT/kg de ração. Abstract in english The objectives of the present study were to compare the efficiency of two diets: 1 (NUTRAVIT) and 2 (IP), both with 40% of crude protein, containing the synthetic androgen hormone 17 a-methyltestosterone (MT) and to analyze the most effective dose of this hormone on the sex reversal of Nile tilapia [...] Oreochromis niloticus, throughout histological analysis of the gonads and sex determination of the samples. A total of 9600 Nile tilapia fries with seven days posthatching received the following treatments, per 45 days period: A- 30 mg MT/kg diet 1; B- 60 mg MT/kg diet 1; C- 30 mg MT/kg diet 2; D- 60 mg MT/kg diet 2 and two control groups, E and F with diets 1 and 2 hormone free, respectively. The results of chi-square tests of the frequency data of males and females after the treatments and of analysis of histological and macroscopic characteristics showed that the numbers of males obtained by A, B, C and D treatments was higher than the control groups and the dose of 60 mg MT/kg of diet, as for the diets 1 and 2, was more efficient, resulting in 98% of males. Among diets, the treatment A with diet 1 was better than the treatment C with diet two, for the dose of30 mg MT/kg of diet. There was no difference among diets for the dose of 60 mg MT/kg of the diet.

Cleide Schmidt Romeiro, Mainardes-Pinto; Nelsy, Fenerich-Verani; Benedito Espírito Santo de, Campos; Alexandre Livramento da, Silva.

2000-06-01

312

Rendimento do processamento de linhagens de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em função do peso corporal Process yield of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus strains in function of body weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os rendimentos do processamento de linhagens de tilápias em função dos pesos de abate, um experimento foi conduzido no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, M.G. - Brasil. Foram utilizados 93 peixes da linhagem Chitralada e 78 da Supreme, pesando entre 150 e 790 g. Os peixes foram cultivados em dois tanques de alvenaria de 40 m², sendo alimentados com ração comercial fornecida de acordo com a biomassa e a temperatura da água. A temperatura e o oxigênio da água foram tomados diariamente, no início do dia e no final da tarde, e o pH aferido semanalmente. Com o crescimento dos animais, amostras aleatórias foram tomadas. Nas amostragens, os peixes foram abatidos após terem passado por um jejum de 24 horas e insensibilização por choque térmico. Em seguida, foram pesados e dissecados. A análise de regressão indicou que em pesos mais elevados, a linhagem Chitralada apresenta maior porcentagem de cabeça e rendimento de pele. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maior peso de carcaça, filé e resíduos, sendo mais expressivos em pesos superiores a 500 g e menor valor à maturidade para a % de vísceras. Conclui-se que as duas linhagens possuem crescimento das partes componentes proporcional ao aumento do peso corporal, e este aumento não altera o rendimento desses constituintes. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maiores rendimentos de carcaça e filé do que a Chitralada, sendo a mais indicada para a produção e comercialização de filés mais pesados.With the objective of evaluating the yield processing of tilapia strains in function of body weight, an experiment was carried out at the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G. - Brazil. A total 93 fish of the Chitralada strain and 78 of the Supreme strain, weighting between 150 and 790 g were used. The fish were cultivated in two tanks of 40 m², fed with commercial ration supplied according to the biomass and water temperature. The water temperature and oxygen were evaluated every day, at the early morning and at the late afternoon, and the pH checked weekly. During the fish growth, random samples were taken. After 24 hours of fasting, the fish were insensibilized (thermal shock, slaughtered (anoxia, weighted and dissected. The regression analysis showed that in higher weight, the Chitralada strain presented higher head percentage and skin yield. The Supreme strain presented higher carcass, fillet and residue weights, being more expressive in body weights superior to 500 g and smaller limiting value for the percentage of viscera. It was concluded that the two strains have growth of body parts proportional to the increase of the body weight, and this increase does not modify the parts yield. The Supreme strain showed more carcass and fillet yield than Chitralada, and is should be indicated for production and commercialization of heavier fillet.

Vander Bruno dos Santos

2007-04-01

313

Validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) resfriados embalados em atmosfera modificada e irradiados / Shelf life of refrigerated tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus) packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos dos processos de irradiação (com dose de 1,5kGy) e embalagem em atmosfera modificada (60% N2 e 40% CO2), aplicados isoladamente ou combinados, na extensão da validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) resfriados. Nos ex [...] perimentos, foram utilizados 120 filés separados em lotes, de acordo com o tratamento: (T1) embalagem em ar (controle), (T2) embalagem em atmosfera modificada, (T3) embalagem em ar e irradiação, (T4) embalagem em atmosfera modificada e irradiação. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas (BVT, TMA, pH, amônia e TBARS), bacteriológicas (contagem de bactérias heterotróficas, aeróbias, mesófilas e psicrotróficas) e avaliação sensorial. Os resultados consistentemente indicaram uma redução progressiva da qualidade do produto com o tempo de armazenamento, a qual foi significativamente mais rápida nas amostras controle do que naquelas submetidas aos demais tratamentos, tendo sido observada uma extensão na validade comercial dos filés embalados em atmosfera modificada e/ou irradiados de 4 dias para aproximadamente duas semanas. Abstract in english This paper investigated the effects of modified atmosphere packing (60% N2 and 40% CO2) and irradiation (with a 1.5kGy dose) either used alone or combined on the shelf life of fillets of refrigerated Nile Tilapia. A total of 120 fillets were used in the experiments in order to test four different tr [...] eatments and included samples: packed in air (control), packed in modified atmosphere, packed in air and irradiated, and finally, packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated. Regular monitoring of physicochemical parameters (TVB, pH, ammonia and TBARS), bacteriological conditions (heterotrophic aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria) and sensory acceptance were performed. The results consistently indicated an increasing deterioration of the fillets with time, however those treated with irradiation, modified atmosphere or both combined had longer shelf lives (around two weeks) in comparison with the control (4 days only).

Maria Lúcia Guerra, Monteiro; Eliane Teixeira, Mársico; Claudia Emília, Teixeira; Sérgio Borges, Mano; Carlos Adam, Conte Júnior; Helio de Carvalho, Vital.

2012-04-01

314

Fitase líquida em dieta extrusada para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus = Liquid phytase in extruded diet for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a utilização de fitase líquida sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 176 peixes com peso inicial de 45,84 ± 3,31 g, alimentados com dietas sem e com 250; 500 e 1.000 unidades de fitase (UF kg-1 da dieta, durante 62 dias. Foi utilizada dieta-controle com 3012 kcal de energia kg-1, 29% de proteína bruta e 0,23% de fósforo disponível. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de inclusão de fitase sobre o consumo, índice hepatossomático,gordura visceral, sobrevivência, retenção de cálcio nos ossos e teores de umidade, proteína bruta e cinzas na carcaça. Foi observado efeito linear crescente dos níveis de fitase sobre a retenção de fósforo e sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta e do fósforo das dietas. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de suplementação de fitase sobre o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, rendimento decarcaça e gordura na carcaça, em que foram estimados os valores de 350; 500; 500; 516 e 647 UF kg-1 de dieta para melhor valor destas variáveis, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a utilização 500 UF kg-1 é adequada em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo.This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of liquid phytase on the performance of juvenile Nile tilapia. It was used 176 fish (45.84 ± 3.31 g. The fish were fed diets without phytase and with 250; 500 and 1,000 phytase units (PU kg-1 of diet, during62 days. A control diet was used containing 3,012 kcal digestible energy kg-1, 29% crude protein and 0.23% available phosphorus. The fish were assigned to a randomized block design, with four treatments and four replications. No effect was observed on the levels ofdietary phytase on feed intake, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat, survival, as well as on the retention of bone calcium, carcass moisture, crude protein and ash. A linear increase was observed in phosphorus retention and on the apparent digestibility coefficients of dietary crude protein and phosphorus. A quadratic effect was observed for weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, carcass yield and carcass fat, which increased up to 350; 500; 500; 516 and 647 PU kg-1, respectively. It was concluded that the use of 500 PU kg-1 is adequate in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia.

Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva

2007-10-01

315

Growth curves of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains cultivated at different temperatures / Curvas de crescimento de linhagens de tilapias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivadas em diferentes temperaturas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o crescimento de tilápias das linhagens Vermelha, GIFT e Supreme. Os peixes foram cultivados em sistemas de recirculação em tanques de 0,5 m³ nas temperaturas de 22, 28 e 30°C. Amostras aleatórias de 20 peixes de cada linhagem (10 peixes tanque-1) foram pesadas aos 7, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dia [...] s de cultivo. O modelo exponencial (y = AeKx) e o modelo de Gompertz (y = Aexp(-Be-Kx)) foram ajustados e as estimativas dos parâmetros foram obtidas por Quadrados Mínimos Ponderados. A 22°C o crescimento das linhagens Vermelha, GIFT e Supreme e o ajuste do modelo exponencial foram semelhantes. As linhagens GIFT e Supreme apresentaram maior taxa de crescimento a 30°C quando comparadas à linhagem Vermelha. Pode-se observar influência da temperatura no peso e idade ao ponto de inflexão. A temperatura de cultivo influencia a descrição do crescimento de tilápias das linhagens Vermelha, GIFT e Supreme, alterando a idade e o peso ao ponto de inflexão, a qualidade dos ajustes dos modelos e a uniformidade dos lotes. Abstract in english Growth of Red, GIFT and Supreme Nile tilapia strains were evaluated. Fish were cultivated in indoor recirculation systems in 0.5 m³ tanks with controlled temperatures of 22, 28 and 30°C. Random samples of 20 fish from each strain (10 fish tank-1) were weighed at day 7, 30, 60, 90 and 120. Exponentia [...] l model (y=AeKx) and Gompertz model (y = Aexp(-Be-Kx)) were fitted and the estimates parameters were obtained by Weighted Least Squares. At 22°C, Red, GIFT and Supreme strain presented similar growth and fit of exponential model. GIFT and Supreme strain presented higher growth rate at 30°C of cultivation when compared to Red strain. Temperature influences weight and age at the inflection point. The temperature of cultivation influences the growth description of Red, GIFT and Supreme tilapia strains. It changes the age and weight at inflection point and the qualities of growth model fits, changing the variation of the batch.

Vander Bruno dos, Santos; Edson Assunção, Mareco; Maeli, Dal Pai Silva.

2013-09-01

316

Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. - Myrtaceae Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Myrtaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae é uma planta que ocorre no bioma Cerrado e é utilizada popularmente no tratamento de diarréias, inflamações, hiperglicemia e hipertensão. Estudos prévios revelaram atividade antimicrobiana da E. uniflora in vitro. Tendo em vista o uso popular, este trabalho objetivou avaliar as possíveis atividades celulares e teciduais sistêmicas do extrato bruto e das frações das folhas dessa planta em brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. (tilápia nilótica. Para isso, o extrato etanólico e as frações das folhas dessa planta foram administrados no peixe, por via oral, adicionadas à ração. Após um período de 24 horas, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada peixe foi dissecado, fixado em formalina neutra, desidratado, incluído em parafina e cortado. Nas análises histológicas, utilizaram-se tricômico de Masson e hematoxilina e eosina (HE. Pelas análises qualitativas na microscopia de luz, concluiu-se que o extrato etanólico bruto e as frações das folhas da E. uniflora apresentaram efeito sistêmico nas tilápias nilóticas atingindo as brânquias. As ações tóxicas como destacamento e descamação do epitélio respiratório e hiperplasia das células do epitélio interlamelar, foram mais pronunciadas nas tilápias que ingeriram maiores concentrações. Este trabalho colaborou para identificar o efeito vasodilatador dessa planta, e contribuiu para estabelecer a tilápia nilótica como sistema-modelo para testes com princípios ativos de plantas. Espera-se, com esses testes, viabilizar o uso de plantas como medicamentos para tratamentos de peixes, a manutenção da saúde de animais em cultivo intensivo e extensivo, a partir do qual se possibilite emprego alternativo aos medicamentos sintéticos.Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae is a plant found in the Cerrado biome and traditionally used in the treatment of diarrheas, inflammations, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Previous studies have revealed in vitro antimicrobial activity of E. uniflora. Considering its popular use, this study aimed to assess possible systemic cellular and tissue activities of the crude extract and the fractions from the leaves of this plant on Oreochromis niloticus L. (Nile tilapia gill. Thus, ethanol extract and fractions from the leaves of this plant were orally administered to the fish in their rations. After 24 hours, the fish were sacrificed and the second gill arch of each fish was dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Masson's trichome and hematoxylin and eosin (HE were used in the histological analyses. Qualitative analyses using a light microscope led to the conclusion that the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from E. uniflora leaves presented systemic effect on Nile tilapias, affecting the gills. Toxic actions such as respiratory epithelium detachment and lifting, and hyperplasia of interlamellar epithelial cells were more pronounced in the tilapias that ingested higher concentrations. This study helped to identify the vasodilator effect of this plant and contributed to the definition of the Nile tilapia as a model system for testing plant active principles. These tests are expected to make feasible not only the use of plants as fish medication but also the maintenance of the health of animals in intensive and extensive cultures through the possible use of alternatives to synthetic medication.

T.S. Fiuza

2011-01-01

317

Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) - Myrtaceae / Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves Myrtaceae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) é uma planta que ocorre no bioma Cerrado e é utilizada popularmente no tratamento de diarréias, inflamações, hiperglicemia e hipertensão. Estudos prévios revelaram atividade antimicrobiana da E. uniflora in vitro. Tendo em vista o uso popular, este trabalho objetivou [...] avaliar as possíveis atividades celulares e teciduais sistêmicas do extrato bruto e das frações das folhas dessa planta em brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. (tilápia nilótica). Para isso, o extrato etanólico e as frações das folhas dessa planta foram administrados no peixe, por via oral, adicionadas à ração. Após um período de 24 horas, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada peixe foi dissecado, fixado em formalina neutra, desidratado, incluído em parafina e cortado. Nas análises histológicas, utilizaram-se tricômico de Masson e hematoxilina e eosina (HE). Pelas análises qualitativas na microscopia de luz, concluiu-se que o extrato etanólico bruto e as frações das folhas da E. uniflora apresentaram efeito sistêmico nas tilápias nilóticas atingindo as brânquias. As ações tóxicas como destacamento e descamação do epitélio respiratório e hiperplasia das células do epitélio interlamelar, foram mais pronunciadas nas tilápias que ingeriram maiores concentrações. Este trabalho colaborou para identificar o efeito vasodilatador dessa planta, e contribuiu para estabelecer a tilápia nilótica como sistema-modelo para testes com princípios ativos de plantas. Espera-se, com esses testes, viabilizar o uso de plantas como medicamentos para tratamentos de peixes, a manutenção da saúde de animais em cultivo intensivo e extensivo, a partir do qual se possibilite emprego alternativo aos medicamentos sintéticos. Abstract in english Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is a plant found in the Cerrado biome and traditionally used in the treatment of diarrheas, inflammations, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Previous studies have revealed in vitro antimicrobial activity of E. uniflora. Considering its popular use, this study aimed to a [...] ssess possible systemic cellular and tissue activities of the crude extract and the fractions from the leaves of this plant on Oreochromis niloticus L. (Nile tilapia) gill. Thus, ethanol extract and fractions from the leaves of this plant were orally administered to the fish in their rations. After 24 hours, the fish were sacrificed and the second gill arch of each fish was dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Masson's trichome and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) were used in the histological analyses. Qualitative analyses using a light microscope led to the conclusion that the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from E. uniflora leaves presented systemic effect on Nile tilapias, affecting the gills. Toxic actions such as respiratory epithelium detachment and lifting, and hyperplasia of interlamellar epithelial cells were more pronounced in the tilapias that ingested higher concentrations. This study helped to identify the vasodilator effect of this plant and contributed to the definition of the Nile tilapia as a model system for testing plant active principles. These tests are expected to make feasible not only the use of plants as fish medication but also the maintenance of the health of animals in intensive and extensive cultures through the possible use of alternatives to synthetic medication.

T.S., Fiuza; P.C., Silva; J.R., Paula; L.M.F., Tresvenzol; M.E.D., Souto; S.M.T., Sabóia-Morais.

318

The sensory acceptability of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) mechanically separated meat-based spread / Aceitabilidade de patê à base de carne de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) mecanicamente separada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A carne mecanicamente separada (CMS) é uma alternativa para a diversificação de novos produtos à base de pescado e também se mostra como um destino para os resíduos da indústria de filetagem. A carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia foi utilizada, neste estudo, na formulação de patê, com o objetivo [...] de investigar a aceitabilidade desse produto pelos consumidores. Duas formulações de patê foram preparadas, com diferentes tipos de sais comerciais: sal temperado (A) e sal comum (B). Consumidores (112) avaliaram a aceitação em relação à impressão global, à espalhabilidade, à aparência e ao sabor em escala hedônica de nove pontos. A análise microbiológica da carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia e a composição química da formulação de patê de tilápia também foram determinadas. Quando a aceitação de todos os consumidores foi considerada, a impressão global, a aparência e o sabor foram significativamente (p Abstract in english Mechanically Separated Meat (MSM) is an alternative for the diversification of new fish-based products and also as a solution for the use of waste from the filleting industries. Tilapia MSM was used in this study for the formulation of a fish spread aimed at investigating its acceptability by consum [...] ers. Two spread formulations were prepared with different types of commercial salt: seasoned salt (A) and common salt (B). The consumers (112) evaluated their acceptance with respect to overall impression, spreadability, appearance and flavour acceptability on a 9-point hedonic scale. A microbiological analysis of the Tilapia MSM was also carried out and the chemical composition of the Tilapia MSM-based spread determined. When considering the acceptance of all the consumers, the overall impression, appearance and flavour were significantly (P

Daniela De Grandi Castro, Freitas; Alda Letícia da Silva Santos, Resende; Angela Aparecida Lemos, Furtado; Luana, Tashima; Henrique Muniz, Bechara.

2012-06-01

319

Dietary lipid levels impact lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and fatty acid synthetase gene expression in three tissues of adult GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary lipids on growth performance, body composition, serum parameters, and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT strain) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. We randomly assigned adult male Nile tilapia (average initial body weight = 220.00 ± 9.54 g) into six groups consisting of four replicates (20 fish per replicate). Fish in each group were hand-fed a semi-purified diets containing different lipid levels [3.3 (the control group), 28.4, 51.4, 75.4, 101.9, and 124.1 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. The results indicated that there was no obvious effect in feeding rate among all groups (P > 0.05). The highest weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio in 75.4 g kg(-1) diet group were increased by 23.31, 16.17, and 22.02 % than that of fish in the control group (P diet group. The results revealed that the optimum dietary lipid level for maximum growth performance is 76.6-87.9 g kg(-1). Increasing dietary lipid levels contributed to increased tissue and whole body lipid levels. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing dietary lipid levels. With the exception of MUFAs, the fatty acid profiles of liver and muscle were similar. Dietary lipid levels were negatively correlated with low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol content and positively with triacylglycerol and glucose contents. In the lipid-fed groups, there was a significant down-regulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in liver, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues. There was a rapid up-regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA in muscle and liver with increasing dietary lipid levels. In visceral adipose tissue, LPL mRNA was significantly down-regulated in the lipid-fed groups. Dietary lipids increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA expression levels in the three tissues. These results strongly suggested that moderate dietary lipid levels were beneficial for adult tilapia growth performance and feed efficiency. However, excessive dietary lipid levels contributed to lipid deposition. Additionally, excessive dietary lipids may induce a competition between lipolysis and lipogenesis. FAS did not have tissue-specific regulation; however, the regulation of dietary lipids on LPL expression is tissue specific. FAS was a negative feedback regulator on fat deposition, and HSL was an indicator of fat content in tilapia. PMID:25347968

Tian, Juan; Wu, Fan; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Wei; Wen, Hua

2015-02-01

320

Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6{+-}3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM{sup -2} for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07{+-}0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12{+-}0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3{+-}1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0{+-}5.2 and 33.8{+-}1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5{+-}2.5 and 1.6{+-}0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62.6{+-}9.8% compared to the survival rates of 97.0{+-}0.9% and 97.3{+-}0.8% in controls and DES treated groups, respectively. YYRR males and YYRR neofemales were produced by integrating existing YYrr males and YYrr neofemales from the Egypt-Swansea-Philippine isolate and YYRR androgenetic males from the Stirling isolate with XXRR females and XYRR males of the Stirling isolate of Egyptian strain O. niloticus. In summary, this study provides valuable information regarding the colour and sex determination mechanisms of O. niloticus. The research in this thesis also demonstrated that both YY genotype and red coloration can be combined in a single strain in order to produce all male and stable red coloured O. niloticus. (author)

Karayuecel, I

1999-05-01

321

Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6±3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM-2 for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07±0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12±0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3±1.0 days. Mean total fen ISI was 26.3±1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0±5.2 and 33.8±1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5±2.5 and 1.6±0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62.6±9.8% compared to the survival rates of 97.0±0.9% and 97.3±0.8% in controls and DES treated groups, respectively. YYRR males and YYRR neofemales were produced by integrating existing YYrr males and YYrr neofemales from the Egypt-Swansea-Philippine isolate and YYRR androgenetic males from the Stirling isolate with XXRR females and XYRR males of the Stirling isolate of Egyptian strain O. niloticus. In summary, this study provides valuable information regarding the colour and sex determination mechanisms of O. niloticus. The research in this thesis also demonstrated that both YY genotype and red coloration can be combined in a single strain in order to produce all male and stable red coloured O. niloticus. (author)

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Substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo teor de tanino em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989 Replacement of corn by sorghum silage with low and high tannin contents in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo como fonte de energia para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Foram formuladas 3 dietas práticas isocalóricas (3000kcal de energia digestível e isoprotéica (28% de proteína bruta. O farelo de milho foi substituído pela silagem de sorgo de baixo (0,44% (SSBT e alto (1,14% (SSAT teor de tanino. Os peixes (55,09 ± 0,94g foram distribuídos em tanques de fibro-cimento (1000L e alimentados com dietas experimentais até à saciedade 3 vezes ao dia, durante 67 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a conversão alimentar, eficiência protéica, índice hepato-somático, gordura visceral e taxa de sobrevivência. O ganho de peso dos peixes alimentados com SSBT foi significativamente maior que os alimentados com dietas contendo milho e SSAT. Os peixes alimentados com dietas contendo SSBT consumiram mais ração do que os peixes alimentados com a dieta com SSAT. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de 44% de silagem de sorgo nas dietas podem suportar normal crescimento nos juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, com potencial para substituir o milho.This work was carried out to evaluate the replacement of corn by sorghum silage as an energy source for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Three isocaloric (3000kcal of digestible energy and isoproteic (28% of crude protein practical diets were formulated. Corn meal was totally substituted by low (0.44% (LTSS and high (1.14% (HTSS tannin contents silage sorghum. Fish (55.09 ± 0.94g were reared in fiberglass tanks (1000L and hand-fed with experimental diets until reach they satiation, three times a day during 67 days. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat and survival ratio of fish fed with the diets were not significantly different. Weight gain of fish fed with LTSS diet was significantly higher than those fed with corn and HTSS diets. Fish fed with LTSS diet had significantly higher feed intake than fish fed with corn and HTSS diets. Results indicate that a 44% inclusion of silage sorghum in the diet can support normal growth of the juvenile Nile tilapia with the potential for substituting corn.

Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

2003-04-01

323

APPORTS RELATIFS EN NOURRITURES NATURELLE ET ARTIFICIELLE DANS L’ALIMENTATION DU TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS EN CAPTIVITE  

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Full Text Available Des études sur le rythme alimentaire, la ration alimentaire journalière et la quantité des nourritures naturelles et artificielles consommées ont été réalisées chez des populations d’alevins (6 g, de juvéniles (30 g et d’adultes (250 g d’Oreochromis niloticus. L’échantillonnage a été effectué toutes les 3 heures, sur deux cycles de 24h dans 4 bassins bétonnés (alevins et dans 8 étangs (juvéniles et adultes. Le contenu des estomacs a été analysé. Les poids frais du contenu des estomacs ont été traités par le logiciel MAXIMS pour déterminer les taux d’ingestion, d’évacuation et la ration alimentaire journalière. Les courbes de la prise de nourritures présentent deux pics montrant une activité alimentaire périodique et diurne. En dehors des périodes de nourrissage (9h et 15h, le contenu des estomacs est composé majoritairement d’aliments naturels chez les alevins et juvéniles. En revanche, chez les adultes, les nourritures apportées sont plus abondantes entre 9 h et 24 h. En dehors de cette période, le bol alimentaire est constitué presque uniquement de nourritures naturelles chez toutes les populations des poissons prélevés. Les rations alimentaires distribuées quotidiennement estimées sont de 10 % ; 6,7 % et 3,7 % du poids corporel respectivement chez les alevins, les juvéniles et les adultes. Dans ce même ordre des populations indiquées, les nourritures naturelles consommées ont été approximativement de 4 %, 2,31 % et 1 % contre 6, 4,45 et 2,7 % pour l’aliment artificiel.

BAMBA Y.

2007-07-01

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Effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

Science.gov (United States)

An 8-week feeding experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzymes activity of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing four graded supplements of genistein: 0, 30, 300, and 3 000 ?g/g. Each diet was randomly assigned in triplicate to tanks stocked with 15 juvenile tilapia (10.47±1.24 g). The results show that 30 and 300 ?g/g dietary genistein had no significant effect on growth performance of Nile tilapia, but the higher level of genistein (3 000 ?g/g) significantly depressed the final body weight and specific growth rate. There was no significant difference in survival rate, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio or whole body composition among all dietary treatments. An assay of digestive enzymes showed that the diet containing 3 000 ?g/ggenistein decreased stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, and amylase activity in the liver and intestine, while a dietary level of 300 ?g/g genistein depressed stomach protease and intestine amylase activities. However, no significant difference in stomach amylase activity was found among dietary treatments. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that a high level of dietary genistein (3 000 ?g/g, or above) would significantly reduce the growth of Nile tilapia, partly because of its inhibitory effect on the activity of major digestive enzymes. Accordingly, the detrimental effects of genistein, as found in soybean products, should not be ignored when applied as an alternative ingredient source in aquaculture.

Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

2015-01-01

325

Fibra bruta e óleo em dietas práticas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Crude fiber and oil in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de fibra bruta e de óleo de soja em rações para a tilápia do Nilo. Utilizaram-se 24 aquários circulares de 250 L, dotados de sistema individual de reabastecimento de água e aquecimento. A densidade de estocagem foi de sete peixes/aquário, totalizando 168 peixes, com peso inicial médio de 6,41±0,05 g. Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente, taxa de crescimento específico e taxa de eficiência protéica foram avaliados. Foram analisados a composição química e o rendimento de carcaça, gordura visceral e índice hepatossomático dos peixes. O experimento foi realizado segundo um esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (três níveis de fibra bruta 6,00; 9,00 e 12,00%, com e sem óleo de soja no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que a fibra interfere de forma significativa na digestibilidade aparente da dieta, com ação positiva para a proteína e negativa para a matéria seca, não interferindo na digestibilidade do extrato etéreo; que a fibra bruta não tem efeito significativo sobre o rendimento de carcaça e no depósito de gordura visceral, mas a inclusão de óleo à ração tem efeito significativo no depósito de gordura visceral; que a fibra resulta em efeito significativo na composição química da carcaça (teor de água e proteína, não tendo efeito sobre sua composição em gordura; e que a inclusão de gordura à ração diminui e eleva de forma significativa, respectivamente, o conteúdo de proteína e extrato etéreo da carcaça. Concluiu-se que, na fase de alevinagem (6,40 a 31,00g, pode-se utilizar na dieta da tilápia do Nilo até 9,00% de fibra bruta, e que a suplementação de níveis excessivos de lipídeos na dieta piora a composição da carcaça e resulta em maior depósito de gordura visceral.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different crude fiber and soybean oil levels in diets for Tilapia Nile. Twenty-four circular fishbowls of 250 liters, with an individual system of water replenishment and heating, were used. The stocking rate was of seven fishes/fishbowl, totalizing 168 fishes, with average initial weight of 6.41±0.05 g. Weight gain, apparent feed:gain ratio, specific growing rate and protein efficiency rate were evaluated. The chemical composition and carcass yield, eviscerated carcass and hepatossomatic index were also studied. A completely randomized design was used, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, being three crude fiber levels (6.00, 9.00%, and 12.00%, and two soybean oil levels (0.0 and 10.0%, with four replicates. It was verified that it is possible to use, in the diet, levels up to 12.00% of crude fiber and its excess tends to decrease the weight gain and the protein efficiency rate, besides worsening the feed:gain ratio; the fiber significantly affect the dietary apparent digestibility, with positive and negative effect on the protein and dry matter digestibility, respectively, and without effect on the ether extract digestibility; the crude fiber did not significantly affect the carcass yield and the eviscerated fat deposition. However, the oil addition to the diet showed significant effect on the eviscerated fat deposition; the fiber resulted in significant effect on the carcass chemical composition of the carcass (water and protein contents, without effect on the fat composition; and the fat addition to the diet significantly decreased and increased, respectively, the carcass protein and ether extract contents. It was concluded that, in the growing phase (from 6.40 to 31.00 g, the dietary crude fiber levels up to 9.00% can be fed for Nile tilapia and the supplementation of high dietary lipid levels decrease the carcass composition and result in higher eviscerated fat deposition.

Eduardo Arruda Teixeira Lanna

2004-12-01

326

Exigência de metionina + cistina para alevinos de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Digestible methionine + cystine requirement for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), fingerlings  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de metionina + cistina para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (2,61 ± 0,14g). Foi utilizado o modelo em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, três repetições e cinco peixes por unidade experimental. Foi utilizada ração basal contendo 28% de proteína b [...] ruta e 3173kcal ED kg-1 de ração, suplementada com DL-metionina, resultando em rações com 0,87; 0,95; 1,03; 1,11; 1,19 e 1,27% de metionina + cistina. As rações foram fornecidas à vontade durante 41 dias. Não foram observados efeitos (P>0,05) dos níveis de metionina + cistina sobre a taxa de sobrevivência e índice hepato-somático. Foi observado efeito quadrático (P Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the methionine + cystine requirement for Nile tilápia, fingerlings (2.61 ± 0.14g). A randomized block designs, with six treatments, three replicates and five fish by experimental unit was used. Basal diet was utilized with 28% crude protein and 3173DE kcal kg- [...] 1 of digestible energy, supplemented with DL-methionine, resulting in diets with 0.87; 0.95; 1.03; 1.11; 1.19 and 1.27% of methionine + cystine. Diets were fed to satiation during 41 days. No effects (P>0.05) of methionine + cystine levels on survival rate and hepatosomatic index were observed. A quadratic effect (P

Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Lilian Carolina Rosa, Silva; Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Daniele, Botaro; Carmino, Hayashi; Eduardo Shiguero, Sakaguti; Valéria Rossetto Barriviera, Furuya.

1933-19-01

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Efecto del probiótico Bacillus subtilis sobre el crecimiento y alimentación de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ) y langostino (Macrobrachium rosenbergii )en laboratorio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizaron tres experimentos para analizar el efecto del probiótico Bacillus subtilis sobre el crecimiento de juveniles de tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus)y de langostino de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ). Los experimentos se realizaron en condiciones de laboratorio, minimizando [...] de esta manera los efectos indirectos del probiótico sobre la calidad del agua y manteniendo únicamente los posibles efectos bactericidas y de apoyo a la digestión.También se diseñó un modelo de estrés en tilapia para comparar el efecto con individuos en situación normal.La dosis del probiotico en el alimento tratado en todos los casos fue de 0.1%(5x10 8 CFU/g y 99.9%maltrina)en la dieta seca.Cada 14 días se pesaron en grupo y se contaron los animales de cada acuario (tilapias ±0.1 g, langostinos ±0.001 g)obteniéndose el peso promedio individual.En el primer experimento (tilapias)el crecimiento y la utilización del alimento fueron un poco peores en relación con el factor probiótico,pero las diferencias no fueron significativas.En el segundo experimento (tilapias) tanto la tasa específica de crecimiento como el factor de conversión empeoraron con la adición de B.subtilis a la dieta;la diferencia fue significativa al 94%,apenas por debajo del 95%que se utiliza por convención estadística.El factor estrés,por el contrario,provocó un notable empeoramiento tanto del crecimiento como del factor de conversión.En el experimento con langostinos la adición de B.subtilis a la dieta provocó un ligero deterioro del crecimiento y de la utilización del alimento,con una probabilidad de error menor del 10%en el caso del crecimiento.Durante el experimento debieron prevalecer los efectos directos sobre el sistema digestivo de los animales experimentales,ya sea por aporte de macro-y micronutrientes o de enzimas que contribuyen a la digestión.El efecto negativo por la inclusión del probiótico fue pequeño (alrededor de un 10%en la tasa específica de crecimiento y en el factor de conversión alimenticia)y por ello difícil de detectar.Los informes sobre la acción benéfica de los probióticos sobre el crecimiento se han realizado generalmente en estanques o en cultivos masivos y nuestros datos no contradicen directamente una posible acción benéfica de B.subtilis en cultivos a nivel de estanques.Como el efecto sobre el sistema digestivo aparenta ser relativamente modesto,en aquellos ambientes podría ser compensado por otros efectos benéficos sobre la calidad del agua y el efecto bactericida sobre otras bacterias exógenas de naturaleza patogénica. Abstract in english Effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the growth and food utilization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus )and prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii )under laboratory conditions.Three experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the growth of juvenile tilapi [...] a (Oreochromis niloticus )and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ).The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions,minimizing the indirect effects of the probiotic on the water quality and leaving only the possible bactericidal and digestion-support effects.A model of stress was also designed in tilapia to compare the effect with tilapia under normal conditions.The dose in the food was 0.1 %of the probiotic (5x10 8 CFU/g and 99.9 %maltrine)in the dry diet.Every 14 days the animals were weighed in group (tilapias ±0.1 g,prawns ±0.001 g)to estimate average body weight.In the first experiment (tilapia)the specific growth rate (SGR)and the feed conversion ratio (FCR)were bad in relation with the factor probiotic,but the differences were not significant. In the second experiment (tilapia)both the SGR and the FCR deteriorated with the addition of B.subtilis to the diet;the difference was significant to 94%.The stress factor,on the contrary,caused a notable worsening of both the growth and the food utilization.In the experiment with prawns the addition

Jorge, Günther; Ricardo, Jiménez-Montealegre.

2004-12-01

328

Exigência de metionina + cistina para alevinos de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Digestible methionine + cystine requirement for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings  

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Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de metionina + cistina para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (2,61 ± 0,14g. Foi utilizado o modelo em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, três repetições e cinco peixes por unidade experimental. Foi utilizada ração basal contendo 28% de proteína bruta e 3173kcal ED kg-1 de ração, suplementada com DL-metionina, resultando em rações com 0,87; 0,95; 1,03; 1,11; 1,19 e 1,27% de metionina + cistina. As rações foram fornecidas à vontade durante 41 dias. Não foram observados efeitos (P>0,05 dos níveis de metionina + cistina sobre a taxa de sobrevivência e índice hepato-somático. Foi observado efeito quadrático (PThis study was carried out to determine the methionine + cystine requirement for Nile tilápia, fingerlings (2.61 ± 0.14g. A randomized block designs, with six treatments, three replicates and five fish by experimental unit was used. Basal diet was utilized with 28% crude protein and 3173DE kcal kg-1 of digestible energy, supplemented with DL-methionine, resulting in diets with 0.87; 0.95; 1.03; 1.11; 1.19 and 1.27% of methionine + cystine. Diets were fed to satiation during 41 days. No effects (P>0.05 of methionine + cystine levels on survival rate and hepatosomatic index were observed. A quadratic effect (P<0.05 for weight gain was observed, which increased up to 1.22% methionine + cystine in the diet. Feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio increased (P<0.05 up to 1.00% of methionine + cystine. A quadratic effect (P<0.05 of methionine + cystine level on carcass yield was observed, which increased up to 1.13% of methionine + cystine. The concentration of 1.00% methionine + cystine corresponding to 3.54% crude protein, in the presence of 0.54% methionine in the diet, showed the best njperformance.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya

2004-12-01

329

Aplikasi madu untuk pengarahan jenis kelamin pada ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi madu yang efektif menghasilkan ikan nila (O. niloticus kelamin jantan yang paling tinggi. Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL non faktorial digunakan dalam penelitian ini, faktor yang diuji adalah perbedaan konsentrasi madu, yaitu 0 %(kontrol, 0,05 %, 0,1 %, 0,15 % dan 0,2% ppt selama 24 jam perendaman. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan konsentrasi madu berpengaruh nyata terhiadap persentase nila jantan yang dihasilkan (P0,05. Secara umum terlihat persentase kelamin jantan meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan konsentrasi madu dalam larutan perendam. Uji lanjut menggunakan BNJ memperlihatkan bahwa persentase nila jantan tertinggi dijumpai pada konsentrasi 0,2% (81,43%±0,23, nilai ini berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa konsentrasi madu 0,2% sesuai dan efektif untuk pengarahan jenis kelamin jantan pada ikan nila.

Ayu Adhita Damayanti

2013-08-01

330

Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.162 Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.162  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nas tilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número de linfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pig manure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest values of total leukocyte count were observed in A and C from Blumenau and Ituporanga. Tilapia exposed to pig dung showed the highest number of lymphocyte in the circulating blood. Haematological values of carp did not show significant changes that were related to the environment.

Marcela Maia Yamashita

2007-11-01

331

Oxidative stress and hypermethylation induced by exposure of Oreochromis niloticus to complex environmental mixtures of river water from Cubatão do Sul, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the effects of oxidative stress and hypermethylation through lipid peroxidation and DNA methylation, respectively, in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to environmental complex mixture of water from Cubatão do Sul River throughout the year. This river is the source of drinking water for the region of Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Lipid peroxidation was quantified by the rate of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DNA methylation was quantified by the rate of 5-methyldeoxycytosine (m(5)dC) formation. In all studied sites, the river water samples caused metabolic changes in O. niloticus. MDA formation rates were significantly different when compared to the negative control (except for samples from Site 1 during spring 2010, summer 2011 and fall 2011). All samples (except Site 1, spring 2010) induced increases in the m(5)dC formation rates, and at the end of the study, the values were near the values found in the positive control (potassium dichromate 2.5mg/L). The results showed that samples of environmental complex mixtures of water from Cubatão do Sul River are capable of inducing high levels of oxidative damage and hypermethylation in O. niloticus. PMID:25638525

Fuzinatto, Cristiane Funghetto; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso; Matias, William Gerson

2015-04-01