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Cadmium Bioaccumulation and Toxicity in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the bioaccumulation of cadmium in livers of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus and to assess the histological alteration of intestine, liver and kidney tissues due to cadmium toxicity. Fish (Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to cadmium at different concentrations (5 and 10 mg L-1 for 7 days. Cadmium assayed by using AA220FS atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of cadmium in the liver tissues in the fish exposed to 10 mg L-1 was found to be (9.09±0.51 ?g g -1 dry wt. while it was 5.17±0.25 ?g g-1 dry wt. in the fish exposed to 5 mg L-1. There was a significant increase of cadmium chloride concentration in the liver tissues of the fish exposed to 10 mg L-1 compared to the those exposed to 5 mg L-1. Histological alterations on liver tissues were in the form severe fatty vacuolations, generalised necrosis of hepatocytes, fatty change, congestion of liver sinusoids and central veins. Intestines showed severe congestion of submucosal blood vessels and sloughing of mucosal epithelium. Kidneys showed severe glumerular shrinkage and necrosis, lymphocytic infiltration in the distal renal convoluted tubules. Histopathological changes were more pronounced in fish exposed to 10 mg L-1 cadmium chloride.

Maha H. Elamin

2012-01-01

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EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)  

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Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological n...

Hemanth Kumar, M.; Spandana, V.; Tiwari Poonam

2011-01-01

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EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS  

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Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological niches, mainly pond aquaculture and reservoir fisheries. Tilapia fish scales found to have more percentage of Type I collagen. Fish collagen is complex structural protein that helps to maintain the strength and flexibility of skin, ligaments, bones, joints, muscles, tendons, gums, eyes, blood vessels, nails and hair. Collagen can be obtained from fish scales, fish skins by advanced enzymatic digestion methods in biotechnology. The Protein content of the above is more than 90% and having 18 kinds of amino acids out of which 7 are essential for human consumption. These products are easily absorbable and having high biological value promoting the absorption of vitamins and minerals. The enzymatic digestion technology process releases a lot of peptides in molecular collagen that helps humans in many physiological functions. Collagen has been used in biomedical pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In this paper we have determined the collagen extracted from Tilapia fish scales and also its clinical importance.

M.Hemanth kumar

2011-10-01

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In vivo Acute Toxicity Tests of Some Heavy Metals to Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Fingerlings tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus were exposed in laboratory conditions to a range of Copper (Cu, Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb and Zinc (Zn concentrations separately and the mortality rate were registered after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50s and Median Lethal Times (LT50s values were calculated by static bioassays for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h with the 95% fiducial limits through Probit analysis. LC50 and LT50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure times and concentrations, respectively. The LC50s for 96 h for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 1093, 3751, 16177 and 1494 ?g L-1, respectively and the LT50s for maximum concentration used for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 20.25, 11.48, 20.70 and 24.66 h, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in tilapia fish increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu was the most toxic to tilapia fish, The toxicity ranking of the four heavy metals was Cu>Pb>Cd>Zn. Comparison of LC50 values for studied heavy metals for this species with those for other fishes reveals that tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus is equally or less sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested fishes.

M. Shuhaimi-Othman

2013-01-01

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Biochemical Effects of Short-term Cadmium Exposure on the Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The influences of cadmium, a well known environmental pollutant, on different biochemical parameters in fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sublethal concentration of 9.3 ppm, 0.5 of 96 h LC50, for 1, 4 and 7 days were investigated. Significant increases in the levels of blood glucose and the activities of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in the fish treated with cadmium during all experimental periods. The levels of blood triglycerides and total protein were statistically elevated at second and last periods. Insignificant alterations in the levels of blood cholesterol were noted. The observed hyperglycaemia induced by cadmium might be explained in part by increasing rate of glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis. The observed hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevations of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase may be due to liver dysfunction. The observed hyperproteinaemia in the fish, Oreochromis niloticus following cadmium administration is possibly attribute to disorder of protein metabolism. However, the significance of the toxic effects of sublethal concentration of cadmium on the various biochemical parameters studied is discussed.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2005-01-01

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Effect of an Insecticide Abamectin on Some Biochemical Characteristics of Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis Niloticus  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Presence of pesticide in streams and lakes is largely due to the runoff from agricultural fields. Pesticides are not highly selective but are generally toxic to many macrophytes, non-target organisms such as fish. Fish, generally accumulate contaminants from aquatic environments and have been largely used in food safety studies. Approach: The toxic effect of the insecticide abamectin on oxygen consumption and some biochemical characteristics (total protein, carbohydrate and cholesterol in liver, muscle, kidney and gills of the tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus were estimated. Results: The data shows that the rate of oxygen consumption was declined during all the exposure periods. On the other hand, all biochemical?s parameters were found to be decreased in all tissues on comparison with control. Conclusion: The results indicated the toxic nature of the insecticide abamectin.

Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

2011-01-01

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Effects of fish size on the response of antioxidant systems of Oreochromis niloticus following metal exposures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The size of a fish is an important factor in its physiology, and metal uptake is affected by animal physiology. In this study, small and large tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) differing approximately twofold in length and fivefold in weight were compared for their antioxidant response. Both groups were exposed to Cu or Cr (1.0 ?g/mL) in a freshwater (-80 mg CaCO3/L, conductivity 1.77 mS/cm) using 2 exposure protocols (20 ?M for 48 h and 10 ?M for 6 days). Following the exposures, the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; glutathione reductase, GR and glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the liver of fish. Results showed that small fish was affected from exposure conditions much more than large ones as their antioxidant parameters significantly decreased even in controls. Metal exposures of small fish caused significant increases in SOD and CAT activity in acute Cu or Cr exposures. Subchronic Cr exposure of small fish also caused significant increases in CAT, GPx and GST activities, while there was no significant change in Cu-exposed ones. Large fish, however, showed different antioxidant responses as their levels mostly decreased. This study demonstrated that the response of antioxidant system in the liver of tilapia varied in relation to fish sizes and emphasized using different size groups in environmental monitoring and also in evaluation of fish biomarkers. PMID:24402083

Kanak, E G; Dogan, Z; Eroglu, A; Atli, G; Canli, M

2014-08-01

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Population dynamics of Piscicola geometra (Hirudinea: Rhynchobdellida) on Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae) cultured in a rainforest fish pond, south eastern Nigeria.  

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The distribution, abundance and intensity of the annelid worm, Piscicola geometra(leeches) infecting Oreochromis niloticus cultured in a rainforest fish pond, South Eastern Nigeria was studied over a 12 months period. Three hundred fish were examined of which 48.3% were infected. Infection occurred throughout the year, with a peak in February. Female fish had a significantly higher intensity of infection(P < 0.05) than males. There was a clear seasonal periodicity in the degree of infection and the distribution of the parasite exhibited an aggregated or contagious model of dispersion. There was a significant positive correlation between the size of the fish and worm burden. PMID:12491729

Opara, K N

2002-10-01

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Seasonal effects on the nutritive value of the natural food of three omnivorous fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Citharinus citharus) in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa)  

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The chemical composition of the stomach contents and the digestibility of organic matter, proteins and energy of three planktivorous fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Citharinus citharus) were studied in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa) during the dry and wet seasons. The diet contents of O. niloticus and S. galilaeus presented high levels of organic matter and proteins during the wet season (ashfree dry weight (AFDW): 753 mg·g?1 dw and 703 mg·g?1 dw, prot...

Ble?, M. C.; Arfi, R.

2009-01-01

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Changes in Haematological Parameters of the Fish, Oreochromis niloticus Treated with Sublethal Concentration of Cadmium  

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Full Text Available The sub-chronic and chronic exposure of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to sublethal concentration of 5. 5 ppm cadmium (0. 3 of 96 h LC50 for 1, 3 and 5 weeks was studied. Exposure of Tilapia to cadmium resulted into a number of haematological alterations. Erythropenia, a marked decrease in values of haemoglobin content, haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were observed at all experimental periods of cadmium exposure. The values of mean cell volume were decreased at the second and last periods. The levels of mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration decreased significantly at first period compared to the control value.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2005-01-01

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Manganese Neurotoxicity in Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Manganese is not an acutely hazardous environmental contaminant at low levels, but increased dose produces serious degenerative disorders in Oreochromis niloticus. Sublethal exposure of fry to 2000 mg/L manganese chloride for eight days displays evidences of poisoning, and hard hit is the brain. Light microscopy shows appearance of gaps between brain layers and cell destruction. Electron microscopy shows damage to subcellular structures.

Annabelle Herrera

1992-06-01

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Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 ?g L-1 of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

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Fishborne trematodes in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and wild-caught fish from Thailand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections affect the health of more than 18 million people around the world, particularly in Asian countries. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a white meat fish that has an increasing national and international market. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of FZT metacercarial infections in Nile tilapia from cage and pond aquaculture systems and in wild-caught fish from Suphan Buri, Nakhon Pathom and Chachoengsao provinces, Thailand. Fish were collected from four cages in Suphan Buri and four ponds in Nakhon Pathom provinces between September-October 2011 and April-May 2012 and wild-caught fish were collected in May 2012. All fish were examined for metacercariae by a pepsin digestion and metacercariae identified using morphological and molecular methods. During the first sampling of tilapia the prevalence of metacercariae in cage culture fish were 2.5% and 10% in pond culture fish. During the second sampling, metacercariae was found in 2.0% of tilapia from cage and none from the ponds. Of the 150 wild-caught fish, a total of 80 (53.3%) were found to be infected with metacercariae, mostly the zoonotic species Stellantchasmus falcatus, Haplorchis pumilio and Procerovum varium. The results revealed a low risk for FZT in Nile tilapia cultured in cage and pond aquaculture systems. However, the high prevalence of FZT in wild-caught fish indicates a high potential for spillover from wild reservoir hosts and underscores the need for vigilance and good management practices by the aquaculture sector. Crown Copyright © 2013.

Wiriya, Benjamaporn; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

2013-01-01

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Effect of Lead Nitrate on the Liver of the Cichlid Fish (Oreochromis niloticus: A Light Microscope Study  

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Full Text Available The adverse impacts of heavy metals on fish liver were evident with great variability among organs and species. The present study deals with the histological changes of the hepatocytes of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to 2.5, 5, 10 ppm of lead nitrate for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. The present results revealed that lead nitrate exerts some histological effects on the hepatic tissue after exposure to the first concentration in the form of dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels, vacuolation of hepatic cells, proliferation of connective tissue and hepatic necrosis. Leucocyte aggregation-mostly lymphatic in nature-was seen infiltrating hepatic tissue. These alterations became more pronounced in liver of fishes exposed to second concentrations indicating more progressive signs of necrosis. The presence of eosinophilic oedematous areas surrounding some blood vessels was also observed. Finally, at the third concentration, in addition to the above alterations, melanomacrophages, which store lipofuscin at the site of necrosis, were observed. These histological results imply that the fish liver may serve as a target organ for the toxicity of sublethal concentrations of lead nitrate.

Abdel Salam M.I. Ohaida

2012-01-01

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Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El uso de alizarina roja S (ARS) para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamie [...] ntos: 1) Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2) Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tres estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas), sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de cultivo el resto de los ejemplares fueron analizados y se observó la permanencia de las marcas en todos los casos. En vista de lo anterior, para los propósitos de marcaje se recomienda el uso del tratamiento de inmersión por 12h y una concentración de 100mg/l. Abstract in english The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in [...] tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (p

Ana L., Ibáñez; Antonio, Rodríguez-Canto; Jasmín, Cortés-Martínez; José L., García-Calderón.

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Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El uso de alizarina roja S (ARS) para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamie [...] ntos: 1) Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2) Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tres estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas), sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de cultivo el resto de los ejemplares fueron analizados y se observó la permanencia de las marcas en todos los casos. En vista de lo anterior, para los propósitos de marcaje se recomienda el uso del tratamiento de inmersión por 12h y una concentración de 100mg/l. Abstract in english The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in [...] tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (p

Ana L., Ibáñez; Antonio, Rodríguez-Canto; Jasmín, Cortés-Martínez; José L., García-Calderón.

2013-03-01

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Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess the potential for FZT transmission in an area with high density of tilapia farms, wild-caught fish from local rivers and canals were bought at local markets. The wild-caught fish species included Hemiculter leucisculus (145), Rhodeus sinensis Gunther (10), Rasborinus lineatus (96), Squaliobarbus curriculus (6), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong Province during August-October 2011. A total of 389 tilapias sized 2.33-1450.00 g were collected from 30 farms, and examined for FZT metacercariae by the pepsin digestion method. Ten percent of the farms surveyed had fish with FZT infections. The overall FZT prevalence in fish was 1.5% and the infection intensity was 0.12 metacercaria/100 g. The infection in nursery farms was higher than that in grow-out farms (3.18 % versus 0.43 %). Our findings show a low prevalence of FZT in the farmed tilapia. Further studies are needed to assess the associated risk factors for FZT infection in particular at the nursery stage of production.

Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

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Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus From Four Selected Markets in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Concentrations of cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co were measured in various organs (such as in liver, gill and muscle of Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus which were collected from Serdang night market, Bangi night and wet markets and Kajang wet market, in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of metals was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The levels of metal varied as it depended on various tissues. Zinc was the dominant metal measured during this study. In general, results indicated that all studied heavy metals concentrations were significantly higher (p-1 dry weight (DW less than zinc in fish gill in the same market (55.72 ?g g-1 DW. The highest Cd, Pb and Co concentration in fish liver were observed in Kajang wet market which is 0.44, 0.72 and 02.86 ?g g-1 DW, respectively. Meanwhile, in fish gill, levels of Pb and Co in Serdang night market were the lowest among all sites which is 0.34 and 0.31 ?g g-1 DW, while the highest in gill from Bangi wet market which is 0.63 and 0.41 ?g g-1 DW, respectively. Cd, Zn, Pb and Co levels in fish muscle from Serdang night market were the lowest (0.02, 11.36, 0.10 and 0.25 ?g g-1 DW, respectively, whereas the lowest Ni level was noted in fish muscle from Kajang wet market (03.84 ?g g-1 DW. On the other hand, the highest Cd and Zn level were in Bangi wet market (0.03 and 16.72 ?g g-1 dw, respectively. The results obtained in this study were compared with those reported in all other areas of earlier studies. All studied heavy metals levels are below the limits for fish proposed by World Health Organization and safe within the limits for human consumption in the edible part of studied fish.

M. Shuhaimi-Othman

2012-01-01

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Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing resi...

Lia Ferraz de Arruda; Ricardo Borghesi; Aelson Brum; Arce, Marisa Regitano D.; Marília Oetterer

2006-01-01

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Partial replacement of fish meal with Azola meal in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) affects growth and whole body fatty acid composition  

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The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, as partial FM substitute. Diet A0 acted as a control. The final weight (51.0-88.3 g), the weight gain (210.8-438.3%) and the SGR (1.3-1.9%day-1) decreased when AM level higher th...

Abou, Youssouf; Adite, Alphonse; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Beckers, Yves; Emile, Fiogbe; Micha, Jean-claude

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Serranochromis thumbergi), and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and Lake Kariba, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured the level of heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, herbivorous (Oreochromis niloticus) and carnivorous (Serranochromis thumbergi) fish, and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) from Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT) and Lake Kariba. We used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the levels of seven heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni). The sediment and the herbivorous fish O. niloticus accumulated a very high concentration of Cu in Lake ITT, most likely due to the discharge of Cu waste from a mining area 450 km upstream. The aquatic species we sampled in Lake Kariba had higher concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Pb relative to those in Lake ITT. This is most likely due to anthropogenic activities, such as the use of leaded petrol and antifouling agents in marine paints. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between the coefficient of condition (K) and Ni concentration in the crayfish hepatopancreas. Both O. niloticus and the crayfish had much higher biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, and Cd relative to Cr, Co, Pb, and Ni. The rank of BSAF values for O. niloticus (Cu>Cd>Zn) and C. quadricarinatus (Zn>Cd>Cu) differed from the expected ranks based on the general order of affinity of metals (Cd>Zn>Cu). PMID:20162262

Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Oroszlany, Balazs; Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2010-08-01

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Digestibilidad aparente de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) / Apparent digestibility of fishing waste silage in red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado con tres repeticiones, se determinó la digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes y energía de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). El ensilaje químico se preparo con ácido sulfúrico 98% (20 ml/kg) y á [...] cido fórmico (10 ml/kg) y el ensilaje biológico con miel de caña (150 g/kg) y yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris y streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). Se usó oxido crómico como indicador y las heces se recolectaron por un sifón desde el fondo de los tanques. Se obtuvo que la digestibilidad aparente de algunos nutrientes difirió en función del tipo de ensilaje, entre tanto la proteína digestible fue mayor para el ensilaje químico y la materia seca, calcio y fósforo para el ensilaje biológico. Digestibilidades iguales (P>0,05) se presentó para los lípidos, cenizas y energía. Concluyendoque los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros presentan alto valor nutricional, lo que constituyen una fuente de proteína alternativa en la formulación de raciones para tilapias rojas. Abstract in english By means of a design completely randomized with three repetitions, in vivo digestibility of nutrients and energy in fishing waste silages were determined for red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). Chemical silage prepared with sulphuric acid 98 % (20 ml/kg) and formic acid (10 ml/kg) [...] and the biological with sugar cane molasses (150 g/kg) and of yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris and streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). The chromic oxide was used as inert indicator and fecal sample were recollected by siphon from the bottom of tanks. As a result, the apparent digestibility of some nutrients differed from silage type; meanwhile protein was bigger for the chemical silage and the dry matter, calcium and phosphorus for the biological silage. Similar digestibility (P>0,05) was presented for lipids, ashes and energy. In conclusion, all this showed that the fishing waste silages present high nutritional value, that constitute an alternative- protein source in the formulation of rations for red tilapias.

José E, Llanes; Aliro, Bórquez; José, Toledo; José M, Lazo de la Vega.

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Digestibilidad aparente de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) / Apparent digestibility of fishing waste silage in red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado con tres repeticiones, se determinó la digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes y energía de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). El ensilaje químico se preparo con ácido sulfúrico 98% (20 ml/kg) y á [...] cido fórmico (10 ml/kg) y el ensilaje biológico con miel de caña (150 g/kg) y yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris y streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). Se usó oxido crómico como indicador y las heces se recolectaron por un sifón desde el fondo de los tanques. Se obtuvo que la digestibilidad aparente de algunos nutrientes difirió en función del tipo de ensilaje, entre tanto la proteína digestible fue mayor para el ensilaje químico y la materia seca, calcio y fósforo para el ensilaje biológico. Digestibilidades iguales (P>0,05) se presentó para los lípidos, cenizas y energía. Concluyendoque los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros presentan alto valor nutricional, lo que constituyen una fuente de proteína alternativa en la formulación de raciones para tilapias rojas. Abstract in english By means of a design completely randomized with three repetitions, in vivo digestibility of nutrients and energy in fishing waste silages were determined for red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). Chemical silage prepared with sulphuric acid 98 % (20 ml/kg) and formic acid (10 ml/kg) [...] and the biological with sugar cane molasses (150 g/kg) and of yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris and streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). The chromic oxide was used as inert indicator and fecal sample were recollected by siphon from the bottom of tanks. As a result, the apparent digestibility of some nutrients differed from silage type; meanwhile protein was bigger for the chemical silage and the dry matter, calcium and phosphorus for the biological silage. Similar digestibility (P>0,05) was presented for lipids, ashes and energy. In conclusion, all this showed that the fishing waste silages present high nutritional value, that constitute an alternative- protein source in the formulation of rations for red tilapias.

José E, Llanes; Aliro, Bórquez; José, Toledo; José M, Lazo de la Vega.

2010-12-01

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Tissue-Specific Isoenzyme Variations in Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used to analyze malate dehydrogenase (MDH, acid phosphatase (Acph and peroxidase (Px isoenzymes in different tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and heart of the tilapia fish, Oreo- chromis niloticus in order to study the tissue specificity of these isoenzymes. Three, two and one fractions have been recorded respectively for the three isoenzymes in different studied tissues. The MDH-1 and MDH-2 have been ex- pressed only in muscle and heart while MDH-3 has been expressed in all studied tissues. The percentage amount of MDH in general varied significantly between muscle and different studied tissues. With respect to acid phosphatase, the percentage amount of the total enzyme showed significant difference between liver and muscle and that this variation may be due to higher gene activity in liver. Peroxidase isoenzyme was recorded in liver and heart only with significant increase in liver. The kidney was the least among the studied tissues in showing gene expression for the studied isoenzymes and therefore, liver, heart and muscle tissues are better applicable in studying the isoenzymatic profiles for fish physiology and systematics.

Mohammed Salem AL-Harbi

2012-12-01

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Benzo(a)pyrene induces hepatic AKR1A1 mRNA expression in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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AKR1A1 or aldehyde reductase is a member of the aldo-keto reductases superfamily that is evolutionarily conserved among species. AKR1A1 is one of the five AKRs (AKR1A1 and 1C1-1C4) implicated in the metabolic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation to reactive BaP 7,8-dione. BaP is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems and its metabolic activation is necessary to produce its toxic effects. Although the presence of AKR1A1 in fish has been reported, its tissue distribution in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and AKR1A1 inducibility by BaP are not known yet. Moreover, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression in fish has been used as a PAH biomarker of effect. Therefore, BaP effects on AKR1A1 and CYP1A gene expressions in tilapia, a species of commercial interest, were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. A partial AKR1A1 cDNA was identified, sequenced and compared with AKR1A1 reported sequences in the GenBank DNA database. Constitutive AKR1A1 mRNA expression was detected mainly in liver, similarly to that of CYP1A. BaP exposure resulted in statistically significant AKR1A1 and CYP1A mRNA induction in liver (20- and 120-fold, respectively) at 24 h. On the other hand, ethoxyquin (EQ) was used as control inducer for AKR1A1 mRNA. Interestingly, EQ also induced CYP1A mRNA levels in tilapia liver. Our results suggest that teleost AKR1A1, in addition to CYP1A, are inducible by BaP. The mechanism of AKR1A1 induction by BaP and its role in fish susceptibility to BaP toxic effects remains to be elucidated. PMID:22394341

Osorio-Yáñez, Citlalli; García-Tavera, José Luis; Pérez-Núñez, Maria Teresa; Poblete-Naredo, Irais; Muñoz, Balam; Barron-Vivanco, Briscia S; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Zapata-Pérez, Omar; Albores, Arnulfo

2012-07-01

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Resistência a antimicrobianos de bactérias oriundas de ambiente de criação e filés de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Antibacterial resistance in bacteria from fish pond and Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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A resistência de bactérias a antimicrobianos foi determinada em uma piscicultura de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) em tanques de terra, sem utilização de antibióticos para profilaxia ou controle de doenças. Foi selecionado um tanque, capturados peixes e coletadas amostras de conteúdo intestinal e superfície dos peixes, água de abastecimento e do tanque, ração, filés de tilápias frescos e congelados. Colônias representativas foram selecionadas e analisadas pelos testes de Gram...

Rejeana Márcia Santos Lima; Henrique César Pereira de Figueiredo; Flaviane Castro de Faria; Roberta Hilsdorf Picolli; Júlio Silvio de Sousa Bueno Filho; Priscila Vieira Rosa Logato

2006-01-01

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Karyotype Analysis of the Hybrid, Thai Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. X Oreochromis mossambicus Linn.  

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Full Text Available Thai Red Tilapia is the hybrid fish between Oreochromis niloticus Linn. and O. mossambicus Linn. The chromosomal constitution of this hybrid were investigated using high quality metaphase preparations obtained from their bone marrow. The diploid chromosome of Tilapias consisted of 22 chromosome pairs (2n = 44. However, the morphology of their chromosome types were different. The karyotype of O. niloticus consisted of 18 subtelocentric (st, 26 acrocentric (a whereas 6 submetacentric (sm, 10 st, 28 a and 2 sm 6 st, 36 a were observed in O. mossambicus and Thai Red Tilapia respectively. The arm number of O. niloticus, O. mossambicus and Thai Red Tilapia were 62, 60 and 52 respectively. The heterochromatic of the short arms of all Tilapias were also observed. The karyotypic differences between O. niloticus, O. mossambicus and the hybrid, Thai Red Tilapia will be useful for strain classification and the improvement of commercial Tilapias production.

Jiradej Manosroi

2003-01-01

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Effects of Water Pollution in Lake Mariut on Gonadal Free Amino Acid Compositions in Oreochromis niloticus Fish  

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Full Text Available In the present report, we have determined the gonadal free amino acid compositions in Oreochromis niloticus collected from three sites in Lake Mariut: SE basin (less polluted, main basin (moderately polluted and SW basin (highly polluted, in an attempt to develop sensitive biomarker to evaluate pollution effects from multiple sources. Variations of free amino acids (FAAs were apparent in the polluted sites; total FAAs in testes and ovaries exhibited significant increases as compared to the less polluted site. This increase was attributed to increases in all individual amino acids including essential and non-essential ones. ANOVA indicated significant changes in all testicular FAAs, excluding phenylalanine. Levels of non-essential amino acids showed obvious alterations in ovaries. However, the increase in most essential amino acids, although insignificant, yet it was quite observable. In addition, the ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids was insignificantly decreased in gonads. This may be indicative of changes in protein metabolism.

Cecil A. Matta

2007-01-01

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Response of antioxidant system of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus to acute and chronic metal (Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Fe) exposures.  

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Antioxidant systems are known to be sensitive to metal exposures and are suggested to use in predicting sublethal metal toxicity. In this study, several antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured in the liver and kidney of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sublethal concentrations of metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn and Fe), using an acute (20 ?M, 48 h) or subchronic (10 ?M, 20 d) protocol. Beside the several increases of antioxidant enzyme activities, general inhibition was recorded after acute and chronic metal exposures. Results indicated that there were variations in responses of the enzymes to metal exposures, depending upon tissues, metals and exposure types. This study emphasized that the antioxidant enzymes are very sensitive to metals as their activities altered significantly, suggesting they could be helpful in predicting sublethal metal toxicity and useful as an early warning tool in natural monitoring studies. PMID:20870289

Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Mustafa

2010-11-01

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Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

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Toxicity of Malathion to Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus (Linn. Fingerlings  

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Full Text Available The toxicity of a commercial grade malathion on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings was determined. The 24, 48, 72, and 96-h LC50 of malathion on Nile tilapia fingerlings were 7.19, 5.43, 5.34, and 5.30 mg/l, respectively. Behavioral changes in fish included rapid opercular movement, hyperexcitability, darkening of the body, and contraction of trunk muscles. Moribund fish displayed labored opercular movement, severe contraction of the trunk muscles, erratic swimming, and total loss of equilibrium. A safe level of less than 0.53 mg/l malathion for Nile tilapia fingerlings was considered.

Virginia Cariño,

1993-12-01

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Sub-lethal concentrations of monocrotophos affect aggressive behavior of the fishes Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski (Teleostei, Characidae and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus (Teleostei, Cichlidae  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of sublethal concentrations of the pesticide monocrotophos (organophosphate on the agonistic behavior of two fishes species, Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (lambari and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Nile tilapia. Sublethal concentrations of the pesticide for the two species were determined and lambari was more resistant than Nile tilapia. The sublethal concentrations were smaller than 400 mgl-1 for lambari and 20 mgl-1 for Nile tilapia. The two species were tested in grouping conditions (triads and isolation, under monocrotophos concentrations of 200 mgl-1 for lambari and 5 mgl-1 for Nile tilapia. The concentration decreased the aggressiveness in lambari, but in Nile tilapia an opposite effect was detected. The results show a species-specific effect of the monocrotophoson aggression.

André Luis da Cruz

2002-12-01

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Sub-lethal concentrations of monocrotophos affect aggressive behavior of the fishes Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski (Teleostei, Characidae) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei, Cichlidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the effects of sublethal concentrations of the pesticide monocrotophos (organophosphate) on the agonistic behavior of two fishes species, Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (lambari) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nile tilapia). Sublethal concentrations [...] of the pesticide for the two species were determined and lambari was more resistant than Nile tilapia. The sublethal concentrations were smaller than 400 mgl-1 for lambari and 20 mgl-1 for Nile tilapia. The two species were tested in grouping conditions (triads) and isolation, under monocrotophos concentrations of 200 mgl-1 for lambari and 5 mgl-1 for Nile tilapia. The concentration decreased the aggressiveness in lambari, but in Nile tilapia an opposite effect was detected. The results show a species-specific effect of the monocrotophoson aggression.

André Luis da, Cruz.

1131-11-01

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Partial molecular characterization of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) alpha-cardiac muscle actin gene and its relationship to actin isoforms of other fish species  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english An alpha actin gene segment, isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was characterized by nucleotide sequencing, predicted amino acid sequence and Southern blot hybridization. Genomic DNA amplification resulted in a 1063-bp fragment corresponding to a partial alpha-cardiac muscle actin g [...] ene containing exons 3 to 6. Southern blot analysis of the restriction-digested DNA revealed that the Nile tilapia genome contains multiple muscle actin isoforms. Although comparison of the nucleotide sequence, amino acid residues and exon-intron organization of the isolated actin gene with those of other vertebrates showed a high level of identity, diagnostic amino acid residues can still be correlated to distinct actin genes in fish species.

Adriane P., Wasko; Fábio E., Severino; Flávia T., Presti; Andréia B., Poletto; Cesar, Martins.

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Risk Assessment of Tributyltin Oxide in Aquatic Environment: A. Toxicity and Sublethal Effects on Brain AChE and Gill ATPases Activity of Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity of TBTO and the effects of its sublethal concentration on brain AChE and gill ATPases activity of tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus during acute (3-96 h and subchronic (7-28 d exposure periods. The results showed that TBTO is extremely toxic to O. niloticus with 96 h LC50 of 16.3 ?g L-1 using static renewal bioassay test. Sublethal concentration of 4.1 ?g L-1 (25% of 96 h LC50 of TBTO inhibited brain AChE activity by 24.01 and 24.06% of control at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by 51.8 and 54.5% at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. The activity of gill Mg2+-ATPase was decreased by 26.9 and 24.28% at 96 h and 21 d, respectively. After 7 d of recovery, AChE and Mg2+-ATPase activites were completely recovered. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase was partially recovered but the inhibition was still significant. The inhibition percentages were higher in acute exposure than in subchronic exposure in both AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase, but the opposite result was recorded in Mg2+-ATPase. It can be concluded that there is a need for more evaluation and international regulation to minimize the organotin input to aquatic environment.

Abdul Rahman A. Aba. Alkhail

2004-01-01

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Active biomonitoring of trace heavy metals using fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) as bioindicator species. The case of Nakivubo wetland along Lake Victoria  

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The Nakivubo wetland in Uganda, which feeds Lake Victoria at Murchison bay, has become severely degraded over recent years and is particularly threatened by the expansion of industry, settlement and cultivation on its fertile fringes. The aim of this study was to actively biomonitor selected trace heavy metals using Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was set in cages at six sampling sites in Murchison bay for a period of six weeks, and sampling was done every 2 weeks for active biomonitoring and weekly for physico-chemical variables. The control (site 7) was at the Aquaculture Research and Development centre, Uganda. Fish tissue was dissected and gills, liver and muscle removed for heavy metal analysis. Water samples and fish tissue from each site were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine metal concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and manganese. Site 4 had the highest average NH 4-N of 14.28 ± 12.73 mg/l which was above effluent standards for Uganda. From the findings, there were significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in fish than in water ( p > 0.01). Fish kills were recorded highest for sites 4 (55%), 5 (77.5%) and 6 (60%) in less than six weeks indicating high levels of pollution. Gills showed the highest accumulation of copper after a period of six weeks as compared to other metals with a mean ± SE of 11.7 ?g/mg wet weight. In general, the order of accumulation of metals in tissue after six weeks was in order; copper > zinc > chromium > manganese and gills > liver > muscle. In conclusion, active biomonitoring was found to be a good tool for monitoring water quality as it integrates responses to combinations of all contaminants thereby indicating overall effects in a water body. To improve the study, there is need to incorporate post mortem studies and biomarker analysis since the later can give early warning of pollution before fish kills are observed.

Birungi, Z.; Masola, B.; Zaranyika, M. F.; Naigaga, I.; Marshall, B.

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Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne  

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Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

Kone, M.

2012-01-01

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Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 = Host-parasite relationship in fish from fish farms in the Assis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757  

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Full Text Available Um total de 90 espécimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da água em cada propriedade. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possível observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porém cada propriedade apresentauma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlação negativa significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o copépode Lamproglena sp.apresentaram correlação positiva significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão nas pisciculturas de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, respectivamente. Em relação ao fator de condição relativo, somente a espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a abundância de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a relação hepatossomática (RHS das tilápias em Palmital, e o ergasilídeo apresentou correlação significativa negativa da abundância de parasitismo e a relaçãoesplenossomática (RES dos hospedeiros em Cândido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in São Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farmfeatured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp.1 presented a significant negative correlation of abundance to standard host length only at the Palmital fish farm. The Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 species and the Lamproglena sp. copepod displayed a significant positive correlation of abundance to standard length at the Tarumã and Cândido Mota fish farms, respectively. With regard to the relative condition factor, only thespecies Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 presented a significant negative correlation to the prevalence of parasitism. Lamproglena sp. presented a significant positive correlation with respect to thehepatosomatic index (HI of the tilapias at the Palmital fish farm, and the Ergasilidae presented a significant negative correlation of abundance with respect to splenosomatic index (SI of the host at Cândido Mota.

Maria de los Angeles Perez Lizama

2007-04-01

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Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.594 Host-parasite relationship in fish from fish farms in the Assis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757  

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Full Text Available Um total de 90 espécimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da água em cada propriedade. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possível observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porém cada propriedade apresenta uma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlação negativa significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o copépode Lamproglena sp. apresentaram correlação positiva significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão nas pisciculturas de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, respectivamente. Em relação ao fator de condição relativo, somente a espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a abundância de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a relação hepatossomática (RHS das tilápias em Palmital, e o ergasilídeo apresentou correlação significativa negativa da abundância de parasitismo e a relação esplenossomática (RES dos hospedeiros em Cândido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in São Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farm featured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp.1 presented a significant negative correlation of abundance to standard host length only at the Palmital fish farm. The Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 species and the Lamproglena sp. copepod displayed a significant positive correlation of abundance to standard length at the Tarumã and Cândido Mota fish farms, respectively. With regard to the relative condition factor, only the species Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 presented a significant negative correlation to the prevalence of parasitism. Lamproglena sp. presented a significant positive correlation with respect to the hepatosomatic index (HI of the tilapias at the Palmital fish farm, and the Ergasilidae presented a significant negative correlation of abundance with respect to splenosomatic index (SI of the host at Cândido Mota.

Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva

2007-12-01

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CYN determination in tissues from freshwater fish by LC-MS/MS: Validation and application in tissues from subchronically exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are occurring in eutrophic freshwater lakes and reservoirs throughout the world and, because of the production of toxins such as cylindrospermopsin (CYN), they can present a public safety hazard through contamination of seafood and fish for human consumption. Therefore it is important to develop methods to determine CYN at trace levels in those organisms. A new method for unconjugated CYN determination in tissues (liver and muscle) of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is herein described and discussed; it is based on solvent extraction and purification with C18 and graphitized carbon cartridges, and quantification by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was optimized and suitably validated, with a linear range from 0.125-12.5µg CYN/g dry weight (dw) in the case of the liver, and 0.02-1µg CYN/g dw for the muscle. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.07 and 0.12µg/g dw for the liver, and 0.002 and 0.007µg/g dw for the muscle, respectively. Mean recoveries ranged 80-110% in liver, and 94-104% in muscle, and intermediate precision values from 6 to 11%. The method is robust against the three factors considered for purification (batch of the graphitized carbon cartridges, time for the sample to pass through the cartridge, and final dissolving water volume). Furthermore, it has been successfully applied to the extraction and quantification of CYN in tissue samples from tilapia subchronically exposed to CYN in the laboratory. This represents a sensitive, reproducible, accurate, and robust method for extraction and determination of unconjugated CYN in tissues of fish exposed to the toxin. This procedure can be used for confirmatory routine monitoring of CYN in fish samples in environmental studies. PMID:25281126

Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Moreno, I; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Eugenia Soria-Díaz, M; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana M

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Investigating the Quality Changes of Raw and Hot Smoked Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias lazera  

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Full Text Available This study deals with the effect of hot smoke curing by using two types of hard wood (Acacia seyal and Citrus lemon on the proximate composition, microbial load and sensory evaluation of two species of fresh water fishes (Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias lazera. Highly significant differences (pOreochromis niloticus and Clarias lazera were 281.5 x 103 and 183.7 x 103, respectively. After smoking the total viable counts of bacteria of O. niloticus reached 2 x 103, while of Clarias lazera was reduced to 6 x 103. The bacteria isolated before and after smoking was Staphylococcus aureus. With respect to the quality of the products related to colour, taste, texture and flavour, significant differences (p<0.05 in the parameters measured were observed, generally the products well accepted.

Hana M. Taha

2010-01-01

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Effects of exposure to cadmium on some endocrine parameters in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cadmium impact on interrenal and thyroid functions was assessed in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to 25 mg L(-1) of CdCl(2) during 24, 48, and 96 h. Exposure to 24 and 48 h induced a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels, whereas at 96 h no differences were found. A significant and sustained decrease in plasma T3 concentrations, and an over time increase in plasma glucose, was also found in exposed fish. The results of the current study show that acute exposures to sublethal cadmium concentrations induce changes in endocrine status and carbohydrate metabolism in O. niloticus. PMID:23184017

Garcia-Santos, S; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A; Monteiro, S M; Wilson, J M

2013-01-01

43

Response of catalase activity to Ag+, Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ in five tissues of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) is an important enzyme in antioxidant defense system protecting animals from oxidative stress. Freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of Ag(+), Cd(2+), Cr(6+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), known to cause oxidative stress, and subsequently CAT activities in liver, kidney, gill, intestine and brain were measured. In vivo, CAT was stimulated by all metals except Ag(+) in the liver and the highest increase in CAT activity (183%) resulted from 1.0 mg Cd(2+)/L exposure, whereas 0.5 mg Ag(+)/L exposure resulted in a sharp decrease (44%). In tilapia kidney, cadmium and zinc had no significant effects on CAT activity, whereas 0.1 mg Cr(6+)/L exposure caused a decrease (44%). Cadmium and zinc did not significantly affect the CAT activity in gill; however, 0.5 mg Ag(+)/L exposure caused an increase (66%) and 1.5 mg Cr(6+)/L exposure caused a decrease (97%) in CAT activity. All metals, except Cu(2+)(41% increase), caused significant decreases in CAT activity in the intestine. In brain, 1.0 mg Zn(2+)/L resulted in an increase in CAT activity (126%), while 1.5 mg Ag(+)/L exposure caused a 54% decrease. In vitro, all metals -- except Ag(+) and Cu(2+) in kidney -- significantly inhibited the CAT activity in all tissues. Results emphasized that CAT may be considered as a sensitive bioindicator of the antioxidant defense system. PMID:16581305

Atli, Gülüzar; Alptekin, Ozlem; Tükel, Seyhan; Canli, Mustafa

2006-06-01

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Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae in Mexico  

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Full Text Available Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus from Lagoon of Coatetelco, Morelos State, Mexico were studied from January through December, 1993. Scales of 318 specimens were collected. Modal length at capture was 10.5-11.5 cm standard length. Scales rings were formed during December. Back-calculated lengths-at-age showed no significant differences by sex. Four check marks were recorded. According to the growth curve parameters for population, the fish grow at a low rate (k=0.07 until they achieve a size (L* of 29.19 cm. Length-frequency analysis (Bhattacharya's Gaussian component determination procedure do not differ significantly (t-student, pSe realizaron estudios de enero a diciembre de 1993 para conocer la edad y crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus obtenida de las capturas comerciales de la laguna de Coatetelco, Morelos, Mexico. Se colectaron escamas de 318 peces. La moda de longitud patrón que se obtuvo en la captura fue de 10.5-11.5 cm. Se encontró que la formación de los anillos se realiza en Diciembre. Asimismo, no se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las hembras y los machos para las longitudes retrocalculadas para cada edad. En las escamas se registraron cuatro marcas. Se encontró que de acuerdo a los parametros de la ecuación de crecimiento, los peces tienen baja tasa de crecimiento (k=0.07 y alcanzan un tamaño adecuado (L* =29.19 cm. Los resultados obtenidos por medio del análisis de distribución de frecuencias no difieren significativamente (t-student, p<0.05 de los obtenidos por medio de la lectura de la estructura ósea (escamas.

José Luis Gómez-Márquez

1998-12-01

45

ERITROGRAMA EM Oreochromis niloticus ALIMENTADAS COM NÍVEIS DE SORGO  

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Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the substitution of corn by sorghum andanalyze the components of the red series hematology in Nile tilapia. Information on hematological parametersare of great value when used as indicators of physiological state and nutrition. We used 40 male tilapia with anaverage weight of 20g reared in tanks of 320L., Fed diets isocaloric and isonitrogenous according to replacementlevels of 0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 75 and 100.0% . Fifteen fish per treatment were anesthetized, weighed individually and blood taken by cardiac puncture, with EDTA solution (10%, the parameters analyzed were counting the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit. With these results were calculated RBC indices. ANOVA was used and no significant difference between treatments can be concluded that sorghum in addition to being a potential substitute for corn does not change the values in erythroid Oreochromis niloticus.O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a substituição do milho pelo sorgo e analisar os componentes hematológicos da série vermelha em tilápia do Nilo. Informações sobre parâmetros hematológicos são de grande valia, quando utilizados como indicadores do estado fisiológico e nutricional. Utilizou-se 40 tilápias machos com peso médio de 20g criadas em tanques de 320L., alimentadas com rações isocalóricas e isoprotéicas de acordo com os níveis de substituição de 0,0; 25,0; 50,0; 75 e 100,0%. Quinze peixes por tratamento foram anestesiados, pesados individualmente e o sangue retirado por punção cardíaca, com solução de EDTA (10%, os parâmetros analisados foram: contagem do número de eritrócitos, taxa de hemoglobina e hematócrito. Com esses resultados foram calculados os índices hematimétricos. Foi utilizado o ANOVA e não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, podendo concluir que o sorgo além de ser um potencial substituto do milho não altera os valores eritrocitários em Oreochromis niloticus.

PAIVA, Kelli Cristina

2010-11-01

46

Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the ef [...] fect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P

A.L.S., Castro; E., Gonçalves-de-Freitas; G.L., Volpato; C., Oliveira.

2009-04-01

47

Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the ef [...] fect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P

A.L.S., Castro; E., Gonçalves-de-Freitas; G.L., Volpato; C., Oliveira.

48

Effect of Some Water Pollutants on the Biology of the Nile Bolti, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Samples of water and Oreochromis niloticus fish were collected from El-Mahmoudya channel near Alexandria for contaminants determination. The data show that El Mahmoudya channel water includes relatively high levels of Fe, Cu and chlordane and much higher levels of Zn and lindane. Most of the dissolved, metals and organic contaminants or their metabolites were monitored in the fish and then eggs. The above pollutants were found to affect spawning behaviour and duration. The average number of eggs per spawn were higher in the control groups than the contaminated ones. The residue levels monitored in the eggs affected the fry survival of the Nile fish.

K.K. Barakat

2004-01-01

49

Occurrence of the oribatid mite Trhypochthoniellus longisetus longisetus (Acari: Trhypochthoniidae) on tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mites as parasites infesting fish have been described in a few case reports involving Histiostoma anguillarum, H. papillata, and Schwiebea estradai. We describe the unexpected occurrence of oribatid mites of the genus Trhypochthoniellus on farmed tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The fish had mites on the skin, fins, and gills, as well as in the mouth. The morphological characteristics of the mites, observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, were consistent with those described for T. longisetus longisetus. All stages of development were observed, suggesting that the mites were able to actively reproduce on fish. PMID:21553570

Olmeda, A Sonia; Blanco, M Mar; Pérez-Sánchez, José L; Luzón, Mónica; Villarroel, Morris; Gibello, Alicia

2011-03-16

50

Biomarker responses as indication of contaminant effects in Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study investigated oxidative stress parameters (enzymes activities, metallothionein content and lipid peroxidation) in freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus, tilapia exposure to Monjolinho River (in 4 months of year: January, April, July and November). One critical site in Monjolinho River (site B) was assessed in comparison to a reference site (site A). Water pH and oxygen concentration was lower than that recommended by CONAMA (Brazilian National Environmental Committee), resolution 357/2005 for protection of aquatic communities, and ammonium and the metals Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe (on all months) concentrations were higher than the maximum concentration recommended. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly decreased in liver and muscle in tilapia from Monjolinho River, throughout the year, in relation to reference except in gills that SOD activity increased. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly increased in liver of the tilapia from Monjolinho River in all sites, in relation to reference except in gills that GST activity increased in July and decreased in November, suggesting that GST activity could be induced to neutralize the pollutants toxicity. On the other hand, GST activity was significantly decreased in white muscle indicating a toxic effect of pollutants, resulting in a decreased ability of tilapia to perform defense reactions associated to GSTs. The decrease of catalase (CAT) activity in gills of the O. niloticus together with the increase of SOD activity, could explain the increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in this organ. Metallothionein levels in liver and gills were significantly high in all sites. Results indicate that the exposure to metals caused severe damage to tissues; despite the consensually assumed antioxidant induction as a sign of exposure to contaminants the effects seem in part to be mediated by suppression of antioxidant system with SOD, CAT and GPx as potential candidates for tissues toxicity biomarkers of pollutants. PMID:22583787

Carvalho, Cleoni dos Santos; Bernusso, Vanessa Aline; de Araújo, Heloísa Sobreiro Selistre; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

2012-09-01

51

Shrimp meal in diets for Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus" Farinha de camarão em dietas para tilápia do Nilo ("Oreochromis niloticus"  

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Full Text Available Replacement of conventional ingredients used in fish diets by non-conventional products has been an economic alternative to reduce the cost of feeding. Therefore, 90-day trial was performed to study the effect of shrimp meal (SM inclusion on diets of Nile tilapia fries. Weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, apparent feed intake (AFI, fillet yield (FY, fillet income (FI values and protein effiency ratio (PER were evaluated. Each experimental unit was an aquaria with five tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus, mean body weight of 7,9g, total of 120 animals. Treatments were four diets with 0, 25, 50 and 100% of SM replacing the soybean meal, which protein (28.0% and energy (3100 kcal/DE/kg content in diet were similar. Animals were fed three times daily. The offered food was adjusted according to fish live weight. The substitution of soybean by SM reduced WG, FC, AFI, FY and PER. SM inclusion did not affect the FI. Shrimp meal inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia affects negatively the growth performance.O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a inclusão da farinha de camarão (FC em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo. O desempenho dos animais foi avaliado através do ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, consumo de ração aparente (CRA, peso de filé (PF, rendimento de filé (RF e taxa de eficiência protéica (TEP. O delineamento utilizado no experimento foi em blocos casulaizados distribuídos em 24 caixas de polietileno com capacidade de 150 L supridas por sistema de recirculação fechada de água (0,2L/min. durante 90 dias. Cada unidade experimental era composta por um aquário com cinco tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 7,9g perfazendo um total de 120 animais. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro rações contendo 0, 25, 50 e 100% de FC em substituição ao farelo de soja, sendo estas isoprotéicas (28,0%PB e isoenergéticas (3100 kcal de EB/kg. Os animais foram alimentados três vezes ao dia com a quantidade de ração fornecida ad libitum. A farinha de camarão pode substituir a proteína do farelo de soja até 50% de inclusão sem comprometer o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e peso do filé.

Graciela Pessoa Martins

2008-04-01

52

Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using 203Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

53

Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using (203)Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. PMID:20493602

Wang, Rui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2010-08-01

54

Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using {sup 203}Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

Wang Rui [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-08-15

55

Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition: 1 visual contact (V; 2 chemical contact (Ch; 3 chemical and visual contact (Ch+V; 4 no sensory contact (Iso - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning and gonadosomatic index (GSI of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test, induced spawning in females (3 spawning in V and also 3 in Ch+V condition, and increased GSI in males (mean ± SEM; V: 1.39 ± 0.08, Ch+V: 1.21 ± 0.08, Ch: 1.04 ± 0.07, Iso: 0.82 ± 0.07%; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test. Chemical communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

A.L.S. Castro

2009-04-01

56

Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle tissues of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulation of cadmium in gill, liver, muscle and kidney tissues of Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus were investigated in fish exposed to 0.5 ppm cadmium over 1, 15 and 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. Tissue accumulation of the metal was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric techniques. Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle, tissues of C. carpio and O. niloticus exposed to metal for 1, 15 and 30 days increased significantly compared with the control group (p < 0.05), except muscle tissue of O. niloticus. A general increase was observed in Cd accumulation with increasing exposure periods. Highest metal accumulation was observed in kidney followed by liver, gill and muscle tissues in both species. Liver accumulation of Cd was higher in C. carpio than O. niloticus, whereas kidney accumulation of the metal was higher in O. niloticus than C. carpio. PMID:24526282

Ye?ilbudak, Burcu; Erdem, Cahit

2014-05-01

57

Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio / Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é i [...] dêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses. Abstract in english The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other tel [...] eostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

S., Garcia-Santos; S.M., Monteiro; J., Carrola; A., Fontainhas-Fernandes.

58

Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium  

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Full Text Available Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é idêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses.The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other teleostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

S. Garcia-Santos

2007-04-01

59

Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus from Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Al-Khadoud Spring is one of the largest spring in Al-Hassa governorate (Saudi Arabia. Due to the extended domestic activities and urbanization as well as the continuous industrial and agricultural growth of the region, spring water quality is potentially changing. Approach: This study was conducted to measure toxic heavy metal concentrations in water and fish samples along the spring channel. Filtered spring water and tissues (liver and muscle of captured fish were analyzed for heavy metals in an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer equipped with a Varian Model. Results: The concentrations of metals in water were found in the following order: Fe2+>Zn2+>Cu2+ >Pb2+>Mn2+>Cd2+. The levels of heavy metals recorded in water in this study were generally low, when compared to WHO and USEPA recommended levels in water, except iron which was found to be higher than the recommended levels. In fish samples collected from the polluted spring, metal levels were significantly higher than the levels in water, indicating bioaccumulation. The highest levels of metals were generally reported in fish liver than muscle. Hepatic metal levels were ranked as follow: Zn2+>Cu2+>Pb2+>Cd2+. Conclusion: The present results showed that, the fishes, based on the higher levels of metal bioaccumulation, could be unsafe for human consumption. Consequently, very close monitoring of heavy metal loads in Al-Khadoud spring is recommended in view of the possible risks to health of consumers.

Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

2009-01-01

60

Valores bioquímicos séricos de tilapia del nilo (oreochromis niloticus) en cultivo intensivo / Serum biochemical values for nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) cultured under an intensive system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se a avaliação dos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), linhagem tailandesa Chitralada, produzidas em sistema de piscicultura intensiva e capturadas por tarrafeamento. Amostras sanguíneas de 40 exemplares, pesando em média 453 ± 52 g, foram obtidas po [...] r venopunção caudal e posteriormente analisadas quanto às concentrações séricas de proteína total, albumina, globulinas, ácido úrico, creatinina, ureia, cálcio, fósforo inorgânico, relação Ca/P, magnésio e fosfatase alcalina. Em um contexto geral, os resultados evidenciaram parâmetros semelhantes aos estabelecidos para peixes de escama, com exceção do ácido úrico. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar los parámetros bioquímicos séricos de tilapias del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), linaje tailandés chitralada, producidas en un sistema de piscicultura intensiva y capturadas con atarraya. Se tomaron muestras de sangre a 40 ejemplares por punción de la vena caudal. [...] Los peces tenían un peso de 453 ± 52 g. Se determinó proteína total, albúmina, globulinas, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, calcio, fósforo inorgánico, relación Ca/P, magnesio y fosfatasa alcalina. En un contexto general, los resultados mostraron parámetros semejantes a los establecidos para peces de escama, con excepción del ácido úrico. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum biochemical parameters of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Thai Chitralada lineage, raised under an intensive pisciculture system and captured by the cast net technique. Blood samples from 40 individuals were obtained by caudal venopuncture. Me [...] an body weight was 453 ± 52 g. The serum biochemical parameters evaluated were total protein, albumin, globulins, acid uric, creatinine, urea, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, Ca/P ratio, alkaline phosphatase, and magnesium. In general, the data showed similar parameters in comparison to those established for scale fish, exception of the acid uric.

Leandro, Z. Crivelenti; Sofia, Borín; José Javier, M. Socha; Antonio V, Mundim.

 
 
 
 
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Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano.

Lia Ferraz de Arruda

2006-12-01

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Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum), used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish (7±1g/fish) were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg ...

Shalaby, A. M.; Khattab, Y. A.; Abdel Rahman, A. M.

2006-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in tilapia (Oreochromis aureus × Oreochromis niloticus) after intravenous and oral administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetics of doxycycline was studied in plasma after a single dose (20 mg/kg) of intravenous or oral administration to tilapia (Oreochromis aureus × Oreochromis niloticus) reared in fresh water at 24 °C. Plasma samples were collected from six fish per sampling point. Doxycycline concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a 0.005 ?g/mL limit of detection, then were subjected to noncompartmental analysis. Following oral administration, the double-peak phenomenon was observed, and the first (Cmax1 ) and second (Cmax2) peaks were 1.99 ± 0.43 ?g/mL at 2.0 h and 2.27 ± 0.38 ?g/mL at 24.0 h, respectively. After the intravenous injection, a Cmax2 (12.12 ± 1.97 ?g/mL) was also observed, and initial concentration of 45.76 ?g/mL, apparent elimination rate constant (?z) of 0.018 per h, apparent elimination half-life (t1/2?z) of 39.0 h, systemic total body clearance (Cl) of 41.28 mL/h/kg, volume of distribution (Vz) of 2323.21 mL/kg, and volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss) of 1356.69 mL/kg were determined, respectively. While after oral administration, the ?z, t1/2?z, and bioavailability of doxycycline were 0.009 per h, 77.2 h, and 23.41%, respectively. It was shown that doxycycline was relatively slowly and incompletely absorbed, extensively distributed, and slowly eliminated in tilapia, in addition, doxycycline might undergo enterohepatic recycling in tilapia. PMID:24479741

Yang, F; Li, Z L; Shan, Q; Zeng, Z L

2014-08-01

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Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania  

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Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

2006-03-15

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Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers (? and ?) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels

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Perfil proteico de tilápia nilótica chitralada (Oreochromis niloticus, submetida ao estresse crônico por hipóxia Proteic electrophoretic profile of chitralada tilapia nilotic (Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to hypoxia chronic stress  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a variação da resposta secundária ao estresse causado por hipóxia durante 18 dias, em sistema de recirculação, em uma linhagem de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus, chitralada, refletida no perfil proteico eletroforético do peixe e avaliou-se a diferença entre sexos para essa resposta. Foram utilizados 126 peixes, sendo 60 machos e 66 fêmeas, ambos com média de peso de 800g. O estresse crônico por hipóxia alterou (PThis study evaluated the secundary response variation to hypoxia stress in a strain of chitralada nilotic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during 18 days, in a recirculation system. The effects were measured by the proteic electrophoretic profile and the difference between the genders. One hundred twenty-six fish were used, 60 males and 66 females, both averaging 800g. The chronic hypoxia stress altered (P<0.05 the relative values of albumin, ?+?-globulins, and ?-globulin; modified (P<0.05 the levels of total protein due to an increase in the male group; significantly decreased of the absolute mean values of albumin due to a decrease in the female group; and decreased the g-globulin values in males. The proteic profile, albumin, and ?-globulin were influenced by gender.

D.C. Melo

2009-10-01

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Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus  

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Full Text Available A multiplex PCR (m-PCR technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus cultured in Paphayomand Bangkaew District, Phatthalung Province and Sichon and Hua Sai District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand, bym-PCR technique showed positive results for S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai and negativeresults for samples from Paphayom and Sichon. The m-PCR results were in accordance with microbiological culture techniques,which detected S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai indicating that our m-PCR assay is a sensitiveand specific diagnostic tool for simultaneous detection of streptococcosis caused by S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieaein cultured fish in Thailand.

Chutima Tantikitti

2012-11-01

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Induction of testis-ova in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to 17?-estradiol  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs, 17?-estradiol was tested on the fish Oreochromis niloticus in order to understand the intersex relationship of fish, in which sequential hermaphrodism can consist of a male changing into a female (protandry or a female changing into a male (protogyny. The fish were equally divided into 3 groups. The first group was the control group; the second and third groups were treated with 10 and 100 mg L-1 of 17?-estradiol, respectively, for 30 days. The overall result in this experiment had no significant effect on the growth parameters. Among the two treated groups, the low concentration group shows results similar to those of the control groups. The high concentration group shows changes to the male reproductive system with the appearance of the testis-ova present resulting in an intersex condition of the male gonads. With this experiment, it can be concluded that 17?-estradiol at high concentration reveals positive changes towards the male reproductive system of the fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

Chaivira Sachamahithinant

2011-03-01

69

Oxidative stress response in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to textile mill effluent.  

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Textile mill effluent is an important pollution factor because of its organic and inorganic substances content. In this study, toxic effects of textile mill effluent on fish Oreochromis niloticus were investigated by using antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation (LPO) responses. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation by means of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) level were measured in liver and gill tissues of fish. The fish were exposed to non-lethal concentrations (0.1%, 1% and 10%) of textile mill effluent for 15, 30 and 45 days. In control group, fish were left in aquariums containing tap water without chlorine. As a result, the activities of SOD, CAT enzymes and level of TBARS in the liver and gill increased in 15, 30 and 45 days after 1% and 10% doses application. PMID:20858649

Zagal, Abuzer; Mazmanci, Birgül

2011-02-01

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Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803 and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857, from the Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire  

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Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii found in Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire. Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight, endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight, as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83 and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84 and with pp’DDT (R = 0.81. In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91. The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Helene Roche

2007-01-01

71

Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)  

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The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

72

Some biological and hematological responses of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles exposed to Atrazine herbicide  

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Full Text Available This research was aimed at finding the influence of Atrazine on a most widely farmed fish,Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, in Nigeria. Specific areas of investigation were to find the LC50after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of the chemical administration to the fish. The effects of the chemical onthe behavioral and biological responses of O. niloticus were equally observed. The ten fish each werestocked in six different tanks containing 40 liters of water. These tanks contained graded concentrationsof the chemical and the treatments were replicated three times. Dissolved oxygen content was reducingwith increasing Atrazine concentration, while temperature and pH increased with increasing Atrazineconcentration. The LC50 of Atrazine in 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were 7.9, 7.6, 7.3 and 7.2 respectively.Behavioral and biological responses included loss of reflex, air gulping, erratic swimming, discoloration,hemorrhage and molting. The blood parameters observed showed that there were increases in packedcell volume (PCV and red blood cell count (RBC and decrease in hemoglobin (Hb, erythrocytesedimentation rate (ESR and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, while there was no significant change inwhite blood cell count (WBC and mean cell volume (MCV values. The chemical was therefore observedto be lethal to juvenile O. niloticus.

Fidelis Bekeh Ada

2012-12-01

73

Influence of Dietary Palm Oil on Growth Response, Carcass Composition, Haematology and Organoleptic Properties of Juvenile Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of replacing fish (codliver oil with palm oil at 0, 33.33, 66.67, 100 % for diets 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively, of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Each diet was formulated to contain 28% crude protein and fed to triplicate groups of 10 juvenile Oreochromis niloticus (mean wt., 9.09g. Fish mortality decreased with increasing palm oil substitution level. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05 in the survival of fish fed Diet 4 compared with other treatments. The result showed that carcass quality of experimental fish was not compromised as a result of the use of palm oil in diets. Blood parameters of fish fed experimental diets showed a common trend, namely the higher the palm oil substitution level, the higher the blood parameters. Organoleptic properties of experimental fish showed that palm oil replacement for fish oil had no negative effect on their sensory evaluation and eating quality. The present study provides evidence that palm oil can effectively replace cod liver oil in diets for Nile Tilapia, O. niloticus.

Stephen N. Ochang

2007-01-01

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Production of YY-male of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from atypical fish / Producción de machos YY de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a partir de peces atípicos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La aplicación exitosa de la tecnología YY depende de la producción de hembras XY. Sin embargo, su identificación es complicada, ya que son indistinguibles de las hembras normales. Los peces atípicos podrían ofrecer una alternativa para una más rápida y precisa identificación. Se evaluó la progenie d [...] e nueve peces atípicos con la finalidad de producir machos YY. Los alevines obtenidos se criaron a 28 ± 1°C en acuarios de 85 L. Los juveniles fueron colocados en jaulas flotantes por 30 días y, finalmente, en estanques de 8 m³ hasta los 120 días de edad. La prueba de progenie se realizó evaluando las diferencias entre sexos en la estructura de la papila genital. Seis de los nueve peces atípicos seleccionados mostraron la proporción de sexos 3:1 (macho-hembra) esperada para hembras revertidas. Se observó una proporción de machos significativamente mayor a la distribución 3:1 esperada en dos peces atípicos. Este aumento en la proporción de machos puede ser atribuido a la interacción del efecto parental con la temperatura del agua durante la etapa de alevín. El uso de peces atípicos podría reducir el tiempo y esfuerzo empleados en la identificación de hembras XY durante la etapa inicial de la tecnología YY. Abstract in english Successful YY technology depends on the production of XY females. However, their identification is complicated because they are indistinguishable from normal females. Atypical fish could offer an alternative for a more rapid and precise identification. Progeny of atypical fish was evaluated in order [...] to produce YY-males. In total, nine atypical fish and 18 normal males were selected. The fish were placed in 8 m³ concrete tanks at a 2:1 sex ratio. The produced fry were collected and reared at 28 ± 1°C in 85 L aquaria. Juveniles were placed in net cages for 30 days and finally in 8 m³ concrete tanks until the age of 120 days. Progeny test was achieved evaluating differences between sexes in the genital papilla structure. Six of the nine atypical fish selected showed the 3:1 sex ratio (male-female) expected for sex-reversed females. A significantly higher proportion of males than the expected 3:1 distribution were observed in two atypical fish. This boost in male proportion could be attributed to a parental effect interacting with the water temperature during the fry stage. Use of atypical fish could help reduce the time and effort spent to identify XY females during the initial stage of YY technology.

Juan Pablo, Alcántar-Vázquez; Raúl, Moreno-de la Torre; Daniel, Calzada-Ruíz; Carolina, Antonio-Estrada.

2014-07-01

75

Production of YY-male of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from atypical fish / Producción de machos YY de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a partir de peces atípicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La aplicación exitosa de la tecnología YY depende de la producción de hembras XY. Sin embargo, su identificación es complicada, ya que son indistinguibles de las hembras normales. Los peces atípicos podrían ofrecer una alternativa para una más rápida y precisa identificación. Se evaluó la progenie d [...] e nueve peces atípicos con la finalidad de producir machos YY. Los alevines obtenidos se criaron a 28 ± 1°C en acuarios de 85 L. Los juveniles fueron colocados en jaulas flotantes por 30 días y, finalmente, en estanques de 8 m³ hasta los 120 días de edad. La prueba de progenie se realizó evaluando las diferencias entre sexos en la estructura de la papila genital. Seis de los nueve peces atípicos seleccionados mostraron la proporción de sexos 3:1 (macho-hembra) esperada para hembras revertidas. Se observó una proporción de machos significativamente mayor a la distribución 3:1 esperada en dos peces atípicos. Este aumento en la proporción de machos puede ser atribuido a la interacción del efecto parental con la temperatura del agua durante la etapa de alevín. El uso de peces atípicos podría reducir el tiempo y esfuerzo empleados en la identificación de hembras XY durante la etapa inicial de la tecnología YY. Abstract in english Successful YY technology depends on the production of XY females. However, their identification is complicated because they are indistinguishable from normal females. Atypical fish could offer an alternative for a more rapid and precise identification. Progeny of atypical fish was evaluated in order [...] to produce YY-males. In total, nine atypical fish and 18 normal males were selected. The fish were placed in 8 m³ concrete tanks at a 2:1 sex ratio. The produced fry were collected and reared at 28 ± 1°C in 85 L aquaria. Juveniles were placed in net cages for 30 days and finally in 8 m³ concrete tanks until the age of 120 days. Progeny test was achieved evaluating differences between sexes in the genital papilla structure. Six of the nine atypical fish selected showed the 3:1 sex ratio (male-female) expected for sex-reversed females. A significantly higher proportion of males than the expected 3:1 distribution were observed in two atypical fish. This boost in male proportion could be attributed to a parental effect interacting with the water temperature during the fry stage. Use of atypical fish could help reduce the time and effort spent to identify XY females during the initial stage of YY technology.

Juan Pablo, Alcántar-Vázquez; Raúl, Moreno-de la Torre; Daniel, Calzada-Ruíz; Carolina, Antonio-Estrada.

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Parasite fauna of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.  

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An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites-Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae-were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers. PMID:21688067

Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Nattabi, Juliet K; Agoe, Catherine; Schiemer, Fritz

2012-01-01

77

Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage / Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os [...] objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus) após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano. Abstract in english One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of incr [...] easing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.

Lia Ferraz de, Arruda; Ricardo, Borghesi; Aelson, Brum; Marisa Regitano, D' Arce; Marília, Oetterer.

2006-12-01

78

Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage / Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os [...] objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus) após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano. Abstract in english One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of incr [...] easing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.

Lia Ferraz de, Arruda; Ricardo, Borghesi; Aelson, Brum; Marisa Regitano, D' Arce; Marília, Oetterer.

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Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips  

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Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

Silvia Tamie Matsumoto

2006-01-01

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Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid [...] exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

Silvia Tamie, Matsumoto; Mário Sérgio, Mantovani; Mirtis Irene Ariza, Malaguttii; Ana Lúcia, Dias; Inês Cristina, Fonseca; Maria Aparecida, Marin-Morales.

 
 
 
 
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Respostas da Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) à atratividade e palatabilidade de ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes / Response of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to the attraction and palatability of the used ingredients in the feeding of fishes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as respostas da tilápia do Nilo à atratividade e palatabilidade de 14 ingredientes. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado à uma ração controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros) contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros i [...] nstalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registrados tempo decorrido entre colocação do ingrediente e chegada dos animais aos comedouros, freqüência de visitas aos comedouros, número de grânulos ingeridos e freqüência de ejeções. Os tratamentos foram comparados pela prova não-paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e a comparação dos ingredientes para o conjunto de variáveis, por intermédio da "Análise de Agrupamento" e "Análise de Componentes Principais". Os ingredientes foram assim classificados: a) baixa atrato-palatabilidade = farelos de trigo, soja e algodão, farinha e raspa de mandioca, farinha de girassol e fubá de milho, b) média atrato-palatabilidade = levedura de cana-de-açúcar e glúten de milho e c) alta atrato-palatabilidade = ovo integral liofilizado, farinhas de crisálidas, peixes, carne e camarão. Ingestão de grânulos (manhã e tarde) e freqüência de visitas aos comedouros (tarde) foram consideradas as variáveis mais discriminatórias e freqüência de ejeção de grânulos e tempo gasto para aproximação dos comedouros (manhã e tarde), as menos discriminatórias. As respostas comportamentais dos peixes variaram de acordo com o ingrediente apresentado. A avaliação do grau de atrato-palatabilidade deve ser realizada considerando-se uma combinação de parâmetros. Abstract in english The response of Nile tilapia to the attraction and palatability of 14 ingredients was evaluated. The two-choice method was used, comparing each pelleted ingredient to a control diet. It was utilized Four aquaria (750 liters) containing in each one three fingerlings and two feed containers at the rig [...] ht and left corner, being recorded the elapsed time between the lay of the ingredient and the arrive of the fingerlings to feed containers, visiting frequency to the feed containers, amount of ingested pellets and ejections frequency. The treatments were compared by non-parametric method of Kruskal-Wallis and the comparison of the ingredients for the variable set using "Grouping Analysis" and "Principal Components Analysis". The numbers of ingested pellets (at morning and at afternoon) and the visiting frequency to feed containers (at afternoon) were considered the most discriminatory variables. The ingredients were classified as it follows: a) low attraction and palatability = wheat meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, cassava meal, cassava scrapings, sunflower meal and corn meal), b) medium attraction and palatability = sugar-cane yeast and corn gluten meal and c) high attraction and palatability = integral lyophilized egg, silk worm meal, fish meal, meat meal, shrimp meal. The frequency of ejected pellets and time spent to approach of the feed (at morning and at afternoon) were considered the least discriminatory variables. The behavior response of fishes changes according to the presented ingredient. The attraction and palatability extent must be studied considering combinations of variables.

Elyara Maria, Pereira-da- Silva; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

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Respostas da Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus à atratividade e palatabilidade de ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes Response of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus to the attraction and palatability of the used ingredients in the feeding of fishes  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as respostas da tilápia do Nilo à atratividade e palatabilidade de 14 ingredientes. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado à uma ração controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registrados tempo decorrido entre colocação do ingrediente e chegada dos animais aos comedouros, freqüência de visitas aos comedouros, número de grânulos ingeridos e freqüência de ejeções. Os tratamentos foram comparados pela prova não-paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e a comparação dos ingredientes para o conjunto de variáveis, por intermédio da "Análise de Agrupamento" e "Análise de Componentes Principais". Os ingredientes foram assim classificados: a baixa atrato-palatabilidade = farelos de trigo, soja e algodão, farinha e raspa de mandioca, farinha de girassol e fubá de milho, b média atrato-palatabilidade = levedura de cana-de-açúcar e glúten de milho e c alta atrato-palatabilidade = ovo integral liofilizado, farinhas de crisálidas, peixes, carne e camarão. Ingestão de grânulos (manhã e tarde e freqüência de visitas aos comedouros (tarde foram consideradas as variáveis mais discriminatórias e freqüência de ejeção de grânulos e tempo gasto para aproximação dos comedouros (manhã e tarde, as menos discriminatórias. As respostas comportamentais dos peixes variaram de acordo com o ingrediente apresentado. A avaliação do grau de atrato-palatabilidade deve ser realizada considerando-se uma combinação de parâmetros.The response of Nile tilapia to the attraction and palatability of 14 ingredients was evaluated. The two-choice method was used, comparing each pelleted ingredient to a control diet. It was utilized Four aquaria (750 liters containing in each one three fingerlings and two feed containers at the right and left corner, being recorded the elapsed time between the lay of the ingredient and the arrive of the fingerlings to feed containers, visiting frequency to the feed containers, amount of ingested pellets and ejections frequency. The treatments were compared by non-parametric method of Kruskal-Wallis and the comparison of the ingredients for the variable set using "Grouping Analysis" and "Principal Components Analysis". The numbers of ingested pellets (at morning and at afternoon and the visiting frequency to feed containers (at afternoon were considered the most discriminatory variables. The ingredients were classified as it follows: a low attraction and palatability = wheat meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, cassava meal, cassava scrapings, sunflower meal and corn meal, b medium attraction and palatability = sugar-cane yeast and corn gluten meal and c high attraction and palatability = integral lyophilized egg, silk worm meal, fish meal, meat meal, shrimp meal. The frequency of ejected pellets and time spent to approach of the feed (at morning and at afternoon were considered the least discriminatory variables. The behavior response of fishes changes according to the presented ingredient. The attraction and palatability extent must be studied considering combinations of variables.

Elyara Maria Pereira-da- Silva

2000-10-01

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Digestibilidad aparente de materia seca, proteína y energía de harina de vísceras de pollo, quinua y harina de pescado en tilapia nilótica, Oreochromis niloticus / Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy regarding fish meal, poultry by-product meal and quinua for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente estudio se realizó con el objeto de determinar los coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente (CDA) de la proteína (CDAp) y de la energía (CDAe) de harina de pescado (HP), harina de vísceras de pollo (HVP) y harina de quinua Chenopodium quinoa (HQ), para tilapia nilótica Oreochromis nilotic [...] us. Para estimar los coeficientes se utilizó el método indirecto con marcador (óxido de cromo), colectando las heces por el sistema Guelph modificado. Tilapias con peso promedio de 130 gr se alimentaron con una dieta experimental constituida por dieta referencia (DR) (89.5 %, 79.5 % ó 69.5 %), 0.5 % de marcador inerte y el ingrediente a evaluar en un nivel de inclusión de 10 %, 20 % ó 30 %. Las heces comenzaron a colectarse 10 horas después de suministrar el alimento, cada hora durante 12 horas; las muestras se secaron a una temperatura de 60ºC y se almacenaron a -17°C hasta ser analizadas. Los CDAp para los tres niveles de inclusión (10, 20 y 30 %) fueron respectivamente: 88.1, 89.4 y 90.9 % para HP; 96.8, 94.9 y 94.1 para HVP y 67.7, 73.5 y 77.5 para HQ. No se observaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to determine protein (ADCp) and energy (ADCe) apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa) (QF) used in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The indirect method with a chromium [...] oxide marker was used to estimate the aforementioned ADC; faeces were collected by the modified Guelph system. Tilapias having an average 130 g weight were fed on an experimental diet consisting of reference diet (RD) (89.5 %, 79.5 % or 69.5 %), 0.5 % inert marker (chromium dioxide) and the ingredient to be evaluated to assess 10 %, 20 % or 30 % inclusion level. The fish were fed every hour for 12 hours per day and their faeces were collected 10 hours after the fish had been fed; the samples were dried at 60ºC and stored at -17°C until analysed. Chromium oxide level was determined by the acid digestion method. The ADCp for the three inclusion levels (10 % 20 % and 30 %) were respectively: 88.1 %, 89.4 % and 90.9 % for FM, 96.8 %, 94.9 % and 94.1 % for PBM and 67.7 %, 73.5 % and 77.5 % for QF. There were no significant differences (p 0.05); there were no significant differences between PBM inclusion levels and QF was significantly lower (10 % inclusion level).

Mariana C., Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Martha I., Yossa-Perdomo; Walter, Vásquez-Torres.

2011-12-01

84

Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus) na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência), características de ca [...] rcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático) e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo) dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05) nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival), characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fil [...] let, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index) and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract) of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05) for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P

Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Anderson, Coldebella; Guilherme Wolff, Bueno; Aldi, Feiden.

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Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil.  

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For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three specimens of O. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylis sp.) and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp.) were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems. PMID:25054495

Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Garcia, Fabiana; Schalch, Sérgio Henrique Canello; Gozi, Kátia Suemi; Silva, Reinaldo José da

2014-01-01

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Organic insecticide spinosad causes in vivo oxidative effects in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus.  

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Spinosad is an organic insecticide derived from a naturally occurring soil bacterium and is used in organic farming worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo toxic effects of spinosad in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus as a model organism. The fish were exposed to sublethal spinosad concentrations (25, 50, 75 mg L(-1) ) for 24-48-72 h to determine tGSH, GSH, GSSG, and TBARS contents, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GPx, GR, GST enzymes activities using spectrophotometrical methods, and Hsp70 content by an ELISA technique. Spinosad caused elevations in the contents of tGSH, GSH, GSSG, Hsp70, and reductions in the ratio of GSH/GSSG and GPx activity and an induction in the GR activity. The results indicated that spinosad had oxidative effects in the brain tissue by altering the parameters in GSH-related antioxidant system and Hsp70. It was also suggested that spinosad-induced free-radicals were eliminated by GSH-related antioxidant system in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus. PMID:22223469

Piner, Petek; Uner, Nevin

2014-03-01

87

Quantification of Essential Fatty Acids and Assessment of the Nutritional Quality Indexes of Lipids in Tilapia Alevins and Juvenile Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available To determine the nutritional quality of the lipid segment in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus during different periods of development (alevins and juveniles, the total lipids (TL, linolenic (LNA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, docosapentaenoic (DHA, linoleic (LA and arachidonic (AA acids were quantified , and the lipid nutritional quality indexes were calculated for the tilapia. The lipid profile showed that the species present high indexes of monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in both development phases. The indexes of nutritional quality of lipids, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI present low values and represent beneficial health effects, both in the alevin and juvenile fish. The quantifications of LNA, EPA, DHA, LA and AA show the greatest values (mg/g of total lipids for the juveniles. However, regardless of the development phase in which the tilapia is, the fish may be considered a source of essential fatty acids a kind of potential and nutritional food, reflecting beneficial effects for consumer’s health. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

Ivane Benedetti Tonial

2014-03-01

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Comparative assessment of bioload of healthy and diseased Oreochromis niloticus as means of food security  

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Full Text Available Thirty-one (31 samples each of diseased and healthy Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus from Otamiri River, in Nekede, Owerri West; Imo State Nigeria was examined to detect the presence of bacterial and helminth fauna. The intestine, liver, gill, tissue and skin of the fish were examined. Bacteriological analysis revealed counts of healthy diseased organs to fall between 6.0 x 104 – 3.5 x 107 cfu/g and 5.7 x 106 – 1.9 x 1011 cfu/g respectively. The result however indicated that the bacterial load of the diseased fish samples were higher than those of the apparently healthy fish. Identification tests of the probable bacterial isolates revealed the isolation of Vibrio sp, Renibacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Yersinia sp, Pseudomonas sp, Nocardia sp, Lactobacillus sp, Sporocytophaga, Staphylococcus sp, Mycobacterium sp, Serratia sp Proteus sp and Edwardsiella sp. Twenty-nine (29 ie 46.8% of the 62 samples studied were found to be infected by helminth fauna identified as Camallanus sp, Procamallanus beviconchus, Capillaria sp, Clinostonium tilapiae, Euclinostonium heterostoma, Cleidodiscus sp and Bothricephalus acheilognathi. Percentage helminth infestation was found to be higher in males than females with sub adults recording the highest infection rate of 56.08%. Hence helminth infestation varies amongst age group. This study therefore reveals the bacterial & helminth load of cultured organs of Oreochromis niloticus with a view to provide information on the state of environmental and personal hygiene in the environment, the level of contamination of water and the security and/or insecurity nature of using fish as food.

Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

2011-05-01

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Effect of ionizing radiation on Tailpipe (Oreochromis niloticus) protein biofilms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New alternatives to traditional packaging have considered the use of renewable sources as raw material to form films including proteins. In this paper we used myofibrillar protein from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), that in our country, is commercialized at competitive prices comparative to these practiced in developing country. The films were prepared according a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol. The films were irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 1.5 MeV at dose range from 0 kGy to 200 kGy. The samples were kept at 25 deg C and 58% relative moisture until the analysis. The main properties studied were color, opacity, solubility, and mechanical properties. (author)

90

Effect of Crowding Stress on Some Physiological Functions of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) Fed Different Dietary Protein Levels  

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Oreochromis niloticus (L.) Fed dietary protein levels to chronic stress induced by doubling fish density. In this study, Nile tilapia (15?1 g) was randomly distributed into the aquaria at a rate of 15 or 30 fish/100 L. The temperature was adjusted at 27?1?C. Fish of each density were fed either a diet containing 25, 35 or 45% Crude Protein (CP) with a feeding rate of 3% of life body weight twice daily for two...

Sharaf, Safaa M.; Mousa, Mamdouh A. A.; Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab; Ahmad, Mohammad H.

2005-01-01

91

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de Vitamina E no desempenho e qualidade de carcaça de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Os experimentos foram conduzidos no ranário experimenta do Departamento de Biologia Animal, UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de 09/01/ 2005 a 25/04/2005, t [...] otalizando 106 dias. Foram utilizadas 400 pós larvas revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus)em um experimento com um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina E monofosfato) numa ração isoproteíca 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com quatro repetições. Não se observou efeito significativo para peso final, para ganho de peso total, para ganho de peso diário dos animais, para taxa de eficiência protéica e para taxa de sobrevivência. Para o índice viscerossomático houve diferença significativa para o tratamento sem suplementação, com 100 mg e com 150 mg/kg desta vitamina. Para o ácido graxo oléico (C18:1) a utilização do tratamento sem vitamina E foi significamente maior em relação aos outros tratamentos. O ácido graxo eicosapentaenóico EPA (C20:5?3) foi estatisticamente significativo para o tratamento sem suplementação de vitamina E. O ácido graxo linoléico (C18:2?6), ácido graxo ?-linolênico (C18:3?6), ácido graxo ?-linoléico (C18:3?3) e ácido graxo araquidônico (C20:4?6) aumentaram de forma quadrática até o nível estimado de 110 mg, 111 mg, 113 mg e 140 mg de vitamina E por kg de ração, respectivamente. Abstract in english The effect of vitamin E supplementation on performance and carcass quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The research was carried out in the experimental frog raising facilities at the Department of Animal Biology, UFV, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Four hundred post larva reversed (Oreochr [...] omis niloticus) were used for studies. The experiments were randomly designed with five treatments (supplying 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of vitamin E mono-phosphate) in an isoproteic ration with 36% CP and isocaloric with 3600 kcal/kg of DE with four repetitions. It was not observed significant effect for final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain, protein efficiency rate and survivor rate. The viscerosomatic index showed significant differences for the treatment without vitamin E supplementation and with 100 and 150 mg of this vitamin. For oleic fatty acid, the treatment without vitamin E was significantly higher. The eicosapen-taenoic fatty acid (C20:5?3) was statistically significant for the treatment without vitamin E. The fatty acids linoleic (C18:2?6), ?-linolenic (C18:3?6), ?-linoleic (C18:3?3), and arachidonic (C20:4?6) increased in a quadratic way up to the estimated levels of 110 mg, 111mg, 113 mg, and 140 mg of vitamin E/kg of ration, respectively.

R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; D.P., Veloso; D.O., Fontes; R.F., Silva.

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Oxidative stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi) exposed to diesel oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering that diesel oil is one of the most common aquatic contaminants, we compare the oxidative stress between two species of fish with different habitats (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, benthic and Oreochromis niloticus, nektonic) exposed to diesel oil. Malondialdehyde concentrations (MDA) and the activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase were all analyzed in the fishes' livers and gills after 2 and 7 days of exposure to different concentrations of diesel (0.1 and 0.5 mL/L). In the tilapia, MDA levels and the activities of EROD and GST activity in the liver, as well as MDA levels and the activities of GST and SOD in the gill had statistically significant differences between the treatments and between the times of exposure. For the catfish, the same occurred in the case of MDA, EROD, and SOD in the liver and in CAT and SOD in the gills. There were significant differences in the enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation between the species. Although the activity of most enzymes seemed to be more expressive and responsive to diesel in O. niloticus, diesel oil also caused significant effects on oxidative stress parameters in P. anisitsi, even though this species is benthic and thus has less access to insoluble fractions of diesel oil. Therefore, both species can be used as sentinel organisms in environmental biomonitoring of diesel contamination. PMID:21108001

Nogueira, Lílian; Rodrigues, Aline Cristina Ferreira; Trídico, Camila Pereira; Fossa, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

2011-09-01

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Requerimientos nutricionales para Tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nutritional requirements / Exigências nutricionais para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Estarevisão foi realizada com o objetivo de recolher informação dos recentesavanços sobre as exigências de alguns nutrientes para a tilápia Nilótica (Oreochromisniloticus).Asexigências de proteína bruta estão sendo substituídas pela exigência especificade aminoácidos, como no caso da lisina e da met [...] ionina, aplicando o conceito deproteína ideal. Asexigências nutricionais da tilápia do Nilo recomendadas pelo NRC (1993),diferem em algumas quantidades das exigências nutricionais estimadas paratilápia em condições tropicais. O fornecimento de ração atendendo as exigênciasde nutrientes para as diferentes fases de vida da tilápia permite obter ótimosrendimentos no ganho de peso e na conversão alimentar, garantindo um statussanitário alto na produção desta espécie. Abstract in spanish Estarevisión fue realizada con objetivo de acopiar información de los recientesavances sobre los requerimientos de algunos nutrientes para la tilapianilótica(Oreochromisniloticus). Los requerimientos de proteína bruta, estánsiendo substituidos por el requerimiento específico de aminoácidos, como en [...] elcaso de lisina y metionina, aplicando el concepto de proteína ideal. Losrequerimientos nutricionales de tilapia delNilo sugeridos por NRC (1993),difieren en algunas cantidades a los requerimientos nutricionales estimadospara tilapia en condiciones tropicales. El suministro de raciones atendiendolas exigencias de nutrientes para las diferentes fases de vida de la tilapia,permite obtener óptimos rendimientos en ganancia de peso y conversiónalimenticia, garantizando un status sanitario alto en la producción de estaespecie. Abstract in english The purpose of this review was tocompile information regarding recent advances concerning some Nile tilapia (OreochromisNiloticus) nutrient requirements. The raw protein requirements are beingsubstituted for specific amino acid requirements, such as lysine andmethionine, applying the ideal protein c [...] oncept. Nile tilapia"s nutritionalrequirements suggested by NRC (1993) differ by some amounts from thenutritional requirements estimated for tilapia in tropical conditions. Thesupply of rations attending to the nutrient demand from the different phases oftilapia"s lifecycle lead to optimum yield being obtained regarding weight gainand feed conversion, guaranteeing high sanitary status when producingthis specie.

Torres-Novoa, Diana M.; Hurtado-Nery, Víctor L..

2012-06-01

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EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05 differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR, condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein retention (NPR, apparent net energy retention (ANER and hepatosomatic index (HSI values. The diet containing a mixture of all the 4 dietary lipids in equal proportions (3.5g of each lipid per 100g of diet produced the best results (SGR, I. 73%; condition factor, 2.95; FCR, 1.27; PER, 2.06; NPR, 29.30% and ANER, 20.21% whereas the diet containing beef tallow showed the poorest performance (SGR, 1.50%; condition factor, 2.76; FCR, 1.53; PER, 1.73; NPR, 26.26% and ANER, 18.53%. The growth performance of fish fed on diet containing beef tallow was however, significantly (P< 0.05 better than that of lipid free diet. The diets containing corn oil, olive oil, and cod liver oil did not show any significant difference in the growth performance of fish. The hepatosomatic index (HSI value increased in fish fed diets containing lipids (maximum 1.55% in case of corn oil as compared to those fed lipid free diet ( 1.31 %. No significant differences were observed in the feed consumption of fish fed different diets. The type of dietary lipid significantly affected the body composition of fish. The data on the body composition of fish is very much correlated with the growth performance data. The fish fed on diets containing lipids showed higher body fat and crude protein but lower moisture and gross energy contents as compared to those fed lipid free diet. The fish fed on diet containing beef tallow however showed similar body protein and ash contents as those fed lipid free diet. The results of the present study suggest that diet supplemented with a mixture of different types of lipids will produce the best growth response in Oreochromis niloticus.

Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

2000-04-01

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Eficácia do mentol como anestésico para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em três experimentos, testou-se a eficiência do mentol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), por meio da avaliação de eventos comportamentais, da verificação da margem de segurança do anestésico e das respostas de estresse. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas seis difer [...] entes concentrações de mentol para avaliar o tempo de indução à anestesia. No segundo, foram realizados dois testes com o objetivo de verificar a margem de segurança do anestésico. No terceiro, avaliou-se o efeito estressante do anestésico. A concentração 250mg L-1 de mentol foi a mais adequada para indução de anestesia cirúrgica. Para anestesia voltada para biometria e breve inspeção visual do animal, a concentração mais adequada foi 150-200mg L-1. O dobro da concentração ideal (500mg L-1) não acarretou a morte nos indivíduos, indicando boa margem de segurança para o uso desse anestésico. O mentol, mesmo em sua concentração adequada, induziu ao aumento na glicose sanguínea, caracterizando estresse no peixe. Conclui-se que o mentol não é um anestésico eficaz para juvenis de tilápia durante procedimentos de rotina na piscicultura. Abstract in english This work tested the effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic for Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) by the evaluation of behavioral events, the safety margin of the anesthetic, and stress response. On first experiment, six different anesthetic concentrations were tested to evaluate the induction ti [...] me to anesthesia. On second experiment, two tests were carried out to verify the safety margin of the anesthetic. On third experiment, stress responses were evaluated. The safe concentration to induce a surgical anesthesia was 250mg L-1. To a brief handling and visual inspection, the appropriated concentration was 150-200mg L-1. There was no mortality after exposure to 500mg L-1, indicating a good safety margin for this anesthetic. Menthol even in its adequate dosage induced a rise in glucose concentrations indicating a stress response of the fish. Thus menthol is an ineffective anesthetic to juveniles tilapia during routine procedures in fish culture.

L.N., Simões; L.C., Gomes.

96

Eficácia do mentol como anestésico para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em três experimentos, testou-se a eficiência do mentol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), por meio da avaliação de eventos comportamentais, da verificação da margem de segurança do anestésico e das respostas de estresse. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas seis difer [...] entes concentrações de mentol para avaliar o tempo de indução à anestesia. No segundo, foram realizados dois testes com o objetivo de verificar a margem de segurança do anestésico. No terceiro, avaliou-se o efeito estressante do anestésico. A concentração 250mg L-1 de mentol foi a mais adequada para indução de anestesia cirúrgica. Para anestesia voltada para biometria e breve inspeção visual do animal, a concentração mais adequada foi 150-200mg L-1. O dobro da concentração ideal (500mg L-1) não acarretou a morte nos indivíduos, indicando boa margem de segurança para o uso desse anestésico. O mentol, mesmo em sua concentração adequada, induziu ao aumento na glicose sanguínea, caracterizando estresse no peixe. Conclui-se que o mentol não é um anestésico eficaz para juvenis de tilápia durante procedimentos de rotina na piscicultura. Abstract in english This work tested the effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic for Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) by the evaluation of behavioral events, the safety margin of the anesthetic, and stress response. On first experiment, six different anesthetic concentrations were tested to evaluate the induction ti [...] me to anesthesia. On second experiment, two tests were carried out to verify the safety margin of the anesthetic. On third experiment, stress responses were evaluated. The safe concentration to induce a surgical anesthesia was 250mg L-1. To a brief handling and visual inspection, the appropriated concentration was 150-200mg L-1. There was no mortality after exposure to 500mg L-1, indicating a good safety margin for this anesthetic. Menthol even in its adequate dosage induced a rise in glucose concentrations indicating a stress response of the fish. Thus menthol is an ineffective anesthetic to juveniles tilapia during routine procedures in fish culture.

L.N., Simões; L.C., Gomes.

2009-06-01

97

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast / Crescimento das tilápias do Nilo Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes níveis de levedura alcooleira  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), com 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14 g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 330 dias. O desempenho da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de d [...] estilaria (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) em rações experimentais balanceadas sobre o desenvolvimento na criação de tilápia do Nilo não mostrou efeito prejudicial até o nível máximo testado de 30%, indicando que a escolha do nível de levedura na ração para estes peixes depende de sua disponibilidade e custo ocasional. A levedura proporcionou aos peixes boa resistência às condições ambientais desfavoráveis, o que foi constatado pela não diferença estatística entre os tratamentos com diferentes níveis de levedura e o controle. O baixo índice de crescimento em comprimento e peso pode ser atribuído ao pouco espaço disponível por exemplar, não obedecendo o limite de densidade populacional, e uma diminuição da ingestão de alimentos coincidindo com o período de inverno, além da ausência de alimentação natural. Abstract in english Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery ye [...] ast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding.

V., MEDRI; G. V., PEREIRA; J. H., LEONHARDT.

2000-02-01

98

Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

Wanderson Pantoja MF

2012-04-01

99

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina C / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin C  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de vitamina C no desempenho produtivo de tilápias revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizadas 400 pós-larvas revertidas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C monofosfato de ácido ascórbico [...] L) numa ração isoprotéica de 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com 4 repetições. Observou-se efeito significativo no peso médio final e ganho de peso com 50, 100 e 200 mg de vitamina C por kg. Não foi observada diferença significativa para o comprimento total. No entanto, para o comprimento padrão foi observada diferença significativa com os tratamentos 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg. Verificou-se efeito significativo na taxa de eficiência protéica com suplemen-tação de 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou a porcentagem de MS, proteína bruta e porcentagem de proteína no ganho de peso. Não foi observada diferença significativa dos tratamentos para extrato etéreo, porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou significativamente a concentração de glicogênio no músculo. Não foi observada diferença significativa para glicogênio do fígado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin C in the productive performance of reverted tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus). Four hundred tilapias were used. The experiment was mounted according to a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 [...] mg/kg of vitamin C monophosphate of ascorbic acid L) in a ration isoproteinic (36% of PB) and isocaloric (3600 kcal of DE/kg) with 4 repetitions. Significant effect was observed in final weight and weight gain for in treatments of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. It was not observed significant difference for the total length. However, for the standard length was observed significant difference in treatments 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Significant effect was observed for protein efficiency rate with supplementation of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Vitamin C supply did not influenced MS percentage, crude protein and protein percentage in weight gain. Significant difference was not observed for ether extract and fat percentage in weight gain. Vitamin C supply did not influence significantly the concentration of muscle glycogen. It was not observed significant difference for liver glycogen.

R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; L.M., Botion; F.K.S., Pereira; R.F., Silva; T.E.F., Maciel.

100

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina C / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin C  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de vitamina C no desempenho produtivo de tilápias revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizadas 400 pós-larvas revertidas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C monofosfato de ácido ascórbico [...] L) numa ração isoprotéica de 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com 4 repetições. Observou-se efeito significativo no peso médio final e ganho de peso com 50, 100 e 200 mg de vitamina C por kg. Não foi observada diferença significativa para o comprimento total. No entanto, para o comprimento padrão foi observada diferença significativa com os tratamentos 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg. Verificou-se efeito significativo na taxa de eficiência protéica com suplemen-tação de 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou a porcentagem de MS, proteína bruta e porcentagem de proteína no ganho de peso. Não foi observada diferença significativa dos tratamentos para extrato etéreo, porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou significativamente a concentração de glicogênio no músculo. Não foi observada diferença significativa para glicogênio do fígado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin C in the productive performance of reverted tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus). Four hundred tilapias were used. The experiment was mounted according to a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 [...] mg/kg of vitamin C monophosphate of ascorbic acid L) in a ration isoproteinic (36% of PB) and isocaloric (3600 kcal of DE/kg) with 4 repetitions. Significant effect was observed in final weight and weight gain for in treatments of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. It was not observed significant difference for the total length. However, for the standard length was observed significant difference in treatments 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Significant effect was observed for protein efficiency rate with supplementation of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Vitamin C supply did not influenced MS percentage, crude protein and protein percentage in weight gain. Significant difference was not observed for ether extract and fat percentage in weight gain. Vitamin C supply did not influence significantly the concentration of muscle glycogen. It was not observed significant difference for liver glycogen.

R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; L.M., Botion; F.K.S., Pereira; R.F., Silva; T.E.F., Maciel.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Control of Reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) Using Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Linn.) Leaf Meal as Reproduction Inhibitor  

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Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf (HLM) was added to a basal diet (350g crude protein and 18.5MJ gross energy/kgdiet) at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg diets and fed to mixed-sex Oreochromis niloticus for 60 days to evaluate theeffects on growth, feed conversion ratio, reproduction traits, and histology of gonads. There were no variations(p >0.05) in growth parameters and feed conversion ratio. Indices of reproduction traits decreased withincreasing dietary HLM levels. Fish fe...

Jegede, Temitope

2010-01-01

102

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with different levels of proteins of yeast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados 72 juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 37.27 ± 4.92g. distribuídos em 12 gaiolas de 100L para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta. Os peixes foram distribuídos em um delineamento inte [...] iramente casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0; 20; 40; e 60%) de proteína de levedura em substituição à proteína de fontes tradicionais com três repetições. Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos (p > 0.05) sobre a sobrevivência e conversão alimentar. Foi observado efeito quadrático sobre o ganho de peso (Y = 73.39 + 0.173X - 0.0034X²; R² = 0.9986). Concluiu-se que o melhor nível de inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta para juvenis revertidos de tilápias do Nilo é de 25.44%. Abstract in english This experiment was based on observations of 72 juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial mean weight of 37.27 ± 4.92g, distributed in 12 cages of 100 l to evaluate the effects of the yeast inclusion as proteins source in the diet. The fishes were distribut [...] ed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0; 20; 40; and 60%) of yeast protein in substitution to the protein of traditional sources with three repetitions. Effects of the treatments were not observed (p > 0.05) on the survival and to food conversion. It was observed a quadratic effect on weight gain (Y = 73.39 + 0.173X - 0.0034X²; R²= 0.9986). It was concluded the best level of yeast inclusion as source proteins in the diet for reversed Nile tilapia juvenile was 25.44%.

Vandir, Medri; Waldir, Medri; Mauro, Caetano Filho.

103

Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

2013-11-01

104

The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets / Uso de bacterias ácido lácticas aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) como promotores de crecimiento en peces alimentados con dietas bajas en proteína  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto como promotores de crecimiento de cinco cepas de bacterias ácido lácticas (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I y Streptococcus sp. II) aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus). Se formularon ocho dietas isocalóri [...] cas: una conteniendo 40% de proteína como control positivo y siete con 27% de proteína. Cinco dietas con 27% de proteína fueron suplementadas con cada una de las bacterias aislada a una concentración de 2,5x10(6) ufc g-1 de alimento. Un probiótico comercial a base de S. faecium y Lactobacillus acidophilus a la misma concentración de inclusión bacteriana a una dieta con 27% de proteína como dieta comparativa, y la última dieta no fue suplementada con bacterias (control negativo). Juveniles de tilapia (280 mg de peso basal) fueron distribuidos en acuarios de 15 L de capacidad, a una densidad de dos juveniles por litro, alimentados durante 12 semanas con las dietas experimentales. Los resultados mostraron que los organismos alimentados con las dietas suplementadas con bacterias nativas presentaron crecimiento y asimilación del alimento significativamente mayor que las dietas control. El tratamiento con Streptococcus sp. I, aislada del intestino de la tilapia, produjo el mejor crecimiento y la mejor eficiencia alimenticia, sugiriendo que esta bacteria es apropiada como un promotor de crecimiento nativo de tilapia. Abstract in english In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II), isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: on [...] e containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6) cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control). Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight) stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

Maurilio, Lara-Flores; Miguel A, Olvera-Novoa.

2013-07-01

105

Níveis de vitamina C e ferro para tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Levels of vitamin C and iron for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de vitamina C e ferro no desempenho produtivo e parâmetros fisiológicos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) foram avaliados por um período de 73 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três níveis de [...] vitamina C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg) e três níveis de ferro (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg), mais um tratamento adicional (0 mg/kg de suplementação de vitamina C e ferro), com quatro repetições cada tratamento, totalizando 10 grupos experimentais. Utilizaram-se 240 alevinos revertidos com peso médio inicial de 7,46 ± 0,49 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 40 aquários de 250 L, numa lotação de 6 peixes/aquário. Confeccionou-se dieta purificada com 32,0% de proteína bruta e 3300 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A ausência de vitamina C e ferro nas dietas propiciou o aparecimento de anemia microcítica e hipocrômica aos alevinos. A presença dessa vitamina em dosagens elevadas estimulou a liberação de eritrócitos imaturos na corrente sangüínea. Determinou-se, também, que níveis desses acima das exigências nutricionais descritas para a espécie não determinaram efeito detrimental no desempenho produtivo, na produção de proteínas plasmáticas ou nos aspectos morfológicos do fígado. Abstract in english The effects of different levels of vitamin C and iron on growth performance and physiological parameters on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were evaluated for 73 days. A factorial experiment with three levels of vitamin C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg) and three levels of iron (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg), pl [...] us an additional treatment (with 0 mg/kg of vitamin C and iron), was considered on a completely randomized design, with four replicates for each experimental group. It was randomly stocked 240 reverted fingerlings, an average weight of 7.46 ± 0.49 g, into 40, 250L, aquaria at a density of 6 fish/aquarium. A albumin-gelatin-diet was formulated to contain 32.0% of crude protein and 3,300 kcal/kg of digestible energy. Fingerlings of Nile tilapia fed diet without supplemental vitamin C and iron developed hypochromic microcytic anemia and the supplemental vitamin C determined the presence of immature erythrocytes on blood. It was also determined that iron serum concentration was influenced by vitamin C and iron supplied on diets, and that levels above to nutritional requirements for the specie did not determined detrimental effect on growth performance, plasmatic protein or morphologic characteristics of liver.

Margarida Maria, Barros; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Geisa Karine, Kleemann; Hamilton, Hisano; Guilherme Jordão de Magalhães, Rosa.

106

Níveis de vitamina C e ferro para tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Levels of vitamin C and iron for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de vitamina C e ferro no desempenho produtivo e parâmetros fisiológicos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados por um período de 73 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três níveis de vitamina C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg e três níveis de ferro (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg, mais um tratamento adicional (0 mg/kg de suplementação de vitamina C e ferro, com quatro repetições cada tratamento, totalizando 10 grupos experimentais. Utilizaram-se 240 alevinos revertidos com peso médio inicial de 7,46 ± 0,49 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 40 aquários de 250 L, numa lotação de 6 peixes/aquário. Confeccionou-se dieta purificada com 32,0% de proteína bruta e 3300 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A ausência de vitamina C e ferro nas dietas propiciou o aparecimento de anemia microcítica e hipocrômica aos alevinos. A presença dessa vitamina em dosagens elevadas estimulou a liberação de eritrócitos imaturos na corrente sangüínea. Determinou-se, também, que níveis desses acima das exigências nutricionais descritas para a espécie não determinaram efeito detrimental no desempenho produtivo, na produção de proteínas plasmáticas ou nos aspectos morfológicos do fígado.The effects of different levels of vitamin C and iron on growth performance and physiological parameters on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated for 73 days. A factorial experiment with three levels of vitamin C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg and three levels of iron (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg, plus an additional treatment (with 0 mg/kg of vitamin C and iron, was considered on a completely randomized design, with four replicates for each experimental group. It was randomly stocked 240 reverted fingerlings, an average weight of 7.46 ± 0.49 g, into 40, 250L, aquaria at a density of 6 fish/aquarium. A albumin-gelatin-diet was formulated to contain 32.0% of crude protein and 3,300 kcal/kg of digestible energy. Fingerlings of Nile tilapia fed diet without supplemental vitamin C and iron developed hypochromic microcytic anemia and the supplemental vitamin C determined the presence of immature erythrocytes on blood. It was also determined that iron serum concentration was influenced by vitamin C and iron supplied on diets, and that levels above to nutritional requirements for the specie did not determined detrimental effect on growth performance, plasmatic protein or morphologic characteristics of liver.

Margarida Maria Barros

2002-11-01

107

Individual protein balance strongly influences ?15N and ?13C values in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Science.gov (United States)

Although stable isotope ratios in animals have often been used as indicators of the trophic level and for the back-calculation of diets, few experiments have been done under standardized laboratory conditions to investigate factors influencing ?15N and ?13C values. An experiment using Nile tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was therefore carried out to test the effect of different dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%) on ?15N and ?13C values of the whole tilapia. The fish were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-synthetic diets at a relatively low level. ?15N and ?13C values of the lipid-free body did not differ between the fish fed the diets with different protein contents, but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased with increasing protein accretion in the individual fish, for N from 6.5‰ to 4‰ and for C in the lipid-free body from 4‰ to 2.5‰. This is the first study showing the strong influence of the individual protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the individual physiological condition and the feeding rate may lead to erroneous results.

Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

108

Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3 and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001. Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

José E. P. Cyrino

2012-01-01

109

Histopathological biomarkers in gills and liver of Oreochromis niloticus from polluted wetland environments, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish live in direct contact with their immediate external environment and, therefore, are highly vulnerable to aquatic pollutants. In this study, Oreochromis niloticus were caught at three different sites in Al-Hassa irrigation channels, namely Al-Jawhariya, Um-Sabah and Al-Khadoud. The histological changes in gills and liver were detected microscopically and evaluated with semi-quantitative analyses. Also, heavy metals have been determined in the water samples in these sites. Results showed that all sites were polluted by different kinds of heavy metals. Cd and Pb were mostly detected at concentrations above the WHO reference values. Meanwhile, various histopathological abnormalities were observed in gills and liver of fish specimens. In the gill filaments, cell proliferation, lamellar cell hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, lifting of the respiratory epithelium, and the presence of aneurysmal areas were observed. In the liver, there was vacuolization of the hepatocytes, sinusoidal congestion, necrosis of the parenchyma tissue, nuclear pyknosis, eosinophilic hepatocellular degeneration, pigment accumulation, an increase in the number and size of melanomacrophage centers. Liver tumors with severe chronic inflammation were occasionally found in fish at Al-Khadoud area (first-time report). The histological lesions were comparatively most severe in the liver. Despite heavy metals assessment did not show marked differences among sites, histopathological biomarkers indicated that the surveyed fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:22546634

Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A; Elmenshawy, Omar M

2012-08-01

110

Environmental cadium exposure and metabolic responses of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of short-term cadmium exposure on metabolic patterns of the freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were exposed to 320, 640, 1,280 and 2,560 microg/l sublethal concentrations of Cd++ (CdCl2) in water for 7 days. The specific activities of the enzymes phosphofructo kinase (PFK-E.C.2.7.1.11.), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-E.C.1.1.1.27.) and creatine kinase (CKE.C.2.7.3.2.) were decreased in white muscle after cadmium treatments, indicating decreases in the capacity of glycolysis in this tissue. Cadmium exposure induced increased glucose concentration in white muscle of fish. On the other hand, cadmium exposure at sublethal concentrations increased phosphofructo kinase and LDH in red muscle of fish. Cadmium significantly decreased total protein concentrations in liver and white muscle regardless of tissue glycogen levels. The data suggest that cadmium acts as a stressor, leading to metabolic alterations similar to those observed in starvation. PMID:11504339

Almeida, J A; Novelli, E L; Dal Pai Silva, M; Júnior, R A

2001-01-01

111

Edad y crecimiento del híbrido de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) en la represa “Zimapán” Hidalgo, México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La edad y crecimiento de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus fueron determinados por medio de la lectura de escamas. Un total de 382 individuos fueron capturados mediante el uso de redes agalleras y atarrayas. Ocho recolectas mensuales se llevaron a cabo entre septiembre 2003-mayo [...] 2004; se registraron los datos de longitud estándar en cm. (Le), el peso total en g (Pt) y se obtuvieron muestras de escamas para registrar el largo de la escama en mm. (Lesc) y el número de anillos de crecimiento formados. Las tallas y pesos de recolecta variaron entre 38 a 232mm (Le) y de 8.7 a 311.9g de peso total (Pt) respectivamente. El recuento de los anillos anuales en escamas, permitió establecer cuatro grupos de edad, siendo el grupo de edad 2 el más representativo, con un 34.3% de la población muestreada. El cálculo de los incrementos marginales del crecimiento mensual de las escamas, sugirió la formación de dos anillos, uno de ellos se forma en los meses de noviembre-enero y otro en los meses de abril-mayo, los cuales coinciden con la época de bajas temperaturas y de madurez gonádica respectivamente. Los parámetros de crecimiento quedaron establecidos en: L?=281.1mm, W?=877.1g, K=0.33 y T0=0.88/año. Las curvas de crecimiento en longitud y peso se describieron mediante las ecuaciones de von Bertalanffy: Le=28.11 [1- e-0.33(t+0.88)] y Pt=877.17 [1-e-0.33(t+0.88)]³. Finalmente, se concluyó que los peces que se explotan en la represa mediante captura comercial presentan entre un año y año y medio de edad. Abstract in english Age and growth of the hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the dam “Zimapan” Mexico. Studies on age and growth in fishes are essential to establish models on population dynamics. The previos issues were determined in this study by scale growth analyse [...] s. Between September 2003 and May 2004, 382 organisms were captured using gill and atarraya nets. Eight samples were developed every month a long this study. Standard length in centimeters (Le), total weight in grams (Pt), scale length in centimeters (Lesc) and growth rings were determined. The size and weight ranged from 38 to 232mm (Le) and 8.7 to 311.9g (Pt), respectively. The growth rings analyses reveal four age groups, being the sec-ond group the most representative with 34.3% of the total sampled. The scale ring analyses showed two growth rings, one develops between November-January and the other between April-May, in good correlation with low temperature and gonad development, respectively. The growth parameters were established as: L?=281.1mm, W?=877.1g, K=0.33 and T0=0.88year -1. The growth curves based on length and weight were described by using the von Bertalanffy model: Le =28.11[1-e-0.33(t+0.88)] and Pt =877.17[1-e-0.33(t+0.88)]³. Finally, it is concluded that commercial catches in this dam are between a year and year and half-old when exploited. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2): 761-770. Epub 2011 June 01.

M. A., Gómez-Ponce; K., Granados-Flores; C., Padilla; M., López-Hernández; G., Núñez-Nogueira.

112

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia  

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A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not a...

Al-ruqaie, Ibrahim M.

2007-01-01

113

Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil / Parásitos protozoarios y metazoarios de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus criadas en Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir la parasitofauna y el factor de condición relativa (Kn) de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) en granjas piscícolas del estado de Amapá. Materiales y métodos. 123 peces, de cuatro granjas piscícolas del Estado del Amapá, Brasil, fueron necropciados para real [...] izarles un análisis parasitólogico y el análisis Kn. Resultados. De los peces examinados, 64.2% estaban con las branquias infectadas por Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 y ParaTrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). La mayor prevalencia fue de Monogenoidea C. tilapiae, mientras que la menor fue de los parásitos Trichodinidae. Sin embargo, I. multifiliis fue el parásito que mostró la mayor intensidad y abundancia. Las diferencias encontradas estuvieron en las tasas de infección parasitaria de diferentes granjas piscícolas debido a las causas aquí discutidas. El parasitismo no influenció el factor de condición relativa (Kn). Este fue el primer registro de P. Africana para el Brasil, en la Amazonía Oriental. Conclusiones. En el Brasil, Lamproglena sp es un parásito emergente en las regiones del Sur y Suroeste, pero este crustáceo no fue encontrado en la tilapia del Nilo del Estado de Amapá. En la tilapia del Nilo criada en el Brasil, las infecciones parasitarías son causadas por especies de protozoarios, monogenoideas, crustáceos y digenéticos; las diferencias regionales en las tasa de prevalencia e intensidad son discutidas aquí. Abstract in english Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and [...] Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae); Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Para Trichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn) of fish. This was the first record of P. Africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

Wanderson, Pantoja MF; Ligia Neves R, Fishing Engineer; Márcia Dias RD, Fishing Engineer; Renata Marinho GB, Biologist; Daniel Montagner, Zoo Technician; Marcos, Tavares-Dias.

114

Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil / Parásitos protozoarios y metazoarios de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus criadas en Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir la parasitofauna y el factor de condición relativa (Kn) de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) en granjas piscícolas del estado de Amapá. Materiales y métodos. 123 peces, de cuatro granjas piscícolas del Estado del Amapá, Brasil, fueron necropciados para real [...] izarles un análisis parasitólogico y el análisis Kn. Resultados. De los peces examinados, 64.2% estaban con las branquias infectadas por Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 y ParaTrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). La mayor prevalencia fue de Monogenoidea C. tilapiae, mientras que la menor fue de los parásitos Trichodinidae. Sin embargo, I. multifiliis fue el parásito que mostró la mayor intensidad y abundancia. Las diferencias encontradas estuvieron en las tasas de infección parasitaria de diferentes granjas piscícolas debido a las causas aquí discutidas. El parasitismo no influenció el factor de condición relativa (Kn). Este fue el primer registro de P. Africana para el Brasil, en la Amazonía Oriental. Conclusiones. En el Brasil, Lamproglena sp es un parásito emergente en las regiones del Sur y Suroeste, pero este crustáceo no fue encontrado en la tilapia del Nilo del Estado de Amapá. En la tilapia del Nilo criada en el Brasil, las infecciones parasitarías son causadas por especies de protozoarios, monogenoideas, crustáceos y digenéticos; las diferencias regionales en las tasa de prevalencia e intensidad son discutidas aquí. Abstract in english Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and [...] Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae); Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Para Trichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn) of fish. This was the first record of P. Africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

Wanderson, Pantoja MF; Ligia Neves R, Fishing Engineer; Márcia Dias RD, Fishing Engineer; Renata Marinho GB, Biologist; Daniel Montagner, Zoo Technician; Marcos, Tavares-Dias.

2812-28-01

115

Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in adult tilapia oreochromis niloticus in Southern part of Laguna de Bay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, one of the most important fish species in Philippine aquaculture, is grown abundantly in Laguna de Bay. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the levels of accumulated mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the muscle tissue of this fresh water fish collected from February (wet season) to March (dry season) 2008 in the southern part of Laguna de Bay. Heavy metal analyses using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) showed a higher concentration of Hg and Cd during the wet season than in the dry season. However, analysis of variance revealed significant seasonal variation on only in Cd (P=0.0253). Lead, on the other hand, was not detected in the fish samples. The mean concentration set by FAO but the mean level of Cd (0.161 ppm) was almost equal to the limit given for fish. This could represent a significant health risk to the consuming public. (author)

116

Probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici modulates both localised intestinal- and peripheral-immunity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of probiotics in aquaculture has received concerted research efforts but the localised intestinal immunological response of fish to probiotic bacteria is poorly understood. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic effect of Pediococcus acidilactici on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with specific emphasis on intestinal health and probiotic levels as well as system level responses such as growth performance, feed utilization and haemato-immunological parameters under non-challenged conditions. Fish (9.19 ± 0.04 g) were fed either a control diet or a P. acidilactici supplemented diet (at 2.81 × 10(6) CFU g(-)(1)) for six weeks. At the end of the study the probiotic was observed to populate the intestine, accounting for ca. 3% (1.59 × 10(5) CFU g(-)(1)) of the cultivable intestinal bacterial load. Real-time PCR indicated that the probiotic treatment may potentiate the immune-responsiveness of the intestine as up-regulation of the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? was observed in the probiotic fed fish (P 0.05). PMID:23871840

Standen, B T; Rawling, M D; Davies, S J; Castex, M; Foey, A; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Merrifield, D L

2013-10-01

117

Health Condition of a Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Earthen Ponds, Northern Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Investigation on health conditions of a farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in two upazilas of Mymensingh District were carried out through clinical and histopathological observation during September, 2010 to March, 2011. Fish sample and water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia were monitored on a monthly basis. Clinical observations of the fish were also done for any kind of abnormalities at monthly intervals. Samples of skin, muscle, liver and kidney were observed by histological techniques. Among the water quality factors, water temperature and alkalinity were found at unfavourable level for fish during the colder months. Clinically, it was observed that the tilapia were more affected from December and January and almost normal in appearance during September, October, November and March. Different clinical symptoms like rough skin, scale loss, red spots and dermal lesions were noticed in December and January. Histopathologically, sampled fish were found almost normal in the months of September and October. In the month of November minor pathologies were found to be started. Marked pathological changes like necrosis, pyknosis, hemorrhage, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, missing of primary and secondary gill lamellae, vacuums, fat droplets and fungal granuloma and fungal hyphae were observed in fish organs during December and January. Whereas, the pathological condition of fish gradually reduced in February. Again when considered individual fish pond, fishes of pond 1 (P1 in Bhaluka upazila were more affected than other ponds. The study showed that severity of clinical and pathological changes were increased in December and January. During the period of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS, bacterial and protozoan diseases were evident.

M. Shamsuddin

2012-01-01

118

Daily growth of young-of-the-year of the Baringo tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis (Trewavas, 1983  

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Full Text Available Otolith microstructure analysis was used to validate microincrement deposition rate and to determine  daily growth rates of young-of-the-year (YOY Baringo tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis. Microincrement  formation was validated as daily by correlating the number of circuli on otoliths with the known  age of cultured fish. For wild young-of-the-year fish collected from Lake Baringo, Kenya, in August and October 2007 length was positively correlated with  the age of fish (total length (mm = 0.1187 age (/day + 1.1344 (r2 = 0.97; standard length (mm =0.0964 age (/day + 0.7082(r2 = 0.97 and growth rate was subsequently estimated at 0.12 cm/day.

Charles C. Ngugi

2011-10-01

119

Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Wastes Produced by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. Fed Azolla-Diets in Earthen Ponds  

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Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P wastes produced by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla, an aquatic atmospheric nitrogen fixing fern, was evaluated for 90 days in pond experiment. Six isonitrogenous (29.2% crude protein and isoenergetic (16.9 Kj·g–1 diets A0, A10, A20, A30, A40 and A50, containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of Azolla meal (AM respectively, as partial fishmeal (FM substitutes, was provided to experimental fish. The Azolla-free diet A0 served as a control. Fish specific growth rate (SGR was higher with the control diet, the lower values being obtained in A50-fed fish (P Azolla could be used in diet to sustain Nile tilapia growth and as “environmentally-friendly” ingredient to limit P loss, while providing N to the field, beneficially in tropical marshland pond where this nutrient is already limiting.

Jean-Claude Micha

2012-06-01

120

Farinha de peixe em ra??es para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L., linhagem tailandesa Fishmeal in the diets of Nile tilapia fingerlings Oreochromis niloticus (L., Thai strains  

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Full Text Available O objetivo desse experimento foi determinar o nível adequado de incorporação de farinha de peixe (FP em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae linhagem tailandesa. Foram distribuídos 300 animais com peso inicial médio de 0,42 ± 0,01 g, em 25 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos (0, 4, 8, 16 e 20% de FP na ração e cinco repetições. Foi observado efeito quadrático (p 0,05 dos níveis da FP sobre a sobrevivência e rendimento de carcaça. Conclui-se que o nível adequado de inclusão de farinha de peixe em rações para alevinos de tilapia do Nilo é de 12,15%.The adequate fishmeal (FM inclusion level in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae Thai strain, is provided. Three hundred fishes with initial mean average weight of 0.42 ± 0.01 g were distributed in 25 net ponds in a randomized block design with five treatments (0, 4, 8, 16 e 20% of FM in diet and five repetitions. Quadratic effect (p 0,05 did not affect survival and carcass yield. It may be concluded that the appropriate fishmeal inclusion is 12.15% in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Eliana Maria Galdioli

2001-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) on some blood constituents of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is an urban drinking water purification substance that was introduced recently in Sudan and used to substitute polymer poly diallyl dimethyl aluminium chloride (DADMAC) and aluminium sulphate in water purification treatments. This study was conducted to determine its effects on fish health, which is is considered a biological indicator and an essential component of fresh water ecosystem. In this experiment, PAC was used in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/1) in experimental tanks to achieve the desirable doses for the study. The tanks were populated by Nile Tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average weight ranging between 70 and 100 grams. Exposure of this fish to PAC resulted in an immediate signification reduction (P<0.01) in haemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes count, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of experimental fingerlings blood. The degree of reduction in these parameters was directly proportional to the concentration of PAC used. (Author)

122

Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.  

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Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism. PMID:24996943

Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

2014-11-01

123

Molecular characterization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. in Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Fishery plays an important role in the supply of food for the increasing population. Tilapia production exceeded twomillion tons, being the second most important group of fish worldwide. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusLinnaeus, 1758 is the most important species due to the fast growth rates and good acceptance by the consumer.Fish genetic improvement is highly based on molecular genetics, including RAPD, and the knowledge obtained inthe last decades gave good results in terms of molecular marker-assisted breeding. In the present work the geneticvariability of four populations of Nile tilapia was assessed using molecular techniques. Modifications in the DNAextraction protocol described by Bardakci and Skibinski (1994 were evaluated, which was followed by theapplication of the RAPD technique, using eight primers and twenty specimens of four tilapia lineages (Bouaké,Chitralada, GST and GIFT. The results from the PCR amplifications were evaluated using the programs NTSysand PopGen. GIFT was the most polymorphic group, with 37% of its loci showing polymorphism, and the groupthat presented the highest Shannon index (0,17. All primers but one (OPA-12 for the lineage Chitralada showedbands that can be used as a diagnostic tool for lineage differentiation. The dendrogram generated with thepolymorphic bands clearly separated the four populations; GIFT and Chitralada presented the highest geneticsimilarity (0,88, whereas GIFT and GST presented the highest genetic distance (0,23.

Gustavo Emygdio Halfen

2012-01-01

124

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast  

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Full Text Available Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding.

MEDRI V.

2000-01-01

125

Blocking of progestin action disrupts spermatogenesis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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In vitro studies have indicated that the maturation-inducing hormone 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17?,20?-DP, DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in the proliferation of spermatogonial cells and the initiation of meiosis in several fish species. However, further in vivo evidence is required to elucidate the role of DHP in spermatogenesis during sexual differentiation in teleosts. In this study, we cloned pgr and analyzed its expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and treated XY fish with RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) from 5 days after hatching (dah) to determine the role of DHP in spermatogenesis. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Pgr identified in tilapia is a genuine Pgr. Pgr was found to be expressed in the Sertoli cells surrounding spermatogonia and spermatids in the testis of tilapia. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of pgr in the testis was significantly upregulated from 10 dah, further increased at 50 dah, and persisted until adulthood in fish. In the testis of RU486-treated fish, the transcript levels of germ cell markers and a meiotic marker were substantially reduced. However, the expression of markers in Sertoli cells remained unchanged. Moreover, the production of 11-ketotestosterone and the expression of genes encoding various steroidogenic enzymes were also not altered. In contrast, the expression of cyp17a2, encoding one of the critical steroidogenic enzymes involved in DHP biosynthesis, declined significantly, possibly indicating the inhibition of DHP production by RU486. RU486 treatment given for 2 months did not affect spermatogenesis; however, treatment given for more than 3 months resulted in a decrease in spermatogonial cell numbers and depletion of later-phase spermatogenic cells. Simultaneous excessive DHP supplementation restored spermatogenesis in RU486-treated XY fish. Taken together, our data further indicated that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential for spermatogonial cell proliferation and spermatogenesis in fish. PMID:24827000

Liu, Gang; Luo, Feng; Song, Qiang; Wu, Limin; Qiu, Yongxiu; Shi, Hongjuan; Wang, Deshou; Zhou, Linyan

2014-08-01

126

Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil / Ectoparasitas de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) criadas em tanques-rede em um reservatório de usina hidrelétrica no Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar análise parasitológica de tilápias-do-Nilo, (Oreochromis niloticus) criadas em tanques-rede no Reservatório de Água Vermelha, Sudeste do Brasil, bem como verificar suas inter-relações com as características limnológicas, sazonalidade e fase de criação. D [...] urante o período de março de 2010 a março de 2011, espécimes de O. niloticus, pertencentes a três fases de criação (inicial, intermediária e final), foram colhidos, totalizando 63 indivíduos. Todos os peixes estavam infestados por pelo menos uma espécie de ectoparasita (prevalência = 100%). Foi observada a ocorrência de cinco espécies de protozoários (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare e Epistylis sp.), assim como cinco espécies de monogenóides (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis e Gyrodactylus sp.). A abundância de Trichodina spp. e prevalência de Epistylis sp. foram maiores no período seco, e a prevalência de C. halli foi maior no período chuvoso. Para a maioria dos ectoparasitas encontrados neste estudo, os peixes pertencentes às fases intermediária e final apresentaram maiores taxas de parasitismo do que aqueles pertencentes à fase inicial. Os dados apresentados neste estudo podem ser de grande importância para piscicultores, de forma a auxiliá-los no conhecimento da dinâmica dos parasitas da espécie de peixe estudada em sistemas de tanques-rede. Abstract in english For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three speci [...] mens of O. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylis sp.) and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp.) were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems.

Aline Cristina, Zago; Lidiane, Franceschini; Fabiana, Garcia; Sérgio Henrique Canello, Schalch; Kátia Suemi, Gozi; Reinaldo José da, Silva.

127

Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil / Ectoparasitas de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) criadas em tanques-rede em um reservatório de usina hidrelétrica no Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar análise parasitológica de tilápias-do-Nilo, (Oreochromis niloticus) criadas em tanques-rede no Reservatório de Água Vermelha, Sudeste do Brasil, bem como verificar suas inter-relações com as características limnológicas, sazonalidade e fase de criação. D [...] urante o período de março de 2010 a março de 2011, espécimes de O. niloticus, pertencentes a três fases de criação (inicial, intermediária e final), foram colhidos, totalizando 63 indivíduos. Todos os peixes estavam infestados por pelo menos uma espécie de ectoparasita (prevalência = 100%). Foi observada a ocorrência de cinco espécies de protozoários (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare e Epistylis sp.), assim como cinco espécies de monogenóides (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis e Gyrodactylus sp.). A abundância de Trichodina spp. e prevalência de Epistylis sp. foram maiores no período seco, e a prevalência de C. halli foi maior no período chuvoso. Para a maioria dos ectoparasitas encontrados neste estudo, os peixes pertencentes às fases intermediária e final apresentaram maiores taxas de parasitismo do que aqueles pertencentes à fase inicial. Os dados apresentados neste estudo podem ser de grande importância para piscicultores, de forma a auxiliá-los no conhecimento da dinâmica dos parasitas da espécie de peixe estudada em sistemas de tanques-rede. Abstract in english For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three speci [...] mens of O. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylis sp.) and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp.) were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems.

Aline Cristina, Zago; Lidiane, Franceschini; Fabiana, Garcia; Sérgio Henrique Canello, Schalch; Kátia Suemi, Gozi; Reinaldo José da, Silva.

2014-04-01

128

The Effects of Some Phytobiotics on Biochemical Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Meat Reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment is the evaluation of biochemical composition of Nile tilapia meat by administrating  several phytobiotics in feed. Oreochromis niloticus, with an initial average weight of 125.41±34.33 g/exemplar, were reared, during six weeks in a recirculating aquaculture system. The phytobiotics from this experiment were administered in feed in a concentration of 1%/kg feed and consist in: thyme (Thymus vulgaris, fenugreek (Trigonela foenum graecum, neem (Azadirachta indica. Thus, the experimental variants were: V1-control, V2-thyme, V3-fenugreek and V4-neem. Fish were fed with SOPROFISH pelleted feed with 38% crude protein and 7% crude fat. During the experiment, the physico-chemical parameters of technological water were situated in normal range for optimal growth. At the end of the experiment, significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded between the experimental variants, regarding to moisture, protein content, fat content and dry matter; unsignificant differences were recorded regarding the percentage of ash (p>0.05; p=0.68. The highest value of moisture (87.25% was registered in V2; the lowest value of fat content (0.05% was recorded in V4 and the lowest protein content (10.79% in V2. In conclusion, thyme, fenugreek and neem administration, in concentration of 1%/kg feed, influenced significantly the biochemical composition of Oreochromis niloticus.

Alina Antache

2013-05-01

129

Heavy metal (lead, Cadmium) and antibiotic (Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol) residues in fresh and frozen fish types (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus) in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.  

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This study was carried out to assess the level of heavy metals (lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)) and antibiotics (tetracycline and chloramphenicol) residues in frozen and fresh fish types obtained from Eleyele river, Officer's mess, Alfa farm and a major frozen meat outlet in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to analyze the heavy metals and antibiotics residue levels in fresh and frozen fish, respectively. The results showed mean concentrations of antibiotics was higher (pfish samples while there were no significant differences in the mean concentrations of heavy metal residue. The differences of mean residue levels in both antibiotics and heavy metals tested in the cranial and caudal parts of the fish samples were not significant (pmaximum permissible limits set by both local and international safety agencies. Tetraxcycline exceeded international limits of 0.2 ppm while Chloramphenicol which has a zero tolerance level was also detected from all sources. This study accentuates the need for control of heavy metals and antibiotics in fish sold for human consumption in Ibadan, Nigeria. The need to ban chloramphenicol in treatment of fish and other animals is emphasised. PMID:24205760

Olusola, Adetunji Victoria; Folashade, Popoola Amirah; Ayoade, Odetokun Ismail

2012-09-15

130

Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles.  

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It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P ratio diets, which was in line with the 11·9% higher oxygen demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia. PMID:22221412

Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

2012-10-28

131

Heavy Metal (Lead, Cadmium and Antibiotic (Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol Residues in Fresh and Frozen Fish Types (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the level of heavy metals (lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd and antibiotics (tetracycline and chloramphenicol residues in frozen and fresh fish types obtained from Eleyele river, Officer’s mess, Alfa farm and a major frozen meat outlet in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC were used to analyze the heavy metals and antibiotics residue levels in fresh and frozen fish, respectively. The results showed mean concentrations of antibiotics was higher (p<0.05 in fresh than in frozen fish samples while there were no significant differences in the mean concentrations of heavy metal residue. The differences of mean residue levels in both antibiotics and heavy metals tested in the cranial and caudal parts of the fish samples were not significant (p<0.05. However, there was a significant difference between species (tilapia and catfish and sources. The highest heavy metals and tetraxycline residues were observed in Alfa’s farm (Pb: 0.039±0.004 ppm; Cd: 0.020±0.006 ppm; tetraxycline: 2.185±0.412. Chloramphenicol was highest in Officers mess (0.837±0.165 ppm. The heavy metals (Pb and Cd concentrations determined were below the maximum permissible limits set by both local and international safety agencies. Tetraxcycline exceeded international limits of 0.2 ppm while Chloramphenicol which has a zero tolerance level was also detected from all sources. This study accentuates the need for control of heavy metals and antibiotics in fish sold for human consumption in Ibadan, Nigeria. The need to ban chloramphenicol in treatment of fish and other animals is emphasised.

Popoola Amirah Folashade

2012-01-01

132

Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii (Gervais) (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in the Lake Turkana, Kenya.  

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Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. is described from the fin surface of cichlid fishes Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Tilapia zillii (Gervais) caught in Lake Turkana (Kenya). The new species morphologically resembles Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973, but can be readily distinguished by the shape of the marginal hook sickles and the size of its hamuli. The sequence data of rDNA spanning partial 18S, internal transcribe spacer 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene is unique within GenBank. Genetically, as most similar Gyrodactylus ergensi P?ikrylová, Mat?jusová, Musilová et Gelnar, 2009 was found (97.5%). Moreover, a specimen of G. cichlidarum from O. niloticus, and a specimen G. ergensi from Sarotherodon galilaeus (L.) were collected during sampling in Kenya. Likewise, additional sampling of O. niloticus from the Blue Nile in Sudan revealed the presence of the newly described species. These findings represent the first records of gyrodactylids in both African countries. PMID:22807048

P?ikrylová, Iva; Radim, Blažek; Gelnar, Milan

2012-06-01

133

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)  

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The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed t...

Apt, Medeiros; Chellappa, S.; Me, Yamamoto

2007-01-01

134

Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo State, Brazil / Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia [...] do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses), compreendendo a água de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos. Abstract in english Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) rearing. Sa [...] mpling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months), taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.

Jeniffer Sati, Pereira; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; André Martins, Vaz-dos-Santos; Clóvis Ferreira do, Carmo; João Alexandre Saviolo, Osti.

135

Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo State, Brazil / Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia [...] do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses), compreendendo a água de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos. Abstract in english Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) rearing. Sa [...] mpling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months), taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.

Jeniffer Sati, Pereira; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; André Martins, Vaz-dos-Santos; Clóvis Ferreira do, Carmo; João Alexandre Saviolo, Osti.

2012-12-01

136

Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus in mixed raising systems  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Phase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising, final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising; but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realizada em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo; peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada.

Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

2008-06-01

137

Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) in mixed raising systems  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realiza [...] da em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada) e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo); peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo) e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Ph [...] ase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada) were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising), final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising); but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.

Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Ricardo Pereira, Ribeiro; Lauro, Vargas; Maria Raquel Marçal, Natali; Káttia Regina, Maehana; Nilton Garcia, Marengoni.

2008-06-01

138

The Effects of Different Oils Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.  

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Full Text Available A total of 600 juvenile fish with average initial weight of 2.540.07 g were enrolled to this study to investigate the effects of different oil sources (fish oil, soybean oil, linseed oil and beef tallow on the growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L. during 14 weeks. Experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous (30.76% CP and isocaloric (13.09 MJ DE kg-1. At the end of the study, it was observed that there were no significant differences among the groups for average live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, Condition Factor (CF, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Specific Growth Rate (SGR and survival rate (p>0.05 but carcass composition (p<0.05.

Sezai A. Bozaoglu

2012-01-01

139

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.  

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This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

2009-01-01

140

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

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Full Text Available This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

TATIANA S FIUZA

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Light and electron microscopic study on Henneguya suprabranchiae Landsberg, 1987 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting Oreochromis niloticus, a new host record.  

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Out of 58 live tilapia fish, five Oreochromis niloticus were found to be naturally infected with Henneguya suprabranchiae (8.62%). Such infection was recorded only during winter season from Bahr Shebin, a tributary of the River Nile at Menoufia Governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt. Based on the structure and measurements of fresh spores, this parasite was identified as H. suprabranchiae. Spores are oval in shape and they measure 15 (13-16) x 5 (4-6) microm length by width. It has two polar capsules inside and they measure 4 (5-7) x 1 (2-3) microm length by width. Each polar capsule has spirally coiled (7-9 turns) polar filament. The plasmodia as well as all other parasitic stages were described using light and transmission electron microscopy and discussed regarding to those of other fish hosts especially those of Africa. PMID:18516619

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh; Bayoumy, Elsayed M; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Al Qurieshy, Saleh; Morsey, Kareem S; Alghamdy, Ali; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2008-08-01

142

Field Study on the Mycotoxin Binding Effects of Clay in Oreochromis niloticus Feeds and Their Impacts on the Health Status throughout the Culture Season  

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Full Text Available Total aflatoxin and ochratoxin were detected in 3 naturally contaminated fish feed samples using immune-affinity method. The results revealed that the average levels of aflatoxins in the 3 examined samples were (15, 22 and 12 µg / kg respectively while the average levels of ochratoxins were (15, 6 and 6µg / kg.The levels of aflatoxins and ochratoxins after adding different doses of clay as a mycotoxin binder, revealed that the levels of aflatoxin in the treated samples after using clay at dose 2kg / ton detected as (2,1 and zero respectively and levels of ochratoxins were 12, 2 and 2 respectively. The levels of aflatoxins in the treated samples after using clay at a dose 4kg / ton was (1, zero and zero respectively, while the levels of ochratoxins were 1, zero and zero respectively. The results of determination of the effects of clay on the health status and performance of Oreochromis niloticus in comparing with a control group revealed that the survival rate in control group was 81% after the end of the culture season. The results also revealed that the survival rate in group 2 which received clay treated feed was 86%. The results of regular parasitological examination revealed the identification of trichodina as external protozoa in Oreochromis niloticus from both ponds but without manifestation of disease signs. The results of bacteriological examination revealed the identification of pseudomonas flouresence from some moribund Oreochromis niloticus.

Wael Anwar

2010-11-01

143

Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis  

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Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis...

Mohamed Tabita Kamara; Wenshui Xia; Betty Mabel Foh; Issoufou Amadou; Mohamed Beva Kelfala Foh

2010-01-01

144

Effects of Starvation on Body Chemical Composition and Energy Density ?in Juvenile Nile tilapia (?Oreochromis niloticus?)  

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40 specimens of juvenile Nile tilapia (?Oreochromis niloticus?) (initial weight: (3.61±0.13) g) were divided into 5 groups, and were starved for 0, 8, 15, 22 and 45d respectively. Body chemical compositions were measured and energy density was estimated during starvation. The results showed that the contents of protein (?PRO?), lipid (?FAT?) and energy density (?E?) are negatively related to starvation. The relationships between ?PRO?, ?FAT?, or ?E? and starvation...

Luo, Yi-ping; Huang, Qing-da; Zhang, Yu-rong; Wang, Qian-qian; Wang, Wen

2012-01-01

145

Impact of Introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus on Non-native Aquatic Ecosystems  

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Full Text Available The global invasion of non-native aquatic ecosystems by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is well documented and coincides with their increased use as an aquaculture species. Aquaculture can be defined as the farming of fish or other aquatic organisms and it varies considerably in terms of production practices. Generally, freshwater finfish, such as Nile tilapia, are reared in inland ponds (closed systems. However, in several countries, floating cages are increasingly used to rear Nile tilapia in open water bodies. In such systems, escape is inevitable. The Nile tilapia is considered an omnivorous species and it ingests zooplankton, phytoplankton, or debris present in rivers. As a consequence, the release of Nile tilapia into non-native aquatic ecosystems may result in competition for food and space, thereby damaging native species. The wide environmental tolerance and high reproductive rate of Nile tilapia facilitate its use for aquaculture, but also render the species highly invasive. Here, we review the high frequency of Nile tilapia in non-native biodiversity and indicate the existence of the species under feral conditions in every country in which it has been introduced through farming systems.

C.E. Fonseca-Alves

2013-01-01

146

Neurotoxic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin modulated by piperonyl butoxide in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus.  

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The objective of this research was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of pyrethroid pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin by the modulation of cytochrome P450 with piperonyl butoxide in the brain of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were exposed to 0.48 ?g L(-1) (1/6 of the 96-h LC50 ) lambda-cyhalothrin and 10 ?g L(-1) piperonyl butoxide for 96 h and 15 days. tGSH, GSSG, TBARS contents, GPx, GR, GST, and AChE enzymes activities were determined by spectrophotometrical methods and Hsp70 content was analyzed by ELISA technique. Lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on the components of GSH redox system, lipid peroxidation and Hsp70 levels but inhibited AChE activity. In the presence of piperonyl butoxide, lambda-cyhalothrin caused increases in tGSH, GSSG, TBARS and Hsp70 contents, GST activity, and decrease in AChE activity. Present results showed that in the presence of piperonyl butoxide, lambda-cyhalothrin caused neurotoxic effects by increasing oxidative stress. Adaptation to its oxidative stress effects may be supplied by GSH-related antioxidant system. Piperonyl butoxide revealed neurotoxic effect of lambda-cyhalothrin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 1275-1282, 2014. PMID:23460558

Piner, Petek; Uner, Nevin

2014-11-01

147

Embryonic development and skeletogenesis of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus in the cichlid Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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The evolution of a specialized pharyngeal jaw apparatus (PJA) has been argued to be the key evolutionary innovation that allowed the explosive adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African lakes. Subsequent studies together with recent molecular phylogenies have shown that similar innovations evolved independently several times within the teleosts, which poses the questions: (1) how similar are the developmental mechanisms responsible for these changes in divergent taxa and (2) how did such complex features arise independently in evolution? A detailed knowledge of PJA development in cichlids and other teleosts is needed to address these questions. Here, we provide a detailed account of the development of the PJA in one species of cichlid, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), from the early segmentation and patterning of its embryonic precursors - pharyngeal arches 3 to 7 - to its ossification. We find that pharyngeal segmentation occurs sequentially from anterior to posterior during early segmentation stages through the mid-pharyngula period. We show a clear combinatorial code of Hox gene expression such that each posterior arch is defined by a distinctive Hox signature. Posterior arch chondrogenesis in tilapia is essentially complete by the end of the hatching period, and most elements become ossified over the next two days. Our results reveal that both the fusion of lower jaw bones and articulation between the neurocranium and upper jaws occur during post-embryonic development. PMID:19718717

le Pabic, Pierre; Stellwag, Edmund J; Scemama, Jean-Luc

2009-11-01

148

Subchronic effects of cyanobacterial cells on the transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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The increasing occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic water bodies is nowadays of worldwide concern due to their ability to produce toxins such as microcystins (MCs). These cyanobacterial toxins have been shown to affect aquatic organisms such as fish, resulting in oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) play an important role in the detoxification of MCs. In the present work tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were orally exposed to cyanobacterial cells containing MCs and non-containing MCs for 21 days. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time PCR of both enzymes and the GST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney. Also the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assayed. MCs containing cyanobacterial cells induced an increase of LPO products in both organs, and MCs containing and MCs non-containing cyanobacterial cells altered the activity, gene expression and protein abundance of the enzymes, indicating the importance of GPx and sGST in MCs detoxification. Moreover, liver, the main organ involved in biodegradation and biotransformation, experienced an adaptative response to the toxic insult. These results show for the first time that the subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells causes changes in antioxidant and detoxification enzymes and that GPx and GST gene expression are good markers of these alterations in tilapia. PMID:21279735

Puerto, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Angeles; Miguel-Carrasco, José Luis; Vazquez, Carmen M; Cameán, Ana M

2011-03-01

149

ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus WASTE  

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Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis niloticus was the first Tilapia species to be taken up for large Scaleaquaculture. It is consumed widely due to its deliciousness and rich source of protein. During its processing, the scales, Fins, Skins etc are expelled out as waste Acid solubilized collagen (ASC and Pepsin Solubilizedcollagen (PSC were extracted from these processing wastes. Initial extraction by acid yielded 22% of collagen and subsequent digestion with pepsin yielded 56% on dry weight basis. The total protein of ASC and PSC was determined by Bradford method which contains 68.34mg/ml,23.24 mg/ml respectively. The FT-IR Spectrumshowed that ASC and PSC are helpful in prediction and confirmation of Secondary structure of proteins. The denaturation temperature of ASC was 32?C while for PSC it is 29?C.SEM micrograph showed the fibrousnature of Collagen. This report indicates that Tilapia waste might be useful as a new source of collagen apart from usual bovine and pig skin.

S.Sujithra

2013-06-01

150

Effect of different stress factors on some physiological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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This study was conducted to determine the effect of different stress factors on some physiological measurements of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A total number of 160 Nile tilapia, the body weight ranging between 100 and 120 g, were exposed to three stress factors of hypoxia, overcrowding and starvation for different periods 24, 72 and 144 h. The results of cortisol level were 134.15, 144.27, 154.12 ng/ml and 140.18 ng/ml for control, hypoxia, overcrowding and starvation, respectively, while after 144 h did not show significant difference among treatments compared with control group. In contrast, the values of T3 and T4 observed reduction with significant difference that T3 ranged between the highest value 122.12 ng/ml for control group to lowest value of starvation group 94.35, 93.81 and 88.46 ng/ml after 24, 72 and 144 h. Also, similar trend of results observed in T4 and blood glucose among treatments. And the enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenise (LDH) increased in hypoxic group, while a significant reduction appeared in overcrowding and starved fish compared to control group. The pyruvate kinase (PK) activity decreased in hypoxic group but increased in other group. PMID:23961085

El-Khaldi, Aziza T F

2010-07-01

151

Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

152

MULTI-BIOMARKER RESPONSES TO BIOACCUMULATION of DICLOFOP-METHYL in FRESHWATERFISH (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the environmental hazards presented to wildlife by new pesticides or new uses of established pesticides, biochemical changes, residual behavior and accumulation of diclofop-methyl (Iloxan 36 % EC . A laboratory trials of diclofop-methyl were carried out on tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus as indicator species to . Acute toxicity of diclofop-methyl (Iloxan 36 % EC was carried out and the median lethal concentration for 96 hours (96 h - LC50 value was 1.89 mg / l. In the present study, two groups of fish were exposed to two sub lethal concentrations selected on the basis of 1 / 10 (0.19 mg / l, low concentration and 1 / 3 (0.63 mg / l, high concentration of diclofop-methyl LC50 value for 28 days under the laboratory conditions compared to the control group. The treatments indicated that a gradual bioaccumulation of herbicide with time in whole fish was more pronounced than in muscle. Several criteria for estimating pesticide accumulation effect were studied on different biochemical parameters in plasma of fish after treatments. The results indicated that alanine aminotransferases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities as well as albumin and glucose levels increased significantly after treatment with both concentrations comparing to control group. However, significant increase in aspartate aminotransferases (AST and total protein levels with was recorded low concentration (0.19 mg / l only. On the other hand, high concentration (0.63mg / l caused significant increase in urea levels. However, ceriatinine level was decreased in both exposed concentrations. Noticeable changes in antioxidants biomarkers were recorded , a reduction in SH-protein level accompanied with an elevation in lipid peroxidation biomarker (MDA were recorded in plasma after treatment with two concentrations. The previous results were accompanied with noticeable alterations in plasma and muscle protein patterns in both treated groups.

Gamila, A. M. Kotb1; Sherif, H. Abd Al-Rahman2; Ahmed, A. Gh. Farag3

2010-09-01

153

Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.12 [...] 5; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g), estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L), alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5). O ganho de peso (GDP) e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA) de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%). Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie. Abstract in english Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g) s [...] tocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L), kept under controlled environmental conditions inside 1000-L plastic pools, were fed to satiation, for 42 days, with purified diets supplemented with 0, 375, 750, 1125, 1500 or 1875 mg of choline chloride per kg of feed. Trial was set up in an incomplete, totally randomized block design (n=5). There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and survival rate (S%); there were significant differences for weight gain (WG) and food conversion ratio (FCR) between the control and all the other treatments, but not between supplementation levels. A second trial (52 days) evaluated the effects of higher rates of choline -- 1250 or 2500 mg per kg of feed, and the substitution of choline by betaine in the diets -- 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg of betaine per kg of feed. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and S%, but the FCR and WG of fish fed betaine-supplemented and control diets were significantly worse. There were no differences on the performance among groups fed the choline-supplemented diets. Supplementation of 375 mg of choline per kg of feed met nutritional requirements of Nile tilapia, and betaine did not substitute choline effectively in diets for the species.

Ivan, Vieira; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

2001-12-01

154

Simulation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) culture in ponds, through individual-based modelling, using a population dynamic approach  

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A simulation model for the production of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) for mixed- or mono-sex culture and for poly-culture with the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) or African snakehead (Parachanna obscura Günther 1861) is presented. The model is based on an exponential decay model used in population dynamics and follows an individual-based approach. The model consists of a tilapia sub-model representing population dynamics, growth and recruitment an...

Graaf, G. J.; Dekker, P. J.; Huisman, E. A.; Verreth, J. A. J.

2005-01-01

155

Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P0.05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved growth performances, feed and nutrients utilization and whole body composition (dry matter, protein and energy content) in Nile tilapia fry. (author)

156

Effects of aflatoxin B1 on sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. x O. mossambicus Peters  

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Full Text Available In the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus to assess the effects of diets containing various levels (i.e. 0, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 and 2,500 ppb of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on growth performance, blood parameters and histopathology of fish. Results showed that experimental fish fed AFB1 with 2,500 ppb showed significant reduced weight gain and hepatosomatic index. However, feed supplemented with AFB1 caused no effect on survival rate of the fish in each group. Feeding high level of AFB1 (1,000 and 2,500 ppb also affected some blood parameters i.e. hemoglobin and plasma protein. Some histopathological changes (i.e. cloudy swelling, inflammation and cell necrosis were observed in liver and pancreas of fish fed AFB1 with 1,000 and 2,500 ppb. The severity of symptoms was related with concentration of AFB1. This indicated that AFB1 may impair the functioning of fish hepatocytes. However, no residue of AFB1 was detected in fish tissues at completion of the feeding period. It can be concluded that fish feeds occasionally contaminated with AFB1 directly affected fish health but may have no negative impact on fish consumers.

Supamattaya, K.3

2005-02-01

157

Determination of some heavy metals in oreochromis niloticus, clarias gariepinus and synodontis spp from the coastal water of Ondo State, Nigeria  

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Some heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Mn, and Cr) were determined in Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias graiepinus and Synodontis spp obtained from the coastal water of Ondo State. All metals examined and detected in all fish samples. Iron, manganese and cadmium were found to be the most abundant metals in the fish samples with an average values of 35.8, 31.3, and 12.5 mg kg-1 respectively. Except for manganese, iron and cadmium, Syndrontis spp has the highest concentration for virtually all the metals under examination. (author)

158

Morformetria e desenvolvimento gonadal em (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Morphometry and development of gonad in (Oreochromis niloticus) with supplementation of vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da suplementação de vitamina E na morfometria e no desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). Para peso da gônada, índice gonadossomático (IGS), espessura do testículo e porcentagem de lúmen foram observadas diferenças para tratamento 150 mg/kg de vitam [...] ina E. Para epitélio germinativo foi observada diferença para o tratamento com 150 mg e para porcentagem de células de Leydig do tratamento com 50 mg de vitamina E por kg. Para vasos sanguíneos foi maior com 50 e 150 mg. A exigência de vitamina E para desenvolvimento gonadal da tilápia é de 150 mg/kg. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in the morphometry and gonadal development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Considering the weight of the gonad, gonadossomatic index, testes thickness and lumen percentage, significant differences were observed for the tre [...] atment with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. There were observed significant differences for percentage of germinative epithelium to 150 mg/kg of vitamin E and for percentage of Leydig cells in treatment with 50 mg/kg of vitamin E. The percentage of blood vessels was higher in both treatments with 50 and 150 mg. The vitamin E requirement for gonadal development of tilápia is 150 mg/kg.

R.D., Navarro; S.L.P., Matta; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; W.M., Ferreira; D.C., Miranda; F.K.S., Pereira.

159

Morformetria e desenvolvimento gonadal em (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Morphometry and development of gonad in (Oreochromis niloticus) with supplementation of vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da suplementação de vitamina E na morfometria e no desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). Para peso da gônada, índice gonadossomático (IGS), espessura do testículo e porcentagem de lúmen foram observadas diferenças para tratamento 150 mg/kg de vitam [...] ina E. Para epitélio germinativo foi observada diferença para o tratamento com 150 mg e para porcentagem de células de Leydig do tratamento com 50 mg de vitamina E por kg. Para vasos sanguíneos foi maior com 50 e 150 mg. A exigência de vitamina E para desenvolvimento gonadal da tilápia é de 150 mg/kg. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in the morphometry and gonadal development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Considering the weight of the gonad, gonadossomatic index, testes thickness and lumen percentage, significant differences were observed for the tre [...] atment with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. There were observed significant differences for percentage of germinative epithelium to 150 mg/kg of vitamin E and for percentage of Leydig cells in treatment with 50 mg/kg of vitamin E. The percentage of blood vessels was higher in both treatments with 50 and 150 mg. The vitamin E requirement for gonadal development of tilápia is 150 mg/kg.

R.D., Navarro; S.L.P., Matta; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; W.M., Ferreira; D.C., Miranda; F.K.S., Pereira.

2010-12-01

160

Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

 
 
 
 
161

Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development  

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Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab

162

Dynamics of Population of Five Parasitic Monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus Linne, 1757 in the Dam of Loumbila and Possible Interest in Intensive Pisciculture  

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Full Text Available The study of the gill fishes of 176 Oreochromis niloticus (L. was undertaken in the dam of Loumbila (Burkina Faso, in order to obtain the first information on the dynamics of population of the Monogeneans parasites in a population of wild hosts. These data are essential in the search for means to avoid the enormous losses that often occur in intensive pisciculture. This analysis revealed the presence of five species of Monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus tilapiae, Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus rognoni and Scutogyrus longicornis. On the levels of the recorded infestations, these species taken individually probably do not control the population of Oreochromis niloticus. In the dam of Loumbila, the fluctuations of parasitic abundances are neither seasonal nor cyclic. The size either does not have an influence on parasitism. However, the sex effect was noted with C. halli, the females thus were more infested than the males. O. niloticus is parasitized all the year, because the recruitment of these organisms, although relatively weak, is continuous; this logically results in their accumulation in this fish.

M. Boungou

2008-01-01

163

Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2 in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3 and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5µg/g body weight to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24 hr post injection (P < 0.001, while the treatment with an anti-thyroid, MMI (100 ppm for 6 days significantly reduced kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05. gnrh2, gnrh3 and thyrotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect.

SatoshiOgawa

2013-11-01

164

Radical scavenging and reducing ability of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates.  

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Enzymatically hydrolyzed fish protein hydrolysates could be used as a source of antioxidative nutraceuticals. In our current work, we have investigated alkali-solubilized tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for their reducing power. Tilapia protein isolate was prepared by an alkaline solubilization technique and used as a substrate for enzyme hydrolysis. Cryotin, protease A 'Amano' 2, protease N 'Amano', Neutrase and Flavourzyme, were used separately to determine their effectiveness in hydrolyzing tilapia protein isolate. ROS scavenging ability was quantified using an isoluminol enhanced chemiluminescent assay in the presence of a) hydrogen peroxide or b) mononuclear cells isolated from human blood. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the hydrolysates using 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) or 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), were also investigated. Results showed that, in general, the TEAC, FRAP values and ROS scavenging ability of the hydrolysates increased with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Among the different hydrolysates, those prepared using Cryotin were most effective and Amano A2 hydrolysates were least effective in scavenging ABTS*(+) and ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide. However, FRAP assay showed that hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme were most effective, and Amano N and Neutrase hydrolysates were least effective in reducing ferric ions. No significant difference was observed among the hydrolysates produced with different enzymes in their ability to scavenge ROS generated by phorbol myristate acetate stimulated mononuclear cells. These results shed light on the in vitro ROS scavenging ability of alkali solubilized tilapia protein hydrolysates, as well as potential nutraceutical use of these hydrolysates. PMID:18828605

Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

2008-11-12

165

Oxidative and apoptotic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin modulated by piperonyl butoxide in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus.  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of pyrethroid pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin in the presence of piperonyl butoxide as a modulator in the liver of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. LC(50) (96h) value of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as 2.901?g/L for O. niloticus. The fish were exposed to 0.48?g/L (1/6 of the 96-h LC(50)) lambda-cyhalothrin and 10?g/L piperonyl butoxide for 96-h and 15-d. tGSH, GSH, GSSG, Hsp70 and TBARS contents, GPx, GR, GST and caspase-3 enzymes activities were determined. Lambda-cyhalothrin caused increases in tGSH, GSH, TBARS contents, and GST activity. Piperonyl butoxide treatment with lambda-cyhalothrin caused significant increases in tGSH GSH, Hsp70, TBARS contents, and GPx and GST activities while caspase-3 activity was decreased. The results of the present study revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin caused oxidative stress which upregulated GSH and GSH-related enzymes. Piperonyl butoxide increased the oxidative stress potential and apoptotic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin. PMID:22387602

Piner, Petek; Uner, Nevin

2012-05-01

166

Oxidative stress and apoptosis was induced by bio-insecticide spinosad in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus.  

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This study was conducted to investigate acute toxic effects of spinosad on Glutathione-related oxidative stress markers, lipid peroxidation, heat shock proteins, apoptosis in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus selected as a model organism. The fish were exposed to sublethal spinosad concentrations (25, 50, 75 mg/L) for 24-48-72 h. tGSH, GSH, GSSG, and TBARS contents, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GPx, GR, GST and caspase enzyme activities were measured using spectrophotometrical methods, and Hsp70 content was measured by ELISA technique. The results demonstrated that spinosad exposure caused significant alterations in the GSH-related oxidative stress markers, and also caused increases in lipid peroxidation and stress proteins with inducing ROS generation in the liver. Apoptosis initiated with the induction of caspase-3 and Hsp70 could not protect the liver cells. Our results indicated that GSH-related antioxidant system tried to protect the liver cells from spinosad-induced hepatotoxicity however, the oxidative stress resulting from induction of ROS generation induced apoptosis in the liver of O. niloticus. PMID:24051243

Piner, Petek; Üner, Nevin

2013-11-01

167

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758  

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Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

Kenan Koprucu

2004-01-01

168

Densidade de estocagem de alevinos da Tilápia "Oreochromis niloticus" (linhagem Chitralada) cultivada em tanques-rede  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar densidades de estocagem de alevinos de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus), linhagem Chitralada, em tanques-rede instalados no reservatório de Xingó. Foram utilizados 12 estruturas de tanques-rede de 5 m3, revestidos internamente com bolsões de PVC de 4m3 (malha de # 4-8 mm), nas quais foram estocados alevinos de 0,85 g. Adotou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (800, 950 e 1.100 alevinos/m3) e quatro repetiç?...

Eudes de Souza Correia; Athiê Jorge Guerra Santos; Marisa de Oliveira Apolinário; Fabiana Penalva de Melo; Kleber Alves Saraiva

2009-01-01

169

Nile Tilapia Neu3 sialidases: Molecular cloning, functional characterization and expression in Oreochromis niloticus.  

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Mammalian Neu3 is a ganglioside specific sialidase. Gangliosides are involved in various physiological events such as cell growth, differentiation and diseases. Significance of Neu3 and gangliosides is still unclear in aquaculture fish species. To gain more insights of fish Neu3 sialidases, molecular cloning and characterization were carried out in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A tilapia genome-wide search for orthologues of human NEU1, NEU2, NEU3 and NEU4 yielded eight putative tilapia sialidases, five of which were neu3-like and designated as neu3a, neu3b, neu3c, neu3d and neu3e. Among five neu3 genes, neu3a, neu3d and neu3e were amplified by PCR from adult fish brain cDNA with consensus sequences of 1227bp, 1194bp and 1155bp, respectively. Multiple alignments showed conserved three Asp-boxes (SXDXGXTW), YRIP and VGPG motifs. The molecular weights for Neu3a, Neu3d and Neu3e were confirmed using immunoblotting analysis as 45.9kDa, 44.4kDa and 43.6kDa, respectively. Lysate from neu3 genes transfected HEK293 cells showed sialidase activity in Neu3a towards ganglioside mix optimally at pH4.6. Using pure gangliosides as substrates, highest sialidase activity for Neu3a was observed towards GD3 followed by GD1a and GM3, but not GM1. On the other hand, sialidase activities were not observed in Neu3d and Neu3e towards various sialoglycoconjugates. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that tilapia Neu3a and Neu3d are localized at the plasma membrane, while most Neu3e showed a cytosolic localization. RT-PCR analyses for neu3a showed significant expression in the brain, liver, and spleen tissues, while neu3d and neu3e showed different expression patterns. Based on these results, tilapia Neu3 exploration is an important step towards full understanding of a more comprehensive picture of Neu3 sub-family of proteins in fish. PMID:25234733

Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Komatsu, Masaharu; Itakura, Takao; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

2014-11-15

170

Production algale et consommation par le Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., au Lac Muhazi (Rwanda. Résumé de thèse de doctorat  

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Full Text Available Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda. The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

Mukankomeje, R.

1992-01-01

171

The effect of increased light intensity on the aggressive behavior of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Animals show behavioral and physiological changes that emerge in response to environmental perturbations (i.e., emergency life-history stages). In this study, we investigate the effects of light intensity on aggressive encounters and social stability in groups of adult male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis [...] niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). The study compared the behavior observed under low (280.75 ± 50.60 lx) and high (1394.14 ± 520.32 lx) light intensities, with 12 replicates for each treatment. Adult fish were isolated in 36-L aquaria for 96 hours, and three males were grouped for 11 days in 140-L aquaria. Agonistic behavior was video-recorded (10 min/day) on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th day to quantify aggressive interactions and social stability. There was an effect of light intensity and day of observation on the total number of agonistic behaviors performed by the fish group. Besides, increased frequency of aggressive interactions (the sum of the four sessions) by the alpha, beta and gamma fish occurred at the higher light intensity. The dominance ranks of the fish remained unchanged across the observation sessions under both the low and high light intensities. We concluded that enhanced light intensity has a cumulative effect that increases the aggressiveness of the Nile tilapia but that this effect is not sufficiently strong to destabilize the social hierarchy.

Thaís B., Carvalho; Francine Z., Mendonça; Roselene S., Costa-Ferreira; Eliane, Gonçalves-de-Freitas.

172

Effects of replacing fishmeal with wastes derived from local fisheries on the growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially and totally replacing fishmeal with by-product derived from local fisheries on growth performances of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Tilapia fingerlings (average initialweight 0.38±0.05 g were fed with 5 different diet formulas composing of fish meal protein replacement levels of 0%, 25%,50%, 75, and 100%. Tilapia were raised in 80 x 80 x 80 cm3 hapa in an earthen pond for 8 weeks. Each treatment contained3 replications. No feeding trial was applied as negative control. The result showed that fish by-product powder could substitute for fishmeal on a crude protein basis at a level of not more than 25%. As a result, feed cost can only be cut down approximately 3 US cents/kg. Specific growth rate, weight gain, survival rate and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different between the fish fed with the 75% and 100% fishmeal containing diets (P>0.05. The outcome would beapplied to reduce the solid wastes from fish processing and partially replace the imported fishmeal. This can also be used as guideline for farmers in small communities to produce their own tilapia feed.

Chanagun Chitmanat

2009-01-01

173

The effect of increased light intensity on the aggressive behavior of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae  

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Full Text Available Animals show behavioral and physiological changes that emerge in response to environmental perturbations (i.e., emergency life-history stages. In this study, we investigate the effects of light intensity on aggressive encounters and social stability in groups of adult male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758. The study compared the behavior observed under low (280.75 ± 50.60 lx and high (1394.14 ± 520.32 lx light intensities, with 12 replicates for each treatment. Adult fish were isolated in 36-L aquaria for 96 hours, and three males were grouped for 11 days in 140-L aquaria. Agonistic behavior was video-recorded (10 min/day on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th day to quantify aggressive interactions and social stability. There was an effect of light intensity and day of observation on the total number of agonistic behaviors performed by the fish group. Besides, increased frequency of aggressive interactions (the sum of the four sessions by the alpha, beta and gamma fish occurred at the higher light intensity. The dominance ranks of the fish remained unchanged across the observation sessions under both the low and high light intensities. We concluded that enhanced light intensity has a cumulative effect that increases the aggressiveness of the Nile tilapia but that this effect is not sufficiently strong to destabilize the social hierarchy.

Thaís B. Carvalho

2013-04-01

174

Response of antioxidant system of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following exposure to chromium and copper in differing hardness.  

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Tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to copper or chromium in soft water (SW) (~80 mg CaCO3/L, conductivity 1.77 mS/cm) or hard water (HW) (~320 mg CaCO3/L, conductivity 5.80 mS/cm) using 2 exposure protocols (20 ?M for 48 h and 10 ?M for 144 h). Following the exposures, antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD); catalase (CAT); glutathione peroxidase; glutathione reductase; and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the liver of fish. SOD and CAT activities of control fish kept in SW were significantly lower than control fish kept in HW. However, the other antioxidant indices (glutathione metabolism) of both control fish were unaffected from water hardness. Acute metal exposures did not alter the glutathione metabolism, whereas SOD activity in SW and CAT activity in both waters changed significantly. In subchronic duration, Cu exposure caused significant decreases in measured parameters, except for GST activity and GSH level. Similarly, GST activity and GSH level were unaffected from Cr exposure. This study showed that SOD and CAT were the most sensitive antioxidant indices, and that glutathione metabolism, in general, was not altered following metal exposures in different waters. PMID:24610354

Dogan, Zehra; Eroglu, Ali; Kanak, Esin G; Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Mustafa

2014-06-01

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Evaluación preliminar de las poblaciones bacterianas asociadas al tracto intestinal de la tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) expuesta a aceites esenciales de orégano en la dieta  

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Núñez De La Rosa, Melisa Giset (2011) Evaluación preliminar de las poblaciones bacterianas asociadas al tracto intestinal de la tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) expuesta a aceites esenciales de orégano en la dieta. Maestría thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Nu?n?ez La Rosa, Melisa Giset

2011-01-01

176

Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos  

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Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas substâncias antimicrobianas e também contra a rifampicina; o isolado bacteriano de pacu foi a única linhagem resistente a tetraciclina. Isolados de pacu e tilápia apresentaram resistência intermedi?ria frente a eritromicina. O uso de medicamentos em pisciculturas comerciais no Brasil pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de linhagens bacterianas resistentes em espécies de peixes nativos, como já observado em espécies exóticas comercialmente produzidas há mais tempo.

Andréa Belém-Costa

2006-06-01

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EFEKTIVITAS IKAN NILA MERAH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS SEBAGAI PEMAKAN JENTIK NYAMUK  

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Full Text Available Ikan nila merah (Oreachromis niloticus merupakan ikan yang berasal dari luar negeri yang sudah dibudidayakan secara meluas di Indonesia. Ikan tersebut mempunyai arti ekonomis penting karena harganya mahal. Dalam percobaan laboratorium, ikan nila merah memakan jentik nyamuk dan ganggang Enteromorpha, yaitu ganggang yang dipakai untuk bertelur nyamuk Anopheles sundaicus. Dalam suatu percobaan, efektivitas ikan nila merah sebagai agen biologi untuk mengendalikan jentik nyamuk vektor malaria, telah dilakukan dengan membuat kolam-kolam percobaan sebanyak 12 kolam yang diisi dengan, ikan nila merah, ikan nila merah, dan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas, serta kolam kosong sebagai kontrol. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa dalam kolam yang diisi dengan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas jentik nyamuknya lebih sedikit. Hal ini berbeda nyata dengan kolam yang diisi ikan mas saja dan kolam kontrol.

M. Sudomo

2012-10-01

178

Honey bee pollen improves growth, immunity and protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

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The mode of action of honey bee pollen (HBP) was investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Thus, fish with an average weight of 29 ± 3 g were divided into four groups, and fed with HBP-free diet (control), and 1%, 2.5% and 4% (w/v) HBP incorporated into basal diet for 10, 20 and 30 days. Immunological, hematological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured, and sub-groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection. HBP significantly increased the growth performance parameters [body weight, length, average daily gain (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed efficiency ratio (FER)] and immunological (phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and nitroblue tetrazolium assay (NBT)), hematological (hematocrit (Hct), leucocrit (Lct), the numbers of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) and biochemical parameters (serum total protein, albumin and globulin ratios). Furthermore, all treated fish exhibited significant protection against challenge with A. hydrophila, with the highest protection (93%) observed in the group fed with 2.5% (w/v) HBP for 20 and 30 days. PMID:25086230

El-Asely, Amel M; Abbass, Amany A; Austin, Brian

2014-10-01

179

Immunostimulatory effects of artificial feed supplemented with a Chinese herbal mixture on Oreochromis niloticus against Aeromonas hydrophila.  

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The effects of a Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) composed of astragalus, angelica, hawthorn, Licorice root and honeysuckle on immune responses and disease resistant of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain) were investigated in present study. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0% CHM (w/w) for 4 weeks. And series of immune parameters including lysozyme, cytokine genes TNF-? and IL-1?, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured during test period. After four weeks of feeding, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that feeding Nile tilapia with CHM-supplementation diet stimulated lysozyme activity, SOD activity and POD activity in serum, induced TNF-? and IL-1? mRNA expression in head kidney and spleen, but decreased serum MDA content. All CHM-supplemental groups showed reduced mortalities following A. hydrophila infection compared with the group fed the control diet. These results suggested that this CHM can be applied as a tilapia feed supplement to elevate fish immunity and disease resistance against A. hydrophila. PMID:24925761

Tang, Jufen; Cai, Jia; Liu, Ran; Wang, Jiamin; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

2014-08-01

180

Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae juveniles  

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Full Text Available This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758. In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluated exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L-1. The most appropriate clove oil concentration to induce surgical anaesthesia was 90 mg.L-1. To biometry or other brief handling, the recommended concentration is 50-60 mg.L-1 as it provides fast recovery. Maximum anaesthesia time should be 10 min. The mortality rate of fish transported using 18 mg.L-1 of anaesthetic was significantly higher than that of the control group at 24 h of transportation and at 96 h after transportation. The fish transported using clove oil as anaesthetic presented more significant Na+ and K+ disorders as compared to the control group. As an anaesthetic, clove oil is efficient in the handling of Nile tilapia in routine fish hatchery procedures, although it should be avoided in the transportation.

Larissa N. Simões

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) juveniles  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluate [...] d exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L-1). The most appropriate clove oil concentration to induce surgical anaesthesia was 90 mg.L-1. To biometry or other brief handling, the recommended concentration is 50-60 mg.L-1 as it provides fast recovery. Maximum anaesthesia time should be 10 min. The mortality rate of fish transported using 18 mg.L-1 of anaesthetic was significantly higher than that of the control group at 24 h of transportation and at 96 h after transportation. The fish transported using clove oil as anaesthetic presented more significant Na+ and K+ disorders as compared to the control group. As an anaesthetic, clove oil is efficient in the handling of Nile tilapia in routine fish hatchery procedures, although it should be avoided in the transportation.

Larissa N., Simões; Danielle C., Lombardi; Andrea T. M., Gomide; Levy C., Gomes.

182

EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Samuel Olubodun Obasa

2013-10-01

183

The effect of mistletoe, Viscum album coloratum, extract on innate immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary mistletoe extracts on non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Tilapia fingerlings were fed with a diet containing 0 mg as a control, 10 mg, 50 mg, and 200 mg mistletoe powder kg(-1) dry diet for 80 days. The immunological parameters, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, alternative complement haemolysis activity (ACH(50)), and phagocytic activity of fish were investigated following 20, 40 and 80 days of feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila on 80 days after feeding and mortalities were checked over 10 days post-infection. The results show that fish fed with mistletoe extract exhibited an increase in activity in all immunological parameters (P < 0.05) compared to the control group depending on feeding periods and doses of mistletoe. Following challenge with A. hydrophila, 42% less survivability was observed in the control group than in other experimental diet groups. The highest survival rate (83%) was shown in the group fed with a 50 mg mistletoe kg(-1) diet. The results suggest that mistletoe enables tilapia to promote immunity and be more resistant to A. hydrophila infection. PMID:22554573

Park, Kwan-Ha; Choi, Sang-Hoon

2012-06-01

184

Acute effects of pure cylindrospermopsin on the activity and transcription of antioxidant enzymes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed by gavage.  

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The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a widely distributed contaminant of freshwater systems with the consequent risk for human and wildlife, particularly fish. However, CYN toxicity data on fish are still scarce. It is known that CYN inhibits glutathione synthesis and this could contribute to oxidative damage. In the present work tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed by gavage to 200 and 400 ?g/kg bw of pure CYN and sacrificed after 24 h. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time PCR of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and the sGST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney. Also the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assayed. Results show an increase of LPO products in both organs. Moreover, CYN altered the activity, gene expression and protein abundance of the enzymes, indicating the importance of GPx and sGST in CYN pathogenicity. This is the first time that CYN is reported to affect these enzymes in fish and they have shown to be responsive biomarkers of CYN toxicity. PMID:21695509

Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Cameán, Ana M

2011-11-01

185

Characterization of two paralogous StAR genes in a teleost, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transports cholesterol, the substrate for steroid synthesis, to the inner membranes of mitochondria. It is well known that estrogen is essential for female sex determination/differentiation in fish. However, no reports showed that the conventional StAR, which was supposed to be essential for estrogen production, was expressed in female gonads during the critical timing of sex determination/differentiation. In this study, two different StAR isoforms, named as StAR1 and StAR2, were characterized from the gonads of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Phylogenetic and synteny analysis revealed that two StAR genes existed in teleosts, Xenopus and chicken indicating that the duplication event occurred before the divergence of teleosts and tetrapods. Real-time PCR revealed that StAR1 was dominantly expressed in the testis, head kidney and kidney; while StAR2 was expressed exclusively in the gonads. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that StAR1 was expressed in the interrenal cells of the head kidney and Leydig cells of the testis; while StAR2 was expressed in the Leydig cells of the testis and the interstitial cells of the ovary. Ontogenic analysis demonstrated that StAR2 was expressed abundantly from 5 days after hatching (dah) in the somatic cells in XX gonads, whereas in XY gonads, both StARs could be detected from 30 dah until adulthood. Intraperitoneal injection of human chorionic gonadotropin experiments showed that expression of StAR1 and 2 was significantly elevated at 8h and persisted until 24h after injection in the testis. Taken together, our data suggested that StAR1 is likely to be required for cortisol production in the head kidney, and StAR2 is probably involved in estrogen production during early sex differentiation in XX gonads. In contrast, both StARs might be required for androgen production in testes. For the first time, our data demonstrated that two fish StARs might be involved in steroidogenesis in a tissue and developmental stage dependent manner. PMID:24859646

Yu, Xiangguo; Wu, Limin; Xie, Lang; Yang, Shijie; Charkraborty, Tapas; Shi, Hongjuan; Wang, Deshou; Zhou, Linyan

2014-07-01

186

An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.  

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The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

2014-01-01

187

Effect of cortisol on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus L., after transference from freshwater to seawater / Efeito do cortisol sobre parâmetros de osmorregulação do teleósteo, Oreochromis niloticus L., após a transferência de água doce para água salgada  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado com o objectivo de testar os efeitos do cortisol na aclimatação da tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) à água salgada. As tilápias (n=42) foram injectadas intraperitonealmente com cortisol e directamente transferidas de água doce para água salobra (15‰). As alterações da osm [...] olaridade, concentração em cloretos (Cl-), os níveis plasmáticos de cortisol e a actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase foram medidas (6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 168 horas) após a transferência para água salobra. A osmolaridade e a concentração em Cl- aumentou imediatamente após a transferência até às 12-24h. O grupo injectado com cortisol (F) mostrou níveis plasmáticos de cortisol mais elevados do que o grupo controlo (C) que manteve os níveis iniciais durante a experiência. A actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase dos peixes do grupo C começou às primeiras horas após a transferência e teve um pico às 48h. As diferenças entre a actividade enzimática da Na+, K+-ATPase dos grupos F e C foram significativas (P Abstract in english This trial was conducted in order to determine the effects of cortisol on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Tilapia (n=42) were injected intraperitoneally with cortisol and then were directly transferred from freshwater (FW) to 15‰ salt water (SW). Changes in plasma osmol [...] ality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-), plasma level of cortisol and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity were measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after transference to 15‰ SW. Plasma osmolality and Cl- increased immediately after transference until 12-24 h. The fish injected with cortisol (F) showed higher plasma levels of cortisol than those from control group (C) that maintained the initial levels during the experiment. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of C fish began to increase at first hours after transference and peak at 48h. The differences between gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of F and C groups were significant (P

A., Fontaínhas-Fernandes; E.F., Gomes; Mª.A., Reis-Henriques; J., Coimbra.

188

Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con el fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR, electrónica de transmisión (TEM y de barrido (MEB; como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca. Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos.The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminating pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

G. A Torres R

2010-09-01

189

Effect of cortisol on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus L., after transference from freshwater to seawater Efeito do cortisol sobre parâmetros de osmorregulação do teleósteo, Oreochromis niloticus L., após a transferência de água doce para água salgada  

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Full Text Available This trial was conducted in order to determine the effects of cortisol on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Tilapia (n=42 were injected intraperitoneally with cortisol and then were directly transferred from freshwater (FW to 15‰ salt water (SW. Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-, plasma level of cortisol and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity were measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after transference to 15‰ SW. Plasma osmolality and Cl- increased immediately after transference until 12-24 h. The fish injected with cortisol (F showed higher plasma levels of cortisol than those from control group (C that maintained the initial levels during the experiment. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of C fish began to increase at first hours after transference and peak at 48h. The differences between gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of F and C groups were significant (PEste estudo foi realizado com o objectivo de testar os efeitos do cortisol na aclimatação da tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (L. à água salgada. As tilápias (n=42 foram injectadas intraperitonealmente com cortisol e directamente transferidas de água doce para água salobra (15‰. As alterações da osmolaridade, concentração em cloretos (Cl-, os níveis plasmáticos de cortisol e a actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase foram medidas (6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 168 horas após a transferência para água salobra. A osmolaridade e a concentração em Cl- aumentou imediatamente após a transferência até às 12-24h. O grupo injectado com cortisol (F mostrou níveis plasmáticos de cortisol mais elevados do que o grupo controlo (C que manteve os níveis iniciais durante a experiência. A actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase dos peixes do grupo C começou às primeiras horas após a transferência e teve um pico às 48h. As diferenças entre a actividade enzimática da Na+, K+-ATPase dos grupos F e C foram significativas (P<0,05 em água doce, o que confirma o efeito exógeno do cortisol.

A. Fontaínhas-Fernandes

2003-10-01

190

Effect of cortisol on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus L., after transference from freshwater to seawater / Efeito do cortisol sobre parâmetros de osmorregulação do teleósteo, Oreochromis niloticus L., após a transferência de água doce para água salgada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado com o objectivo de testar os efeitos do cortisol na aclimatação da tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) à água salgada. As tilápias (n=42) foram injectadas intraperitonealmente com cortisol e directamente transferidas de água doce para água salobra (15‰). As alterações da osm [...] olaridade, concentração em cloretos (Cl-), os níveis plasmáticos de cortisol e a actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase foram medidas (6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 168 horas) após a transferência para água salobra. A osmolaridade e a concentração em Cl- aumentou imediatamente após a transferência até às 12-24h. O grupo injectado com cortisol (F) mostrou níveis plasmáticos de cortisol mais elevados do que o grupo controlo (C) que manteve os níveis iniciais durante a experiência. A actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase dos peixes do grupo C começou às primeiras horas após a transferência e teve um pico às 48h. As diferenças entre a actividade enzimática da Na+, K+-ATPase dos grupos F e C foram significativas (P Abstract in english This trial was conducted in order to determine the effects of cortisol on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Tilapia (n=42) were injected intraperitoneally with cortisol and then were directly transferred from freshwater (FW) to 15‰ salt water (SW). Changes in plasma osmol [...] ality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-), plasma level of cortisol and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity were measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after transference to 15‰ SW. Plasma osmolality and Cl- increased immediately after transference until 12-24 h. The fish injected with cortisol (F) showed higher plasma levels of cortisol than those from control group (C) that maintained the initial levels during the experiment. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of C fish began to increase at first hours after transference and peak at 48h. The differences between gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of F and C groups were significant (P

A., Fontaínhas-Fernandes; E.F., Gomes; Mª.A., Reis-Henriques; J., Coimbra.

2003-10-01

191

Digestibilidade e desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de silagem ácida de pescado Digestibility and performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus fed diets with different levels of acid silage  

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Full Text Available Os experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus para alevinos de tilápia nilótica e o desempenho dos alevinos recebendo níveis crescentes (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 % da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe na ração. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 2,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita durante 7 dias seguintes e a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e energia metabolizável aparente foi feita por metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 1% de Cr2O3 como indicador incorporado à ração. No desempenho, foram utilizados 2000 alevinos revertidos sexualmente com peso médio de 0,45 g, acondicionados em "hapas" de 1m², dispostos em um viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF, consumo de ração total (CRT, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, acréscimo em altura (AA e em comprimento (AC. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, 95,49%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, 96,66%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo, 97,18%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta, 95,44%, e energia digestível aparente 2.880,02 kcal/kg. Não houve diferença significativa (P> 0,05 para ganho de peso final, consumo de ração total, conversão e acréscimo em altura. Observou-se aumento linear (PThe experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. This silage was given to Nile tilapia juvenile and their performance was taken. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collection was made during 7 subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent metabolizable energy were determined by indirect method, 1% of Cr(20(3 was used as an indicator . In the performance assay a total of 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight of 0.45g, they also were kept in 1m² "hapas" in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG, total feed intake (TFE, apparent feed conversion (AFC, height increase (HI and length increase (LI. The randomized design was used with 5 treatments and 4 repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility coefficients were: dry matter, 95.49; gross protein, 96.66; ethereal extract, 97.18; gross energy, 95.44; and apparent digestible energy (kcal/kg was 2880.02. No significant difference (P>0.05 were found for final weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion and height increase. A linear increase (P<0.01 was observed in length. It was concluded that the acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus should be efficiently used by tilapia Nile juvenile.

Marinez Moraes de Oliveira

2006-12-01

192

Ecological niche modeling of the invasive potential of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in African river systems : concerns and implications for the conservation of Oreochromis species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study applied ecological niche models to determine the potential invasive range of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, with a particular focus on river systems in southern Africa where it is now established and spreading. Computational tools such as niche models are useful in predicting the potential range of invasive species, but there are limitations to their application. In particular, models trained on native records may fail to predict the full extent of an invasion. This failure i...

Zengeya, Tsungai Alfred; Robertson, Mark P.; Booth, Anthony J.; Chimimba, Christian Timothy

2013-01-01

193

Development of phytase transgenic Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The feeding of plant proteins to fish results in generation of a high amount of phytate because fish cannot effectively digest it. The hydrolysis of phytate by microbes in the environment release P which can stimulate eutrophication. This study was conducted to express phytase gene from fungi, Aspergillus niger in the gastrointestinal tract of tilapia and to conduct feeding trials with the transgenic fish produced. The DNA construct used consist of CMV promoter, secretion signal, phy A gene a...

Kemeh, Settor

2004-01-01

194

Metallic Micropollutants in the Harvest of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757)from Polluted Waters: Wildlife and Human Concerns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were sampled at four locations along Lake Mary?t for eleven metal residues. Data were compared to certified levels for possible metal contamination. Generally, cadmium, lead, mercury, manganese and copper were above standard levels for unpolluted waters. The kidneys in O. niloticus were the principal store organs for most of the metals tested. In an outstanding result, the muscular edible tissue in O. niloticus was the principal dest...

Adham, K. G.

2001-01-01

195

Outbreaks and genetic diversity of Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis isolated from farm-raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis (FNO) is an emerging pathogen of warm water tilapia in a number of different countries. The disease caused by this bacterium in fish is characterized by a systemic granulomatous infection that causes high mortality rates during outbreaks. FNO has been previously described in Asia, Europe, and Central and North America. Its occurrence in South America has never been described. Since 2012, outbreaks of a granulomatous disease have been recorded in cage farms of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Brazil. The current study aimed to identify the etiologic agent of recent francisellosis outbreaks at Brazilian tilapia farms, and to characterize the genetic diversity of the pathogen from farms with distinct geographic origins and without epidemiological connections. Bacteriological analysis of 44 diseased Nile tilapia collected from five cage farms in Brazil was performed during 2012 and 2013. The farms were in different locations and had no recent history of animal or biological material transport between each other. Sixty-two FNO isolates were identified on the basis of FNO-specific qPCR. The main predisposing factors for the occurrence of outbreaks on Brazilian farms were lower water temperature (<22°C) and life stage of fish, affecting mainly fry, fingerlings and young adults (live weight <100 g). The genetic diversity of the Brazilian FNO isolates was evaluated using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The isolates from different origins were shown to be clonally related. This is the first report of the occurrence and genetic diversity of FNO in South America. PMID:25117328

Leal, C A G; Tavares, G C; Figueiredo, H C P

2014-01-01

196

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

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Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3. However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05 decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

S.K. Wong

2013-01-01

197

Lamproglena monodi capart, 1944, attachment scheme and associatedpathology on the gills of oreochromis niloticus, with a special reference tothoracic appendages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work comprises a parasitological and histopathological examinationof the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, naturally infected withLamproglena monody (Crustacea: Lernaeidae). Fish specimens were collectedweekly from El-Minia Nile basin, Egypt Between April 2006 to March 2008).From a total of 420 fish examined, 96 (22.86%) were found infected.Attachment of L monodi was mainly enhanced by the armed maxillae that wereseen deeply introduced into the underlying tissues reaching the axialcartilage the gill filament. The maxillipeds were not involved in theattachment to the gill epithelium. Histological changes were restricted onlyto the free ends of gill filament, where copepods were found attached; thecentral and basal parts appeared normal and their gill lamellae remainedintact. Deep and shallow lesions associated sometimes with compressed orexfoliated hyperplastic epithelium were encountered in front of cephalothoraxand around oral apparatus of the parasite. In slight and moderate infectionsgill lamellae showed partial fusion. In many cases of heavy infection, theattacked area of gill filaments was eroded through. The cephalothorax wassometimes found in a deep cavity of the proliferated epithelium that wasinfiltrated by granular cells and lymphocytes. (author)

198

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish or [...] ally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

TATIANA S, FIUZA; PAULO C, SILVA; JOSÉ R DE, PAULA; LEONICE M F, TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T, SABÓIA-MORAIS.

199

Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis  

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Full Text Available Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc, Flavourzyme (Flav and Neutrase (Neut, and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 3-(2-pyridyl 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine, radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the samples. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU for humans. Lower molecular weight sizes 8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%. They have ‘U’ shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients.

Mohamed Tabita Kamara

2010-04-01

200

Functionality and antioxidant properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as influenced by the degree of hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 3-(2-pyridyl) 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine), radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P 8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%). They have 'U' shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients. PMID:20480046

Foh, Mohamed Beva Kelfala; Amadou, Issoufou; Foh, Betty Mabel; Kamara, Mohamed Tabita; Xia, Wenshui

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in ?-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against ?-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to ?-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to ?-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. (author)

202

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Actualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC) con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT). En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (5.0cm de longitud), fueron asignados [...] al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque), en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a) peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH), b) peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R), c) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH), y d) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N). La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra), se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T) y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T), Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K), porcentaje de supervivencia (S), la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR), porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP) y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH), y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p Abstract in english Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in len [...] gth) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (p

Marco A., Liñán-Cabello; Cindy M., Robles-Basto; & #8224; Alfredo, Mena-Herrera.

203

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Actualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC) con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT). En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (5.0cm de longitud), fueron asignados [...] al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque), en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a) peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH), b) peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R), c) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH), y d) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N). La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra), se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T) y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T), Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K), porcentaje de supervivencia (S), la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR), porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP) y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH), y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p Abstract in english Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in len [...] gth) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (p

Marco A., Liñán-Cabello; Cindy M., Robles-Basto; & #8224; Alfredo, Mena-Herrera.

2013-03-01

204

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758) através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, [...] SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g) e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2) correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (Ht), volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), trombócitos totais (Tr), contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc). Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus. Abstract in english Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758) was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days) exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg). Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control g [...] roup. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr). There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.

Nilton Massuo, Ishikawa; Maria José Tavares, Ranzani-Paiva; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; Cláudia Maris, Ferreira.

2007-07-01

205

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758) através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, [...] SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g) e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2) correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (Ht), volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), trombócitos totais (Tr), contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc). Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus. Abstract in english Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758) was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days) exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg). Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control g [...] roup. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr). There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.

Nilton Massuo, Ishikawa; Maria José Tavares, Ranzani-Paiva; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; Cláudia Maris, Ferreira.

206

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

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Full Text Available Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg. Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, total white blood cell count (WBC and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr. There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758 através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2 correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC, concentração de hemoglobina (Hb, hematócrito (Ht, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, trombócitos totais (Tr, contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc. Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus.

Nilton Massuo Ishikawa

2007-07-01

207

Silagem de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), com ácido fórmico - análise Bromatológica, físico-química e microbiológica / Silage of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) filetage residues with formic acid Bromatological, phisico-chemical and microbiological analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento avaliou o valor nutritivo da silagem ácida da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758), visando sua utilização em substituição à farinha de peixe na alimentação de organismo aquático. A silagem consistiu de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia (carcaça) e 3% de á [...] cido fórmico, armazenada em temperatura ambiente (máxima média de 21,5ºC) e temperatura mínima média de 15ºC, por trinta dias, em baldes de polietileno com um orifício, por onde os gases saiam. O pH foi monitorado no 1º, 15º e 30º dia. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas para contagem total de microrganismos e coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC. O pH apresentou média de 3,95 ao final dos 30 dias. Nas análises microbiológicas observou-se a ausência de coliformes a 45ºC e, que a quantidade de microrganismos diminuiu gradativamente. Do ponto de vista microbiológico, a silagem ácida de resíduo da filetagem de tilápia mostrou-se como alimento alternativo viável para a alimentação animal. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out for evaluate the nutritional value of the silage of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758) filetage residues with formic acid as a replace of fish meal in aquatic organisms feeding as protein source. The silage consisted of tilapia filetage residues (carca [...] ss) and 3% formic acid, and it was stored in environmental temperature with a maximum average of 21,5º C and a minimum average of 15 º C, during thirty days, in polyethylene pails with an orifice for the exhaustion of gases. The pH was monitored on the 1st, 15th and 30th day. The microbiological analyses were made for the total count of microorganisms and coliforms at 35º C and 45º C. The average pH was 3.95 at the end of 30 days. The microbiological analyses showed absence of coliformes at 45º C and a gradual reduction in the quantity of microorganisms. From the microbiological standpoint, the acid silage of tilapia residues was shown to be an alternative viable diet for animal feeding.

Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Antônio Cléber da Silva, Camargo; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Carlos José, Pimenta.

208

Silagem de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, com ácido fórmico - análise Bromatológica, físico-química e microbiológica Silage of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus filetage residues with formic acid Bromatological, phisico-chemical and microbiological analyses  

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Full Text Available O experimento avaliou o valor nutritivo da silagem ácida da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758, visando sua utilização em substituição à farinha de peixe na alimentação de organismo aquático. A silagem consistiu de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia (carcaça e 3% de ácido fórmico, armazenada em temperatura ambiente (máxima média de 21,5ºC e temperatura mínima média de 15ºC, por trinta dias, em baldes de polietileno com um orifício, por onde os gases saiam. O pH foi monitorado no 1º, 15º e 30º dia. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas para contagem total de microrganismos e coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC. O pH apresentou média de 3,95 ao final dos 30 dias. Nas análises microbiológicas observou-se a ausência de coliformes a 45ºC e, que a quantidade de microrganismos diminuiu gradativamente. Do ponto de vista microbiológico, a silagem ácida de resíduo da filetagem de tilápia mostrou-se como alimento alternativo viável para a alimentação animal.The experiment was carried out for evaluate the nutritional value of the silage of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 filetage residues with formic acid as a replace of fish meal in aquatic organisms feeding as protein source. The silage consisted of tilapia filetage residues (carcass and 3% formic acid, and it was stored in environmental temperature with a maximum average of 21,5º C and a minimum average of 15 º C, during thirty days, in polyethylene pails with an orifice for the exhaustion of gases. The pH was monitored on the 1st, 15th and 30th day. The microbiological analyses were made for the total count of microorganisms and coliforms at 35º C and 45º C. The average pH was 3.95 at the end of 30 days. The microbiological analyses showed absence of coliformes at 45º C and a gradual reduction in the quantity of microorganisms. From the microbiological standpoint, the acid silage of tilapia residues was shown to be an alternative viable diet for animal feeding.

Marinez Moraes de Oliveira

2006-12-01

209

Concentrado protéico de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus): caracterização físico-química e aceitação sensorial / Protein concentrate from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): physical-chemical characterization and sensory acceptance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou o aproveitamento da carne mecanicamente separada (CMS) de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) na obtenção de um concentrado protéico de tilápia (CPT) para o consumo humano, caracterizando-o quanto aos parâmetros físico-químicos e sens [...] oriais. O CPT foi caracterizado quanto aos seguintes aspectos: rendimento, umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, atividade de água (Aw) e aceitação sensorial. O CPT apresentou rendimento de 18,34%, baixos níveis de umidade e cinza e alto conteúdo protéico e lipídico, quando comparado à matéria-prima original (CMS) e baixa Aw. Na avaliação sensorial do CPT, a freqüência de aceitação dos provadores foi de 60,4% para a cor, 51,1% para o aspecto geral e 41,7% para o aroma. A descrição do aroma com termos como característico de pescado foi relatada por 44,2% dos provadores, sugerindo a necessidade de uma desodorização parcial do material, e indicando um equilíbrio em relação ao grupo dos provadores que não perceberam o odor característico. Esta pesquisa mostra agregação de valor a um material de descarte, gerando possibilidades de oferta de uma fonte proteica alternativa, de custo relativamente baixo. Abstract in english This study aimed to use mechanically separated mince (MSM) from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) to obtain a protein concentrate for human consumption and to assess its proximal composition and sensory characteristics. Yield, proximal composition, [...] water activity and sensory evaluation were analyzed on the dry TPC. The TPC has a yield of 18.34%, and contained 1.38% moisture, 62.39% protein, 32.63% fat, 2.26% ash and had 0.16 Aw. Sensory evaluation of dry FPC powder expressed as frequency of acceptance by panelists was 60.4% for color, 51.1% for general appearance and 41.7% for aroma. Description of flavor using terms like "typical of fish" was reported by only 44.2% of the panelists, suggesting the need for a more efficient deodorizing process and showing a balance in relation to the group of panelists that did not notice the characteristic smell. The study shows the possibility of adding value to a residual food material offering an alternative source of protein at a relatively low cost.

Juliana Maria Aderaldo, Vidal; Maria do Carmo Passos, Rodrigues; Jorge Fernando Fuentes, Zapata; Janaína Maria Martins, Vieira.

2011-03-01

210

Silagem de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), com ácido fórmico - análise Bromatológica, físico-química e microbiológica / Silage of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) filetage residues with formic acid Bromatological, phisico-chemical and microbiological analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento avaliou o valor nutritivo da silagem ácida da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758), visando sua utilização em substituição à farinha de peixe na alimentação de organismo aquático. A silagem consistiu de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia (carcaça) e 3% de á [...] cido fórmico, armazenada em temperatura ambiente (máxima média de 21,5ºC) e temperatura mínima média de 15ºC, por trinta dias, em baldes de polietileno com um orifício, por onde os gases saiam. O pH foi monitorado no 1º, 15º e 30º dia. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas para contagem total de microrganismos e coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC. O pH apresentou média de 3,95 ao final dos 30 dias. Nas análises microbiológicas observou-se a ausência de coliformes a 45ºC e, que a quantidade de microrganismos diminuiu gradativamente. Do ponto de vista microbiológico, a silagem ácida de resíduo da filetagem de tilápia mostrou-se como alimento alternativo viável para a alimentação animal. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out for evaluate the nutritional value of the silage of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758) filetage residues with formic acid as a replace of fish meal in aquatic organisms feeding as protein source. The silage consisted of tilapia filetage residues (carca [...] ss) and 3% formic acid, and it was stored in environmental temperature with a maximum average of 21,5º C and a minimum average of 15 º C, during thirty days, in polyethylene pails with an orifice for the exhaustion of gases. The pH was monitored on the 1st, 15th and 30th day. The microbiological analyses were made for the total count of microorganisms and coliforms at 35º C and 45º C. The average pH was 3.95 at the end of 30 days. The microbiological analyses showed absence of coliformes at 45º C and a gradual reduction in the quantity of microorganisms. From the microbiological standpoint, the acid silage of tilapia residues was shown to be an alternative viable diet for animal feeding.

Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Antônio Cléber da Silva, Camargo; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Carlos José, Pimenta.

1218-12-01

211

Concentrado protéico de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus): caracterização físico-química e aceitação sensorial / Protein concentrate from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): physical-chemical characterization and sensory acceptance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou o aproveitamento da carne mecanicamente separada (CMS) de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) na obtenção de um concentrado protéico de tilápia (CPT) para o consumo humano, caracterizando-o quanto aos parâmetros físico-químicos e sens [...] oriais. O CPT foi caracterizado quanto aos seguintes aspectos: rendimento, umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, atividade de água (Aw) e aceitação sensorial. O CPT apresentou rendimento de 18,34%, baixos níveis de umidade e cinza e alto conteúdo protéico e lipídico, quando comparado à matéria-prima original (CMS) e baixa Aw. Na avaliação sensorial do CPT, a freqüência de aceitação dos provadores foi de 60,4% para a cor, 51,1% para o aspecto geral e 41,7% para o aroma. A descrição do aroma com termos como característico de pescado foi relatada por 44,2% dos provadores, sugerindo a necessidade de uma desodorização parcial do material, e indicando um equilíbrio em relação ao grupo dos provadores que não perceberam o odor característico. Esta pesquisa mostra agregação de valor a um material de descarte, gerando possibilidades de oferta de uma fonte proteica alternativa, de custo relativamente baixo. Abstract in english This study aimed to use mechanically separated mince (MSM) from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) to obtain a protein concentrate for human consumption and to assess its proximal composition and sensory characteristics. Yield, proximal composition, [...] water activity and sensory evaluation were analyzed on the dry TPC. The TPC has a yield of 18.34%, and contained 1.38% moisture, 62.39% protein, 32.63% fat, 2.26% ash and had 0.16 Aw. Sensory evaluation of dry FPC powder expressed as frequency of acceptance by panelists was 60.4% for color, 51.1% for general appearance and 41.7% for aroma. Description of flavor using terms like "typical of fish" was reported by only 44.2% of the panelists, suggesting the need for a more efficient deodorizing process and showing a balance in relation to the group of panelists that did not notice the characteristic smell. The study shows the possibility of adding value to a residual food material offering an alternative source of protein at a relatively low cost.

Juliana Maria Aderaldo, Vidal; Maria do Carmo Passos, Rodrigues; Jorge Fernando Fuentes, Zapata; Janaína Maria Martins, Vieira.

212

Digestibilidade aparente pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. de rações contendo sorgo (alto e baixo tanino e metionina Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. apparent digestibility of diets containing (high and low tannin sorghum and methionine  

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Full Text Available Esse estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de duas variedades de sorgo (alto e baixo tanino e da metionina em rações para tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes, Cichlidae. Foi avaliada a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta. Empregaram-se 100 peixes distribuídos em 10 grupos, os quais receberam rações contendo sorgo alto e baixo tanino e 0,0%; 0,60% e 0,90% de metionina. Após um período de aclimação de três dias, foram colhidas amostras representativas das fezes produzidas diariamente até completar seis repetições de cada tratamento. A partir das análises químicas das rações e das fezes e utilizando-se o óxido de crômio como marcador inerte, foram calculados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. Pode-se concluir que para tilápia do Nilo, o sorgo variedade baixo tanino apresenta coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente que podem ser considerados semelhantes aos do milho; que a variedade alto tanino apresenta coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente significativamente inferiores aos do milho e da variedade baixo tanino e; que a suplementação de metionina não é suficiente para controlar a ação antinutricional do tanino.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of two sorghum varieties (high and low tannin and levels of methionine (0.0%, 0.60% and 0.90% in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes, Cichlidae, diets on apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy. 100 fish were distributed in ten aquarium (250L. After a climatization period of three days, representative samples of feces were obtained daily until reach six replicates each treatment. The apparent digestibility coefficient was calculated based in chemical analysis of diets and feces to determine chemical composition and chromic oxide. It was concluded that for Nile tilapia the low tannin sorghum has similar apparent digestibility to corn and that the high tannin variety has significant lower apparent digestibility than corn and low tannin. The supplementation of methionine it is not enough to control the anti-nutritional effect of tannin.

Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves

2002-04-01

213

Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus=Purification, physical and chemical characterization, and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1. O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II, eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I e 23,80 (F II UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS, suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I and 23.80 (F II IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

2011-07-01

214

Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.

Furuya Wilson Massamitu

2001-01-01

215

Toxicity and Efficacy of Lidocaine as an Anesthetic for Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The anesthetic lidocaine was tested for its toxicity, efficacy and safety on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Toxicity values were variable and depended mainly on concentration and time of exposure. Concentrations of 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1 lidocaine were all effective for rapid anesthesia with 100% survival. In moderately rapid anesthesia, 40 mg L-1 lidocaine induced loss of equilibrium in Nile tilapia within 20 min exposure and 100% survival. Safety Index (SI values for lidocaine on Nile tilapia indicated that the shorter the exposure time, the higher SI values. Repeated anesthesia in freshly prepared solution of lidocaine did not appear to affect on Nile tilapia sensitivity in terms of anesthetization, recovery and survival. However, results were in contrast and variable when previously prepared (old solutions of lidocaine were used.

H.H.H. Abbas

2006-01-01

216

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

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Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

Sabato, S. F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P. J. A.

2007-11-01

217

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction

218

Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces): a methodological comparison  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13) and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. [...] Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis test, our results revealed that pH 12.1 is more effective, although both pHs can be used. Our findings also suggest that silver staining can substitute ethidium bromide, an expensive and highly toxic stain that requires specific equipment for examination.

Cintya A., Christofoletti; José Augusto O., David; Carmem S., Fontanetti.

219

Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: a methodological comparison  

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Full Text Available The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13 and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis test, our results revealed that pH 12.1 is more effective, although both pHs can be used. Our findings also suggest that silver staining can substitute ethidium bromide, an expensive and highly toxic stain that requires specific equipment for examination.

Cintya A. Christofoletti

2009-01-01

220

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

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Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A. [Food Engineering Department, ZEA/FZEA/USP, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, 13635 900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

2007-11-15

 
 
 
 
221

Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance limit, calculated as the 99th percentile of the potential residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 ??g/g maximum residue level by 6.14 d after the dosing period.

Gaikowski, M. P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J. R.; Schleis, S. M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R. G.

2010-01-01

222

Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus);Efeitos da irradiacao e refrigeracao na qualidade e no valor nutritivo da tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

2001-07-01

223

Evaluación de la calidad bacteriológica de tilapia fresca (Oreochromis niloticus) proveniente de la Zona Norte de Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo evaluó la flora normal y patógena asociada a la tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), ya que no existen estudios previos, a nivel nacional, sobre la calidad microbiológica de este producto. Con este propósito, se determinó el Recuento Total Aerobio (RT), el número de coliformes totale [...] s (CT) y coliformes fecales (CF), Enterococcus sp., Aeromonas sp., bacterias lácticas y la presencia de Listeria sp y Salmonella spp. a partir de la superficie externa de la tilapia. Se recolectaron 50 muestras provenientes de las zonas de San Carlos y Cañas y se transportaron en frío hasta el Laboratorio de Microbiología de Alimentos y Aguas de la Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, donde se efectuaron los análisis señalados según la metodología presentada por la American Publilc Health Association, 1998. Los resultados obtenidos confirman, desde el punto de vista microbiológico, la frescura de las tilapias al momento de su análisis, sin embargo, los niveles de coliformes encontrados fueron inaceptables para el consumo humano. No se logró aislar Listeria sp., pero el aislamiento de Salmonella spp. confirmó la contaminación fecal de las aguas de crianza de la tilapia, aparte de su importancia a nivel de salud pública. También se encontró que la tilapia presenta un número elevado de Aeromonas sp. como parte de su flora normal, por lo que se recomienda incluir este género dentro de las normas de calidad para pescado fresco. Según los datos obtenidos, no existe diferencia significativa (95% de confianza) entre el RT, los niveles de CT y CF, Enterococcus sp y Aeromonas sp. a partir de la tilapia proveniente de los criaderos de las zonas de San Carlos y Cañas. Abstract in english SUMMARY Bacteriological evaluation of fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) coming from the northern region of Costa Rica. The following work presents an evaluation of the normal and pathogenic flora associated to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), since there are no previous national studies referred [...] to the microbiological quality of this product. The total aerobic plate count, lactic bacteria, Enterococcus sp and Aeromonas sp and fecal and total coliform count, and the presence of Listeria sp and Salmonella spp from the external surface of tilapias were evaluated. A total of 50 samples, coming from San Carlos and Cañas zones were transported in ice to the Food and Water Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, where the laboratory analysis were performed, according to the methodology presented by de American Public Health Association, 1998. The results obtained confirm the microbiological freshness of the product when the analysis was performed, although coliform levels were unacceptable. Listeria sp was not found, but the isolation of Salmonella spp. confirms the fecal contamination of water where the tilapia is grown, aside of the Public Health concern. Also, it was found a high number of Aeromonas sp, as part of its normal flora, so we recommend including this genus in the quality standards for fresh fish. According to the data obtained, there was no significant difference (95% confidence) between the total plate count, fecal and total coliforms, Enterococcus sp. and Aeromonas sp. from the samples coming from the zones of San Carlos and Cañas.

Graciela, Morales; Laura, Blanco; María Laura, Arias; Carolina, Chaves.

2004-12-01

224

Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in liver and gill tissues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following in vivo exposure to domoic acid.  

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Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxicant produced by Pseudo-nitzschia from diatomeae. Although the neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of DA have been well documented, the number of in vivo studies regarding the oxidative stress inducing effects of DA is quite limited. In this study, in vivo toxic effects of DA were investigated on fish Oreochromis niloticus (Fam: Cichlidae), using oxidative stress biomarkers. Fish were exposed to three different concentrations (1, 5 and 10 microg/g body weight) of DA via intraperitoneal injections and the tissues were sampled at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Changes in the level of lipid peroxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) were evaluated in liver and gill tissues. Our results revealed dose and time dependent increases in the oxidative stress parameters. It was also observed that the toxic effects were more pronounced in liver than in gill tissue. PMID:19931299

Mazmanci, Birgül; Cava?, Tolga

2010-04-01

225

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g. Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1 and without (type-2 were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

2007-01-01

226

Toxicity and Efficacy of Lidocaine as an Anesthetic for Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus  

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The anesthetic lidocaine was tested for its toxicity, efficacy and safety on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Toxicity values were variable and depended mainly on concentration and time of exposure. Concentrations of 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1 lidocaine were all effective for rapid anesthesia with 100% survival. In moderately rapid anesthesia, 40 mg L-1 lidocaine induced loss of equilibrium in Nile tilapia within 20 min exposure and 100% survival. Safety Index (SI...

Abbas, H. H. H.; Abdel-gawad, A. S.; Akkr, A. A.

2006-01-01

227

UTILIZAÇÃO DE CARNE MECANICAMENTE SEPARADA DE TILÁPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE PATÊS CREMOSO E PASTOSO  

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O objetivo constituiu de desenvolvimento de tecnologia para o aproveitamento dos resíduos limpos da industrialização da tilápia, utilizando carne mecanicamente separada (CMS) de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) para a elaboração de patê cremoso e pastoso, e a investigação das características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, são fundamentai...

Minozzo, Marcelo Giordani; Waszczynskyj, Nina; Boscolo, Wilson Roge?rio

2009-01-01

228

Linkage and Physical Mapping of Sex Region on LG23 of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence supports that sex determination (SD) in tilapia is controlled by major genetic factors that may interact with minor genetic as well as environmental factors, thus implying that SD should be analyzed as a quantitative trait. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SD in Oreochromis niloticus were previously detected on linkage groups (LG) 1 and 23. Twenty-one short single repeats (SSR) of >12 TGs and one single nucleotide polymorphism were identified using the unpublished tilapia genome sequence on LG23. All markers showed two segregating alleles in a mapping family that was obtained by a cross between O. niloticus male (XY) and sex-reversed female (?XY) yielding 29 females (XX) and 61 males (XY and YY). Interval mapping analysis mapped the QTL peak between SSR markers ARO172 and ARO177 with a maximum F value of 78.7 (P < 7.6 × 10(-14)). Twelve adjacent markers found in this region were homozygous in females and either homozygous for the alternative allele or heterozygous in males. This segment was defined as the sex region (SR). The SR encompasses 1.5 Mbp on a single tilapia scaffold (no. 101) harboring 51 annotated genes. Among 10 candidate genes for SD that were tested for gene expression, anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), which is located in the center of the SR, showed the highest overexpression in male vs. female embryos at 3 to 7 days postfertilization. PMID:22384380

Eshel, O; Shirak, A; Weller, J I; Hulata, G; Ron, M

2012-01-01

229

Effects of Two Environmental Best Management Practices on Pond Water and Effluent Quality and Growth of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The trajectory of aquaculture growth in sub-Saharan Africa has necessitated closer attention to the use of environmental best management practices (BMPs. Two BMPs in particular, water reuse and floating feeds, are being promoted for adoption by pond fish farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we investigated: (1 the effect of water source and feed type on water quality; (2 the effect of water source and feed type on tilapia growth; and (3 the quality of potential effluents from ponds using different water source and feed types. The study was conducted in Ghana using on-farm experiments involving monitoring of water quality and growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 160 days. Although considered low-intensity production systems, nutrients and solids in the study ponds exceeded levels expected in intensive culture ponds by wide margins, whereas BOD5 was within the range for semi-intensive ponds. Floating feed was associated with higher water quality, especially dissolved oxygen, and higher growth, but water source did not significantly affect growth. Water reuse appears to be a viable BMP for sustainable aquaculture in the region, but the use of floating feed as BMP will depend on the economic profitability of floating feed use.

Emmanuel A. Frimpong

2014-02-01

230

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) / Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus. Abstract in english The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The pu [...] rpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

APT, Medeiros; S, Chellappa; ME, Yamamoto.

2007-11-01

231

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus.

APT Medeiros

2007-11-01

232

Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.5470 Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.5470  

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Full Text Available The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lower consumption (p The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lower consumption (p < 0.05 than in other treatments.

Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

2011-09-01

233

Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) / Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg [...] , 1887) e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas substâncias antimicrobianas e também contra a rifampicina; o isolado bacteriano de pacu foi a única linhagem resistente a tetraciclina. Isolados de pacu e tilápia apresentaram resistência intermediária frente a eritromicina. O uso de medicamentos em pisciculturas comerciais no Brasil pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de linhagens bacterianas resistentes em espécies de peixes nativos, como já observado em espécies exóticas comercialmente produzidas há mais tempo. Abstract in english One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreoc [...] hromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.

Andréa, Belém-Costa; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

234

Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) / Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg [...] , 1887) e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas substâncias antimicrobianas e também contra a rifampicina; o isolado bacteriano de pacu foi a única linhagem resistente a tetraciclina. Isolados de pacu e tilápia apresentaram resistência intermediária frente a eritromicina. O uso de medicamentos em pisciculturas comerciais no Brasil pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de linhagens bacterianas resistentes em espécies de peixes nativos, como já observado em espécies exóticas comercialmente produzidas há mais tempo. Abstract in english One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreoc [...] hromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.

Andréa, Belém-Costa; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

2006-06-01

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Shrimp meal in diets for Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus") Farinha de camarão em dietas para tilápia do Nilo ("Oreochromis niloticus")  

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Replacement of conventional ingredients used in fish diets by non-conventional products has been an economic alternative to reduce the cost of feeding. Therefore, 90-day trial was performed to study the effect of shrimp meal (SM) inclusion on diets of Nile tilapia fries. Weight gain (WG), feed conversion (FC), apparent feed intake (AFI), fillet yield (FY), fillet income (FI) values and protein effiency ratio (PER) were evaluated. Each experimental unit was an aquaria with five tilapias (Oreoc...

Graciela Pessoa Martins; Valéria Louro Ribeiro; Edma Carvalho Miranda; Igo Gomes Guimarães; Carolina Carvalho de Miranda

2008-01-01

236

Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

Chotipuntu, P.

2005-02-01

237

Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual a [...] quaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30) as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15) and subordinate (N = 15) fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl), glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl), triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl) or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl). However, when isolated (N = 30) and paired (N = 30) tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

S.A., Corrêa; M.O., Fernandes; K.K., Iseki; J.A., Negrão.

238

Quantification of fatty acids in tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed with different sources of vegetable oilsQuantificação de ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais  

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Full Text Available The present work aimed to quantify the fatty acids in total lipids of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed with different sources of vegetable oils mechanically extracted. Were used 320 tilapias (O. niloticus with average initial weight and average total initial length of 2.55±0.57 g and 5.59±0.43 cm, respectively, fed for a period of 60 days, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replications. The diets were prepared with 320 g/kg crude protein and 3.500 kcal of digestible energy per kg of feed enriched with eight different oils: sunflower, canola, sesame, linseed, peanut, Para’s nut soy and macadamia, with an addition of 4%. Among the major fatty acids the oleic, palmitic, linolenic and linoleic were obtained in higher concentration (mg/g of LT in fish from all treatments. The sums of polyunsaturated fatty acids after 60 days of cultivation had increased in all treatments compared to the 30 days of the experiment. This is due to the addition of oils with high contents of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The fatty acids in the carcass are a reflection of the energy source of oil used. As a conclusion it is recommended the use of linseed oil in the diet of tilapia fingerlings due to great improvement in the relationship between n-6/n-3. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar os ácidos graxos nos alevinos de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais extraídos mecanicamente. Foram utilizadas 320 tilápias com peso inicial médio e comprimento total inicial médio de 2,55±0,57 g e 5,59±0,43 cm, respectivamente, alimentados por um período de 60 dias, num delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram elaboradas com 320 g/ kg proteína bruta (PB e 3.500 kcal de energia digestível (ED por kg de ração, enriquecidas com oito diferentes óleos: girassol, canola, gergelim, linhaça, amendoim, castanha do Pará, soja e macadâmia, com uma inclusão de 4%. Dentre os ácidos graxos majoritários o oléico, palmítico, linolênico e linoléico foram os obtidos em maior concentração (mg/g de LT nos peixes em todos os tratamentos. As somatórias dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados aos 60 dias de cultivo apresentaram aumento em todos os tratamentos em comparação aos 30 dias de experimento. Isto se deve a adição dos óleos com alto conteúdo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 nas rações. Os ácidos graxos na carcaça são o reflexo da fonte energética de óleo utilizada. Como conclusão recomenda-se o uso do óleo de linhaça na alimentação de alevinos de tilápias, devido à grande melhoria na razão entre n-6/n-3.

Leticia Hayashi Higuchi

2013-09-01

239

Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e fa [...] rinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L) de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L) de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined [...] for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g) fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L) at a density of 20 fish/aquarium for feeding, between 8a.m. and 5:30 p.m. After this period, they were transferred for aquaria (300 L) appropriate for fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined by assessing the difference between the feed and fecal concentrations of the marker. Results of this study indicate that among energetic ingredients, corn, extruded corn, wheat middlings and rice meal had the highest apparent digestibility coefficient and gluten 60, corn gluten meal, canola meal for proteic ingredients. Among animal sources, poultry by-product and fish meal showed high apparent coefficients and, poultry feathers hydrolyzed and blood meal low apparent coefficients for Nile tilapia.

Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Edma Carvalho de, Miranda; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luis Gabriel Quintero, Pinto; Wilson Massumitu, Furuya; Antonio Celso, Pezzato.

1595-16-01

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Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e fa [...] rinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L) de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L) de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined [...] for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g) fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L) at a density of 20 fish/aquarium for feeding, between 8a.m. and 5:30 p.m. After this period, they were transferred for aquaria (300 L) appropriate for fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined by assessing the difference between the feed and fecal concentrations of the marker. Results of this study indicate that among energetic ingredients, corn, extruded corn, wheat middlings and rice meal had the highest apparent digestibility coefficient and gluten 60, corn gluten meal, canola meal for proteic ingredients. Among animal sources, poultry by-product and fish meal showed high apparent coefficients and, poultry feathers hydrolyzed and blood meal low apparent coefficients for Nile tilapia.

Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Edma Carvalho de, Miranda; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luis Gabriel Quintero, Pinto; Wilson Massumitu, Furuya; Antonio Celso, Pezzato.

 
 
 
 
241

Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm, total weight (g, reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation, and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full. We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads, reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females, and feeding habits (by stomach contents. The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F. Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5°C, and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18°C. The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: L?=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phytoplanktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 721-734. Epub 2012 June 01.La exótica tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus es la especie mayormente capturada en la pesquería artesanal del embalse de Barra Bonita, sudeste de Brasil, de gran importancia socioeconómica para la región y para una población de unos 500 pescadores. El estudio analizo: la reproducción, la dinámica alimentaria y la explotación de O. niloticus, la cual fue capturada en la pesquería del embalse de Barra Bonita. Asimismo, se tomaron muestras mensuales y se analizo un total de 1 715 animales desde julio-2004 a junio-2005. De cada espécimen, se obtuvieron los siguientes datos biológicos y biométricos: longitud estándar (cm, peso total (g, datos reproductivos (sexo y estadio de maduración, contenido estomacal (vacio, parcialmente lleno y lleno. Estos datos fueron utilizados para estimar la proporción de sexo (a través de la observación macroscópica de las gónadas, el periodo reproductivo (a través de la distribución de la frecuencia de los estadios macroscópicos del desarrollo de los ovarios, y la media de la proporción del índice gonadosomático IGS de hembras, así como los hábitos alimentarios (a través de la observación del contenido estomacal. Para verificar

José Luis Costa Novaes

2012-06-01

242

Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207  

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Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

Ary Gomes da Silva

2013-08-01

243

EFECTO DE LA INCLUSIÓN DE DIFERENTES FUENTES DE LÍPIDOS SOBRE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y COMPOSICIÓN PROXIMAL DEL FILETE DE TILAPIA NILÓTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- CULTIVADA EN JAULAS FLOTANTES / EFFECT OF THE INCLUSION OF DIFFERENT LIPID SOURCES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA FILLET -Oreochromis niloticus- REARED IN FLOATING CAGES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para evaluar el efecto de la inclusión de diferentes fuentes de lípidos sobre el comportamiento productivo y la composición proximal del filete de tilapia nilótica Oreo-chromis niloticus, se formularon cuatro dietas con aceite de pescado (AP), aceite de palma (APL), semilla de chía (SC) o semilla de [...] lino (SL). El experimento fue realizado durante 45 días en la represa de Betania (Huila, Colombia), en 20 jaulas flotantes, cada una con 504 peces con peso promedio de 557±16,87 g, distribuidos bajo un diseño experimental completamente al azar. Adicionalmente se llevó a cabo un estudio de presupuestos parciales, con el fin de verificar el margen bruto de ingreso parcial (MBIP) obtenido con las diferentes dietas. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different lipid sources on growth performance and proximate composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fillet, four diets were manufactured with: fish oil (FO), palm oil (PO), chia seeds (CS) or flaxseeds (FS). The experiment was conducted for 4 [...] 5 days at Betania reservoir (Huila), in 20 floating completely randomized experimental design. In Addition, an economical partial budget analysis was run to establish the partial gross marginal income (PGMI) obtained with the different diets. Significant differences (P

J. M, Moreno; A. P, Muñoz; G. A, Wills.

244

EFECTO DE LA INCLUSIÓN DE DIFERENTES FUENTES DE LÍPIDOS SOBRE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y COMPOSICIÓN PROXIMAL DEL FILETE DE TILAPIA NILÓTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- CULTIVADA EN JAULAS FLOTANTES / EFFECT OF THE INCLUSION OF DIFFERENT LIPID SOURCES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA FILLET -Oreochromis niloticus- REARED IN FLOATING CAGES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para evaluar el efecto de la inclusión de diferentes fuentes de lípidos sobre el comportamiento productivo y la composición proximal del filete de tilapia nilótica Oreo-chromis niloticus, se formularon cuatro dietas con aceite de pescado (AP), aceite de palma (APL), semilla de chía (SC) o semilla de [...] lino (SL). El experimento fue realizado durante 45 días en la represa de Betania (Huila, Colombia), en 20 jaulas flotantes, cada una con 504 peces con peso promedio de 557±16,87 g, distribuidos bajo un diseño experimental completamente al azar. Adicionalmente se llevó a cabo un estudio de presupuestos parciales, con el fin de verificar el margen bruto de ingreso parcial (MBIP) obtenido con las diferentes dietas. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different lipid sources on growth performance and proximate composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fillet, four diets were manufactured with: fish oil (FO), palm oil (PO), chia seeds (CS) or flaxseeds (FS). The experiment was conducted for 4 [...] 5 days at Betania reservoir (Huila), in 20 floating completely randomized experimental design. In Addition, an economical partial budget analysis was run to establish the partial gross marginal income (PGMI) obtained with the different diets. Significant differences (P

J. M, Moreno; A. P, Muñoz; G. A, Wills.

2013-08-01

245

Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.): growth, nutrient utilization and blood parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha platyphylla is a multipurpose and drought-resistant shrub, available in Mexico, locally known as 'sangregrado' and belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein and do not contain the main toxin, phorbol esters present in other Jatropha species. Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal (JPKM) obtained after oil extraction contained 70-75% crude protein (CP); however, it contained phytate, lectin and trypsin-inhibitor. The levels of essential amino acids (except lysine) were higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings a 12-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of the heated JPKM and compare with that of SBM and fishmeal. Fingerlings (15 fish; average weight 13.7 ± 0.21g) were randomly distributed in three treatment groups with five replicates. Fish were fed three isonitrogenous diets (CP 36%): control diet containing fishmeal-based protein and two other diets replacing 62.5% fishmeal protein with JPKM (Jatropha group) and SBM (Soybean group). The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. A lower apparent lipid conversion was observed in the plant protein-fed group than in the control group. RBC count, haematocrit and blood glucose contents were higher in plant-protein fed groups than control group. Other haematological parameters (WBC count, haemoglobin, mean cell volume: calcium and sodium ions, total bilirubin and urea-nitrogen in the blood) and metabolic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase) activities in blood did not differ significantly among the three groups. The results from the present study established that JPKM is a promising and good quality protein source for Nile tilapia feed. PMID:21410563

Akinleye, A O; Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

2012-02-01

246

Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes = Predação de P. mesopotamicus e O. niloticus por larvas de Pantala flavescens de diferentes classes de coprimento  

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The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatm...

Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda; Carmino Hayashi; Eliana Maria Galdioli; Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

2011-01-01

247

Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado / Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40%) da silagem ácida em substituição [...] à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF), consumo de ração total (CRT), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA) e acréscimo em comprimento (AC). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA), 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica. Abstract in english The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of the acid silage by substitution of fish [...] meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect was made during seven subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent digestible energy were determined by indirect method, using 1.0% of Cr(2)0(3) as an indicator. In the performance assay 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used, with average weight of 0.45g, kept in 1m² hapas, in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG), total feed intake (TFI), apparent feed conversion (AFC) and length increase (LI). The randomized outline was used with five treatments and four repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility were: apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, 95.49%; apparent digestibility coefficient of gross protein, 96.66%; apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract, 97.18%; apparent digestibility coeficient of gross energy, 95.44%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) for total feed intake (TFI). One observed a quadratic effect (P

Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato; Carlos José, Pimenta; Thiago Archangelo, Freato.

1953-19-01

248

Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF, consumo de ração total (CRT, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA e acréscimo em comprimento (AC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA, 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica.The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect was made during seven subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent digestible energy were determined by indirect method, using 1.0% of Cr(20(3 as an indicator. In the performance assay 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used, with average weight of 0.45g, kept in 1m² hapas, in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG, total feed intake (TFI, apparent feed conversion (AFC and length increase (LI. The randomized outline was used with five treatments and four repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility were: apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, 95.49%; apparent digestibility coefficient of gross protein, 96.66%; apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract, 97.18%; apparent digestibility coeficient of gross energy, 95.44%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 for total feed intake (TFI. One observed a quadratic effect (P<0.01 in the final weight (FWG, apparent feed conversion (AFC and length increase. One concluded that the acid silage of filetage residues should be efficiently used by the Nile tilapia.

Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes Pimenta

2008-12-01

249

Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758, São Paulo, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2 emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compounds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC: carbon dioxide (CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006 every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de dióxido de carbono (CO2, dependendo das características físico-químicas do sistema (difusão e reações desse gás na água, como também do pH, e da produção primária dos microorganismos através do consumo desse compostos. Evidências apontam que as concentrações de CO2 nos lagos são principalmente reguladas pelo metabolismo aquático, ou seja, pelo balanço entre a respiração e a fotossíntese; OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever aspectos do metabolismo do cultivo de tilápias do Nilo, a partir da dinâmica e do equilíbrio das concentrações de oxigênio (OD e das formas de carbono inorgânico dissolvido (CID: dióxido de carbono (CO2 e bicarbonato (HCO3-. As demais variáveis analisadas foram: fósforo total, transparência da água, alcalinidade total, temperatura da água, pH, radiação subaquática e análise quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica; MÉTODOS: As amostragens ocorreram durante 5 dias consecutivos das 6:00 às 20:00 h (dezembro/2006 em intervalos de 2 h; RESULTADOS: Durante o ensaio foi observada periodicidade nas flutuações das concentrações de CID, sendo CO2 e HCO3-, as frações predominantes. Os valores de CID foram fortemente influenciados pela fração CO2 e no período da tarde ocorreu predominância da fração HCO3-. As concentrações de CO2 variaram de 0.48 µM a 138.94 µM, com concentração média diária de 18,04 µM. Os fluxos de CO2 na interface água atmosfera mostraram variações ao longo do dia. No período da tarde (12:00 h às 18:00 h ocorreram no sentido atmosfera/viveiro, entretanto, o balanço foi de 576.7 µmol.m-2.h-1 no sentido viveiro/atmosfera; CONCLUSÕES: A dinâmica observada indicou que nas condições deste estudo, o metabolismo dos organismos aquáticos foi a principal função de força desse sistema, fato corroborado pelo intenso processo de eutrofização do viveiro.

Claudinei José Rodrigues

2010-12-01

250

Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil / Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de dióxido de carbono (CO2), dependendo das características físico-químicas do sistema (difusão e reações desse gás na água), como também do pH, e da produção primária dos microorganismos através do consumo desse compostos. Evidências [...] apontam que as concentrações de CO2 nos lagos são principalmente reguladas pelo metabolismo aquático, ou seja, pelo balanço entre a respiração e a fotossíntese; OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever aspectos do metabolismo do cultivo de tilápias do Nilo, a partir da dinâmica e do equilíbrio das concentrações de oxigênio (OD) e das formas de carbono inorgânico dissolvido (CID): dióxido de carbono (CO2) e bicarbonato (HCO3-). As demais variáveis analisadas foram: fósforo total, transparência da água, alcalinidade total, temperatura da água, pH, radiação subaquática e análise quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica; MÉTODOS: As amostragens ocorreram durante 5 dias consecutivos das 6:00 às 20:00 h (dezembro/2006) em intervalos de 2 h; RESULTADOS: Durante o ensaio foi observada periodicidade nas flutuações das concentrações de CID, sendo CO2 e HCO3-, as frações predominantes. Os valores de CID foram fortemente influenciados pela fração CO2 e no período da tarde ocorreu predominância da fração HCO3-. As concentrações de CO2 variaram de 0.48 µM a 138.94 µM, com concentração média diária de 18,04 µM. Os fluxos de CO2 na interface água atmosfera mostraram variações ao longo do dia. No período da tarde (12:00 h às 18:00 h) ocorreram no sentido atmosfera/viveiro, entretanto, o balanço foi de 576.7 µmol.m-2.h-1 no sentido viveiro/atmosfera; CONCLUSÕES: A dinâmica observada indicou que nas condições deste estudo, o metabolismo dos organismos aquáticos foi a principal função de força desse sistema, fato corroborado pelo intenso processo de eutrofização do viveiro. Abstract in english Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water) as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compou [...] nds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO) and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC): carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006) every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM) the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.

Claudinei José, Rodrigues; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Clovis Ferreira do, Carmo; Andréa, Tucci; João Alexandre Savilo, Osti; Ariane Carolina Di, Genaro.

2010-12-01

251

Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con e [...] l fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR), electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y de barrido (MEB); como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca). Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos. Abstract in english The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminati [...] ng pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca) were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

G. A, Torres R; S, González P; E, Peña S.

2010-09-01

252

Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con e [...] l fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR), electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y de barrido (MEB); como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca). Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos. Abstract in english The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminati [...] ng pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca) were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

G. A, Torres R; S, González P; E, Peña S.

253

Digestibilidade e desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus) alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de silagem ácida de pescado / Digestibility and performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) fed diets with different levels of acid silage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) para alevinos de tilápia nilótica e o desempenho dos alevinos recebendo níveis crescentes ( [...] 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 %) da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe na ração. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 2,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita durante 7 dias seguintes e a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e energia metabolizável aparente foi feita por metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 1% de Cr2O3 como indicador incorporado à ração. No desempenho, foram utilizados 2000 alevinos revertidos sexualmente com peso médio de 0,45 g, acondicionados em "hapas" de 1m², dispostos em um viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF), consumo de ração total (CRT), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA), acréscimo em altura (AA) e em comprimento (AC). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, 95,49%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, 96,66%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo, 97,18%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta, 95,44%, e energia digestível aparente 2.880,02 kcal/kg. Não houve diferença significativa (P> 0,05) para ganho de peso final, consumo de ração total, conversão e acréscimo em altura. Observou-se aumento linear (P Abstract in english The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This silage was given to Nile tilapia juvenile and their performance was taken. The treatment [...] s were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collection was made during 7 subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent metabolizable energy were determined by indirect method, 1% of Cr(2)0(3) was used as an indicator . In the performance assay a total of 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight of 0.45g, they also were kept in 1m² "hapas" in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG), total feed intake (TFE), apparent feed conversion (AFC), height increase (HI) and length increase (LI). The randomized design was used with 5 treatments and 4 repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility coefficients were: dry matter, 95.49; gross protein, 96.66; ethereal extract, 97.18; gross energy, 95.44; and apparent digestible energy (kcal/kg) was 2880.02. No significant difference (P>0.05) were found for final weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion and height increase. A linear increase (P

Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Carlos José, Pimenta; Antonio Cleber da Silva, Camargo; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato.

1196-12-01

254

EVALUACIÓN DE UN SISTEMA DE ALIMENTACIÓN ORGÁNICO SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO DE LA TILAPIA NILÓTICA (Oreochromis niloticus) CULTIVADA EN ESTANQUES DE TIERRA / EVALUATION OF AN ORGANIC FEEDING SYSTEM ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) IN EARTHEN PONDS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de un sistema de alimentación integrado por dietas formuladas con recursos alternativos orgánicos y diferentes niveles de fertilización orgánica sobre parámetros zootécnicos en peces de consumo cultivados en estanques de tierra. Se utilizaron 1.324 juveniles de Tilapia nilótica ( [...] Oreochromis niloticus) cuyo peso inicial promedio fue de 161,9 ± 7,0 g, solo machos sexados manualmente, sin reversión hormonal. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos y tres repeticiones, distribuidos en 9 estanques de tierra (200 m² cada uno), cultivados bajo las normas de Naturland (2007, 2008, 2011) para la acuicultura orgánica. Durante 180 días se suministraron dietas (levante: 27% PB y 4.120 cal/g EB; finalización: 21% PB y 4.200 cal/g EB) formuladas con recursos provenientes de producción agrícola orgánica certificada. Se implementaron tres variables: un control sin fertilizante y dos diferentes niveles de fertilización con gallinaza orgánica (T1: Abonamiento intensivo con 5 g/m²/día; T2: Abonamiento periódico con 14 g/m²/semana y T3: Sin abonamiento). Se evaluó el efecto de los tratamientos sobre parámetros productivos: ganancia diaria de peso, conversión alimenticia aparente, tasa de crecimiento específico, rendimiento en filete, índices viscerosomático, hepatosomático y de grasa visceral, relación de eficiencia proteica, valor productivo de proteína y eficiencia de retención de energía. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las variables evaluadas (p>0.05). Los resultados indican la posibilidad de implementar un sistema de alimentación orgánico como alternativa productiva que logra parámetros productivos que se aproximan a lo reportado para explotaciones convencionales de tilapia y con el potencial de posicionar un producto final en eco-mercados diferenciales siendo sustentable en su obtención. Abstract in english It was evaluated the effect of a feeding system that included formulated diets with organic alternative resources and different levels of organic fertilization on animal production evaluation parameters in fish farmed in earthen ponds. 1,324 juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with initial [...] weight of 161.9 ± 7.0 g, male manually sexed without hormonal reversal were used. It was used a completely randomized design with three treatments and three replicates, randomly distributed in 9 earthen ponds of 200 m² each. The husbandry management was under the Naturland standards for organic aquaculture. During 180 days fish were fed diets (growth: 27% CP and 4,120 cal/g GE; finish: 21% CP and 4,200 cal/g GE) formulated using resources from certified organic agricultural production. Were handled without fertilizer control and two different levels of organic chicken manure fertilization (T1: intensive fertilization with 5g/m²/day; T2: periodically fertilization with 14g/m²/week and T3: no fertilization). The effect of treatments was evaluated on: daily weight gain, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, fillet yield, viscerosomatic, hepatosomatic and visceral fat index, protein efficiency ratio, protein production value and energy retention efficiency. There were not significant differences in the variables evaluated (p

A, Bermúdez; A. P, Muñoz-Ramírez; G. A, Wills.

2012-12-01

255

Studies on the Post-mortem Changes in Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus During Ice Storage  

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Full Text Available Studies were conducted on the post-mortem changes in genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during ice storage. Fish sample kept at room temperature, rigor started 1 hr. after spiking, reached full rigor (100% within 3 hr which continued for 3 hr. . In ice stored fish, rigor started within one hour and attained full rigor (100% within 2 hr that continued for 16 hrs. The pH of the muscle was about 7 immediately after catch and started to decrease gradually with the lapse of storage period. But the decrement of pH in samples stored at room temperature was much rapid than those stored in ice. Organoleptically the fish were in acceptable conditions for 16 days. The initial TVB-N and peroxide values were 5.3 mg/100g of fish and 5 meq/kg of fish respectively. These values gradually increased with the lapse of storage time but remained within the recommended limit up to 16 days. Ca2+ ATPase activities in presence of 0.1M KCl and 0.5 M KCl were 0.349 and 0.139 ?mol.pi/min. mg, respectively, and decreased gradually with storage period. Mg2+ ATPase activities in presence and absence of Ca2+ were 0.418 and 0.183 ?mol.pi/min. mg respectively. The myofibrillar solubility decreased gradually from around 85.33% to 38.6% at the end of the 16 days of ice storage. The bacterial loads in muscle of ice stored GIFT varied from 7.6 x 103 to 7.1 x 103 cfu/g at 2nd day of storage and then gradually increased with storage period. At the end of the 16 days of ice storage, bacterial load increased to 4.6 x 106 cfu/g and at this stage the fish were organoleptically in acceptable condition. After 18 days of storage the bacterial load was 3.8 x 108 cfu/g that exceeded the acceptable recommended limit

L. Yasmin

2001-01-01

256

A qualitative ecological risk assessment of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in a sub-tropical African river system (Limpopo River, South Africa)  

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1. This study outlines the development of a qualitative risk assessment method and its application as a screening tool for determining the risk of establishment and spread of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), within the central sub-catchment of the Limpopo River basin in northern South Africa. 2. The assessment utilised known physiological tolerance limits of O. niloticus in relation to minimum water temperature, presence or absence of dams, seasonality of ...

Zengeya, Tsungai Alfred; Robertson, Mark P.; Booth, Anthony J.; Chimimba, Christian Timothy

2013-01-01

257

Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cylindrospermopsin and the effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine to prevent its toxic effects.  

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Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several cyanobacteria species. It has been demonstrated that CYN is a potent protein and glutathione synthesis inhibitor, and induces genotoxicity and oxidative stress. The present study investigated the protective role of two different doses of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) (22 and 45 mg/fish/day) against the pathological changes induced in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) orally exposed to a single dose of pure CYN or CYN from an Aphanizomenon ovalisporum CYN-producer strain (200 ?g/kg of CYN in both cases). Moreover, an immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was carried out in order to elucidate the CYN distribution in exposed fish. The histological findings were more pronounced when fish were intoxicated with CYN from the cyanobacterial strain, being liver and kidney the main targets for CYN toxicity. NAC pre-treatment was effective reducing the damage induced by CYN, especially at the highest dose employed (45 mg/fish/day), with a total prevention in all organs. The IHC analysis showed that CYN-antigen appeared mainly in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, although it was also present in kidney and gills. In this case, the immunopositive results were more abundant in those fish exposed to pure CYN. NAC reduced the number of immunopositive cases in a dose-dependent way. Therefore, NAC can be considered a useful chemoprotectant in the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxications in fish. PMID:24291634

Gutiérrez-Praena, D; Risalde, M A; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Vasconcelos, V; Cameán, A M

2014-02-01

258

Níveis de levedura desidratada "spray-dried" na dieta de alevinos revertidos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. Levels of dried yeast spray-dried in diet for reversed Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Foram utilizados 1200 alevinos revertidos de tilápia do Nilo com peso inicial médio 0,13 ± 0,01g, distribuídos em 20 aquários de 1000L para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de levedura desidratada na dieta. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (0,00; 7,80; 15,60; 23,40 e 31,20% de levedura na dieta e quatro repetições. Não foi observado efeito dos tratamentos sobre a conversão alimentar e sobrevivência. Foi observado efeito quadrático sobre o ganho de peso (Y=l,7133 + 0,0477X-0,0017X² e custo em ração/kg ganho (Y=0,6170-0,0112X+0,0004X². Concluiu-se que o melhor nível de inclusão de levedura seca na dieta para alevinos revertidos de tilápias do Nilo é de 14%.One hundred and two thousand reversed of Nile tilápia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus with initial weight mean 0.13 ± 0.01 g, distributed in twenty 1000-liter fish aquarium, were used to evaluate the inclusion of dried yeast in the diet. Samples were distributed in a entirely randomized design with five treatments (0.00; 7.80; 15.60; 23.40 and 31.20% yeast in the diet andfour replicates. There was no effect of treatments on food conversion and survival. A quadratic effect over weight gam (Y=1.7133+0.0477X- 0.0017X² and cost of diet/kg gain (Y=0.6170-0.0112X+0.0004X² was observed. It was concluded the best level of dried yeast in diet for reversed Nile tilapia fingerlings is 14%.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya

2000-08-01

259

Níveis de levedura desidratada "spray-dried" na dieta de alevinos revertidos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) / Levels of dried yeast spray-dried in diet for reversed Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados 1200 alevinos revertidos de tilápia do Nilo com peso inicial médio 0,13 ± 0,01g, distribuídos em 20 aquários de 1000L para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de levedura desidratada na dieta. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos [...] (0,00; 7,80; 15,60; 23,40 e 31,20% de levedura na dieta) e quatro repetições. Não foi observado efeito dos tratamentos sobre a conversão alimentar e sobrevivência. Foi observado efeito quadrático sobre o ganho de peso (Y=l,7133 + 0,0477X-0,0017X²) e custo em ração/kg ganho (Y=0,6170-0,0112X+0,0004X²). Concluiu-se que o melhor nível de inclusão de levedura seca na dieta para alevinos revertidos de tilápias do Nilo é de 14%. Abstract in english One hundred and two thousand reversed of Nile tilápia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with initial weight mean 0.13 ± 0.01 g, distributed in twenty 1000-liter fish aquarium, were used to evaluate the inclusion of dried yeast in the diet. Samples were distributed in a entirely randomized design w [...] ith five treatments (0.00; 7.80; 15.60; 23.40 and 31.20% yeast in the diet) andfour replicates. There was no effect of treatments on food conversion and survival. A quadratic effect over weight gam (Y=1.7133+0.0477X- 0.0017X²) and cost of diet/kg gain (Y=0.6170-0.0112X+0.0004X²) was observed. It was concluded the best level of dried yeast in diet for reversed Nile tilapia fingerlings is 14%.

Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Simoni, Seron; Lauro, Vargas; Carmino, Hayashi; Valéria Rossetto Barriviera, Furuya; Claudemir Martins, Soares.

2000-08-01

260

Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum), used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish (7±1g/f [...] ish) were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet) added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP) and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.

A. M., Shalaby; Y. A., Khattab; A. M., Abdel Rahman.

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Influence of Ultrafiltration on Antioxidant Activity of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Protein Hydrolysate  

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Full Text Available The production of hot w ater dip hydrolysate (HWDH from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with DH of 25.43% improved its bioactivity. A pressure-driven ultrafiltration (UF membrane separated HWDH based on molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO of 1000, 3000, and 5,000 Da, to produce fractions F1-k, F3-k, F5-k respectively and 5k-R (retentate of 5,000 Da with antioxidative activity. The UF produced permeates with smaller Mw distribution (177-3015 Da, with F1-k portraying lowest molecular weight range (180-2008 Da, whilst the retentate fraction ranged higher 179-8130 Da. The antioxidant efficacy of fractions with ABTS, DPPH, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation, Metal-chelating ability, and reducing power exhibited antioxidant activity (82.30% for F1-k, within range of "-tocopherol (87.04% and BHT (89.71% in linoleic acid oxidation system. Furthermore, F1-k exhibited higher ABTS, DPPH and M etal-chelating activity with a significant difference (p<0.05. The correlation between the smaller Mw size and antioxidant activity is superiorly exhibited in the F1-k fraction.

Mohamed Beva Kelfala Foh

2010-09-01

262

Determinación y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus cultivada en Campeche, México  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en granjas de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus en el Municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Materiales y métodos. La colecta de organismos se realizó en tres granjas de cultivo de tilapia nilótica del municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Los organismos se examinaron externa e internamente y se tomó una muestra de riñón la cual fue sembrada en forma de estría en medios de cultivo: Löwesntein-Jensen, TCBS, KF y en TSA; las placas fueron incubadas a 35°C de 24 a 48 horas, los órganos fueron fijados en formalina tamponada al 10% para ser procesados para histología de rutina para análisis posteriores. Asimismo, muestras de cultivo bacteriológico y de tejido fueron teñidas con la técnica de Ziel-Neelsen con el fin de observar la presencia de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la presencia de Mycobacterium spp., es constante y en alta prevalencia y puede ser un factor que este mermando la rentabilidad del cultivo. Conclusiones. La presencia de Mycobacterium spp., representa un riesgo para el cultivo de tilapia en el municipio de Champotón, por ser una enfermedad muy persistente y difícil de erradicar una vez ocurrido e brote de infección, por lo cual es importante llevar estudios más detallados de la presencia de este género bacteriano, así como, medidas de prevención y dispersión de este patógeno en los cultivos adyacentes.

Maurilio Lara-Flores

2013-03-01

263

Species diversity defends against the invasion of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the most widely cultured species globally and has successfully colonized much of the world. Despite numerous studies of this exotic species, how differences in native communities mitigate the consequences of Nile tilapia invasion is unknown. Theory predicts that communities that are more diverse should be more resistant to exotic species, an effect that is referred to as “biotic resistance”, but these effects are spatially dependent and organism-specific. Field surveys and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the theory of “biotic resistance” and ascertain the relationship between native species richness and the invasion of Nile tilapia. In the field, we found that as native species richness increased, the biomass of Nile tilapia was significantly reduced. Consistent with results from the field, our manipulative experiment indicated that the growth of Nile tilapia was negatively related to native species richness. Thus, our study supports the theory of “biotic resistance” and suggests that species biodiversity represents an important defense against the invasion of Nile tilapia.

Gu Dang E.

2014-05-01

264

Sex determination in the genus Oreochromis : 1. Sex reversal, gynogenesis and triploidy in O. niloticus (L.).  

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Established techniques of genetic manipulation were used to elucidate sex-determining mechanisms in the commercially important tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Analysis of sex ratios from single-pair matings of normal broodstock showed these to be heterogeneous, with an asymmetrical frequency distribution. Data were homogeneous, with the exclusion of a number of broods with sex ratios not significantly different from 3?1 (male: female), and further progeny testing revealed atypical female heterogamety in the parents of these broods. Analysis of sex ratios from complete diallele-type crosses using five males and five females demonstrated no association between male parent, female parent and progeny sex ratio. Sex ratios of gynogens (0?1) and triploids (1?1), and from progeny testing of sex-reversed males (0?1) and sex-reversed females (3?1), provide evidence for female homogamety in this species. Progeny testing of male gynogens derived from sex-reversed females demonstrated recombination between the centromere and the sex-determining locus (68.9%). Novel YY "supermales" were shown to be viable and produced all-male offspring. It was concluded that this species exhibits monofactorial, genotypic sex determination with male heterogamety. However, rare autosomal or environmental sex-modifying factors may account for occasional deviations from expected sex ratios. PMID:24213058

Mair, G C; Scott, A G; Penman, D J; Beardmore, J A; Skibinski, D O

1991-08-01

265

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Isolated from Fresh-Marketed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

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The contamination of seafood by bacteria of fecal origin, especially Escherichia coli, is a widely documented sanitary problem. The objective of the present study was to isolate E. coli strains from the gills, muscle, and body surface of farmed Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) fresh-marketed in supermarkets in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil), to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics of different families (amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim), and to determine the nature of resistance by plasmid curing. Forty-four strains (body surface = 25, gills = 15, muscle = 4) were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Gill and body surface samples yielded 11 isolates resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, 4 of which of plasmidial nature. The multiple antibiotic resistance index was higher for strains isolated from body surface than from gills. The overall high antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli strains isolated from fresh-marketed tilapia was satisfactory, although the occasional finding of plasmidial resistance points to the need for close microbiological surveillance of the farming, handling, and marketing conditions of aquaculture products. PMID:24808957

Rocha, Rafael Dos Santos; Leite, Lana Oliveira; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva Dos Fernandes

2014-01-01

266

Use of biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to assess the impacts of pollution in Bolgoda Lake, an urban water body in Sri Lanka.  

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The present study reports the first analysis of water pollutants in Sri Lankan waters using a suite of biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) residing in Bolgoda Lake which receives urban, industrial and domestic wastes from multiple sources. The fish were collected from the lake in the dry period (April 2005) and wet periods (September 2005, October 2006) and the levels of biomarkers viz. hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), metallothioneins, biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds, brain and muscle cholinesterases (ChE) were compared with those of the laboratory reared control fish and the fish obtained from a less polluted water body, Bathalagoda reservoir (reference site). The results revealed that biomarker levels of the fish collected from the reference site were not significantly different from the controls. Hepatic EROD and GST activities in fish from Bolgoda Lake were induced 4.2-16.6 folds and 1.4-3.3 folds respectively compared with the control fish. Analysis of bile in the lake fish revealed recent uptake of naphthalene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene type polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The induction of EROD activities in feral fish reflects the exposure of fish to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists including PAHs present as pollutants in the Bolgoda Lake. Cholinesterase activity in the fish inhabiting one sampling site of Bolgoda Lake was lower (22-40% inhibition) than the activity measured in the control fish indicating the presence of anticholinesterase pollutants in the area. Hepatic metallothionein levels in the lake fish were higher (1.9-3.2 folds) in comparison to the controls indicating metal exposure. The results support the potential use of these biomarkers in Nile tilapia in assessing pollution in tropical water bodies. PMID:18688734

Pathiratne, A; Chandrasekera, L W H U; Pathiratne, K A S

2009-09-01

267

Lactobacillus planarum subsp. plantarum JCM 1149 vs. Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 in the anterior intestine and posterior intestine of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?: an ex vivo study.  

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To investigate the ex vivo interactions of probiotic-pathogen-host in warm-water fish, hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus? × Oreochromis aureus?) were sacrificed to isolate anterior and posterior intestine for incubation with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) as the control, Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1149 at 1.0 × 10(9) CFU/ml, Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 at 1.0 × 10(8) CFU/ml, or the both combination. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint and consequent sequence analysis confirmed anterior intestine sac was more prone to the colonization of L. plantarum JCM 1149 and A. hydrophila NJ-1 than the posterior part. L. plantarum JCM 1149 and A. hydrophila NJ-1 inhibited the population each other in anterior or posterior sac, indicating their competition for the colonization. The induced expression of HSP70, IL-1? and TNF-? in the anterior sac by the addition of L. plantarum JCM 1149 or A. hydrophila NJ-1 demonstrated the activity and a local immune response of ex vivo anterior sac. Compared with posterior intestine, higher population colonization and more sensitive immune response of anterior sac indicated differential patterns for the probiotic-pathogen-host interactions. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observation showed that pathogen A. hydrophila NJ-1 damaged the anterior intestine, which was alleviated by the pretreatment of L. plantarum JCM 1149, showing its probiotic effect. PMID:23664914

Ren, Pengfei; Xu, Li; Yang, Yaling; He, Suxu; Liu, Wenshu; Ringø, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang

2013-07-01

268

Growth and economic performance of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. fingerlings f ed diets containing grade d levels of s clerotium  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inclusion of sclerotium as a substitute forsoybean meal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus using growth performance, economy of production,haematological and biochemical parameters as indices. Four experimental diets comprising of control(CTR without sclerotium and other three diets SC1, SC2 and SC3 containing 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 %sclerotium, respectively. The experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish fingerlings (0.81±0.00g average body weight for 70 days. The inclusion of sclerotium at 7.5% level recorded the bestvalues for mean weight gain (MWG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Therewas no significant difference (p>0.05 in the incidence cost (IC and profit index (PI among the dietshowever, the best results were achieved at 10% (SC2 inclusion level. The parked cell volume (PCV,haemoglobin (Hb, neutrophil and lymphocyte showed significant difference (p0.05 in eosinophil among the four diets.Biochemical parameters recorded significant differences (pO. niloticus.

Muyideen O . Lawa

2013-05-01

269

Farinha de vísceras de aves em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo,Oreochromis niloticus (L.) / Poultry by-product meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e as características de carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) submetidos a rações com níveis de inclusão de farinha de vísceras (FV), assim como os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) dos nutrientes [...] deste alimento. Para o experimento de desempenho, foram utilizados 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,35 ± 0,01 g, distribuídos em trinta tanques-rede (120 L), instalados em cinco tanques (1000 L). Foram utilizados seis níveis de inclusão de FV nas rações (0,00; 4,00; 8,00; 12,00; 16,00 e 20,00%), em um delineamento experimental, em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade, com rações contendo 0,00 e 20,00% de FV, fornecidas a peixes com peso médio de 47,81 ± 9,97 g. Observou-se aumento linear da porcentagem de ganho de peso e taxas de eficiência protéica e de retenção de nitrogênio, com o aumento nos teores de FV nas rações, e efeito quadrático para conversão alimentar, taxa de retenção de extrato etéreo e porcentagens de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo na carcaça. Em relação à digestibilidade, a ração com 20,00% de FV apresentou menores CDA para a matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta e maiores para extrato etéreo. Entretanto, maiores valores de extrato etéreo e energia digestíveis foram obtidos na ração com 20,00% de FV, embora a proteína digestível tenha sido inferior com 0,00% de FV. Os CDA do extrato etéreo, proteína bruta e energia bruta da farinha de vísceras foram de 70,45; 63,93 e 55,89%, respectivamente. A inclusão de 20,00% de FV na ração promoveu melhor desempenho, porém aumentou o teor de extrato etéreo e reduziu o de proteína bruta na carcaça, ocorrendo, ainda, diminuição dos CDA da matéria seca, proteína e energia bruta das rações. Abstract in english Performance, carcass characteristics and coefficients of apparent digestibility of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with increasing levels of poultry by-product meal (PM) were evaluated. Three hundred fingerlings with average initial weight of 0.35±0.01 g were placed in thi [...] rty 120 L net ponds in five cement 1000 L tanks. Six levels of PM inclusion (0.00, 4.00, 8.00, 12.00, 16.00 and 20.00%) were used in the diets, in an experimental randomized blocks desing with six treatments and three replicates. An experiment of diet digestibility was undertaken with 0.00 and 20.00% PM diets on fish of average weight 47.81±9.97 g. A linear improvement was observed at PM inclusion levels with regard to final weight, percentage of weight gain, protein efficiency rate, nitrogen retention and quadratic effect for food conversion, ether extract retention and percentages of crude protein and carcass ethereal extract. Concerning to the digestibility experiment, the 20.00% PM diet showed lower coefficients of apparent digestibility for dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and higher coefficients for ether extract. However, higher values of digestible ether extract and energy were obtained with 20.00% PM diet, even though digestible protein was lower than the 0.00% PP diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the ether extract, crude protein and crude energy of PM for the Nile tilapia were 70.45, 63.93 and 55.89% respectively. Thus, the inclusion of 20.00% PM in diet improved performance, however increased ether extract content and decreased crude protein levels in carcass and dry matter, crude protein and energy digestibility coefficients of the diets.

Anna Christina Esper Amaro de, Faria; Carmino, Hayashi; Claudemir Martins, Soares.

270

Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities  

Science.gov (United States)

The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

2011-01-01

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The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. Th [...] e plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

TATIANA S, FIUZA; PAULO C, SILVA; JOSÉ R, PAULA; LEONICE M F, TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T, SABÓIA-MORAIS.

272

Quantification of essential fatty acids in the heads of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with linseed oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do óleo de linhaça sobre as concentrações dos teores de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-6 e n-3 (AGPI) em cabeças de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), um resíduo do pescado normalmente descartado durante o processo de filetagem. A quanti [...] ficação dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados foi realizada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa (CG), sendo a concentração dos ácidos graxos expressa em termos de massa absoluta através da utilização do éster metílico (23:0) como padrão interno e do TCFx (fator de correção teórica do FID). As tilápias receberam dietas com níveis crescentes de óleo de linhaça (0,00, 1,25, 2,50, 3,75 e 5,00%) em substituição ao óleo de girassol (controle) durante um período de cinco meses. A ingestão de LNA causa a dessaturação sequencial e alongamento das cadeias carbônicas de ácidos graxos presentes nas cabeças de peixes, levando a um aumento em todos os AGPIs n-3. Este experimento demonstrou claramente que a adição de óleo de linhaça na ração de tilápia do Nilo aumenta significativamente as concentrações (em 100 g-1 de cabeça) de LNA (100,8 para 973,6 mg), EPA (4,8 para 82,1 mg) e DHA (24,0 para 125,4 mg). Estas alterações contribuem acentuadamente para melhorar a razão AGPI n-6/n-3 e, desta forma, pode ser utilizada em suplementos alimentícios, transformando as cabeças de tilápia em valiosa alternativa como fonte de alimento para dieta humana. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to examine the effects of linseed oil on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid content in the heads of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), these are normally discarded during the filleting process. The quantification of PUFA was carried out in absolute weigh [...] ts through the use of methyl ester (23:0), as an internal standard, and TCFx (theoretical FID correction factor) by GC gas chromatography. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels (0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00%) of linseed oil as a replacement for sunflower oil (control) for a period of five months. The ingestion of LNA causes sequential desaturation and elongation in fish heads, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFAs. This experiment demonstrated clearly that adding linseed oil to the feed of Nile tilapia can markedly increase the amounts (per 100 g-1 of head) of LNA (100.8 to 973.6 mg), EPA (4.8 to 82.1 mg), and DHA (24.0 to 125.4 mg) in their heads, and thus, may be used to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in dietary supplements, and creating a valuable alternative food source in the human diet.

Ana C., Aguiar; Solange M., Cottica; Marcela, Boroski; Cláudio C., Oliveira; Elton G., Bonafé; Polyana B., França; Nilson E., Souza; Jesui V., Visentainer.

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Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (approximately 5.0cm in length were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH; b fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R; c fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH; and d fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N. The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T, and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K; survival percentage (S, feed conversion rate (FCR, percentage weight gain (WG and (v daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group, being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (pActualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT. En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.0cm de longitud, fueron asignados al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque, en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH, b peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R, c los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH, y d los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N. La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra, se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T, Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K, porcentaje de supervivencia (S, la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR, porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH, y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p<0.05 para ambas comparaciones. De manera similar, los altos valores de K se presentaron en los tratamientos R y RGH durante los primeros días de cultivo. Esto puede haber sido asociado con un mejor estado nutricional que afectó tanto el desarrollo de peso y la longitud del cuerpo del pez, como resultado del efecto aditivo de 17-MT y GH. Los tratamientos no andrógenos y los grupos tratados con andrógenos y con HC mostraron un mayor incremento en la ganancia de peso por día, los mayores valores de K y menores tasas de conversión del alimento, lo que sugiere una mayor eficiencia de la alimentación en los peces tratados con hormonas. Peces en el tratamiento RGH mostraron el mayor crecimiento, lo que sugiere una posible interacción entre el 17 de ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT y hormona de crecimiento inyectada.

Marco A. Liñán-Cabello

2013-03-01

274

Ecotoxicity of natural insecticide based on tobacco plant extract and hematological effects on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicity and hematological effects of a natural insecticide based on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum extract on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.14131  

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Full Text Available Natural insecticides derived from plant extracts have been used as an alternative to synthetic products in order to reduce environmental contamination. The present study aimed to examine the effects of Fumydro®, a natural insecticide based in the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus by determining the 48-h LC50 and evaluating their effects on hematological variables. Adult specimens of O. niloticus were exposed to four Fumydro® concentrations (200, 300, 400 and 500 ?L L-1. The 48-h LC50 of Fumydro® was determined as 370 ± 50 ?L L-1. Surviving fish showed increasing in the red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The thrombocytes did not change but the percentage of neutrophils increased. These results indicated that the insecticide Fumydro® is toxic to Nile tilapia and the changes of the erythrocyte variables suggested hypoxemia induction with low effect on the immune system.Natural insecticides from plant extracts represent an alternative to the highly toxic synthetic products in order to reduce environmental contamination; however some might also be toxic for non-target organisms. The present study determined the 50% lethal concentration (48h; LC50 for adults Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to the natural insecticide Fumydro®, based on the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum, and evaluated its effect on hematological variables. After preliminary tests, adult specimens of O. niloticus were exposed to four Fumydro® concentrations (200, 300, 400 and 500 ?L L-1. The 48h; LC50 of Fumydro® was determined at 370 ± 50 ?L L-1. The surviving fish after exposure to Fumydro® showed an increase in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The number of thrombocytes and leukocytes has not changed, unlike the differential leukocyte count that presented an increased percentage of neutrophils. The results indicated that the insecticide Fumydro® is highly toxic to Nile tilapia and changes in erythrocyte variables suggested the induction to hypoxemia with low effect on the immune system.

Marisa Narciso Fernandes

2013-05-01

275

Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus  

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Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05. The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05. The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05. Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05 in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

Pimolrat, P.

2006-09-01

276

Pembuatan Pakan Ikan Dari Protein Sel Tunggal Bakteri Fotosintetik Anoksigenik Dengan Memanfaatkan Limbah Cair Tepung Tapioka Yang Diuji Pada Ikan Nila (Oreochromis Niloticus)  

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Penelitian mengenai “Pembuatan pakan ikan dari protein sel tunggal bakteri fotosintetik anoksigenik dengan memanfaatkan limbah tepung tapioka yang diuji Pada ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus)” telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Departemen Biologi, Laboratorium Biokimia Departemen Kimia Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Laboratorium Teknologi Hasil Pertanian (THP) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara dan Laboratorium Air Badan Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan ...

Ummi Mardhiah Batubara

2010-01-01

277

Massive Mortality Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Cage-cultured Red Hybrid Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Massive mortality of cage-cultured red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia was investigated. Moribund fish showing erratic swimming, sluggishness and hemorrhagic eyes were collected for the study. Water quality parameters were measured on-site. The highest temperature was 32.70°C at the surface while lower temperature was 30.85°C at 6 m. Dissolved Oxygen (DO was highest 7.05 mg L-1 at 4 m while lowest 6.15 mg L-1 at 10 m. The pH value was highest 8.28 at 6 m and lowest 7.52 at surface. The result has shown that un-ionized ammonia levels ranged from 0.00046-0.01 ppm within the optimum range. While Nitrite (0.003 ppm and Nitrate values (0.1-0.7 ppm. The water quality parameters were showed their values within the accepted range of water quality for aquaculture. Bacteria were isolated from diseased fish using blood and nutrient agars, and identified using BBL Crystal™ Enteric/Non-fermenter ID and Gram Positive ID Systems and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility analysis. Results showed the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Burkholderia cepacia in the fish liver and Staphylococcus aureus in the fish eyes, suggesting a possible case of warm-water streptococcosis associated with S. agalactiae with multiple bacterial complications. Nevertheless, a continuous long term monitoring is essential for the sustainable development of cage aquaculture in Como river of Lake Kenyir Malaysia.

K.C.A. Jalal

2012-01-01

278

Growth and fatty acid composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla-diets, in tanks and in earthen ponds: A comparative study  

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Full Text Available Two 90-day experiments were conducted in the same period in tanks and in earthen ponds to study the effects of culture systems on growth and fatty acid (FA of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. fingerlings (mean weight: 16.3 g fed Azolla, as partial replacement for fish meal (FM. Diets were isonitrogenous (29.2% CP and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ?g?1 containing 0% (A0, 10% (A10, 20% (A20, 30% (A30, 40% (A40 and 50% (A50 of Azolla meal (AM respectively. Diet A0, without AM, acted as a control. In both experiments, fish growth decreased as AM level increased in diets (P P 30-A50. Interestingly, those fish were rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3. Consequently, the n-3/n-6 values decreased in tanks, whereas an increasing trend was found in ponds, and values were significantly higher in ponds than in tanks (0.35 - 0.53 vs. 0.08 - 0.17. The results suggest raising Nile tilapia with Azolladiets in ponds to improve growth and produce fish with a better FA composition, for the wellbeing of consumers.

Youssouf Abou

2013-01-01

279

Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser / Desempenho produtivo de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentadas em diferentes frequências e períodos com dispensador automático  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) produzidas em tanque-rede, providas de dispensadores automáticos de ração, alimentadas em diferentes frequências - uma vez por hora e a cada duas horas - e períodos - durante o dia, à noite ou ambos. Dezoito tanques-rede de 1.0m³ fo [...] ram colocados em um tanque de 2000m² com dois metros de profundidade e renovação de água de 5%. Cento e setenta tilápias, com peso inicial de 16.0±4.9g foram distribuídas em cada tanque-rede de 1m³ e a taxa alimentar foi ajustada a cada 21 dias junto com as biometrias. As medidas foram coletadas de março a julho (outono e inverno). Observou-se diferença significativa para peso final (P Abstract in english The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours) and periods (daytime, nighttime and both) was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two [...] meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter). Significant difference to final weight (P

R.M.R., Sousa; C.A., Agostinho; F.A., Oliveira; D., Argentim; P.K., Novelli; S.M.M., Agostinho.

2012-02-01

280

Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange / Rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en un sistema híperintensivo de recirculación acuícola con mínimo recambio de agua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus sembrados en densidades hiperintensivas en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA) con mínimo remplazo de agua. El sistema experimental consistió en un sistema de precría de cosecha única [...] para obtener peces de 50 g en 60 días. Los peces (2,07 ± 0,14 g) se sembraron por triplicado a densidades de 400 (T1), 500 (T2) y 600 (T3) peces m-3 (0,84; 1,05; 1,22 kg m-3). El SRA funcionó con 12.000 L de agua recirculante y un remplazo diario de 252 L (2,1% por día). La densidad de siembra no afectó significativamente la supervivencia (89,5-93,6%). El biofiltro removió el amonio nitrogenado total con una eficiencia del 46,9 ± 7,0%. La tasa de crecimiento de T1 (0,96 g día-1; 5,01% día-1) y T2 (0,92 g día-1; 4,95% día-1) fue significativamente mayor que T3 (0,83 g día-1; 4,80% día-1). La temperatura influyó 41% en la tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE) de T1. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto (DO) influyó en la variación de peso en T2 (47%) y T3 (44%). La TCE de T3 también se vio afectada por la concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (31%). El aumento de la densidad de siembra afectó el tamaño y la homogeneidad de tallas de los peces, pero no afectó la relación longitud-peso (L-P). Los datos respaldan la conclusión que los juveniles sembrados a densidades de 400 y 500 peces m-3 tienen alto rendimiento durante nueve semanas consecutivas, siempre y cuando la biomasa no se exceda de 37 kg m-3. En este tiempo los peces alcanzan el peso final esperado de precría (50 g) y pueden ser transferidos hacia las instalaciones de engorde. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain [...] 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily). The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%). The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1) and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1) was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1). The specific growth rate (SGR) of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%). The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W). Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g) for transfer to grow-out facilities.

M, Gullian-Klanian; C, Arámburu-Adame.

 
 
 
 
281

Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange / Rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en un sistema híperintensivo de recirculación acuícola con mínimo recambio de agua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus sembrados en densidades hiperintensivas en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA) con mínimo remplazo de agua. El sistema experimental consistió en un sistema de precría de cosecha única [...] para obtener peces de 50 g en 60 días. Los peces (2,07 ± 0,14 g) se sembraron por triplicado a densidades de 400 (T1), 500 (T2) y 600 (T3) peces m-3 (0,84; 1,05; 1,22 kg m-3). El SRA funcionó con 12.000 L de agua recirculante y un remplazo diario de 252 L (2,1% por día). La densidad de siembra no afectó significativamente la supervivencia (89,5-93,6%). El biofiltro removió el amonio nitrogenado total con una eficiencia del 46,9 ± 7,0%. La tasa de crecimiento de T1 (0,96 g día-1; 5,01% día-1) y T2 (0,92 g día-1; 4,95% día-1) fue significativamente mayor que T3 (0,83 g día-1; 4,80% día-1). La temperatura influyó 41% en la tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE) de T1. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto (DO) influyó en la variación de peso en T2 (47%) y T3 (44%). La TCE de T3 también se vio afectada por la concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (31%). El aumento de la densidad de siembra afectó el tamaño y la homogeneidad de tallas de los peces, pero no afectó la relación longitud-peso (L-P). Los datos respaldan la conclusión que los juveniles sembrados a densidades de 400 y 500 peces m-3 tienen alto rendimiento durante nueve semanas consecutivas, siempre y cuando la biomasa no se exceda de 37 kg m-3. En este tiempo los peces alcanzan el peso final esperado de precría (50 g) y pueden ser transferidos hacia las instalaciones de engorde. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain [...] 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily). The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%). The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1) and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1) was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1). The specific growth rate (SGR) of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%). The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W). Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g) for transfer to grow-out facilities.

M, Gullian-Klanian; C, Arámburu-Adame.

2013-03-01

282

Effects of palm kernel cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Effects of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex- reversed red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied using seven isocaloric diets (3400 kCal/ kg containing different levels of protein and PKC. Diet 1, 2 and 3 contained 20% protein with the supplementation of 15, 30 and 45% PKC, respectively. Diets 4, 5 and 6 contained 24% protein in combinationwith the same PKC supplemention levels mentioned above, and diet 7 was commercial feed containing 20% protein as a control diet. Experimental diets were fed to experimental fish of 48.65 g initial average body weight cultured in floating cages (3 cages/diet for 10 weeks. Fish fed diets containing higher protein (24%; diets 4, 5 and 6 had significantly better growth performance (p<0.05 than those fed lower protein (20%; diets 1, 2 and 3. Considering the effect of PKC, fish fed diet 5 (Prot. 24%, PKC 30% gave the greatest growth performance (p<0.05 and all the PKC-fed groups had significantly higher growth than fish fed control diet. There was evidence that supplementation of PKC in fish feed ranging from 15 to 45% had no effect to the survival rate, blood components, or hepatocytic cells of tilapia. However, liver tissue showed higher numbers of lipid droplets in fish fed diet contained 45% PKC (diets 3 and 6. For the production cost, all test diets with PKC supplementation had significantly higher price (p<0.05 than commercial feed. However, when considering the feeding cost per unit of fish production, fish reared with PKC supplemented diets had significantly lower cost (p<0.05 than fish fed commercial feed.

Sukasem, N.

2007-09-01

283

High Potential Probiotic Bacillus Species from Gastro-intestinal Tract of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available In study to obtain a safe Bacillus probiotic for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus cultivation, hemolytic activity on blood agar medium was used in isolation of Bacillus probiotic species from gastro-intestinal tract of Nile tilapia. One hundred and three isolates of Bacillus sp. which showed no hemolytic activity were obtained from 2 sampling sites of the Nile Tilapia net-cage culture farms. Among these 103 isolates, however, there was only 1 isolate, named as Bacillus UBRU4 which showed the inhibitory effect on Aeromonas hydrophila growth. The results of physiological and biochemical test and molecular identification (99.90% identity showed that Bacillus UBRU4 was similar to Bacillus brevis. This was possibly the first report of isolation of Bacillus brevis in aquaculture. The optimum pH and temperature for Bacillus UBRU4 growth on Tryptic soy broth were 6.5 and 37C, respectively. The maximum cell numbers of Bacillus UBRU4 in modified broth culture medium was obtained when using the medium contained 30 g L-1 of Nile tilapia commercial feed and 20 g L-1 of molasses. The bioactive compound production of Bacillus UBRU4 showed the growth associated characteristic. Partial purified bioactive compounds by 80% saturated ammonium sulfate could increase the activity to 6,400 AU mL-1. The specific activity of the bioactive compound was increased from 1,298 to 5,807 AU mg-1. These results suggested that the Bacillus UBRU4, thus, could possibly be used as high potential probiotic in Nile tilapia feed.

V. Leelavatcharamas

2011-01-01

284

Comparative analysis of Hox paralog group 2 gene expression during Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) embryonic development.  

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The hindbrain and pharyngeal arch-derived structures of vertebrates are determined, at least in part, by Hox paralog group 2 genes. In sarcopterygians, the Hoxa2 gene alone appears to specify structures derived from the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), while in zebrafish (Danio rerio), either of the two Hox PG2 genes, hoxa2b or hoxb2a, can specify PA2-derived structures. We previously reported three Hox PG2 genes in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), including hoxa2a, hoxa2b, and hoxb2a and observed that only HoxA cluster genes are expressed in PA2, indicative that they function alone or together to specify PA2. In this paper, we present the cloning and expression analysis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Hox PG2 genes and show that all three genes are expressed in the hindbrain and in PA2. The expression of hoxb2a in PA2 was unexpected given the close phylogenetic relationship of Nile tilapia and striped bass, both of which are members of the order Perciformes. A reanalysis of striped bass hoxb2a expression demonstrated that it is expressed in PA2 with nearly the same temporal and spatial expression pattern as its Nile tilapia ortholog. Further, we determined that Nile tilapia and striped bass hoxa2a orthologs are expressed in PA2 well beyond the onset of chondrogenesis whereas neither hoxa2b nor hoxb2a expression persist until this stage, which, according to previous hypotheses, suggests that hoxa2a orthologs in these two species function alone as selector genes of PA2 identity. PMID:17924140

Le Pabic, Pierre; Stellwag, Edmund J; Brothers, Shelby N; Scemama, Jean-Luc

2007-12-01

285

Impact of microcystin containing diets on physiological performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) concerning detoxification.  

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Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed by diets supplemented with cyanobacteria containing in part the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) to determine the potential impacts on detoxification. Four different diets were prepared based on a commercial diet: (1) control, (2) MC-5% (containing 5% dried Microcystis sp. biomass with 4.92 ?g MC-LR g(-1) diet), (3) MC-20% (containing 20% dried Microcystis sp. biomass with 19.54 ?g MC-LR g(-1) diet), and (4) Arthr-20% (containing 20% dried Arthrospira sp. biomass without MC-LR). Blood and liver samples were taken after one, 7, and 28 days and protein has been determined in plasma and liver. In the liver, impacts on detoxification were measured by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and gene expression of multi drug resistance protein (MDRP). Plasma protein did not change between all four diets at any sampling time whereas liver protein was significantly elevated already after one day in Arthr-20% and after 28 days in both, MC-20% and Arthr-20%. Biochemical measurements of GST activities revealed no significant impact at any sampling time. In order to characterize the potential effect of MC-LR on MDRP, RT-qPCR method was established. However, as for GST activities no significant changes in MDRP gene expression have been observed. Thus, in summary, oral exposure of MC-LR containing cyanobacteria to Nile tilapia via feed ingestion did not impact significantly detoxification in liver concerning GST activities and MDRP expression despite biochemical composition concerning liver protein was significantly elevated by the diets containing 20% cyanobacteria biomass, regardless whether they contained MC-LR or not. PMID:20949194

Ziková, Andrea; Trubiroha, Achim; Wiegand, Claudia; Wuertz, Sven; Rennert, Bernhard; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, Jan; Spurný, Petr; Kloas, Werner

2010-12-01

286

Production of oocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for in vitro fertilization via hormonal treatments.  

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Only a few studies have described hormonal treatments for induction of synchronicity and gamete collection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), both important for assortative matings in breeding programmes and essential for polyploidy technologies. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of carp pituitary extract (CPE), Nile tilapia pituitary extract (TPE), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) protocols on the induction of spawning and egg production in Nile tilapia. Among the hormonal treatments analysed, only hCG was effective for producing viable gametes for in vitro fertilization. To verify the viability of this hormonal treatment, hCG was tested using different doses (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 IU/kg) in a large number of females (208 animals) from two Nile tilapia lines. The results indicated that hCG doses between 1000 and 5000 IU/kg could be used to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia with collection of stripped oocytes. This is the first study to report differential reproductive responses to hormonal treatment between tilapia lines: line 1 was more efficient at producing eggs and post-hatching larvae after hCG induction than line 2. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hCG protocol may be applied on a large scale to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia. The development of a protocol for in vitro fertilization in Nile tilapia may aid in breeding programmes and biotechnological assays for the development of genetically modified lines of Nile tilapia. PMID:23834584

Fernandes, A F A; Alvarenga, É R; Oliveira, D A A; Aleixo, C G; Prado, S A; Luz, R K; Sarmento, N L A F; Teixeira, E A; Luz, M R; Turra, E M

2013-12-01

287

Effectiveness of homologous inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine by immersion bath in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusAvaliação da eficácia de vacina autóctone de Streptococcus agalactiae inativado aplicada por banho de imersão em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Tilapia is the most important group between cultivated fish. Intensive handling systems are characterized by high rate of stocking of fish making them susceptible to infectious diseases. The streptococcosis is one of the diseases that cause great economic losses. The objective of the study was to test a vaccine administered by immersion bath (b.i. against Streptococcus agalactiae and challenge with homologous strain. For this study, 421 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with an average weight of 38.38 grams were used. They were divided into two treatments (T1 and T2 and a control group. At T1, the fish were vaccinated with one dose of vaccine by b.i., with a concentration of 5.4 x 108 CFU mL-1. The T2 received two doses of vaccine by b.i., with an interval of 25 days. The control group received a bath of ultrapure water. The fish were challenged by intraperitoneal (i.p. with a concentration of 3.0 x 108 CFU mL-1 43 days after the first or second dose of vaccine, according to the treatment. The fish were monitored for 16 days after challenge. Compared with the control group results were obtained for T1: p = 0.0805, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61 – 1.01 and RPS = 21%. For T2 were: p = 0.0296, RR = 0.74 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.96 and RPS = 26%. Mortality after challenge was 57 fish (40.71% in T1, 51 (38.06% at T2, and 76 (51.7% in the control group. There was no significant difference between T1 and T2, p = 0.7445. This result shows that the vaccine tested by b.i. with one and two doses had low efficacy in vaccination of tilapia.O grupo das tilápias é um dos mais importantes entre os peixes cultivados. O sistema de cultivo mais utilizado é o intensivo, caracterizado por alta taxa de estocagem de peixes tornando-os susceptíveis às doenças infecciosas. A estreptococose é uma das enfermidades que causam grandes prejuízos econômicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar uma vacina de Streptococcus agalactiae inativado aplicada por banho de imersão (b.i e desafio com cepa homóloga. Foram utilizados 421 tilapia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus com peso médio de 38,38 gramas, distribuídas em dois tratamentos (T1 e T2 e um grupo controle. No T1, os peixes foram vacinados com uma dose da vacina por b.i., com concentração de 5,4 x 108 UFC mL-1. O T2 recebeu duas doses da mesma vacina por b.i., com intervalo de 25 dias. O grupo controle recebeu água ultrapura por b.i. Os peixes foram desafiados por via intraperitoneal (i.p., com concentração de 3,0 x 108 UFC mL-1 43 dias após a primeira ou segunda dose da vacina, de acordo com o tratamento. Os peixes dos tratamentos e controle foram monitorados durante 16 dias após o desafio. Comparativamente ao grupo controle os resultados obtidos para o T1 foram: p = 0,0805, RR = 0,79 (IC 95%: 0,61 – 1,01 e RPS = 21%. Para o T2 foram: p = 0,0296, RR = 0,74 (IC 95%: 0,56 – 0,96 e RPS = 26%. A mortalidade após o desafio foi de 57 peixes (40,71% no T1, 51 (38,06% no T2, e 76 (51,7% no grupo controle. Não houve diferença significativa entre T1 e T2 e p=0,7445. Este resultado permite concluir que a vacina testada por b.i. com uma e duas doses apresentou baixa eficácia na imunização das tilápias.

Elaine Longhi

2012-02-01

288

Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes = Predação de P. mesopotamicus e O. niloticus por larvas de Pantala flavescens de diferentes classes de coprimento  

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Full Text Available The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lowerconsumption (p O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a sobrevivência de larvas de P. mesopotamicus e O. niloticus submetidas à predação por larvas de Pantala flavescens de diferentes classes de comprimento. Foram utilizadas 120 larvas de cada espécie de peixe e 24 larvas de Odonata, distribuídas em 24 aquários (2 L, sendo colocada uma Odonata por aquário. Os tratamentos diferiram quanto à espécie de presa e o tamanho do predador, sendo mantido um tratamento-controle. Um aquário (2 L com uma Odonata e dez larvas de peixe foi consideradauma unidade experimental. As Odonatas foram colocadas nos aquários 1h antes das larvas de peixe. Foram efetuadas contagens a cada 3h (18, 21, 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 e 18h das larvas de peixe remanescentes (vivas em cada unidade experimental, sendo repostas as larvas consumidas, de modo a ter dez larvas de peixe em cada aquário logo após cada contagem. Para ambas as espécies de peixe, foi observado leve aumento no consumo das larvas pelas Odonatas de tamanhointermediário, porém os valores não diferiram estatisticamente (p > 0,05. As larvas de Odonata nos tratamentos em que apresentavam maior comprimento tiveram consumo menor (p < 0,05 que nos demais.

Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda

2011-09-01

289

Molecular characterization and expression of CD2BP2 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to Streptococcus agalactiae stimulus.  

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CD2BP2 (CD2 cytoplasmic tail binding protein 2), one of several proteins interacting with the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, plays a crucial role in CD2-triggered T cell activation and nuclear splicing. The studies on CD2BP2 have tended to be confined to a few mammals, and little information is available to date regarding fish CD2BP2. In this paper, a CD2BP2 gene (On-CD2BP2) was cloned from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Sequence analysis showed that the full length of On-CD2BP2 cDNA was 1429 bp, containing a 5'untranslated region (UTR) of 111 bp, a 3'-UTR of 193 bp and an open reading frame of 1125 bp which is encoding 374 amino acids. Two important structural features, a GYF domain and a consensus motif GPFXXXXMXXWXXXGYF were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD2BP2, and the deduced genomic structure of On-CD2BP2 was similar to the known CD2BP2. The mRNA expression of On-CD2BP2 in various tissues of Nile tilapia was analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR. In healthy Nile tilapia, the On-CD2BP2 transcripts were mainly detected in the head kidney and spleen. While vaccinated with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae, the On-CD2BP2 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in the head kidney, spleen and brain 48 h post immunization. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD2BP2 after immunization and the expression reached the highest level at 24h in the brain and 48 h in the head kidney and spleen. This is the first report of proving the presence of a CD2BP2 ortholog in fish, and investigating its tissue distribution and expression profile in response to bacterial stimulus. These findings indicated that On-CD2BP2 may play an important role in the immune response to bacteria in Nile tilapia. PMID:25020258

Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe

2014-09-10

290

Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena / Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de contro [...] le respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I) e com succinato (complexo II) foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1) na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte. Abstract in english A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3. [...] 3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I) or succinate (complex II), respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1) in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

F.P., Peixoto; D.L., Santos; S., Vilela; A., Fontaínhas-Fernandes.

291

Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena / Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de contro [...] le respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I) e com succinato (complexo II) foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1) na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte. Abstract in english A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3. [...] 3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I) or succinate (complex II), respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1) in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

F.P., Peixoto; D.L., Santos; S., Vilela; A., Fontaínhas-Fernandes.

2009-04-01

292

In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the river Nile: II. Detection of DNA strand-breakage and apoptosis in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is part of a wider eco-toxicological study proposed to evaluate the biological impact of contaminants along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. Here we present data on the presence of DNA strand-breaks and apoptotic cells assessed by use of comet and diffusion assays in erythrocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The results showed high degrees of DNA damage and increased frequencies of apoptotic nuclei in blood of fish collected from downstream compared with those sampled from upstream river Nile. Qualitative analysis revealed a shift in the frequency of DNA-damage classes towards higher damage levels correlating with the increasing pollution gradient. The degree of DNA damage measured by use of comet assay and diffusion assay exhibited seasonal variations. Both fish species showed significant increases in DNA damage during the summer. The results of our study indicated that the alkaline comet assay seems to be a useful technique for in situ genotoxic monitoring. At the same time the diffusion assay is sensitive enough to detect low frequencies of apoptotic nuclei. The results reveal species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared with the African catfish. Based on the outcome of the comet and diffusion assays, it can be concluded that the water quality of the river Nile with respect to the presence of genotoxic compounds needs to be improved, especially in its estuaries. As far as we know this is the first time that the comet and diffusion assays are used for genotoxic monitoring of the river Nile. PMID:22525358

Osman, Alaa G M; Abuel-Fadl, Khaled Y; Kloas, Werner

2012-08-30

293

Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the performance and fatty acid profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings = Influência das dietas contendo diferentes óleos vegetais na performance e perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0, oleic (18:1n-9, linoleic (18:2 n-6, and linolenic (18:3 n-3 acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%, while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended. Foram examinados o perfil de ácidos graxos nas carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes óleos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os resultados indicaram que o ácido palmítico (16:0, esteárico (18:0, oléico (18:1n-9, linoleico (18;2n-6 e linolênico (18:3n-3 foram os ácidos predominantes em todas as frações analisadas (no óleo vegetal, dietas e carcaças dos peixes. O óleo de linhaça apresentou o maior valor de ácido linolênico (45,63%, quanto aos outros óleos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os óleos vegetais não afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relação a qualidade nutricional o uso do óleo de linhaça é recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilápia.

Nilson Evelázio de Souza

2006-07-01

294

Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

Felix Walter, Gutierrez; Máximo, Quispe; Luz, Valenzuela.

295

Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia e proteína da silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo tanino pela tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Apparent digestibility coefficients of energy and protein of low and high tannin silage sorghum for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado para determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da energia bruta e proteína bruta da silagem de sorgo de baixo tanino (SSBT) e da silagem de sorgo de alto tanino (SSAT) para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração referência foi misturada aos ingr [...] edientes-teste na proporção de 60:40. Os peixes (53,26 ± 12,94g) foram alimentados até a saciedade aparente e as fezes foram coletadas após sedimentação. A fibra em detergente neutro foi utilizada como indicador endógeno. Os CDA da energia bruta e proteína bruta da SSBT e SSAT variaram entre 70,17 e 68,37% e 84,94 e 82,40%, respectivamente. Os valores de energia digestível foram de 3049,81 e 2954,74kcal kg-1 para SSBT e SSAT, respectivamente. A SSBT apresentou valores significa-tivamente (P Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and crude protein of low tannin silage sorghum (LTSS) and high tannin silage sorghum (HTSS) for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 60:40 ra [...] tio. Fish (53.26 ± 12.94g) were fed to apparent satiation and faeces were collected other sedimentation The neutral detergent fiber was used as an endogenous indicator. ADC for gross energy and crude protein of LTSS and HTSS varied between 70.17 and 68.37% and 84.94 and 82.40%, respectively. Digestible energy values were 3,049.81 and 2,954.74kcal kg-1 for LTSS and HTSS, respectively. LTSS produced significantly (P

Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Lilian Carolina Rosa, Silva; Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Daniele, Botaro; Carmino, Hayashi; Antônio Cláudio, Furlan; Vivian Gomes dos, Santos.

296

Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia e proteína da silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo tanino pela tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Apparent digestibility coefficients of energy and protein of low and high tannin silage sorghum for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado para determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da energia bruta e proteína bruta da silagem de sorgo de baixo tanino (SSBT) e da silagem de sorgo de alto tanino (SSAT) para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração referência foi misturada aos ingr [...] edientes-teste na proporção de 60:40. Os peixes (53,26 ± 12,94g) foram alimentados até a saciedade aparente e as fezes foram coletadas após sedimentação. A fibra em detergente neutro foi utilizada como indicador endógeno. Os CDA da energia bruta e proteína bruta da SSBT e SSAT variaram entre 70,17 e 68,37% e 84,94 e 82,40%, respectivamente. Os valores de energia digestível foram de 3049,81 e 2954,74kcal kg-1 para SSBT e SSAT, respectivamente. A SSBT apresentou valores significa-tivamente (P Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and crude protein of low tannin silage sorghum (LTSS) and high tannin silage sorghum (HTSS) for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 60:40 ra [...] tio. Fish (53.26 ± 12.94g) were fed to apparent satiation and faeces were collected other sedimentation The neutral detergent fiber was used as an endogenous indicator. ADC for gross energy and crude protein of LTSS and HTSS varied between 70.17 and 68.37% and 84.94 and 82.40%, respectively. Digestible energy values were 3,049.81 and 2,954.74kcal kg-1 for LTSS and HTSS, respectively. LTSS produced significantly (P

Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Lilian Carolina Rosa, Silva; Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Daniele, Botaro; Carmino, Hayashi; Antônio Cláudio, Furlan; Vivian Gomes dos, Santos.

1213-12-01

297

Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia e proteína da silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo tanino pela tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent digestibility coefficients of energy and protein of low and high tannin silage sorghum for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da energia bruta e proteína bruta da silagem de sorgo de baixo tanino (SSBT e da silagem de sorgo de alto tanino (SSAT para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. A ração referência foi misturada aos ingredientes-teste na proporção de 60:40. Os peixes (53,26 ± 12,94g foram alimentados até a saciedade aparente e as fezes foram coletadas após sedimentação. A fibra em detergente neutro foi utilizada como indicador endógeno. Os CDA da energia bruta e proteína bruta da SSBT e SSAT variaram entre 70,17 e 68,37% e 84,94 e 82,40%, respectivamente. Os valores de energia digestível foram de 3049,81 e 2954,74kcal kg-1 para SSBT e SSAT, respectivamente. A SSBT apresentou valores significa-tivamente (PThis study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of gross energy and crude protein of low tannin silage sorghum (LTSS and high tannin silage sorghum (HTSS for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 60:40 ratio. Fish (53.26 ± 12.94g were fed to apparent satiation and faeces were collected other sedimentation The neutral detergent fiber was used as an endogenous indicator. ADC for gross energy and crude protein of LTSS and HTSS varied between 70.17 and 68.37% and 84.94 and 82.40%, respectively. Digestible energy values were 3,049.81 and 2,954.74kcal kg-1 for LTSS and HTSS, respectively. LTSS produced significantly (P<0.05 higher energy and protein digestibilities than HTSS. Results indicated that Nile tilapia can utilize the gross energy and crude protein of sorghum silage efficiently.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya

2004-08-01

298

Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

Felix Walter, Gutierrez; Máximo, Quispe; Luz, Valenzuela.

2013-12-01

299

A revised description of Gyrodactylus cichlidarum Paperna, 1968 (Gyrodactylidae) from the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Cichlidae), and its synonymy with G. niloticus Cone, Arthur et Bondad-Reantaso, 1995.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent infestation of Gyrodactylus cichlidarum Paperna, 1968 on yolk sac fry of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (L.), in an isolated aquarium system in the U.K. resulted in high mortalities and provided an opportunity to study this species in greater detail. A tentative identification was made using the measurements and drawings of the ventral bar and hamuli provided in the original description; however, details on the morphology of the marginal hooks were lacking. A comparison of the gyrodactylid material collected from O. n. niloticus with the holotype of G. cichlidarum, the only known available specimen, from Mango tilapia, Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus (L.), confirmed its identity. Proteolytic digestion and image analysis of the opisthaptoral hard parts were used to obtain tissue-free, accurate measurements as part of a complete revised description of G. cichlidarumn. Further, a comparison of G. cichlidarum from both hosts with the holotype and several paratypes of Gyrodactylus niloticus Cone, Arthur et Bondad-Reantaso, 1995 cited as parasitizing captive stocks of Nile tilapia in the Philippines revealed the two species to be synonymous. An 803 bp fragment of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S was obtained and is provided with the revised description. This is the first DNA sequence from a Gyrodactylus species originating from the African continent. The sequence is very divergent from other species in the genus and only the 5.8S sequence places it unambiguously in the genus Gyrodactylus. In addition to G. cichlidarum, two specimens of another morphological similar species of Gyrodactylus were also found on the UK held stock of O. n. niloticus. These latter specimens, Gyrodacrylus sp., differed from G. cichlidarum in having a longer hamulus point with a smaller hamulus aperture and possessing marginal hook sickles that had a shorter shaft with a longer point giving the sickles a more rounded, closed appearance. PMID:17886742

García-Vásquez, Adriana; Hansen, Haakon; Shinn, Andrew P

2007-06-01

300

Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

Donald Arguedas Cortés

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron [...] cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%), fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica. Abstract in english Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. [...] To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

Donald, Arguedas Cortés; Gaby, Dolz; Juan J, Romero Zúñiga; Ana E, Jiménez Rocha; Dennis, León Alán.

1453-14-01

302

An Evaluation of Wolffia Meal (Wolffia arrhiza in Replacing Soybean Meal in Some Formulated Rations of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.  

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Full Text Available An investigation on the evaluation of Wolffia meal being used as a replacement material for soybean meal in ration of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was carried out at Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. The two experiments were laid in a randomized complete block design with three replications and they were carried out in a laboratory. The results showed that digestibility of fresh Wolffia by Nile tilapia fingerlings (2.5 g and Nile tilapia adults (40-50 g were not significantly differed from each other. Growth performance of Nile tilapia adults with respect to percentages of weight, length, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization and specific growth rate were not statisticaly significant in all levels of Wolffia. However, the highest total production occurred in fish being fed on formulated ration containing 15% Wolffia meal. An increase in Wolffia meal beyond 15 % in the formulated ration decreased the survival rate and total production of the cultured fish. Wolffia meal could be successfully used in place of soybean meal but the amount being used should not exceede 15 %.

N. Chareontesprasit

2001-01-01

303

Enzymatic characterizations and activity regulations of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase from the spermary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

N-Acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is proved to be correlated with reproduction of male animals. In this study, enzymatic characterizations of NAGase from spermary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated in order to further study its reproductive function in fish. Tilapia NAGase was purified to be PAGE homogeneous by the following techniques: (NH4)2SO4 fractionation (40-55%), DEAE-cellulose (DE-32) ion exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and DEAE-Sephadex (A-50). The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 4100 U/mg. The enzyme molecular weight was estimated as 118.0 kD. Kinetic studies showed that the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminide (pNP-NAG) by the enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vm) were determined to be 0.67 mM and 23.26 ?M/min, respectively. The optimum pH and optimum temperature of the enzyme for hydrolysis of pNP-NAG was to be at pH 5.7 and 55°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable in a pH range from 3.3 to 8.1 at 37°C, and inactive at temperature above 45°C. The enzyme activity was regulated by the following ions in decreasing order: Hg(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Mn(2+). The IC50 of Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) was 1.23, 0.28, and 0.0027 mM, respectively. However, the ions Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) had almost no influence on enzyme activity. In conclusion, the enzymatic characterizations of NAGase from tilapia were special to the other animals, which were correlated with its living habit; besides, CuSO4 and ZnSO4 should used very carefully as insecticides in tilapia cultivation since they both had strong regulations on the enzyme. PMID:24012383

Zhang, Wei-Ni; Bai, Ding-Ping; Huang, Yi-Fan; Hu, Chong-Wei; Chen, Qing-Xi; Huang, Xiao-Hong

2014-02-01

304

Effects of Starvation on Body Chemical Composition and Energy Density ?in Juvenile Nile tilapia (?Oreochromis niloticus?  

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Full Text Available 40 specimens of juvenile Nile tilapia (?Oreochromis niloticus? (initial weight: (3.61±0.13 g were divided into 5 groups, and were starved for 0, 8, 15, 22 and 45d respectively. Body chemical compositions were measured and energy density was estimated during starvation. The results showed that the contents of protein (?PRO?, lipid (?FAT? and energy density (?E? are negatively related to starvation. The relationships between ?PRO?, ?FAT?, or ?E? and starvation time (?t?, unit: d could be described as: ?PRO?=14.727e??0.006?5?t (?r2?=0.707, ?n?=37, ?p?<0.05??FAT?=2.295 5e??0.036?6?t??(?r2?=0.552, ?n?=37, ?p?<0.05 and ?E?=4.478 1e??0.011?3t(?r2?=0.694, ?n?=37, ?p?<0.05 The contents of water (?WAT? and ash (?ASH? are positively related to starvation. The relationships between ?WAT? or ?ASH? and ?t? could be described as: ?WAT?=76.196 9e??0.001?3??t?(?r2?=0.566, n?=37, ?p?

LUO Yi-ping

2012-09-01

305

Complexo zinco aminoácido em dietas práticas para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1716 Zinc-amino acid complex in practical diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1716  

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Full Text Available As dietas balanceadas para piscicultura são suplementadas com fonte inorgânica de zinco, sendo o óxido de zinco (ZnO a fonte mais utilizada no Brasil. Complexos organometálicos, contudo, podem aumentar a absorção do mineral no trato digestório. Nesse sentido, comparou-se os efeitos de um complexo zinco-aminoácido (Zn-AA sobre o desempenho produtivo e a composição da carcaça de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L., em relação ao verificado com o uso do ZnO. Dietas experimentais, isoprotéicas e isocalóricas, à base de farelo de soja e fubá de milho, foram fornecidas aos peixes durante 75 dias, sendo suplementadas com 30, 90, 150 ou 210mg Zn/kg, a partir do ZnO ou do Zn-AA. Os peixes (1,79 ± 0,10g foram distribuídos em 36 caixas de água de 250L, sendo alimentados ad libitum, quatro vezes ao dia. Ao final do período experimental, os peixes alimentados com as dietas suplementadas com ZnO, independentemente do nível de suplementação, apresentaram ganho em peso significativamente maior que os animais arraçoados com as dietas contendo Zn-AA (P0,05. Os resultados do presente trabalho permitem concluir que, em relação ao observado com o uso do ZnO, o Zn-AA acarretou pior desempenho produtivo nos peixes estudados.Commercial diets for fish culture are supplemented with an inorganic zinc sources. Zinc oxide (ZnO is the most utilized Zn supplementation in Brazil. However, organic metal complexes may increase mineral absorption in the digestive tract. Based on this knowledge, the effects of a amino acid zinc complex (Zn-AA upon growth performance and carcass composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., fingerlings, were compared to the ones observed for ZnO. Isoproteic and isoenergetic soybean meal/corn-based diets were offered to fish for 75 days, supplemented with 30, 90, 150 or 210mg Zn/kg, from ZnO or Zn-AA. Fish (1.79 ± 0.10g were allocated in thirty six 250-L tanks, and fed ad libitum four times a day. Fish fed with ZnO-supplemented diets, regardless of the supplementation level, showed a significantly higher weight gain than the animals fed with Zn-AA-supplemented diets (P0.05 for different experimental treatments. The experiment showed that Zn-AA supplementation produced worse fish growth performance than ZnO.

Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

2004-04-01

306

Tilapia by-product meal in rations for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings/ Farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Objectifying to evaluate the inclusion of tilapia processing residues (FT in the feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings, 125 Nile tilapia fingerlings (with average initial weight of 0.72±0.19g were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions in 25 aquariums (30L. The rations were formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15% of FT and 0% FT plus methionine (0+met. Isoproteics, isocalcitics, isophosphorics and isoenergetics diets were used. After 28 days of experiment, final weight (PF, weight gain (GP, feed conversion ratio (CA and survival (SO, were evaluated. No differences were observed (P>0.05 for the studied parameters. It was concluded that the FT can be used up to 15% in substitution to the soybean meal in the diet of nile tilapia fingerlings.Objetivando avaliar a inclusão de farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias (FT na alimentação de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo com peso inicial médio de 0,72±0,19g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em 25 aquários (30L cada. As rações foram formuladas de forma a conterem 0, 5, 10, 15% de FT e 0% de FT mais metionina (0+met, sendo as mesmas isoenergéticas isoprotéicas, isocalcíticas e isofosfóricas. Após 28 dias de experimento foram avaliados as médias de peso final (PF, ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar aparente (CA e sobrevivência (SO. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 entre os parâmetros avaliados. Conclui-se que a FT pode ser utilizada em até 15% em substituição ao farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia sem causar prejuízo ao seu desempenho.

Adilson Reidel

2005-06-01

307

Efecto Genotóxico del Dicromato de Potasio EnEritrocitos de sangre periférica de OreochromisNiloticus (Tilapia) / Genoto xic efect of potassium dicromate in Peripherals blod eryt hrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (TILAPIA)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Existen múltiples reportes del efecto genotóxico y cancerígeno del cromo VI, los seres humanos tenemos una permanente exposición a este elemento. Objetivos. Evidencias la genotoxicidad del dicromato de potasio utilizando como sistema biológico a Oreochromis niloticus "tilapia", mediante el test de m [...] icronúcleos y la cuantificación de nuclear buds, en eritrocitos de sangre periférica. Materiales y métodos. Los individuos fueron expuestos a concentraciones crecientes (0,0, 0,2, 0,4 y 0,8 ppm) de dicromato de potasio. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre periférica, del arco branquial de cada individuo (cuatro por grupo), a los tres y siete días de tratamiento, las cuales fueron procesadas y coloreadas con Giemsa 5% y se cuantificaron eritrocitos con micronúcleos y nuclear buds en sangre periférica. Resultados. Se encontró un incremento significativo de las frecuencias de micronúcleos y nuclear buds directamente proporcional a la concentración del dicromato de potasio en los individuos expuestos (p Abstract in english ABSTRACT Due multiple reports of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effect of chromium VI and the permanent exposure of the human beings to this element. Objective. Contributing new evidence of the genotoxicity of potassium dichromate using the biological system Oreochromis niloticus "tilapia" through t [...] he micronucleus test and the nuclear quantification of buds in erythrocytes of peripheral blood. Material and methods. The individuals were exposed to increasing concentrations (0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm) of potassium dichromate. Peripheral blood samples of the branchial arc of each individual were taken at 3th and 7th day of treatment which were processed and colored with Giemsa 5%, erythrocytes in peripheral blood with micronuclei and nuclear buds were quantified. Results. A significant increase of frequencies of micronucleus and nuclear buds in the exposed individuals were registered which were directly proportional to the potassium dichromate concentration (p

Zulita, Prieto; Julio, León-Incio; Carlos, Quijano-Jara; Radigud, Fernández; Edgardo, Polo-Benites; Roger, Vallejo-Rodríguez; Luis, Villegas-Sanchez.

2008-01-01

308

Fermented Golden Apple Snails as an Alternative Protein Source in Sex-Reversed Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus Diets  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to find out the possibility of using fermented golden apple snail (FGAS as an alternative protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mosambicus diets. FGAS was prepared by incubating minced golden apple snail (GAS with locally screened lactic acid bacteria and using molasses as carbon sources at ambient temperature for 10 days. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacing fishmeal with FGAS at level of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of fishmeal protein. Another diet with minced GAS was also included in the experiment. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of fish with an initial weight of 2.73 ± 0.09 g for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed 75 % fishmeal replacement diet were significantly better (p < 0.05 than those fed the control diet. The fish fed 100 % replacement diet showed lower growth rates compared with the control diet but were not significantly different (p > 0.05. In addition, fish fed a diet containing minced GAS showed better growth performance and feed utilization than those of the control diet. The digestibility study indicated that fish utilized protein from snail meal either in a minced or fermented form much better than protein from fishmeal. It was concluded that snail meal is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diets. Replacement of fishmeal protein with minced snail meal could be at 50 % and FGAS could be up to 100 % but 75 % is recommended.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.26

Noppawan CHIMSUNG

2014-01-01

309

Occurrence of Plesiomonas shigelloides in Cultured Red Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from Tropical Rivers, East Coast Malaysia  

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Full Text Available A total of 182 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides were identified from 40 healthy red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus cultured at two important rivers in Terengganu, Malaysia namely Como River and Terengganu River from east coast Malaysia. P. shigelloides count in Digestive Tract Content (DTC and Muscle (MUS of red hybrid tilapia cultured at Terengganu River was 1000-fold higher than Como River. Antibiotic susceptibility test was also performed on Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates. The incidence of antibiotic resistance was higher in Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from red hybrid tilapia cultured at Terengganu River compared to Como river. Thus, the findings of the study indicate that P. shigelloides from tilapia muscle and an intestine could be an alarming for serious public health risk to consumers.

K.C.A. Jalal

2012-01-01