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Sample records for fish oreochromis niloticus

  1. EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)

    OpenAIRE

    M.Hemanth kumar; V. Spandana; Tiwari Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological n...

  2. EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Hemanth kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological niches, mainly pond aquaculture and reservoir fisheries. Tilapia fish scales found to have more percentage of Type I collagen. Fish collagen is complex structural protein that helps to maintain the strength and flexibility of skin, ligaments, bones, joints, muscles, tendons, gums, eyes, blood vessels, nails and hair. Collagen can be obtained from fish scales, fish skins by advanced enzymatic digestion methods in biotechnology. The Protein content of the above is more than 90% and having 18 kinds of amino acids out of which 7 are essential for human consumption. These products are easily absorbable and having high biological value promoting the absorption of vitamins and minerals. The enzymatic digestion technology process releases a lot of peptides in molecular collagen that helps humans in many physiological functions. Collagen has been used in biomedical pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In this paper we have determined the collagen extracted from Tilapia fish scales and also its clinical importance.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED FISH MEAL AND POULTRY BY-PRODUCT

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    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Department of Fisheries and Wild life Science, College of Science and Technology of Animal Production, Sudan University of Science and Technology, to determine the feed efficiency of two locally formulated diets (A and B on performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Two iso-caloric iso-nitrogenus diets were formulated by adding 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% poultry by-product (offal+intestine, while the diet (B contained 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% fish meal. The fish were fed twice a day at affixed feeding rate of 5% body weight of fish per day for 90 days. The total body weight, total length and standard length were measured every 10 days throughout the experimental period. The growth response and performance data of the studied fish (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diet (B containing fishmeal recorded a better growth response than that fish fed poultry by- product meal (diet A. The final weight increment, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER over the experimental period showed lowest value for the group fed the diet with poultry by-product (Diet A compared to those fed with the fishmeal (Diet B. Except the apparent protein utilization (APU was recorded higher for those fed with Diet A (23.31 than Diet B (11.99. The groups fed diet (A attained SGR 0.24, FCR 1.9, PER 0.75, APU 23.31, while it recorded in group (B, SGR 0.34, FCR 1.2, PER 1.06, APU 11.99. Therefore, fish meal is better as compared to poultry by-products for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus nutrition.

  4. In vivo Acute Toxicity Tests of Some Heavy Metals to Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus

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    M. Shuhaimi-Othman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerlings tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus were exposed in laboratory conditions to a range of Copper (Cu, Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb and Zinc (Zn concentrations separately and the mortality rate were registered after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50s and Median Lethal Times (LT50s values were calculated by static bioassays for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h with the 95% fiducial limits through Probit analysis. LC50 and LT50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure times and concentrations, respectively. The LC50s for 96 h for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 1093, 3751, 16177 and 1494 ?g L-1, respectively and the LT50s for maximum concentration used for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 20.25, 11.48, 20.70 and 24.66 h, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in tilapia fish increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu was the most toxic to tilapia fish, The toxicity ranking of the four heavy metals was Cu>Pb>Cd>Zn. Comparison of LC50 values for studied heavy metals for this species with those for other fishes reveals that tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus is equally or less sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested fishes.

  5. Effect of an Insecticide Abamectin on Some Biochemical Characteristics of Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis Niloticus

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    Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Presence of pesticide in streams and lakes is largely due to the runoff from agricultural fields. Pesticides are not highly selective but are generally toxic to many macrophytes, non-target organisms such as fish. Fish, generally accumulate contaminants from aquatic environments and have been largely used in food safety studies. Approach: The toxic effect of the insecticide abamectin on oxygen consumption and some biochemical characteristics (total protein, carbohydrate and cholesterol in liver, muscle, kidney and gills of the tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus were estimated. Results: The data shows that the rate of oxygen consumption was declined during all the exposure periods. On the other hand, all biochemical?s parameters were found to be decreased in all tissues on comparison with control. Conclusion: The results indicated the toxic nature of the insecticide abamectin.

  6. Feeding ecology and population characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and trophic interactions in the fish community of Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Njiru, M.

    1999-01-01

    The diet of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) is now more diverse than earlier reported. Oreochromis niloticus was considered to be a herbivore feeding mostly on algae and plant material. The diet now consists of insects, fish, algae and plant material. The shift in diet may be due to ecological changes in the lake. Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, which harbours insects in its root balls, now has extensive coverage of the lake. The native species which preyed on insects (e.g. hap...

  7. Cylindrospermopsin induces neurotoxicity in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Manzano, Inmaculada Lomares; Moreno, Isabel M; Ortega, Ana I Prieto; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria, such as Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid known for its ability to inhibit both protein and glutathione synthesis, and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers in mammals and vertebrates. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main CYN targets for this toxin, it also affects other organs. In fish, there is no evidence about the neurotoxicity of CYN yet. In the present study, we aimed to study the potential neurotoxicity of CYN, based on the measure of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and histopathological studies in brain of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) subchronically exposed to repeated concentrations of 10μg CYN/L by immersion in an A.ovalisporum culture for 14 days. The results showed significant inhibition of AChE activity and increases in LPO levels, as well as relevant histopathological alterations in the brain of fish (O. niloticus) subchronically exposed to the toxin. Moreover, we also investigated the potential recovery of these parameters by subjecting the fish to two depuration periods (3 and 7 days) in clean uncontaminated water, showing a recovery of the biochemical parameters since 3 days of depuration, and being necessary 7 days to recover the histopathological changes. In order to support these results, CYN was detected and quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in brain of all the exposed fish and the effects of the depuration periods were also observed. Based on these results, it was demonstrated for the first time the neurotoxicity of CYN and its presence in brain of tilapia fish subchronically exposed to CYN. PMID:25661706

  8. Toxicity of aqueous bark extract of the tree Balanites aegyptiaca on the fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, V N; Molta, B S; Ebele, S

    1993-05-01

    The toxicity of an aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca on Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. Fry of the fish were exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of the extract in 96-h and 56-d static bioassays, respectively. Susceptibility of the extract on freshwater snail, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, was tested. The LC50 of the lethal concentrations of the extract on the fish and the snails were 1.12 mg/l-1 and 2.0 mg/l-1 respectively, while the effects of the sublethal concentrations on the growth rate and haematocrit percentage of the fish were determined. Signs of toxicosis such as air gulping, reduction in tailfin beating rate and overturning were observed in the fish before death occurred. The toxicant also reduced the growth rate and haematocrit percentage of the fish. The mode of action of the toxicant seems to be haemolytic or an impairment of osmoregulation in the blood leading to an over-dilution of the blood. PMID:8334460

  9. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13??0.96) and lowest b* (17.50??0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01??0.54) and increased water retention (95.82??0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932

  10. Prebiotic (Mannanoligosaccharide- MOS in fish nutrition: effects on nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus performance

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    Flávio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World fish production are growing about 10% a year and Brazil presents potential to be the first one in fish production until 2030. However, intensification of aquaculture production systems expose fish to numerous stressors such as poor water quality, crowding, handling and transport which may negatively affect their growth and and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. This study was set out to determine de effects of increasing levels of mannanoligosccharides (MOS on growth of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR. Fish were fed during 60 days with a commercial diet (32%CP supplemented with 0.0 (control; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% dietary MOS (n=4. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. After 60 days feeding trial, fish were fasted for 24 hours and sedated for biometrical parameters to evaluate growth parameters. It was observed no influence (p>0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia growth parameters (weight gain, feed conversion rate, specific growth rate as well as for hepatosomatic index. Fish fed 0.4% dietary MOS showed increased (p<0.05 feed consumption (76.74 ± 3.98 when compared to fish fed control (unsupplemented diet (69.31 ± 1.11. MOS are indigestible glucomannoproteins, which provide mannose substrate upon which pathogenic gut bacteria selectively attach and prevents formation of mixed colonies leading to better gut health by increasing regularity, height and integrity of the gut villi and consequent better utilization and absorption of nutrients. Several authors found positive effects of MOS supplementation on fish growth and at same time, others observed no influence of this prebiotic on fish growth. The use of prebiotics as mannanoligosaccharides to improve growth and health status in fish still needs further research for better explanation of contradictory results. The complex carbohydrate structure in the cell wall of yeast, different strains and fermentation conditions, processing methods can all alter their function, as well as MOS concentration, administration period and population status (age, sex, gonadal maturation. For instance, in this experiment, dietary MOS supplementation did not show prebiotic properties such as positive effects on juvenile Nile tilapia growth.

  11. PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED FISH MEAL AND POULTRY BY-PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN; F.I. KHAMIS AHMED

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Department of Fisheries and Wild life Science, College of Science and Technology of Animal Production, Sudan University of Science and Technology, to determine the feed efficiency of two locally formulated diets (A and B) on performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two iso-caloric iso-nitrogenus diets were formulated by adding 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% poultry by-product (offal+intestine), while the diet (B) contained 60% wheat br...

  12. Fishborne trematodes in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and wild-caught fish from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiriya, Benjamaporn; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Inpankaew, Tawin; Thaenkham, Urusa; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Dalsgaard, Anders

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections affect the health of more than 18 million people around the world, particularly in Asian countries. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a white meat fish that has an increasing national and international market. The objective of this study was to...... determine the prevalence of FZT metacercarial infections in Nile tilapia from cage and pond aquaculture systems and in wild-caught fish from Suphan Buri, Nakhon Pathom and Chachoengsao provinces, Thailand. Fish were collected from four cages in Suphan Buri and four ponds in Nakhon Pathom provinces between...... September-October 2011 and April-May 2012 and wild-caught fish were collected in May 2012. All fish were examined for metacercariae by a pepsin digestion and metacercariae identified using morphological and molecular methods. During the first sampling of tilapia the prevalence of metacercariae in cage...

  13. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Liu, Liping

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess...... the potential for FZT transmission in an area with high density of tilapia farms, wild-caught fish from local rivers and canals were bought at local markets. The wild-caught fish species included Hemiculter leucisculus (145), Rhodeus sinensis Gunther (10), Rasborinus lineatus (96), Squaliobarbus...... curriculus (6), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was...

  14. Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 μg L-1 of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

  15. Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Sandra Mariza, E-mail: smonteir@utad.pt [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Santos, Nuno M.S. dos [Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto (Portugal); Calejo, Margarida [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Fontainhas-Fernandes, Antonio [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Sousa, Mario [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Centre for Reproductive Genetics Alberto Barros, Porto (Portugal)

    2009-09-14

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 {mu}g L{sup -1} of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

  16. Feeding ecology and population characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and trophic interactions in the fish community of Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Njiru, M.

    1999-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus (L.) were caught by beach seining, hook and line and trawling from Nyanza Gulf, lake Victoria (Kenya) in order to study their feeding ecology and population characteristics. Collected fish were weighed and TL measured immediately after capture. Fish were dissected and sexed. Stomach contents were removed and preserved in 4% buffered formalin for laboratory analysis. In the laboratory items were sorted into categories such as three quarters, half and quarter and awarded 2...

  17. Effects of low dietary levels of saponins on two common culture fish - common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.))

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, George

    2001-01-01

    Saponins are a group of compounds present in many wild plants and cultivated crops and are commonly found in traditional medicinal preparations. Feeding experiments using saponin-supplemented (commercial Quillaja saponin) feeds were conducted in two commonly cultured fish species, namely common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.)). Quillaja saponins (QS) at dietary levels of 150 mg kg-1 and 300 mg kg-1 significantly increased body weight gain in common car...

  18. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy regarding fish meal, poultry by-product meal and quinua for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana C. Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Martha I. Yossa-Perdomo; Walter Vásquez-Torres

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine protein (ADCp) and energy (ADCe) apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa) (QF) used in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The indirect method with a chromium oxide marker was used to estimate the aforementioned ADC; faeces were collected by the modified Guelph system. Tilapias having an average 130 g weight were fed on an experimental diet consisting o...

  19. Linkage Relationships and Haplotype Variation of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I A Genes in the Cichlid Fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Brent W.; Nilsson, Philomeen; Zaleska-Rutczynska, Zofia; Sltmann, Holger; Klein, Jan

    2000-09-01

    The haplochromine cichlid species flocks of the East African Great Lakes are one of the best examples of adaptive radiation. Analysis of genetic variation among these species provides valuable information on species relationships and timing of speciation events. Although the haplochromine cichlids generally display little genetic variation, the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes have been found to be highly variable. A study of the linkage relationships of the Mhc class I A genes in the cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus was therefore undertaken. Class I loci were identified, and their segregation in seven mothers and their haploid embryos was determined. In total, 56 class I A sequences were found among the seven families. A strong concordance of segregation was observed in five haplotypes among the embryos, indicating a close linkage of all loci. The number of loci per haplotype varied from 11 to 17, while the total number of distinct loci found among all families was 22. These findings show that all class I A loci are linked in a single genetic cluster in O. niloticus. PMID:11246410

  20. A comparative study on biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles induced Heat Shock Proteins on fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girilal, M; Krishnakumar, V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Mohammed Fayaz, A; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-11-01

    The wide applicability of silver nanoparticles in medicine and pharmaceutical industries leads to its over exploitation and thus contaminating our environment. Majority of these nanoscale dimension particles finally accumulates in fresh water and marine ecosystem. As the nanoparticles behave entirely different from its corresponding bulk material, a better understanding of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems is inevitable. The study was focused on a comparative stress physiology analysis of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles and biogenic silver nanoparticles. Half maximal inhibitory concentration of biologically synthesized and chemically synthesized nanoparticles was found out (30?g/mL and 20?g/mL respectively). The Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) secretion was analysed in the fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus after exposing to different concentrations of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles along with the silver in its ionic form. The intense immune-histochemical staining of fish tissues (muscle, kidney and liver) analyzed proportionately reflected the stress created. The colour intensity was directly proportional to the stress created or the stress protein released. High level of HSP70 expression was observed in all of the fish tissues exposed to silver ions and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles, when compared to that of biologically synthesized. The results revealed the significance of comparatively safe and less toxic biogenic nanoparticles compared to the chemically synthesized. PMID:26291676

  1. Growth evaluation of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, Neopterygii) exposed to Trichlorfon

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Tereza Bittencourt Guimares; Patrcia Calil

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of Trichlorfon on the growth of cultured fishes. Using Oreochromis niloticus as fish model, bioassays were performed in the laboratory and field. Biometry was performed for 16 weeks. The treatment started after the sixth week of biometry, with the application of five weekly doses of 0.25 ppm of Trichlorfon. Growth data were compared by longitudinal analyses. In the laboratory, the treated fishes showed a reduction of growth; however, the stat...

  2. Elaboration of fish bouillon cubes using pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusElaborao de caldo de peixe em cubos compactados utilizando pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii e tilpia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Lumi Fukushima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Broth cubes are packed spices highly prized for their low cost and for the flavor given to dishes, usually carbohydrate-based. The objective of this work was to establish compressed broth cubes, exploiting the nutritional characteristics of pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, seeking a new product to the spice market, and contribute to a proper waste disposal of the fishing industry. A formulation of this pattern was prepared, where 30% was replaced by different forms of processing of the species used, resulting in different fish broth, to which analysis of interest were performed. From the analysis, it was concluded that the fish broth using ground tilapia presented the best characteristics when compared to commercial broth. Chemical composition of fish bouillon cubes with species and tilapia pirambeba showed no major differences, which proves that other waste of fish or the fishing industry may also contribute to the production of broths. The broth commercial was less variety of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low contents of calcium and phosphorus minerals, and more lipids compared to fish broth prepared. Caldos em cubos compactados so temperos muito apreciados por seu baixo custo e por conferir sabor a pratos geralmente base de carboidratos. Objetivou-se elaborar caldos em cubos compactados, explorando as caractersticas nutricionais da pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii e tilpia (Oreochromis niloticus, visando um novo produto para o mercado de temperos, alm de contribuir para um correto destino de resduos da indstria pesqueira. Foi elaborada uma formulao padro onde 30% desta foi substituda pelas diferentes formas de processamento das espcies utilizadas, resultando em diferentes caldos de peixe, para os quais foram realizadas as anlises de interesse. A composio centesimal dos temperos contendo espcies tilpia e pirambeba no apresentaram grandes diferenas, o que comprova que outros peixes ou resduos da indstria pesqueira tambm podem contribuir para a fabricao de caldos. O caldo comercial apresentou menor variedade de cidos graxos poli-insaturados, alm de baixo teor dos minerais clcio e fsforo e maior de extrato etreo quando comparados com os caldos de peixe elaborados.

  3. A comparative study on the feeding habits of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) in Nyanza Gulf Lake Victoria and sewage fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Getabu, A.

    1994-01-01

    Gut content analysis of Oreochromis niloticus from the Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria showed that the bulk of the food items ingested constituted bottom deposits and blue green algae. Among the live food items ingested, blue green algae (Cyanophyceae) constituted 53.6%, the diatoms (Bacillariophyaceae) 19.7%, aquatic invertebrates (mainly Copepoda, Cladocera, and Rotifera) 12.9%, desmids (Desmidaceae) 7.7% and lastly the green algae (Chlorophyceae) 6.2%. ...

  4. Alterations in the serum biomarkers belonging to different metabolic systems of fish (Oreochromis niloticus) after Cd and Pb exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Glzar; Ariyurek, Sedefgul Yuzbasioglu; Kanak, Esin G; Canli, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    The serum of vertebrates including human gives sufficient data about the current health status of organism in concern. Biomarkers have gained importance in evaluation of data from biological monitoring studies. In this study, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were individually exposed Cd or Pb using acute (10?M, 2 d) and chronic (20?M, 20 d) exposure protocols to investigate the alterations in serum parameters (ALP, ALT, AST, LDH, lipase, glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride) and response of the endocrine system functioning in different axis, namely HPI (cortisol), HPT (TSH, T3, T4), gonadal (LH, FSH) and prolactin. Data showed that except LH, the levels of all hormones decreased significantly following exposure to Cd and Pb both in acute and chronic exposures. In acute exposures, the activity of ALP and levels of cholesterol and triglyceride decreased significantly following both Cd and Pb exposures, while glucose levels increased only after Cd exposure. In chronic exposures, both metal exposures caused significant decreases in ALP activity and levels of cholesterol and triglyceride, though there were increases in glucose level after Cd exposure and AST, ALT and LDH levels after Pb exposure. Data emphasized the importance of biomarker selection and multiparameter usage of relevant systems in ecotoxicological research to achieve proper evaluation of environmental data. PMID:26310509

  5. Partial replacement of fish meal with Azola meal in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) affects growth and whole body fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Abou, Youssouf; Adite, Alphonse; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Beckers, Yves; Emile, Fiogbe; Micha, Jean-claude

    2011-01-01

    The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, as partial FM substitute. Diet A0 acted as a control. The final weight (51.0-88.3 g), the weight gain (210.8-438.3%) and the SGR (1.3-1.9%day-1) decreased when AM level higher th...

  6. Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis Diferenciación Morfométrica de Dos Especies de Peces Nigerianos (Oreochromis niloticus y Lates niloticus Utilizando Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análsis Discriminante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yakubu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in Doma Dam, north central Nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. The purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. To achieve this, seven morphometric measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length were made on each of the studied 252 fish specimens (153 Oreochromis niloticus and 99 Lates niloticus. The analysis of variance showed that significantly (PLas diferencias morfológicas entre dos poblaciones de peces similares se han investigado en Doma Dam, centro-norte de Nigeria utilizando análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. El propósito fue identificar correctamente las dos especies y asignarlas a los distintos grupos genéticos. Para lograr esto, siete medidas morfométricas (peso corporal, longitud estándar, longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, profundidad del cuerpo, longitud de la aleta dorsal y la longitud de la aleta caudal se realizaron en cada una de las muestras de los 252 peces estudiados (153 Oreochromis niloticus y 99 Lates niloticus . El análisis de varianza mostró que de forma significativa (p<0,05 los valores más altos se registraron en Lates niloticus, en todos los rasgos del cuerpo examinado con excepción de la longitud de la aleta dorsal. A partir del análisis de componentes principales, las diferencias entre las especies se observó principalmente en la longitud de la aleta dorsal, el peso corporal, la longitud de la aleta caudal y longitud de la cabeza. El análisis discriminante reveló que la longitud estándar, longitud aleta dorsal y caudal son las tres variables más discriminatorias de utilidad para distinguir claramente las dos especies en la edad madura. Estas tres variables con fuerte poder de discriminación clasificaron correctamente el 98,0% de los individuos de la muestra de las poblaciones conocidas de peces. La exactitud de la clasificación fue sometida a una validación cruzada utilizando el método de la muestra dividida, la que indicó una tasa de éxito del 97,6% (98,0% de Oreochromis niloticus y 97,0% de Lates niloticus asignados correctamente. Los resultados pueden proporcionar una base científica sólida para el manejo eficaz y la explotación sostenible de los recursos genéticos de las dos especies en condiciones subtropicales.

  7. Effects of Water Pollution in Lake Mariut on Gonadal Free Amino Acid Compositions in Oreochromis niloticus Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil A. Matta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we have determined the gonadal free amino acid compositions in Oreochromis niloticus collected from three sites in Lake Mariut: SE basin (less polluted, main basin (moderately polluted and SW basin (highly polluted, in an attempt to develop sensitive biomarker to evaluate pollution effects from multiple sources. Variations of free amino acids (FAAs were apparent in the polluted sites; total FAAs in testes and ovaries exhibited significant increases as compared to the less polluted site. This increase was attributed to increases in all individual amino acids including essential and non-essential ones. ANOVA indicated significant changes in all testicular FAAs, excluding phenylalanine. Levels of non-essential amino acids showed obvious alterations in ovaries. However, the increase in most essential amino acids, although insignificant, yet it was quite observable. In addition, the ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids was insignificantly decreased in gonads. This may be indicative of changes in protein metabolism.

  8. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  9. The Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers in Sex Discrimination in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    BARDAKCI, Fevzi

    2000-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were successfully used in discrimination of sexes in Nile tilapia fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) using linear discriminant function analysis. The results provide support for the view that major genetical sex determining factors exist in tilapia.

  10. Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf), a TGF-beta superfamily gene, induces testis differentiation in the teleost fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiroyo; Ijiri, Shigeho; Kobayashi, Tohru; Izumi, Hikari; Kuramochi, Yuki; Wang, De-Shou; Mizuno, Shouta; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2015-11-01

    The Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is a gonochoristic teleost fish with an XX/XY genetic system and is an excellent model for gonadal sex differentiation. In the present study, we screened novel genes that were expressed predominantly in either XY or XX undifferentiated gonads during the critical period for differentiation of gonads into ovaries or testes using microarray screening. We focused on one of the isolated 12 candidate genes, #9475, which was an ortholog of gsdf (gonadal soma-derived factor), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. #9475/gsdf showed sexual dimorphism in expression in XY gonads before any other testis differentiation-related genes identified in this species thus far. We also overexpressed the #9475/gsdf gene in XX tilapia, and XX tilapia bearing the #9475/gsdf gene showed normal testis development, which suggests that #9475/gsdf plays an important role in male determination and/or differentiation in tilapia. PMID:26265450

  11. Tissue-Specific Isoenzyme Variations in Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Salem AL-Harbi; Sayed Amin Mohamed Amer

    2012-01-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used to analyze malate dehydrogenase (MDH), acid phosphatase (Acph) and peroxidase (Px) isoenzymes in different tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and heart) of the tilapia fish, Oreo

  12. Effects of thermal treatments during cooking, microwave oven and boiling, on the unconjugated microcystin concentration in muscle of fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmn-Guilln, Remedios; Prieto, Ana I; Moreno, Isabel; Soria, Ma Eugenia; Camen, Ana M

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the risk from fish consumption is a relevant public health concern due to potential adverse effects of cyanobacterial toxins. The aim of this work was to study the influence of two usual cooking practices, microwave oven and boiling, on the microcystin (MCs) concentration in fish muscle (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus) spiked with a stock solution (500 ?L) containing a mixture of three toxins (MC-LR, MC-RR, and MC-YR) (1.5 ?g/mL of each toxin). Two different variables were investigated: time of cooking in the microwaves treatment (1 or 5 min), and way of boiling, "boiled muscle" or "continuously heated muscle". All samples were then lyophilized and MCs were extracted and purified (Oasis HLB cartridge) and quantified by HPLC-MS. Furthermore, the waters in which the samples boiled were also analyzed after their purification. The results suggest a reduction on MC-LR (36%) and MC-YR (24.6%) in samples cooked in the microwave for 5 min. Major changes were found when the fish was cooked by the continuous boiling, with a decrease of 45.0% (MC-RR), 56.4% (MC-YR) and 59.3% (MC-LR). More studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved when aquatic food is submitted to usual cooking practices. PMID:21621579

  13. Stock assessment of Lates niloticus (L.), Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin) using fisheries-dependent data from Tanzania waters of Lake Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Nsinda, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Three commercially important fish species, Lates niloticus (L.), Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin) and Oreochromis niloticus (L.) that are fished by artisanal fishermen of Lake Victoria, Tanzania part, were studied in Kagera, Mwanza and Mara beaches from October 1997 to July 1999. Catches, effort, exploitation and stock structure were investigated. Beaches for sampling were selected based on importance for landing the above named fish species. The number of boats found on beach that day, the...

  14. Immersion vaccination of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using a Streptococcus iniae vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this investigation was to assess immersion Streptococcus iniae vaccination of newly hatched and sex reversed Nile tilapia fry against S. iniae. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; 0.01 g wet weight; 160,000 fish/1500 L) were immunized by bath immersion using a 1/500 dilution of m...

  15. Aggression and mortality among Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) maintained in the laboratory at different densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) density may affect stress levels, metabolism, and survival among tilapia in experimental studies and thus may affect experimental results, tilapia were held in a commonly-used commercial tank system to assess the relationship between fish density and beha...

  16. Susceptibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed dietary sodium chloride to nitrite toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 6% NaCl for 10 weeks. Tilapia were exposed to approximately 21 mg/l nitrite-N after five and ten weeks of feeding to determine the effect of dietary NaCl supplementation on resistance to nitrite toxicity. Fish were...

  17. Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Ferraz de Arruda; Ricardo Borghesi; Aelson Brum; Marisa Regitano D'Arce; Marília Oetterer

    2006-01-01

    One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing resi...

  18. Metacercarial Infection of Wild Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A.; Mati, Vitor L. T.; Melo, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus collected in an artificial urban lake from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated for natural infection with trematodes. Morphological taxonomic identification of four fluke species was performed in O. niloticus examined, and the total prevalence of metacercariae was 60.7% (37/61). Centrocestus formosanus, a heterophyid found in the gills, was the species with the highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection (31.1% and 3.42 (142), resp.), followed by the diplostomid Austrodiplostomum compactum (29.5% and 1.27 (1-2)) recovered from the eyes. Metacercariae of Drepanocephalus sp. and Ribeiroia sp., both found in the oral cavity of the fish, were verified at low prevalences (8.2% and 1.6%, resp.) and intensities of infection (only one metacercaria of each of these species per fish). These species of trematodes are reported for the first time in O. niloticus from South America. The potential of occurrence of these parasites in tilapia farming and the control strategies are briefly discussed. PMID:25485302

  19. Genotoxic evaluation in Oreochromis niloticus (Fish: Characidae) of recombinant spore-crystal complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, I S; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Fascineli, M L; Oliveira-Filho, E C; Martins, E S; Monnerat, R G; Grisolia, C K

    2014-03-01

    Bioinsecticides from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used around the world in biological control against larval stages of many insect species. Bt has been considered a biopesticide that is highly specific to different orders of insects, non-polluting and harmless to humans and other vertebrates, thus becoming a viable alternative for combating agricultural pests and insect vectors of diseases. The family of Bt δ-endotoxins are crystal-protein inclusions showing toxicity to insects' midgut, causing cell lysis leading to starvation, septicemia and death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of recombinant Bt spore-crystals expressing Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 on peripheral erythrocyte cells of Oreochromis niloticus, through comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) analysis. Fish (n = 10/group) were exposed for 96 h at 10(7) spores 30 l(-1), 10(8) spores 30 l(-1) or 10(9) spores 30 l(-1) of Bt spore-crystals. Cry1Ia showed a significant increase in comet cells at levels 1 and 2, but not at levels 3 and 4, so it was not mutagenic nor did it induce MN or NA. These three spore-crystals showed some fish toxicity at only the highest exposure level, which normally does not occur in the field. PMID:24374720

  20. Active biomonitoring of trace heavy metals using fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) as bioindicator species. The case of Nakivubo wetland along Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birungi, Z.; Masola, B.; Zaranyika, M. F.; Naigaga, I.; Marshall, B.

    The Nakivubo wetland in Uganda, which feeds Lake Victoria at Murchison bay, has become severely degraded over recent years and is particularly threatened by the expansion of industry, settlement and cultivation on its fertile fringes. The aim of this study was to actively biomonitor selected trace heavy metals using Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was set in cages at six sampling sites in Murchison bay for a period of six weeks, and sampling was done every 2 weeks for active biomonitoring and weekly for physico-chemical variables. The control (site 7) was at the Aquaculture Research and Development centre, Uganda. Fish tissue was dissected and gills, liver and muscle removed for heavy metal analysis. Water samples and fish tissue from each site were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine metal concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and manganese. Site 4 had the highest average NH 4-N of 14.28 ± 12.73 mg/l which was above effluent standards for Uganda. From the findings, there were significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in fish than in water ( p > 0.01). Fish kills were recorded highest for sites 4 (55%), 5 (77.5%) and 6 (60%) in less than six weeks indicating high levels of pollution. Gills showed the highest accumulation of copper after a period of six weeks as compared to other metals with a mean ± SE of 11.7 μg/mg wet weight. In general, the order of accumulation of metals in tissue after six weeks was in order; copper > zinc > chromium > manganese and gills > liver > muscle. In conclusion, active biomonitoring was found to be a good tool for monitoring water quality as it integrates responses to combinations of all contaminants thereby indicating overall effects in a water body. To improve the study, there is need to incorporate post mortem studies and biomarker analysis since the later can give early warning of pollution before fish kills are observed.

  1. Bioscurit et productivit du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 lev en zone rurale ivoirienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

  2. Starch digestion in tropical fishes : isolation, structural studies and inhibition kinetics of alpha-amylases from two tilapias Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Yann; Desseaux, V.; Koukiekolo, R; Marchis-Mouren, G.; Santimone, M.

    2001-01-01

    Alpha-amylases from the intestinal cavity of two tilapia species, #Oreochromis niloticus$ (ONI-AMY) and #Sarotherodon melanotheron$ (SME-AMY), were purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography and chromatofocusing procedures. The purification was approximately 100-fold. The amylolytic activity, specific activity, product distribution, pH and temperature profile of ONI-AMY and SME-AMY are quite similar. The molecular mass differs slightly : 56 600 (ONI-AMY) vs. 55 500...

  3. The radiosensitivity of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a very popular fish commercially in the Philippines, was studied to determine its radiosensitivity and to see its potential as a biological indicator in aquatic ecosystems. Nile tilapia was seen to be radiosensitive. The fish were exposed to gamma-irradiation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. The various types of aberrations seen were chromatid gaps, chromosome gaps, chromatid fragments, dicentric rings, fusions, despiralizations and translocations. Among the aberrations observed, dicentric rings, fusions and chromosome gaps were strongly correlated with dosage, with only the dicentric rings increasing steadily with increasing dosage. In the course of the study, the lethal dosage50 for nile tilapia with 18 days was determined and it was observed at 2.0 krad. The modal chromosome number was also established at 2n=44 with a karyotype exhibiting 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes with 2 pairs of marker chromosomes present. (Author)

  4. Relao parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da regio de Assis, Estado de So Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.594 Host-parasite relationship in fish from fish farms in the Assis region, So Paulo State, Brazil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jos Tavares Ranzani-Paiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 90 espcimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em trs pisciculturas do Estado de So Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espcie de parasito. Os parmetros fsicos e qumicos da gua foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da gua em cada propriedade. Sete espcies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possvel observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porm cada propriedade apresenta uma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlao negativa significativa da abundncia com o comprimento padro do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espcie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o coppode Lamproglena sp. apresentaram correlao positiva significativa da abundncia com o comprimento padro nas pisciculturas de Tarum e Cndido Mota, respectivamente. Em relao ao fator de condio relativo, somente a espcie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlao significativa negativa com a abundncia de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlao positiva significativa com a relao hepatossomtica (RHS das tilpias em Palmital, e o ergasildeo apresentou correlao significativa negativa da abundncia de parasitismo e a relao esplenossomtica (RES dos hospedeiros em Cndido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in So Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farm featured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp.1 presented a significant negative correlation of abundance to standard host length only at the Palmital fish farm. The Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 species and the Lamproglena sp. copepod displayed a significant positive correlation of abundance to standard length at the Tarum and Cndido Mota fish farms, respectively. With regard to the relative condition factor, only the species Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 presented a significant negative correlation to the prevalence of parasitism. Lamproglena sp. presented a significant positive correlation with respect to the hepatosomatic index (HI of the tilapias at the Palmital fish farm, and the Ergasilidae presented a significant negative correlation of abundance with respect to splenosomatic index (SI of the host at Cndido Mota.

  5. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus linn,.

    OpenAIRE

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINN (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent macrophyte at the shore from the...

  6. Transmission and pathology of Streptococcus inane in monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in aquaculture of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mer Mosharraf Hossain; Amimul Ehsan; Md. Anisur Rahman; Monjurul Haq; Md. Bazlur Rashid Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a major fish pathogen, recently emergent outbreaks were recorded in commercially cultured monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) result in significant losses termed “streptococcosis”-causes unusual appearances with multi-focal pin-point haemorrhages, abscesses, necrosis and ascites in skin, fin, muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, blood, interstitial fluid specially in central nervous system and brain. This disease was more prevalent (>26%) at summer when the water tem...

  7. ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    S.Sujithra; N.Kiruthiga; M.J. Prabhu; R.Kumeresan

    2013-01-01

    Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis niloticus was the first Tilapia species to be taken up for large Scaleaquaculture. It is consumed widely due to its deliciousness and rich source of protein. During its processing, the scales, Fins, Skins etc are expelled out as waste Acid solubilized collagen (ASC) and Pepsin Solubilizedcollagen (PSC) were extracted from these processing wastes. Initial extrac...

  8. IMMERSION VACCINATION OF NEWLY HATCHED AND SEX REVERSED NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) USING A STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE VACCINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this investigation was to assess immersion Streptococcus iniae vaccination of newly hatched and sex reversed Nile tilapia fry against S. iniae. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; 0.01 g wet weight; 160,000 fish/1500 L) were immunized by bath immersion using a 1/500 dilution of m...

  9. Apparent digestibility coefficient of duckweed (Lemna minor), fresh and dry for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shafai, S.A.A.M.; el-Gohary, F.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Gijzen, H J

    2004-01-01

    Dry matter (DMD), protein (PD), ash (AD), fat (FD), gross energy (ED) and phosphorus (PhD) digestibility coefficients were determined for five different iso-N fish diets fed to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The control diet contained fishmeal (35Œ corn (29Œ wheat (20Œ wheat bran (10Œ fish oil (3Œ diamol (2€and premix (1Ž Partial replacement of dry matter of fishmeal, corn grain, wheat grain, wheat bran and fish oil by 20nd 40␘f dry matter of duckweed, in a dry and fresh form, was perf...

  10. Shrimp meal in diets for Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus" Farinha de camaro em dietas para tilpia do Nilo ("Oreochromis niloticus"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Pessoa Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of conventional ingredients used in fish diets by non-conventional products has been an economic alternative to reduce the cost of feeding. Therefore, 90-day trial was performed to study the effect of shrimp meal (SM inclusion on diets of Nile tilapia fries. Weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, apparent feed intake (AFI, fillet yield (FY, fillet income (FI values and protein effiency ratio (PER were evaluated. Each experimental unit was an aquaria with five tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus, mean body weight of 7,9g, total of 120 animals. Treatments were four diets with 0, 25, 50 and 100% of SM replacing the soybean meal, which protein (28.0% and energy (3100 kcal/DE/kg content in diet were similar. Animals were fed three times daily. The offered food was adjusted according to fish live weight. The substitution of soybean by SM reduced WG, FC, AFI, FY and PER. SM inclusion did not affect the FI. Shrimp meal inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia affects negatively the growth performance.O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a incluso da farinha de camaro (FC em dietas para a tilpia do Nilo. O desempenho dos animais foi avaliado atravs do ganho de peso (GP, converso alimentar aparente (CAA, consumo de rao aparente (CRA, peso de fil (PF, rendimento de fil (RF e taxa de eficincia protica (TEP. O delineamento utilizado no experimento foi em blocos casulaizados distribudos em 24 caixas de polietileno com capacidade de 150 L supridas por sistema de recirculao fechada de gua (0,2L/min. durante 90 dias. Cada unidade experimental era composta por um aqurio com cinco tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus com peso mdio inicial de aproximadamente 7,9g perfazendo um total de 120 animais. Os tratamentos constituram-se de quatro raes contendo 0, 25, 50 e 100% de FC em substituio ao farelo de soja, sendo estas isoproticas (28,0%PB e isoenergticas (3100 kcal de EB/kg. Os animais foram alimentados trs vezes ao dia com a quantidade de rao fornecida ad libitum. A farinha de camaro pode substituir a protena do farelo de soja at 50% de incluso sem comprometer o ganho de peso, converso alimentar e peso do fil.

  11. Effect of phosphorous supplementation in the formulated fish feed on carcass quality of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, M.R.U.; Yakupitiyage, A.; Lin, C.K.; Little, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorus supplementation in the formulated fish diet on carcass quality of Nile tilapia in net-cages suspended in fertilized earthen ponds. In the experiment 3% di-calcium phosphate (DCP), 3% triple supper phosphate (TSP) and 7% 16:20 inorganic fertilizer were added as phosphorous sources to three diets containing fish meal as main protein ingredient. Feeding tilapia in net-cages with these diets significantly (p

  12. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using {sup 203}Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  13. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using 203Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  14. Morphological Study of the Liver in the Teleost Oreochromis niloticus Estudio Morfolgico del Hgado en el Telesteo Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. Vicentini; I. B. Franceschini-Vicentini; M. T. S. Bombonato; B. Bertolucci; S.G. Lima; A. S. Santos

    2005-01-01

    Liver samples of Oreochromis niloticus cultivated in floating net cages were fixed for histological and ultrastructural studies with the objective of describing the hepatic parenchymal structure and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, the liver showed only two hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue...

  15. Evaluation of the link between gyrodactylosis and streptococcosis of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and Gyrodactylus niloticus are two common pathogens of cultured Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus. Trials were conducted to study concurrent infection of tilapia by G. niloticus and S. iniae and evaluated whether parasitism in tilapia with Gyrodactylus increased susceptibility ...

  16. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire)

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Roche; Abiba Tidou; Ana Persic

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in ...

  17. Genotoxic responses of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to florfenicol and oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, R G; Christofoletti, C A; Correia, J E; Ansoar, Y; Olinda, R A; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-08-01

    Florfenicol (FLC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) are the two most commonly used antibiotics for bacterial treatment in fish farming in Brazil, and because of their intensive use, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. This study evaluated the effects of environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC on the genetic material of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) erythrocytes by using the comet assay and the occurrence of micronuclei (MN) and other erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) after exposure to 96hour. The comet assay showed that fish erythrocytes exhibited significantly higher DNA damage after exposure to environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC. Although MN was not observed, ENAs were significantly higher after exposure to FLC, indicating that ENAs are a better biomarker for FLC than MN. The results showed that environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC were genotoxic to erythrocytes of O. niloticus; however, future studies on DNA damage recovery are needed. PMID:25898970

  18. TOXICITY OF COPPER SULPHATE AND BEHAVIORAL LOCOMOTOR RESPONSE OF TILAPIA (Oreochromis Niloticus) AND CATFISH (Clarias Gariepinus) SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    C.D EZEONYEJIAKU; M.O. OBIAKOR; C.O. EZENWELU

    2011-01-01

    Acute toxicity of copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O) to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) species was investigated using toxicity index of 96 hours LC50 and the quantal response determined by the statistical probit analysis method. In response to the lethality of the copper toxicant, behavioral anomalies (locomotor response) of the exposed fish species were studied as indication of toxic effects of the heavy metal. Fish species shows different mortality responses to t...

  19. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

    2006-03-15

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

  20. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers (? and ?) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels

  1. Metallic Micropollutants in the Harvest of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757from Polluted Waters: Wildlife and Human Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Adham

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were sampled at four locations along Lake Mary?t for eleven metal residues. Data were compared to certified levels for possible metal contamination. Generally, cadmium, lead, mercury, manganese and copper were above standard levels for unpolluted waters. The kidneys in O. niloticus were the principal store organs for most of the metals tested. In an outstanding result, the muscular edible tissue in O. niloticus was the principal destination for mercury. The majority of metals investigated as cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium, cobalt, manganese and nickel exceeded most known accepted levels in fish tissue. Water lead seemed to correlate better with lead in composites of whole fish than in solitary organs. Mercury in water and fish tissue (particularly, the edible portion exceeded all credited levels for human consumption and the protection of fish and predator, thus posing an inevitable hazard to the whole ecosystem of the lake, probably for 100 years to come.

  2. The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II, isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: one containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6 cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control. Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

  3. Broad Niche Overlap between Invasive Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and Indigenous Congenerics in Southern Africa: Should We be Concerned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsungai A. Zengeya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed niche models for the native ranges of Oreochromis andersonii, O. mortimeri, and O. mossambicus, and assessed how much of their range is climatically suitable for the establishment of O. niloticus, and then reviewed the conservation implications for indigenous congenerics as a result of overlap with O. niloticus based on documented congeneric interactions. The predicted potential geographical range of O. niloticus reveals a broad climatic suitability over most of southern Africa and overlaps with all the endemic congenerics. This is of major conservation concern because six of the eight river systems predicted to be suitable for O. niloticus have already been invaded and now support established populations. Oreochromis niloticus has been implicated in reducing the abundance of indigenous species through competitive exclusion and hybridisation. Despite these well-documented adverse ecological effects, O. niloticus remains one of the most widely cultured and propagated fish species in aquaculture and stock enhancements in the southern Africa sub-region. Aquaculture is perceived as a means of protein security, poverty alleviation, and economic development and, as such, any future decisions on its introduction will be based on the trade-off between socio-economic benefits and potential adverse ecological effects.

  4. Evaluation of acute toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a nickel mining waste to Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa de Freitas; Ferreira, Maria Fernanda Nince; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2010-11-01

    The pyrometallurgical process of mining for obtaining ferronickel involves a stage of calcinations. At this stage a residue is generated described as a calcination dust of fine black grains. Analysis of this material revealed a significant presence of Fe, around 53,000 ppm and Ni, around 14,000, beyond of other metals as Al, Mn, and Cr. Adults and larvae of Oreochromis niloticus were used to evaluate acute toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and histopathological effects. The data obtained show absence of toxicity in concentrations of 5, 10 and 50% but a considerable potential for bioaccumulation in the fish's body. PMID:20936513

  5. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Belém-Costa; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  6. Histological Changes in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus I779) Exposed to Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Seeds Powder

    OpenAIRE

    , E.O. Ayotunde; Fagbenro, O.A.; Adebayo, O.T.

    2011-01-01

    This research determined the pathological effects of Moringa oleifera seed powder, a natural alternative to alum, used as a water purifier in fish culture enclosure in Nigeria. The histological changes in gill, liver, skin and kidney of fingerling and adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seed at different sub-lethal concentration under static bioassay procedure are described. There were pathologic lesions observed which i...

  7. An Important Natural Genetic Resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Threatened by Aquaculture Activities in Loboi Drainage, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variatio...

  8. PROTECTIVE ANTIBODY RESPONSES FOLLOWING VACCINATION WITH STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE IN NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were conducted to further characterize a highly efficacious Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine containing extracellular products [ECP] and formalin-killed whole cells. One study assessed the efficacy of stored reconstituted S. agalactiae vaccine,...

  9. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803 and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857, from the Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Roche

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii found in Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire. Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight, endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight, as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83 and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84 and with pp’DDT (R = 0.81. In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91. The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  10. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  11. TOXICITY OF COPPER SULPHATE AND BEHAVIORAL LOCOMOTOR RESPONSE OF TILAPIA (Oreochromis Niloticus AND CATFISH (Clarias Gariepinus SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. EZEONYEJIAKU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity of copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and catfish (Clarias gariepinus species was investigated using toxicity index of 96 hours LC50 and the quantal response determined by the statistical probit analysis method. In response to the lethality of the copper toxicant, behavioral anomalies (locomotor response of the exposed fish species were studied as indication of toxic effects of the heavy metal. Fish species shows different mortality responses to the varying concentrations of copper studied (50, 60, 70, 80, 100, and 120 mg/l due to toxicity. Copper was significantly (no overlap in 95% C.L of 96 hrs LC50 values more toxic to Oreochromis niloticus than the catfish. 96 hrs LC50 values for Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus were revealed to be 58.837 and 70.135 mg/l, respectively. Behavioral changes, mostly locomotor responses (avoidance were observed among the test animals on exposure to the different concentrations of copper sulphate. There is need to control the use of copper because of its observed toxicity and fish avoidance test shows to be an important predictive and sensitive biomarker in aquatic monitoring and pollution management.

  12. Production of YY-male of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from atypical fish / Produccin de machos YY de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a partir de peces atpicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Pablo, Alcntar-Vzquez; Ral, Moreno-de la Torre; Daniel, Calzada-Ruz; Carolina, Antonio-Estrada.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La aplicacin exitosa de la tecnologa YY depende de la produccin de hembras XY. Sin embargo, su identificacin es complicada, ya que son indistinguibles de las hembras normales. Los peces atpicos podran ofrecer una alternativa para una ms rpida y precisa identificacin. Se evalu la progenie d [...] e nueve peces atpicos con la finalidad de producir machos YY. Los alevines obtenidos se criaron a 28 1C en acuarios de 85 L. Los juveniles fueron colocados en jaulas flotantes por 30 das y, finalmente, en estanques de 8 m hasta los 120 das de edad. La prueba de progenie se realiz evaluando las diferencias entre sexos en la estructura de la papila genital. Seis de los nueve peces atpicos seleccionados mostraron la proporcin de sexos 3:1 (macho-hembra) esperada para hembras revertidas. Se observ una proporcin de machos significativamente mayor a la distribucin 3:1 esperada en dos peces atpicos. Este aumento en la proporcin de machos puede ser atribuido a la interaccin del efecto parental con la temperatura del agua durante la etapa de alevn. El uso de peces atpicos podra reducir el tiempo y esfuerzo empleados en la identificacin de hembras XY durante la etapa inicial de la tecnologa YY. Abstract in english Successful YY technology depends on the production of XY females. However, their identification is complicated because they are indistinguishable from normal females. Atypical fish could offer an alternative for a more rapid and precise identification. Progeny of atypical fish was evaluated in order [...] to produce YY-males. In total, nine atypical fish and 18 normal males were selected. The fish were placed in 8 m concrete tanks at a 2:1 sex ratio. The produced fry were collected and reared at 28 1C in 85 L aquaria. Juveniles were placed in net cages for 30 days and finally in 8 m concrete tanks until the age of 120 days. Progeny test was achieved evaluating differences between sexes in the genital papilla structure. Six of the nine atypical fish selected showed the 3:1 sex ratio (male-female) expected for sex-reversed females. A significantly higher proportion of males than the expected 3:1 distribution were observed in two atypical fish. This boost in male proportion could be attributed to a parental effect interacting with the water temperature during the fry stage. Use of atypical fish could help reduce the time and effort spent to identify XY females during the initial stage of YY technology.

  13. Parasite fauna of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Nattabi, Juliet K; Agoe, Catherine; Schiemer, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites-Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae-were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers. PMID:21688067

  14. Morphological Study of the Liver in the Teleost Oreochromis niloticus Estudio Morfolgico del Hgado en el Telesteo Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Vicentini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver samples of Oreochromis niloticus cultivated in floating net cages were fixed for histological and ultrastructural studies with the objective of describing the hepatic parenchymal structure and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, the liver showed only two hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinar arrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Structural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmic reticulum with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was concentrically distributedCon el objetivo de describir la estructura del parnquima heptico y del pncreas exocrino intraheptico del Oreochromis niloticus, fueron fijados para estudios histolgicos y ultraestructurales fragmentos de hgado de peces cultivados en jaulas flotantes. Se evidenciaron slo 2 lbubos hepticos. El anlisis histolgico demostr que los hepatocitos se encontraban organizados en forma de cordones anastomosados, dispuestos en dos capas celulares y cercados por sinusoides. El tejido pancretico exocrino intraheptico se encontr difuso en el parnquima heptico y se destac por su organizacin acinar. El anlisis ultraestructural demostr que los hepatocitos presentaban ncleos redondos y el retculo endoplasmtico rugoso estaba dispuesto paralelamente a la membrana nuclear. Las clulas pancreticas exocrinas presentaban grnulos de secrecin localizados en la porcin apical y el retculo endoplasmtico rugoso estaba organizado de manera concntrica

  15. Raes orgnicas suplementadas com farinha de resduos de peixe para juvenis da tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogrio Boscolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a incluso da farinha de resduo da indstria de filetagem de peixes em raes orgnicas para tilpias do Nilo (O. niloticus na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootcnico (ganho de peso, converso alimentar e sobrevivncia, caractersticas de carcaa (rendimento de carcaa, tronco limpo, fil, gordura visceral, e ndice hepatossomtico e composio qumica (umidade, protena bruta, matria mineral e extrato etreo dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilpias com mdia inicial de 84,11 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 0,80 cm de comprimento distribudas em 20 tanques de 8 m, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repeties. Foram elaboradas cinco raes com nveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de incluso de farinha de resduos com 28% de protena digestvel e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestvel. Houve aumento linear nas mdias de ganho de peso e reduo linear na converso alimentar com a incluso da farinha. No foram observadas diferenas significativas (P > 0,05 nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e protena bruta dos fils, porm, a matria mineral e o extrato etreo apresentaram diferenas (P This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival, characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fillet, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05 for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P<0.05 among the treatments. The inclusion of 16% in fish by-product wastes from the filleting industry in diets formulated with ingredients certificated from organic origin improves livestock performance, does not impair body yield, but it alters the parameters of mineral matter and ethereal extract of tilapia in the phase of growth.

  16. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Santos, G.A.; Conceicao, L.E.C.; Dias, J.; Øverli, T.; Höglund, Erik; Schrama, J.W.

    -term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments...

  17. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  18. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tamie Matsumoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

  19. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suanyuk, N.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

  20. Skin and subcutaneous mycoses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, M Teresa; Gibello, Alicia; Rodriguez-Bertos, Antonio; Blanco, M Mar; Villarroel, Morris; Giraldo, Alejandra; Guarro, Josep

    2015-09-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus Saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. To date, Fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological and molecular analyses. Some of the animals died as a result of systemic coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:26155462

  1. Comparative assessment of bioload of healthy and diseased Oreochromis niloticus as means of food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one (31 samples each of diseased and healthy Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus from Otamiri River, in Nekede, Owerri West; Imo State Nigeria was examined to detect the presence of bacterial and helminth fauna. The intestine, liver, gill, tissue and skin of the fish were examined. Bacteriological analysis revealed counts of healthy diseased organs to fall between 6.0 x 104 – 3.5 x 107 cfu/g and 5.7 x 106 – 1.9 x 1011 cfu/g respectively. The result however indicated that the bacterial load of the diseased fish samples were higher than those of the apparently healthy fish. Identification tests of the probable bacterial isolates revealed the isolation of Vibrio sp, Renibacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Yersinia sp, Pseudomonas sp, Nocardia sp, Lactobacillus sp, Sporocytophaga, Staphylococcus sp, Mycobacterium sp, Serratia sp Proteus sp and Edwardsiella sp. Twenty-nine (29 ie 46.8% of the 62 samples studied were found to be infected by helminth fauna identified as Camallanus sp, Procamallanus beviconchus, Capillaria sp, Clinostonium tilapiae, Euclinostonium heterostoma, Cleidodiscus sp and Bothricephalus acheilognathi. Percentage helminth infestation was found to be higher in males than females with sub adults recording the highest infection rate of 56.08%. Hence helminth infestation varies amongst age group. This study therefore reveals the bacterial & helminth load of cultured organs of Oreochromis niloticus with a view to provide information on the state of environmental and personal hygiene in the environment, the level of contamination of water and the security and/or insecurity nature of using fish as food.

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on Tailpipe (Oreochromis niloticus) protein biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New alternatives to traditional packaging have considered the use of renewable sources as raw material to form films including proteins. In this paper we used myofibrillar protein from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), that in our country, is commercialized at competitive prices comparative to these practiced in developing country. The films were prepared according a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol. The films were irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 1.5 MeV at dose range from 0 kGy to 200 kGy. The samples were kept at 25 deg C and 58% relative moisture until the analysis. The main properties studied were color, opacity, solubility, and mechanical properties. (author)

  3. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

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    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  4. Investigation of acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos-methyl on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ali

    2005-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl, a wide-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide and potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, was investigated for acute toxicity. Larvae of the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated three times and the 96 h LC50 was determined for the larvae. The static test method for assessing acute toxicity was used. Water temperature was maintained at 25+/-1 degrees C. In addition, behavioral changes at each chlorpyrifos-methyl concentration were observed for the individual fish. Data obtained from the chlorpyrifos-methyl acute toxicity tests were evaluated using Finney's probit analysis statistical method. The 96 h LC50 value for Nile tilapia larvae was calculated to be 1.57 mg/l. PMID:15722087

  5. Thiamin requirement of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia were fed to apparent satiation twice daily with purified diets containing 0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 mg/kg and 0. 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 mg/kg of thiamin in separate 14-week (experiment 1) and 8-week trials (experiment 2), respectively. Fish fed the diet devoid of thi...

  6. Effects of dietary genistein on GH/IGF-I axis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable concern that isoflavones, such as genistein in fish feed composed of soybean protein, aff ects somatic growth in fish. Our previous works demonstrated that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant eff ect on growth performance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed growth. This study was conducted to further examine the eff ects of dietary genistein on the endocrine disruption on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus). Juvenile fish were fed by hand twice daily to satiation with one of four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, each containing either 0, 30, 300 or 3 000 μg/g genistein. Following an 8-week feeding period, plasma GH and IGF-I levels were investigated by radioimmunoassay and gene expression levels of gh, ghrelin, gnrhs, ghr, npy, npyrs, pacap, ghrs, igf-I, igf-Ir, and igfbp3 were examined by real-time PCR. The results show that no significant change in plasma GH and IGF-I levels in fish fed with diets containing 30 μg/g and 300 μg/g genistein. mRNA expression of genes along the GH/IGF-I axis remained unaff ected, except for igf-Ir, which was stimulated by the 300 μg/g genistein diet. While in fish fed the 3 000 μg/g genistein diet, the plasma GH and IGF-I levels decreased, and mRNA expression of gh, ghr2, npyr1, igf-I, and igf-Ir were also significantly depressed. In contrast, npy and igfbp3 mRNA expression were enhanced. This study provides convincing evidence for growth impediment by genistein by disturbing the GH/IGF-I axis in Nile tilapia O. niloticus.

  7. Fibra bruta para alevinos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L Crude fiber for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fbio Meurer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou avaliar diferentes nveis de fibra bruta no desempenho e no tempo de reteno do bolo alimentar em alevinos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L. Foram utilizados 125 alevinos (1,39 0,03 g distribudos em 25 aqurios de 54 L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repeties. Foram formuladas cinco raes isoenergticas (3000 kcal/kg de energia digestvel e isoproticas (30% de protena bruta, diferindo quanto aos nveis de fibra bruta (3,65; 4,75; 6,00; 7,25 e 8,50%. O perodo experimental foi de 64 dias a uma temperatura mdia de 26,5C 0,8 de manh e 27,5C 0,7 tarde. No foram observadas diferenas quanto ao desempenho dos alevinos, entretanto houve decrscimo linear para o tempo de reteno do bolo alimentar com o aumento da fibra.This work aimed to evaluate different crude fiber levels on reverted Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L fingerlings performance and time of retention of food. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings of Thai strain, 1.39 0.03 g of initial weight were allotted to twenty-five 54 L aquarium, at five treatments and five replications on completely randomized design. Five isoenergy (3000 kcal/kg of digestible energy and isoprotein (30% of crude protein diets were formulated with five different crude fiber levels (3.65, 4.75, 6.00, 7.25 and 8.50%, for ranging cellulose and inert material addition. The experimental period was 64 days with 26.5C 0.8 in the morning and 27.5C 0.7 in the afternoon temperatures. No difference was observed to fingerlings performance (food conversion, final weight, weight gain, but a linear decrease to time of retention of food with crude fiber addition.

  8. Desempenho de tilpia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin E

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; D.P., Veloso; D.O., Fontes; R.F., Silva.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementao de Vitamina E no desempenho e qualidade de carcaa de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Os experimentos foram conduzidos no ranrio experimenta do Departamento de Biologia Animal, UFV, Viosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no perodo de 09/01/ 2005 a 25/04/2005, t [...] otalizando 106 dias. Foram utilizadas 400 ps larvas revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus)em um experimento com um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina E monofosfato) numa rao isoproteca 36% de PB e isocalrica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com quatro repeties. No se observou efeito significativo para peso final, para ganho de peso total, para ganho de peso dirio dos animais, para taxa de eficincia protica e para taxa de sobrevivncia. Para o ndice viscerossomtico houve diferena significativa para o tratamento sem suplementao, com 100 mg e com 150 mg/kg desta vitamina. Para o cido graxo olico (C18:1) a utilizao do tratamento sem vitamina E foi significamente maior em relao aos outros tratamentos. O cido graxo eicosapentaenico EPA (C20:5?3) foi estatisticamente significativo para o tratamento sem suplementao de vitamina E. O cido graxo linolico (C18:2?6), cido graxo ?-linolnico (C18:3?6), cido graxo ?-linolico (C18:3?3) e cido graxo araquidnico (C20:4?6) aumentaram de forma quadrtica at o nvel estimado de 110 mg, 111 mg, 113 mg e 140 mg de vitamina E por kg de rao, respectivamente. Abstract in english The effect of vitamin E supplementation on performance and carcass quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The research was carried out in the experimental frog raising facilities at the Department of Animal Biology, UFV, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Four hundred post larva reversed (Oreochr [...] omis niloticus) were used for studies. The experiments were randomly designed with five treatments (supplying 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of vitamin E mono-phosphate) in an isoproteic ration with 36% CP and isocaloric with 3600 kcal/kg of DE with four repetitions. It was not observed significant effect for final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain, protein efficiency rate and survivor rate. The viscerosomatic index showed significant differences for the treatment without vitamin E supplementation and with 100 and 150 mg of this vitamin. For oleic fatty acid, the treatment without vitamin E was significantly higher. The eicosapen-taenoic fatty acid (C20:5?3) was statistically significant for the treatment without vitamin E. The fatty acids linoleic (C18:2?6), ?-linolenic (C18:3?6), ?-linoleic (C18:3?3), and arachidonic (C20:4?6) increased in a quadratic way up to the estimated levels of 110 mg, 111mg, 113 mg, and 140 mg of vitamin E/kg of ration, respectively.

  9. CARACTERES HEMATOLGICOS EN INDIVIDUOS DE TILAPIA NILTICA (Oreochromis niloticus, Trewavas 1983) CON PESOS ENTRE 50-150 g y 150-250 g, ESTACIN PISCCOLA, UNIVERSIDAD DE CALDAS, COLOMBIA / HEMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus, Trewavas 1983) INDIVIDUALS WEIGHING BETWEEN 50 AND 150 g AND 150 AND 250 g, FISH STATION, UNIVERSIDAD DE CALDAS, COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christine M., Hahn-von-Hessberg; Adriana, Quiroz-Bucheli; Alberto, Grajales-Quintero.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon parmetros hematolgicos en O. niloticuscon pesos entre 50-150 g y 150-250 g, para obtener referentes de comparacin, realizados en la Estacin Pisccola, de la Universidad de Caldas, Colombia. Se utilizo un diseo completamente al azar con submuestreos; las pruebas hematolgicas se de [...] positaron en tubos de ensayo con EDTA, para su anlisis en laboratorio. Se aplic el software SPSS, la prueba Kolmogorow-Smirnow, la prueba T, de Levene, y de Kruskal Wallis, para las correlaciones entre los parmetros hematolgicos evaluados. Al correlacionar los dos rangos de peso en O. niloticus no existen diferencias significativas en los valores hematolgicos. Los anlisis estadsticos encontrados fueron similares en los dos rangos de peso as: nmero de eritrocitos de 1,950,58 y 2,190,64 x10(6)/mm, hemoglobina 9,322,63 y 9,942,84 g/dL; hematocrito de 32,445,78 y 33,566,86%, protenas plasmticas 31,866,14 y 32,206,50 g/dL y una velocidad de segmentacin eritrocitaria de 7,565,52 y 7,945,17 mm/h, un volumen corpuscular medio 183,4375,44 y 165,7660,80 u, hemoglobina corpuscular media 50,5622,39 y 49,1921,27 uug y concentracin de hemoglobina corpuscular media de 28,685,39 y 29,615,08%, respectivamente. El referente de leucocitos para el primer rango es de 2,111,03 y para el segundo rango es de 2,180,97 clulas x10(5) mm, utilizado para evaluar la lnea blanca como son: trombocitos, linfocitos, neutrfilos, monocitos, eosinfilos y basfilos. Para el grado de asociacin entre cada una de las variables, existe una correlacin positiva entre el peso, longitud y altura, as como entre la longitud y altura. Para el nivel de hemoglobina se obtuvo una correlacin positiva con neutrfilos y CHCM, el ndice eritrocitarios VCM se relacion igualmente de manera positiva con HCM y de forma negativa con el nmero total de eritrocitos, el ndice CHCM posee correlacin positiva con neutrfilos, los leucocitos totales se correlacionaron con el recuento diferencial de trombocitos, linfocitos y neutrfilos, por ltimo se observ una correlacin positiva entre trombocitos y neutrfilos, siendo similares a estudios reportados en otras condiciones ambientales. Abstract in english Hematological parameters were compared in O. niloticus weighing between 50-150 g and 150-250 g, for comparison referents, carried out at the Fishing Station, Universidad de Caldas, Colombia. A completely randomized design was used with sub-sampling; the blood samples were placed in test tubes with E [...] DTA for analysis in the laboratory. SPSS software, the Kolmogorow-Smirnov test, T test, Levene and the Kruskal Wallis tests were applied for correlations between hematologic parameters evaluated. When correlating the two weights ranges in Oreochromis niloticus no meaningful differences were found in the hematologic values. Statistical analyses found were similar in the two weight ranges as follows: erythrocyte count of 1.950.58 and 2.190.64 x10(6)/mm, hemoglobin 9.322.63 and 9.942.84 g/dL, hematocrit of 32.445.78 and 33.56 6.86%, plasma protein 31.866.14 and 32.206.50 g/dL and a speed erythrocyte segmentation of 7.565.52 and 7.945.17 mm/h, a mean corpuscular volume of 183.4375.44 and 165.7660.80 u, mean corpuscular hemoglobin of 50.5622.39 and 49.1921.27 uug and concentration mean corpuscular hemoglobin of 28.685.39 and 29.615.08%, respectively. The leukocytes referent for the first range is 2.111.03 and for the second range it is 2.180.97 cells x10(5)mm, used to evaluate the white line as: thrombocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophil's and basophils. For the degree of association between each of the variables, there is a positive correlation between weight, length and height, as well as between length and height. For the hemoglobin level a positive correlation was obtained with neutrophils and CHCM, VCM erythrocyte index also related with HCM positively and negatively to the total number of erythroc

  10. Individual and combined effects of heavy metals on serum biochemistry of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Ozgr; Kargin, Ferit

    2010-01-01

    Changes in serum biochemistry in response to single- and combined-metal exposure were studied in a freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to 5.0 mg/L Zn, 1.0 mg/L Cd, and 5.0 mg/L Zn+1.0 mg/L Cd mixtures for 7 and 14 days to determine levels of biochemical parameters and metals in blood serum. The individual and combined effects of metals caused an increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and in levels of albumin, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, cortisol, glucose, and total protein, whereas they caused a decrease in cholesterol levels. At both exposure periods, increased ALT activity of fish exposed to Cd was higher compared with the Zn and Zn+Cd groups, respectively. The decreased cholesterol level was higher in the Cd alone, and for Cd in combination with Zn, than in Zn alone at 14 days. Zn or Cd levels increased in the blood serum of fish exposed to metals individually or in combination. When fish were exposed to the mixtures of Zn+Cd, concentrations of these metals in their serum were lower than in fish exposed to individual metals. One metal blocks or even antagonizes the gill epithelium absorption of the other and thereby limits the distribution of the metal in blood. The results indicate that biochemical parameters in fish blood can be used as an indicator of heavy-metal toxicity. PMID:19488801

  11. Eficcia do mentol como anestsico para juvenis de tilpia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Simes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Em trs experimentos, testou-se a eficincia do mentol como anestsico para a tilpia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, por meio da avaliao de eventos comportamentais, da verificao da margem de segurana do anestsico e das respostas de estresse. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas seis diferentes concentraes de mentol para avaliar o tempo de induo anestesia. No segundo, foram realizados dois testes com o objetivo de verificar a margem de segurana do anestsico. No terceiro, avaliou-se o efeito estressante do anestsico. A concentrao 250mg L-1 de mentol foi a mais adequada para induo de anestesia cirrgica. Para anestesia voltada para biometria e breve inspeo visual do animal, a concentrao mais adequada foi 150-200mg L-1. O dobro da concentrao ideal (500mg L-1 no acarretou a morte nos indivduos, indicando boa margem de segurana para o uso desse anestsico. O mentol, mesmo em sua concentrao adequada, induziu ao aumento na glicose sangunea, caracterizando estresse no peixe. Conclui-se que o mentol no um anestsico eficaz para juvenis de tilpia durante procedimentos de rotina na piscicultura.This work tested the effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic for Nile tilpia (Oreochromis niloticus by the evaluation of behavioral events, the safety margin of the anesthetic, and stress response. On first experiment, six different anesthetic concentrations were tested to evaluate the induction time to anesthesia. On second experiment, two tests were carried out to verify the safety margin of the anesthetic. On third experiment, stress responses were evaluated. The safe concentration to induce a surgical anesthesia was 250mg L-1. To a brief handling and visual inspection, the appropriated concentration was 150-200mg L-1. There was no mortality after exposure to 500mg L-1, indicating a good safety margin for this anesthetic. Menthol even in its adequate dosage induced a rise in glucose concentrations indicating a stress response of the fish. Thus menthol is an ineffective anesthetic to juveniles tilapia during routine procedures in fish culture.

  12. EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05 differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR, condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein retention (NPR, apparent net energy retention (ANER and hepatosomatic index (HSI values. The diet containing a mixture of all the 4 dietary lipids in equal proportions (3.5g of each lipid per 100g of diet produced the best results (SGR, I. 73%; condition factor, 2.95; FCR, 1.27; PER, 2.06; NPR, 29.30% and ANER, 20.21% whereas the diet containing beef tallow showed the poorest performance (SGR, 1.50%; condition factor, 2.76; FCR, 1.53; PER, 1.73; NPR, 26.26% and ANER, 18.53%. The growth performance of fish fed on diet containing beef tallow was however, significantly (P< 0.05 better than that of lipid free diet. The diets containing corn oil, olive oil, and cod liver oil did not show any significant difference in the growth performance of fish. The hepatosomatic index (HSI value increased in fish fed diets containing lipids (maximum 1.55% in case of corn oil as compared to those fed lipid free diet ( 1.31 %. No significant differences were observed in the feed consumption of fish fed different diets. The type of dietary lipid significantly affected the body composition of fish. The data on the body composition of fish is very much correlated with the growth performance data. The fish fed on diets containing lipids showed higher body fat and crude protein but lower moisture and gross energy contents as compared to those fed lipid free diet. The fish fed on diet containing beef tallow however showed similar body protein and ash contents as those fed lipid free diet. The results of the present study suggest that diet supplemented with a mixture of different types of lipids will produce the best growth response in Oreochromis niloticus.

  13. Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Pantoja MF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amap. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amap, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amap. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

  14. Investigation on Paraoxonase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Level in Liver of Oreochromis niloticus Fed with MOS Supplemented Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ferbal Özkan-Yılmaz; Arzu Özlüer-Hunt; Mehmet Berköz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was evaluated paraoxonase activity (PON) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in liver tissue of Oreochromis niloticus fed with mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplemented diet. For this purpose, fish were fed commercial diet supplemented with 0.25%, 0.35% and 0.45% dietary MOS for 60 days. At the end of experiment, PON activity of liver tissue was increased in MOS groups when compared to control group. It was determined that MDA level of tissue was decreased significantly in MOS g...

  15. Characterization and evaluation of the impact of feed management on the effluents of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Eliza Baccarin; Antonio Fernando Monteiro Camargo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed management on the quality of effluent water generated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture ponds. Feed was supplied as follows: natural food, and pelleted, extruded or minced ration. The study was conducted during 19 weeks in 12 continuous water exchange ponds of 300 m² each, with a population of male Nile tilapia juveniles, in a density equal to 1.7 fish m-2. Feeds contained 30% crude protein, 3,000 kcal dige...

  16. Masculinization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by immersion in androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Lucero, M.; Contreras-Sanchez, W.M.; Schreck, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of all-male populations increases the efficiency and feasibility of tilapia aquaculture. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a short-term immersion procedure for masculinizing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two synthetic androgens were evaluated: 17?-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) and 17?-methyltestosterone (MT). Exposure (3h) on 10 and again on 13 days post-fertilization to MDHT at 500?g/1 successfully masculinized fry in all experiments, resulting in 100, 94 and 832% males in Experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Immersions in MDHT or MT at 100?g/1 resulted in significantly skewed sex ratios in Experiments 1 and 3 (MT resulted in 73 and 833% males; and MDHT resulted in 72 and 911% males) but not in Experiment 2. Immersion in MT at 500?g/1 only caused masculinization in Experiment 3. Although further research and refinement is needed, immersion of Nile tilapia in MDHT may provide a practical alternative to the use of steroid-treated feed. Furthermore, when compared with current techniques for steroid-induced sex inversion of tilapia, short-term immersion reduces the period of time that workers are exposed to anabolic steroids.

  17. EFEITO DO Lactobacillus plantarum NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE Oreochromis niloticus / Lactobacillus plantarum EFFECT ON INTESTINAL TRACT OF Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Jatob; Jos Lus Pedreira, Mourio.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alteraes na microbiota do trato intestinal e desempenho zootcnico de alevinos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentados com dietas suplementadas com Lactobacillus plantarum. Cento e vinte alevinos revertidos sexualmente foram distribudos em s [...] eis caixas, divididos em dois tratamentos, em triplicata: alevinos alimentados com dieta suplementa com L. plantarum e alevinos alimentados com dieta controle. Aps 42 dias, as tilpias alimentadas com a dieta suplementada com L. plantarum apresentaram maior nmero de bactrias cido-lcticas, 3,5x104 UFC e 1,1x102 UFC por g de trato, e menor de bactrias totais, 5,8x106 UFC e 5,2x107 UFC por g de trato intestinal, em relao aos alimentados com dieta controle, alm de incrementar em 3,9% o ganho em peso semanal, 15,6% a biomassa final e 15,5% eficincia alimentar. O uso de probitico na alevinagem de tilpia eleva a produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided i [...] nto two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

  18. Eubiotic effect of a dietary acidifier (potassium diformate on the health status of cultured Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermeen M. Abu Elala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the global demand for safe human food and the production of environmentally friendly aquaculture products, acidifiers are natural organic acids and salts that have received considerable attention as animal-feed additives. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of potassium diformate (KDF on the growth performance and immunity of cultured Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric rations containing graded levels of KDF, including 0% (control basal diet, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, were fed separately to four equal fish groups (30 fish/group with an initial body weight of 53.49 ± 6.15 g for sixty days. At the end of the experimental period, the fish groups fed on 0.2% and 0.3% KDF exhibited significant improvements in their feed intake, live weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, with concomitant improvement of their apparent protein digestibility (p < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 0.3% KDF appeared to stimulate the beneficial intestinal flora; a proliferation was observed of indigenous probionts (Eubiosis associated with the relative activation of cellular and humeral innate immunity (phagocytic activity/index, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test and serum/gut mucous lysozyme activity. The cumulative mortality of the fish groups fed on KDF and challenged orally with Aeromonas hydrophila was lower than that of the control group. The resistance against diseases increased with dietary KDF in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the use of acidifiers can be an efficient tool to achieve sustainable, economical and safe fish production.

  19. Eubiotic effect of a dietary acidifier (potassium diformate) on the health status of cultured Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Elala, Nermeen M; Ragaa, Naela M

    2015-07-01

    In connection with the global demand for safe human food and the production of environmentally friendly aquaculture products, acidifiers are natural organic acids and salts that have received considerable attention as animal-feed additives. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of potassium diformate (KDF) on the growth performance and immunity of cultured Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric rations containing graded levels of KDF, including 0% (control basal diet), 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, were fed separately to four equal fish groups (30 fish/group with an initial body weight of 53.49 ± 6.15 g) for sixty days. At the end of the experimental period, the fish groups fed on 0.2% and 0.3% KDF exhibited significant improvements in their feed intake, live weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, with concomitant improvement of their apparent protein digestibility (p < 0.05). Dietary supplementation of 0.3% KDF appeared to stimulate the beneficial intestinal flora; a proliferation was observed of indigenous probionts (Eubiosis) associated with the relative activation of cellular and humeral innate immunity (phagocytic activity/index, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test and serum/gut mucous lysozyme activity). The cumulative mortality of the fish groups fed on KDF and challenged orally with Aeromonas hydrophila was lower than that of the control group. The resistance against diseases increased with dietary KDF in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the use of acidifiers can be an efficient tool to achieve sustainable, economical and safe fish production. PMID:26199753

  20. Estrogenic activities of diuron metabolites in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo Pereira, Thiago Scremin; Pereira Boscolo, Camila Nomura; Felício, Andreia Arantes; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Schlenk, Daniel; Alves de Almeida, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter the estrogenic activities of the organism by directly interacting with estrogen receptors (ER) or indirectly through the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent studies in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) indicated that diuron may have anti-androgenic activity augmented by biotransformation. In this study, the effects of diuron and three of its metabolites were evaluated in female tilapia. Sexually mature female fish were exposed for 25 days to diuron, as well as to its metabolites 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU), at concentrations of 100 ng/L. Diuron metabolites caused increases in E2 plasma levels, gonadosomatic indices and in the percentage of final vitellogenic oocytes. Moreover, diuron and its metabolites caused a decrease in germinative cells. Significant differences in plasma concentrations of the estrogen precursor and gonadal regulator17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) were not observed. These results show that diuron metabolites had estrogenic effects potentially mediated through enhanced estradiol biosynthesis and accelerated the ovarian development of O. niloticus females. PMID:26741556

  1. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  2. Transmission and pathology of Streptococcus inane in monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in aquaculture of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mer Mosharraf Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a major fish pathogen, recently emergent outbreaks were recorded in commercially cultured monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus result in significant losses termed “streptococcosis”-causes unusual appearances with multi-focal pin-point haemorrhages, abscesses, necrosis and ascites in skin, fin, muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, blood, interstitial fluid specially in central nervous system and brain. This disease was more prevalent (>26% at summer when the water temperature was approximately >25oC, percentage of mortality was higher >41% during the overcrowding and improper water chemistry. Raised levels of glucose and ammonium in blood serum causes reduced number of free blood cells released into the haemolymph to stomach and gut, result in refrain from eating in diseased tilapia. Stocking density (200 fish/decimal; class IV had significant effect (P<0.01 on the total production (5,000 to 5,500 kg/ha. S. iniae in the circulating blood cells, extra-tubular haemal spaces containing blood vessels, fixed phagocytes in the hepatopancreas (gastrointestinal tract, bacteria-like particles in the brain tissue, vacuum and necrosis in hepatocytes revealed with histopathology. In vitro study revealed that cohabitation of dead or infected fish with healthy fish resulted infection (horizontal transmission mechanism to the healthy fish.

  3. TCNICA SIMPLES DE MARCAO EXTERNA DE REPRODUTORES DE TILPIA NILTICA (Oreochromis niloticus SIMPLE TECNIQUE FOR EXTERNAL MARKING OF NILE TILAPIA'S BROODSTOCK (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Magalhes Leboute

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de organizar um programa de controle da reproduo de tilpia niltica (Oreochromis niloticus em laboratrio, foi desenvolvida uma tcnica na qual foi utilizada prolas de cermica presas musculatura dorsal do animal por transfixao com um fio sinttico flexvel. Foram usados 60 peixes com peso mdio de 12g e 60 com peso mdio de 19g. A marcao foi feita em trs posies: frontal (F, mediana (M e caudal (C. Diferentes combinaes de trs prolas coloridas foram fixadas do lado direito (definindo o nmero, e eram ligadas a uma nica prola do lado esquerdo (definido o sexo, deixando-se cerca de 1,5cm de folga no fio para no causar prejuzo ao crescimento. Os animais foram identificados e pesados individualmente aos 30, 60 e 130 dias aps a cirurgia de transfixao. Os resultados indicaram que as posies F e M permitiram crescimento e comportamento reprodutivo normais, e na posio C houve mortalidade e perda do marcador. Recomenda-se como melhor posio a M, ou ento a intermediria entre F e M.With the goal of organizing a control program of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus reproduction in laboratory, a tecnique with ceramic pearls held on dorsal musculature by transfixion with flexible sintetic string was developed. Sixty fishes with 12g average weight and 60 with 19g average weight were used. Marking was done on three positions: frontal (F, median (M, and caudal (C. Different combinations of three collored pearls were fixed on the right side (defining number, and were linked to only one pearl in the left side (defining sex, with a slack of about 1.5cm to prevent growth damage. The animals were individually identified and weigthed at 30, 60 and 130 days after surgery. Results showed that both F and M positions allowed normal growth and reproductive behavior, whereas the C position induced mortality and loss of marker in some specimens. The M position is recomended as the best, or the intermediate between F and M positions.

  4. Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water

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    António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h. Adicionalmente, alguns dos resultados obtidos pela análise em microscopia de luz foram confirmados com o recurso da microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

  5. Eficcia do mentol como anestsico para juvenis de tilpia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    L.N. Simes; Gomes, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Em trs experimentos, testou-se a eficincia do mentol como anestsico para a tilpia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), por meio da avaliao de eventos comportamentais, da verificao da margem de segurana do anestsico e das respostas de estresse. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas seis diferentes concentraes de mentol para avaliar o tempo de induo anestesia. No segundo, foram realizados dois testes com o objetivo de verificar a margem de segurana do anestsico. No terceiro, ava...

  6. Fecal strings Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were experimentally-infected with Streptococcus agalactiae for several infectivity and vaccine studies. Some of the S. agalactiae-infected tilapia produced considerably longer (up to 20 cm in length) fecal waste strings than historically observed from tilapia at...

  7. Uncaria tomentosa increases growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Manrique, Wilson Gmez; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrcia; de Moraes, Flvio R; Fernandes, Joo B K

    2015-11-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is an Amazon herb using in native cultures in Peru. In mammals, it has been described several effects of this herb. However, this is the first report of its use on the diet of fish. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of this plant on the growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus. Nile tilapia (81.3 4.5 g) were distributed into 5 groups and supplemented with 0 (non-supplement fish), 75, 150, 300, and 450 mg of U. tomentosa.kg(-1) of diet for a period of 28 days. Fish were inoculated in the swim bladder with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae and samples were taken at 6, 24, and 48 h post inoculation (HPI). Dose dependent increases were noted in some of the evaluated times of thrombocytes and white blood cells counts (WBC) in blood and exudate, burst respiratory activity, lysozyme activity, melanomacrophage centers count (MMCs), villi length, IgM by immunohistochemistry in splenic tissue, and unexpectedly on growth parameters. However, dietary supplementation of this herb did not affect red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin, and there were no observed histological lesions in gills, intestine, spleen, and liver. The current results demonstrate for the first time that U. tomentosa can stimulate fish immunity and improve growth performance in Nile tilapia. PMID:26434713

  8. Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Cyrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3 and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001. Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

  9. Pertumbuhan dan rasio konversi pakan ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus dengan penambahan prebiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITA ARDITA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ardita N, Budiharjo A, Sari SLA. 2015. Growth and feed conversion ratio of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus with addition of probiotics. Bioteknologi 12: 16-21. The problems of tilapia farming are the high feed costs and long cultivation time. Feed costs is in the ranges 60-70% from the total cost. Probiotics in the digestive tract will improve the digestion and absorbtion of nutrients. This study was aimed to determine the effect of probiotics on tilapia growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR. This study used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments i.e. 0%, 3%, 4%, and 5% (v/w of probiotic in feed. Probiotics was sprayed into comercial pellets. Tilapia were cultivated for 2 months given by commercial pellets with different proportion of probiotics. The parameters measured were the growth of fish (fish length and fish weight, Survival Rate (SR and FCR. Data was analyzed by ANOVA. The results showed that the addition of probiotics dose 0%, 3%, 4%, and 5% (v/w did not affect significantly to the growth and feed conversion ratio for 8 weeks.

  10. Acute exposure to pure cylindrospermopsin results in oxidative stress and pathological alterations in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

    2014-04-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is increasingly recognized as a potential threat to drinking water safety, due to its ubiquity. This cyanotoxin has been found to cause toxic effects in mammals, and although fish could be in contact with this toxin, acute toxicity studies on fish are nonexistent. This is the first study showing that single doses of CYN pure standard (200 or 400 μg CYN/kg fish bw) by oral route (gavage) generate histopathological effects in fish (Tilapia-Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to the toxin under laboratory condition. Among the morphological changes, disorganized parenchymal architecture in the liver, dilated Bowman's space in the kidney, fibrolysis in the heart, necrotic enteritis in the intestines, and hemorrhages in the gills, were observed. Moreover, some oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver and kidney of tilapias were altered. Thus, CYN exposure induced increased protein oxidation products in both organs, NADPH oxidase activity was significantly increased with the kidney being the most affected organ, and decreased GSH contents were also detected in both organs, at the higher dose assayed. PMID:22331699

  11. Individual protein balance strongly influences ?15N and ?13C values in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjrg; Becker, Klaus

    Although stable isotope ratios in animals have often been used as indicators of the trophic level and for the back-calculation of diets, few experiments have been done under standardized laboratory conditions to investigate factors influencing ?15N and ?13C values. An experiment using Nile tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was therefore carried out to test the effect of different dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%) on ?15N and ?13C values of the whole tilapia. The fish were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-synthetic diets at a relatively low level. ?15N and ?13C values of the lipid-free body did not differ between the fish fed the diets with different protein contents, but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased with increasing protein accretion in the individual fish, for N from 6.5 to 4 and for C in the lipid-free body from 4 to 2.5. This is the first study showing the strong influence of the individual protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the individual physiological condition and the feeding rate may lead to erroneous results.

  12. Responses of the Mullet, Liza auratus and the Cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzala (Egypt) to Heterophyd Infection

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Hassan; M.F.M. Soliman; M.A. Ghobashy

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the occurrence of heterophyid infection in two well-known hosts of heterophyd in Egyptian lake (Manzala); the mullet, Liza auratus and the cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. Furthermore, the potential factors that possibly affect the occurrence of the infection including host sex, length, weight and seasonal variation were considered. The pathological response of the two fish host to the infection was studied. Results showed that the prevalence, abundance and inte...

  13. USO INTRAMUSCULAR DA ASSOCIAÇÃO DE TILETAMINA E ZOLAZEPAM NA ANESTESIA DE TILÁPIAS-DO-NILO (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Borin; Leandro Zuccolotto Crivelenti; Cirilo Antonio de Paula Lima

    2010-01-01

    Once the anesthetic association of tiletamine and zolazepam(Zoletil® 50) was successfully used in the anesthesia of Niletilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) via intravenous, the aim of thisexperiment was to evaluate the use of this association via intramuscular.30 fish separated into 6 treatments with 4 repetitionsand 1 control group were used. The dosages of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40and 60 mg/kg were tested. Even though the anesthetic associationdosages between 10 and 60 mg/kg have caused sedation froms...

  14. Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil / Parsitos protozoarios y metazoarios de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus criadas en Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wanderson, Pantoja MF; Ligia Neves R, Fishing Engineer; Mrcia Dias RD, Fishing Engineer; Renata Marinho GB, Biologist; Daniel Montagner, Zoo Technician; Marcos, Tavares-Dias.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la parasitofauna y el factor de condicin relativa (Kn) de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) en granjas pisccolas del estado de Amap. Materiales y mtodos. 123 peces, de cuatro granjas pisccolas del Estado del Amap, Brasil, fueron necropciados para real [...] izarles un anlisis parasitlogico y el anlisis Kn. Resultados. De los peces examinados, 64.2% estaban con las branquias infectadas por Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 y ParaTrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). La mayor prevalencia fue de Monogenoidea C. tilapiae, mientras que la menor fue de los parsitos Trichodinidae. Sin embargo, I. multifiliis fue el parsito que mostr la mayor intensidad y abundancia. Las diferencias encontradas estuvieron en las tasas de infeccin parasitaria de diferentes granjas pisccolas debido a las causas aqu discutidas. El parasitismo no influenci el factor de condicin relativa (Kn). Este fue el primer registro de P. Africana para el Brasil, en la Amazona Oriental. Conclusiones. En el Brasil, Lamproglena sp es un parsito emergente en las regiones del Sur y Suroeste, pero este crustceo no fue encontrado en la tilapia del Nilo del Estado de Amap. En la tilapia del Nilo criada en el Brasil, las infecciones parasitaras son causadas por especies de protozoarios, monogenoideas, crustceos y digenticos; las diferencias regionales en las tasa de prevalencia e intensidad son discutidas aqu. Abstract in english Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) from fish farms in the State of Amap. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amap, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and [...] Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae); Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Para Trichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn) of fish. This was the first record of P. Africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amap. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

  15. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB)diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.620.61 and 20.341.44g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06gkg(-1) respectively for 270days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p>0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p>0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p>0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost. PMID:26759744

  16. Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in adult tilapia oreochromis niloticus in Southern part of Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, one of the most important fish species in Philippine aquaculture, is grown abundantly in Laguna de Bay. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the levels of accumulated mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the muscle tissue of this fresh water fish collected from February (wet season) to March (dry season) 2008 in the southern part of Laguna de Bay. Heavy metal analyses using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) showed a higher concentration of Hg and Cd during the wet season than in the dry season. However, analysis of variance revealed significant seasonal variation on only in Cd (P=0.0253). Lead, on the other hand, was not detected in the fish samples. The mean concentration set by FAO but the mean level of Cd (0.161 ppm) was almost equal to the limit given for fish. This could represent a significant health risk to the consuming public. (author)

  17. Administration of Microencapsulated Probiotic at Different Doses to Control Streptococcosis in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAH AYU SATYARI UTAMI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce microencapsulated probiotic and determine its optimal dose to control streptococcosis in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The probiotic used in this study was Bacillus sp. NP5 RfR that was encapsulated by sterile 10% maltodextrin solution and dried by spray dryer. The experimental fish were reared 28 days and fed by the administration of microencapsulated probiotic in feed with different doses (0,5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C which were 1010 CFU g-1 as the concentration and control without administration of microencapsulated probiotic, including negative (K- and positive (K+ control. On day 30, all of the fish except K- were challenged by injecting 0.1 mL/fish of Streptococcus agalactiae (105 CFU ml-1 by intra-peritoneal (IP route. This study showed that administration of 0.5% microencapsulated probiotic was effective to control streptococcosis in tilapia with higher post-challenge survival rate, better hematological parameter values, and could inhibit S. agalactiae growth in the host target organs.

  18. Triguilho na alimentao da tilpia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.): digestibilidade e desempenho / Wheat midlings in the nile tilapia feeding (Oreochromis niloticus L.): digestibility and performance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Wilson Rogrio, Boscolo; Aldi, Feiden; Altevir, Signor; Adilson, Reidel.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente experimento objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa) da protena bruta (PB) e da energia bruta (EB) do triguilho para a tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e avaliar a incluso do triguilho sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilpia do Nilo. Para a det [...] erminao dos CDa, foram utilizadas 40 tilpias com peso e comprimento mdios de 80,00g e 15,9cm, respectivamente, submetidas coleta das fezes por sedimentao. Para a avaliao do desempenho, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilpia do Nilo, com peso inicial mdio de 0,80g, distribudos em 25 aqurios com capacidade de 30L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repeties. As raes experimentais continham nveis de incluso de 0,00; 7,97; 14,94; 23,91 e 31,88% de triguilho substituindo at 100% do milho. Os CDas da PB e EB do triguilho foram de 91,03 e 78,72%, respectivamente, apresentando 11,92% de protena digestvel e 3134Kcal kg-1 de energia digestvel. No foi observada diferena (P>0,05) no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com as raes contendo os diferentes nveis de incluso do triguilho. O triguilho um alimento com bons CDa da PB e EB e pode ser includo em at 31,88% em raes para alevinos de tilpia do Nilo sem causar prejuzo no desempenho. Abstract in english This experiment was aimed at determining the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of the raw protein (RP) and of raw energy (RE) of the wheat middling given to the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and evaluating the inclusion of wheat middling on the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. [...] In order to determine the ADC, 40 tilapias with the average weight and length of 80g and 15.9cm, respectively, were used and submitted to the collection of the excrements by sedimentation. To the evaluation of the performance 125 fingerlings of Nile tilapia were used, with an initial average weight of 0.80g, distributed into 25 aquariums with a 30L capacity at a random design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The experimental fish feed had inclusion levels of 0.00; 7.97; 14.94; 23.91 and 31.88% of wheat middling, substituting corn up to 100%. The ADCs of RP and RE of the wheat middling were 91.03% and 78.72, respectively, presenting 11.92% of digestible protein and 3134kcal kg-1 of digestible energy. No difference was observed (P>0.05) in the performance of the fish fed with the fish feed having the different levels of inclusion of the wheat middling. The wheat middling is a feed with good ADC of RP and RE and can be included in up to 31.88% in fish food for Nile tilapia fingerlings without causing damage in its performance.

  19. Triguilho na alimentao da tilpia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.: digestibilidade e desempenho Wheat midlings in the nile tilapia feeding (Oreochromis niloticus L.: digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente experimento objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa da protena bruta (PB e da energia bruta (EB do triguilho para a tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e avaliar a incluso do triguilho sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilpia do Nilo. Para a determinao dos CDa, foram utilizadas 40 tilpias com peso e comprimento mdios de 80,00g e 15,9cm, respectivamente, submetidas coleta das fezes por sedimentao. Para a avaliao do desempenho, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilpia do Nilo, com peso inicial mdio de 0,80g, distribudos em 25 aqurios com capacidade de 30L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repeties. As raes experimentais continham nveis de incluso de 0,00; 7,97; 14,94; 23,91 e 31,88% de triguilho substituindo at 100% do milho. Os CDas da PB e EB do triguilho foram de 91,03 e 78,72%, respectivamente, apresentando 11,92% de protena digestvel e 3134Kcal kg-1 de energia digestvel. No foi observada diferena (P>0,05 no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com as raes contendo os diferentes nveis de incluso do triguilho. O triguilho um alimento com bons CDa da PB e EB e pode ser includo em at 31,88% em raes para alevinos de tilpia do Nilo sem causar prejuzo no desempenho.This experiment was aimed at determining the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of the raw protein (RP and of raw energy (RE of the wheat middling given to the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and evaluating the inclusion of wheat middling on the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. In order to determine the ADC, 40 tilapias with the average weight and length of 80g and 15.9cm, respectively, were used and submitted to the collection of the excrements by sedimentation. To the evaluation of the performance 125 fingerlings of Nile tilapia were used, with an initial average weight of 0.80g, distributed into 25 aquariums with a 30L capacity at a random design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The experimental fish feed had inclusion levels of 0.00; 7.97; 14.94; 23.91 and 31.88% of wheat middling, substituting corn up to 100%. The ADCs of RP and RE of the wheat middling were 91.03% and 78.72, respectively, presenting 11.92% of digestible protein and 3134kcal kg-1 of digestible energy. No difference was observed (P>0.05 in the performance of the fish fed with the fish feed having the different levels of inclusion of the wheat middling. The wheat middling is a feed with good ADC of RP and RE and can be included in up to 31.88% in fish food for Nile tilapia fingerlings without causing damage in its performance.

  20. Responses of the Mullet, Liza auratus and the Cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzala (Egypt to Heterophyd Infection

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    E.A. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the occurrence of heterophyid infection in two well-known hosts of heterophyd in Egyptian lake (Manzala; the mullet, Liza auratus and the cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. Furthermore, the potential factors that possibly affect the occurrence of the infection including host sex, length, weight and seasonal variation were considered. The pathological response of the two fish host to the infection was studied. Results showed that the prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection in the two fish host greatly affected by the factor considered in contradictory way. The responses to infection and the possible effect of the interaction between all the considered factors are discussed in details. In addition, metacercarial infection caused alterations in the histological architecture of the infected tissues and in the composition of the muscle proteins as well which was more pronounced in O. niloticus and L. auratus, respectively. In conclusion, many biological and environmental factors do affect the occurrence of heterophyid infection in addition to the anthropogenic activity. L. auratus was more susceptible to the infection as compared to O. niloticus from the same habitat.

  1. Farinha de peixe em raes para alevinos de tilpia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L., linhagem tailandesa Fishmeal in the diets of Nile tilapia fingerlings Oreochromis niloticus (L., Thai strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse experimento foi determinar o nvel adequado de incorporao de farinha de peixe (FP em raes para alevinos de tilpia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae linhagem tailandesa. Foram distribudos 300 animais com peso inicial mdio de 0,42 0,01 g, em 25 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos (0, 4, 8, 16 e 20% de FP na rao e cinco repeties. Foi observado efeito quadrtico (p 0,05 dos nveis da FP sobre a sobrevivncia e rendimento de carcaa. Conclui-se que o nvel adequado de incluso de farinha de peixe em raes para alevinos de tilapia do Nilo de 12,15%.The adequate fishmeal (FM inclusion level in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae Thai strain, is provided. Three hundred fishes with initial mean average weight of 0.42 0.01 g were distributed in 25 net ponds in a randomized block design with five treatments (0, 4, 8, 16 e 20% of FM in diet and five repetitions. Quadratic effect (p 0,05 did not affect survival and carcass yield. It may be concluded that the appropriate fishmeal inclusion is 12.15% in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

  2. Cyanobacterium producing cylindrospermopsin cause histopathological changes at environmentally relevant concentrations in subchronically exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto, Ana I; Moreno, Isabel; Vasconcelos, Vitor M; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán Fernandez, Ana M

    2015-03-01

    The acute toxicity of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has been established in rodents, based on diverse intraperitoneal an oral exposure studies and more recently in fish. But no data have been reported in fish after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells containing this cyanotoxin, so far. In this work, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed by immersion to lyophilized Aphanizomenon ovalisporum cells added to the aquaria using two concentration levels of CYN (10 or 100 μg CYN L(-1)) and deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (deoxy-CYN) (0.46 or 4.6 μg deoxy-CYN L(-1)), during two different exposure times: 7 or 14 d. This is the first study showing damage in the liver, kidney, hearth, intestines, and gills of tilapia after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells at environmental relevant concentrations. The major histological changes observed were degenerative processes and steatosis in the liver, membranous glomerulopathy in the kidney, myofibrolysis and edema in the heart, necrotic enteritis in the gastrointestinal tract, and hyperemic processes in gill lamellae and microhemorrhages. Moreover, these histopathological findings confirm that the extent of damage is related to the CYN concentration and length of exposure. Results from the morphometric study indicated that the average of nuclear diameter of hepatocytes and cross-sections of proximal and distal convoluted tubules are useful to evaluate the damage induced by CYN in the main targets of toxicity. PMID:24000190

  3. Effect of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) on some blood constituents of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is an urban drinking water purification substance that was introduced recently in Sudan and used to substitute polymer poly diallyl dimethyl aluminium chloride (DADMAC) and aluminium sulphate in water purification treatments. This study was conducted to determine its effects on fish health, which is is considered a biological indicator and an essential component of fresh water ecosystem. In this experiment, PAC was used in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/1) in experimental tanks to achieve the desirable doses for the study. The tanks were populated by Nile Tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average weight ranging between 70 and 100 grams. Exposure of this fish to PAC resulted in an immediate signification reduction (P<0.01) in haemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes count, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of experimental fingerlings blood. The degree of reduction in these parameters was directly proportional to the concentration of PAC used. (Author)

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to alkalinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Wang, J; Thammaratsuntorn, J; Wu, J W; Wei, J H; Wang, Y; Xu, J W; Zhao, J L

    2015-01-01

    To identify genes of potential importance to alkalinity tolerance, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to survey gill transcriptome profiles from freshwater (FW) and alkaline water (AW) exposed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A total of 22,724,036 (AW)/16,461,040 (FW) single-end reads were generated in which 20,304,348 (AW)/14,681,290 (FW) reads (90.0/89.72%) were aligned to the reference genome. Differential expression analysis revealed 302 up-regulated and 193 down-regulated genes between AW- and FW-exposed fish. These differentially expressed genes were enriched in several Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to "stress response", "heme binding", and "carbonate dehydratase activity". Meanwhile, significant KEGG pathways were enriched in energy metabolism, including nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. These results demonstrate the response of Nile tilapia exposed to alkaline-water and might provide valuable information to further understand the molecular mechanisms of adaptation of fish to alkaline environments. PMID:26782437

  5. Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. Poletto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

  6. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) Comportamento agonstico e reprodutivo nos machos de hbrido vermelho de tilpia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    APT Medeiros; S. Chellappa; ME Yamamoto

    2007-01-01

    The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed t...

  7. Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus in mixed raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Phase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising, final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising; but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realizada em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo; peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada.

  8. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA S FIUZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  9. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M; Allam, Hassan Y

    2015-09-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.451.12g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.190.03?g/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p<0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  10. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

  11. TCNICA SIMPLES DE MARCAO EXTERNA DE REPRODUTORES DE TILPIA NILTICA (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Leboute Ema Magalhes; Afonso Luis Orlando Bertolla; Rotta Marco Aurlio

    2002-01-01

    Com a finalidade de organizar um programa de controle da reproduo de tilpia niltica (Oreochromis niloticus) em laboratrio, foi desenvolvida uma tcnica na qual foi utilizada prolas de cermica presas musculatura dorsal do animal por transfixao com um fio sinttico flexvel. Foram usados 60 peixes com peso mdio de 12g e 60 com peso mdio de 19g. A marcao foi feita em trs posies: frontal (F), mediana (M) e caudal (C). Diferentes combinaes de trs prolas coloridas foram fixada...

  12. ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sujithra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis niloticus was the first Tilapia species to be taken up for large Scaleaquaculture. It is consumed widely due to its deliciousness and rich source of protein. During its processing, the scales, Fins, Skins etc are expelled out as waste Acid solubilized collagen (ASC and Pepsin Solubilizedcollagen (PSC were extracted from these processing wastes. Initial extraction by acid yielded 22% of collagen and subsequent digestion with pepsin yielded 56% on dry weight basis. The total protein of ASC and PSC was determined by Bradford method which contains 68.34mg/ml,23.24 mg/ml respectively. The FT-IR Spectrumshowed that ASC and PSC are helpful in prediction and confirmation of Secondary structure of proteins. The denaturation temperature of ASC was 32?C while for PSC it is 29?C.SEM micrograph showed the fibrousnature of Collagen. This report indicates that Tilapia waste might be useful as a new source of collagen apart from usual bovine and pig skin.

  13. Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.R. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours and periods (daytime, nighttime and both was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter. Significant difference to final weight (P<0.05 among treatments was observed. The increase in feeding frequency improves the productive performance of Nile tilapias in cages and permitted better management of the food. The better feed conversion rate for high feeding frequency (24 times day-1 can result in saving up to 360kg of food for each ton of fish produced, increasing the economic sustenance for tilapia culture and suggesting less environmental pollution.

  14. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively). PMID:25806995

  15. Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus under Different Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Guzmán-Guillén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrospermopsin (CYN is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw, and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days. The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms.

  16. Immunohistochemical approach to study cylindrospermopsin distribution in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under different exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Risalde, María de los Ángeles; Moyano, Rosario; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Ángeles; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw), and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L) for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days). The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms. PMID:24406981

  17. Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

  18. Simulation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) culture in ponds, through individual-based modelling, using a population dynamic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, G.J., de; Dekker, P.J.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    A simulation model for the production of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) for mixed- or mono-sex culture and for poly-culture with the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) or African snakehead (Parachanna obscura Gnther 1861) is presented. The model is based on an exponential decay model used in population dynamics and follows an individual-based approach. The model consists of a tilapia sub-model representing population dynamics, growth and recruitment and...

  19. DESEMPEO PRODUCTIVO, COMPOSICIN Y BIODISPONIBILIDAD RELATIVA DE SELENIO EN TILAPIA NILTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPLEMENTADA CON SELENIO ORGNICO E INORGNICO / PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE SELENIUM BIOAVAILABILITY IN NILE TILAPIA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SELENIUM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. E, Vinchira; G. A, Wills; A. P, Muoz.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evalu el desempeo productivo, la composicin corporal y la biodisponibilidad relativa de selenio en tilapia niltica (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada con selenio dietario. Una dieta basal fue suplementada con selenio en forma de selenito de sodio o seleno-levadura en niveles crecientes de s [...] uplementacin (0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80 y 1.60 mg/kg de dieta). Un total de 336 individuos de tilapia niltica, con un peso inicial de 13.410.12 g, fueron distribuidos de forma aleatoria en 48 acuarios de vidrio (80 l, 4 rplicas, 7 peces por acuario). No se detect selenio en el agua de abastecimiento. Los peces fueron alimentados hasta saciedad aparente 3 veces al da por un perodo de 9 semanas. El desempeo productivo de la tilapia niltica no se vio afectado (P>0.05) por la suplementacin con selenio dietario. El selenio corporal se increment de forma lineal (P Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance, whole body selenium retention and relative selenium bioavailability in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A practical basal diet was supplemented with either sodium selenite or seleno-yeast at tilapia fish (n=336) with an initial w [...] eight of 13.410.12 g were randomly distributed into forty-eight glass aquaria (80 l, 4 replicates, 7 fish per aquarium). There was no detectable selenium in supply water. Fish were fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation three times daily for nine weeks. Selenium supplementation did not affect the productive performance of Nile tilapia (P>0.05). Total whole body selenium increase linearly in response to dietary selenium supplementation (P

  20. Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P0.05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved growth performances, feed and nutrients utilization and whole body composition (dry matter, protein and energy content) in Nile tilapia fry. (author)

  1. Determination of some heavy metals in oreochromis niloticus, clarias gariepinus and synodontis spp from the coastal water of Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Mn, and Cr) were determined in Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias graiepinus and Synodontis spp obtained from the coastal water of Ondo State. All metals examined and detected in all fish samples. Iron, manganese and cadmium were found to be the most abundant metals in the fish samples with an average values of 35.8, 31.3, and 12.5 mg kg-1 respectively. Except for manganese, iron and cadmium, Syndrontis spp has the highest concentration for virtually all the metals under examination. (author)

  2. Production Characteristics and Changes in Fatty Acids Profiles of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Using Algae as a Food Source in Partitioned Aquaculture System

    OpenAIRE

    TEPE, Alp Yal?n

    2005-01-01

    Small (57.56 0.03 g) and large (172.46 1.14 g) Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) were stocked in six 0.15 ha partitioned aquaculture system (PAS) units on May 1 1997 at a rate of 100 kg/0.15 ha (low density) and 200 kg/0.15 ha (high density) in triplicate to determine the growth rates and production characteristics and the changes in fatty acid profiles of the fish. The primary food source for the 152-day rearing period available to the fish confined within the raceway sect...

  3. Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garcia-Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é idêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses.The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other teleostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

  4. Effects of aflatoxin B1 on sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. x O. mossambicus Peters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.3

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus to assess the effects of diets containing various levels (i.e. 0, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 and 2,500 ppb of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on growth performance, blood parameters and histopathology of fish. Results showed that experimental fish fed AFB1 with 2,500 ppb showed significant reduced weight gain and hepatosomatic index. However, feed supplemented with AFB1 caused no effect on survival rate of the fish in each group. Feeding high level of AFB1 (1,000 and 2,500 ppb also affected some blood parameters i.e. hemoglobin and plasma protein. Some histopathological changes (i.e. cloudy swelling, inflammation and cell necrosis were observed in liver and pancreas of fish fed AFB1 with 1,000 and 2,500 ppb. The severity of symptoms was related with concentration of AFB1. This indicated that AFB1 may impair the functioning of fish hepatocytes. However, no residue of AFB1 was detected in fish tissues at completion of the feeding period. It can be concluded that fish feeds occasionally contaminated with AFB1 directly affected fish health but may have no negative impact on fish consumers.

  5. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 μg/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 μg/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 μg/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 μg/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (plarvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 μg/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers. PMID:21794226

  6. Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ferraz de Arruda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano.

  7. Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

  8. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to petroleum refinery and chromium processing plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genotoxic effects of effluents from a petroleum refinery and a chromium processing plant were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Perciformes) using the micronucleus test. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v) of the effluents for 3, 6 and 9 days. Micronucleus analyses were carried out on gill epithelial cells and peripheral blood erythrocytes. Nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, considered as genetic damage indicators, were also evaluated on erythrocytes. Cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 4 mg/L was used as a positive control. The results of this study showed that both effluents had genotoxic potential. On the other hand, the level of genetic damage induced by petroleum refinery effluent was considerably higher than that of chromium processing plant effluent. Our results further indicate that nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, such as blebbed and lobed nuclei, may also be used as indicators of genotoxic damage

  9. Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to petroleum refinery and chromium processing plant effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavas, Tolga [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33342 Mersin (Turkey)]. E-mail: tcavas@mersin.edu.tr; Ergene-Goezuekara, Serap [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33342 Mersin (Turkey)

    2005-09-10

    The genotoxic effects of effluents from a petroleum refinery and a chromium processing plant were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Perciformes) using the micronucleus test. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v) of the effluents for 3, 6 and 9 days. Micronucleus analyses were carried out on gill epithelial cells and peripheral blood erythrocytes. Nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, considered as genetic damage indicators, were also evaluated on erythrocytes. Cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 4 mg/L was used as a positive control. The results of this study showed that both effluents had genotoxic potential. On the other hand, the level of genetic damage induced by petroleum refinery effluent was considerably higher than that of chromium processing plant effluent. Our results further indicate that nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, such as blebbed and lobed nuclei, may also be used as indicators of genotoxic damage.

  11. First evidence for family-specific QTL for temperature-dependent sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    OpenAIRE

    Lühmann, L. M.; Knorr, C.; Hörstgen-Schwark, G.; Wessels, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study for the first time screens microsatellite markers for associations with the temperature-dependent sex of Oreochromis niloticus. Previous studies revealed markers on linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, and 23 to be linked to the phenotypic sex of Oreochromis spp. at normal rearing temperatures. Moreover, candidate genes for sex determination and differentiation have been mapped to these linkage groups. Here, 6 families of a temperature-treated genetically all-female (XX) F(1)-population were ...

  12. Accumulation of metals and histopathology in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated NNPC Kaduna (Nigeria) petroleum refinery effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onwumere, B.G.; Oladimeji, A.A. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria))

    1990-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Kaduna. Analysis of fish metal burden showed that the fish concentrated trace metals a thousand times above the levels existing in the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated more than others and the accumulation was, in decreasing order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Whole fish metal burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals more than other tissues. Hemorrhaging of fins was observed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent were most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was also observed in fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood were observed. No histopathological damage was observed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological damage were directly related to the effluent concentrations.

  13. Growth and fatty acid composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla-diets, in tanks and in earthen ponds: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Youssouf Abou; Martin P. Aina; Emile D. Fiogbé; Jean-Claude Micha

    2013-01-01

    Two 90-day experiments were conducted in the same period in tanks and in earthen ponds to study the effects of culture systems on growth and fatty acid (FA) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (mean weight: 16.3 g) fed Azolla, as partial replacement for fish meal (FM). Diets were isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ?g?1) containing 0% (A0), 10% (A10), 20% (A20), 30% (A30), 40% (A40) and 50% (A50) of Azolla meal (AM) respectively. Diet A0, without AM, acted as...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single intramuscular or intraperitonealadministration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Zhu, X; Liu, S; Bai, Y; Ma, L; Yin, Y; Zheng, G

    2015-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome was studied in plasma after a single dose (10mg/kg) of intramuscular (i.m.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in freshwater at 30C. Ten fish per sampling point were examined after treatment. The data were fitted to two-compartment open models following both routes of administration. The estimates of total body clearance (CL/F), volume of distribution (Vd/F), and absorption half-life (T1/2ka ) were 0.049 and 0.037L/h/kg, 0.41 and 0.33L/kg, and 0.028 and 0.035h following i.m. and i.p. administration, respectively. After i.m. injection, the elimination half-life (T1?2? ) was calculated to be 5.81h, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) to be 49.40?g/mL, the time to peak plasma cefquinome concentration (Tmax ) to be 0.14h, and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) to be 204.6?gh/mL. Following i.p. administration, the corresponding estimates were 6.05h, 44.39?g/mL, 0.17h and 267.8?gh/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of cefquinome, determined for 30 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from diseased tilapia, ranged from 0.015 to 0.12?g/mL. Results from these studies support that 10mg cefquinome/kg body weight daily could be expected to control tilapia bacterial pathogens inhibited invitro by a minimal inhibitory concentration value of ?2?g/mL. PMID:25707428

  15. Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Ng, Kai We; Xue, Xiaoyu; Ramadasan, Priveena Nair; Sivalingam, Mageswary; Li, Shuisheng; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2) in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI) on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5??g/g body weight) to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24?h post injection (P?

  16. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Koprucu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

  17. Beneficial effects of vitamin E supplementation against the oxidative stress on Cylindrospermopsin-exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmn-Guilln, Remedios; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Martn-Caman, Ana; Camen, Ana M

    2015-09-15

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is known to produce changes in some oxidative stress biomarkers in fish acutely and subchronically exposed to the toxin. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin E supplementation against the oxidative stress induced by pure CYN in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were pretreated with 700 mg vitamin E/kg fish body weight (bw)/day for 7 days by oral route, and on day seven, they received a single oral dose of 400 ?g pure CYN/kg fish bw, and were killed after 24 h. The biomarkers evaluated included lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein and DNA oxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ?-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (?-GCS) activities, and ratio of reduced glutathione-oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). This is the first study showing that vitamin E supplementation is effective at reducing the toxicity induced by CYN, recovering the biomarkers assayed to basal levels. Therefore, vitamin E can be considered a useful chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress and can be used in the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxication in fish. PMID:26235908

  18. Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser

    OpenAIRE

    R.M.R. Sousa; C.A. Agostinho; OLIVEIRA F.A.; D. Argentim; P.K. Novelli; S.M.M. Agostinho

    2012-01-01

    The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours) and periods (daytime, nighttime and both) was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m cages were placed into a 2000m pond, two meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.04.9g, were dispersed into each 1m cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biome...

  19. Development and efficacy of a novobiocin-resistant Streptococcus iniae as a novel vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel attenuated Streptococcus iniae vaccine was developed from a virulent strain of Streptococcus iniae through selection for novobiocin resistance. The safety of the novel vaccine (named ISNO) was then evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through intraperitoneal (IP) injection. When...

  20. Changes in the quality of fishburger produced from Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) during frozen storage (-18 degrees C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokur, B.; Polat, A.; Beklevik, G.; Ozkutuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the chemical and sensory qualities of fishburger produced from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated during frozen storage (-18 degreesC) over 8 months. The ratios of crude protein, lipid, moisture, crude ash, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in tilapiaburger were found to...

  1. GROWTH, IMMUNE FUNCTION, AND DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF JUVENILE NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED GRADED LEVELS OF BOVINE LACTOFERRIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth performanc...

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF WILD FARMED NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN; G. KEJI JAMES

    2011-01-01

    The research was directed towards the study of the fish species Orcochromis niloticus (Trewavas), formerly Tilapia nilotica (Linnaeus) in order to comparing the chemical composition and fish body weight characteristics of its farmed with their natural counterpart (collected from Nile River). Forty nine assorted fish species of each group (Tilapia noliticus) were randomly collected fresh from Sudan University Fish Farms and Nile River. For two groups the filleting yield (head, skin, viscera, f...

  3. Effects of replacing fishmeal with wastes derived from local fisheries on the growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanagun Chitmanat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially and totally replacing fishmeal with by-product derived from local fisheries on growth performances of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Tilapia fingerlings (average initialweight 0.380.05 g were fed with 5 different diet formulas composing of fish meal protein replacement levels of 0%, 25%,50%, 75, and 100%. Tilapia were raised in 80 x 80 x 80 cm3 hapa in an earthen pond for 8 weeks. Each treatment contained3 replications. No feeding trial was applied as negative control. The result showed that fish by-product powder could substitute for fishmeal on a crude protein basis at a level of not more than 25%. As a result, feed cost can only be cut down approximately 3 US cents/kg. Specific growth rate, weight gain, survival rate and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different between the fish fed with the 75% and 100% fishmeal containing diets (P>0.05. The outcome would beapplied to reduce the solid wastes from fish processing and partially replace the imported fishmeal. This can also be used as guideline for farmers in small communities to produce their own tilapia feed.

  4. First isolation and characterization of Lactococcus garvieae from Brazilian Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (L.), and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactococcus garvieae infection in cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus) and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans, (Spix and Agassiz) from Brazil is reported. The commercial bacterial identification system, Biolog Microlog, confirmed the identity of L. garvieae. Infectivity tri...

  5. Antioxidant responses and metal accumulation in tissues of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under Zn, Cd and Zn + Cd exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Ozgr; Cogun, Hikmet Y; Aslanyavrusu, Sabahattin; Kargin, Ferit

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of Zn, Cd and a Zn + Cd mixture on antioxidant parameters and metal accumulation in Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to 0.5 and 5.0 mg l(-1) Zn, 0.1 and 1.0 mg l(-1) Cd, and 0.5 mg l(-1) Zn + 0.1 mg l(-1) Cd and 5.0 mg l(-1) Zn + 1.0 mg l(-1) Cd mixtures for 7 and 28 days to determine Zn and Cd accumulation, reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in gill and liver. There was increasing accumulation of the metals in the tissues with increasing concentrations of metals in the exposure medium and with increasing duration of exposure (except at the lower concentration of Zn). Concentration of metals in the tissues of fish exposed to the Zn + Cd combination were significantly lower than in fish exposed to the single metal. The highest metal accumulation was observed in the liver. Exposure to the heavy metals affected the antioxidant parameters in the tissues, with both GSH level and G6PD activity in the gill and liver being increased under Zn, Cd and Zn + Cd exposures, especially in their higher concentrations. These increases in the antioxidant responses were higher with the Cd alone, and in combination with Zn, than with Zn alone. Furthermore, GSH level and G6PD activity increased with increasing exposure period only for Cd alone, and in Cd combination with Zn. The results indicate that O. niloticus resisted oxidative stress induced by heavy metal exposure by antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:19058294

  6. Reproductive aspects of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Coatetelco lake, Morelos, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.L., Gmez-Mrquez; B., Pea-Mendoza; I.H., Salgado-Ugarte; M., Guzmn-Arroyo.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizaron algunos aspectos reproductivos de la mojarra-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. en el lago de Coatetelco, Morelos. La informacin esta basada en los datos biolgicos de 319 organismos obtenidos de enero a diciembre de 1993 de la captura comercial. Las hembras (161) repres [...] entaron el 51% y los machos (158) el 49 % del total de la poblacin. La proporcin de sexo fue de 1:1.02 ?_ = 0.02; p=0.05). Los peces alcanzan la primera madurez sexual a los 117 mm y 120 mm de longitud total (hembras y machos respectivamente). El nmero de vulos presentes en las gnadas oscil entre 104 y 709 con dimetro de 1 000 a 3 000 m, lo cual hace que esta especie tenga baja fecundidad pero alta fertilidad por los hbitos de reproduccin que presenta la especie. Se aplic el indice gonadosomtico y hepatosomtico con los cuales se detectaron dos perodos (verano e invierno) de mxima actividad reproductiva. Abstract in english Sex ratio, size at maturity, maturity stages, fecundity and egg diameter of Oreochromis niloticus from Coatetelco Lake, Morelos State, Mexico, were studied from January to December 1993. Sex ratio (male:female) was approximately 1:1.02. Length at maturity was 117 mm (males) and 120 mm (females). The [...] fecundity ranged between 104 and 709 eggs, with egg diameter from 1 000 to 3 000 m. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic index indicate that the species breeds during summer and winter.

  7. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas substâncias antimicrobianas e também contra a rifampicina; o isolado bacteriano de pacu foi a única linhagem resistente a tetraciclina. Isolados de pacu e tilápia apresentaram resistência intermediária frente a eritromicina. O uso de medicamentos em pisciculturas comerciais no Brasil pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de linhagens bacterianas resistentes em espécies de peixes nativos, como já observado em espécies exóticas comercialmente produzidas há mais tempo.

  8. Microbial Load Analysis of Fresh Mud Catfish (Clarias anguillaris And Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Gerio, Adamawa State, Nigeria using Two Different Smoking Kilns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyia, L. U.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh mud catfish (Clarias anguillaris and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus collected from Lake Gerio in Adamawa state were smoked using two different smoking kilns in order to evaluate the microbial load in the fish samples. Variations were observed in the microbial composition contained in the samples. The samples from the traditional smoking drum had higher microbial load, higher peroxide values and higher moisture loss when compared to the FUTY improved processor. In terms of the microbial composition, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were identified for samples from both processors. Fungi identified include Aspergillus niger, Pennicillium spp, Rhizopus spp, Mucor spp and Neurospora spp. The quality of the smoked Clarias anguillaris and Oreochromis niloticus with reference to their various peroxide values were obtained after a 28 day storage period. The physico-chemical parameters of the four samples were also obtained. In conclusion, the FUTY Improved Processor (FIP were of better quality products than the Traditional Smoking Drum (TSD and was recommended for fish processors in Adamawa State.

  9. EFEKTIVITAS IKAN NILA MERAH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS SEBAGAI PEMAKAN JENTIK NYAMUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sudomo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikan nila merah (Oreachromis niloticus merupakan ikan yang berasal dari luar negeri yang sudah dibudidayakan secara meluas di Indonesia. Ikan tersebut mempunyai arti ekonomis penting karena harganya mahal. Dalam percobaan laboratorium, ikan nila merah memakan jentik nyamuk dan ganggang Enteromorpha, yaitu ganggang yang dipakai untuk bertelur nyamuk Anopheles sundaicus. Dalam suatu percobaan, efektivitas ikan nila merah sebagai agen biologi untuk mengendalikan jentik nyamuk vektor malaria, telah dilakukan dengan membuat kolam-kolam percobaan sebanyak 12 kolam yang diisi dengan, ikan nila merah, ikan nila merah, dan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas, serta kolam kosong sebagai kontrol. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa dalam kolam yang diisi dengan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas jentik nyamuknya lebih sedikit. Hal ini berbeda nyata dengan kolam yang diisi ikan mas saja dan kolam kontrol.

  10. Effects of depuration on oxidative biomarkers in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterium producing cylindrospermopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, R; Prieto, A I; Moreno, I; Ríos, V; Vasconcelos, V M; Cameán, A M

    2014-04-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic polyketide-derived alkaloid produced by several freshwater cyanobacterial species. It is now considered the second most studied cyanotoxin worldwide. Among the toxic mechanisms suggested for CYN pathogenicity are inhibition of protein and glutathione synthesis, genotoxicity by DNA fragmentation, and oxidative stress. The study of depuration of cyanobacterial toxins by aquatic organisms, particularly by fish, is important for fish economy and public health, but in the case of CYN is practically nonexistent. In this work, we investigated the efficiency of two distinct depuration periods, 3 or 7d, in a clean environment, as a mean of restoring the levels of several oxidative stress biomarkers in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) subchronically exposed to CYN by immersion in an Aphanizomenon ovalisporum culture (by adding 10 μg CYN/L every two days during 14 d). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA oxidation returned to normal values after 7d of depuration, whereas the time needed for restoring of the oxidatively damaged proteins was longer. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (γ-GCS) activities recovered after just 3d of depuration, while catalase (CAT) activity needed up to 7d to return to control values. Ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) returned to control levels after 7d of depuration in both organs. These results validate the depuration process as a very effective practice for detoxification in fish contaminated with these toxins. PMID:24561425

  11. Effects of a homeopathic complex in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) on performance, sexual proportion and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim-Zabott, M; Vargas, L; Ribeiro, R P R; Piau, R; Torres, M B A; Rönnau, M; Souza, J C

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the homeopathic complex Homeopatila RS (REAL Homeopathy, Brazil), in the performance, sexual proportion and gills and liver histology of the Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus L.). 4,800 post-larvae were treated for 45 days, in 12 tanks (500 L), in a closed environment, with density of 400 larvae per tank. Three treatments were given: alcohol 30%, negative control (C); hormonal, positive control, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (H); homeopathic, Homeopatila RS, in ethanol (HH), with four replications. Mean values for length, weight, liver somatic index, condition factor, survival rate, average values of histological alterations and sexual proportion were determined. Analysis revealed significant differences (ptilapias, during the phase of gonadal differentiation, did not induce any alteration in the sexual proportion. Homeopathically treated fish were significantly smaller, but had significantly greater survival than the other two groups, there was no significant difference in final total biomass. The homeopathically treated fish had a lower liver/somatic index with less hepatic lipid inclusions than the other groups. PMID:19371567

  12. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota and morphology of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following the application of a multi-species probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, B T; Rodiles, A; Peggs, D L; Davies, S J; Santos, G A; Merrifield, D L

    2015-10-01

    The intestinal microbiota and morphology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated after the application of a multi-species probiotic containing Lactobacillus reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus acidilactici (AquaStar() Growout). Tilapia (55.03 0.44 g) were fed either a control diet or a probiotic diet (control diet supplemented with AquaStar() Growout at 5 g kg(-1)). After four and eight weeks, culture-dependent analysis showed higher levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterococci and Bacillus spp. in the mucosa and digesta of fish fed AquaStar() Growout. At week four, polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed a higher similarity within the probiotic fed replicates than replicates of the control group; after eight weeks, the compositional dissimilarity of the microbiome profiles between the groups was greater than the dissimilarities within each group (P 99 % of reads). Bacillus, Cetobacterium and Mycobacterium were the dominant genera in the digesta of control fish whereas Bacillus, Enterococcus and Pediococcus were the largest constituents in probiotic-fed fish. The addition of AquaStar() Growout to tilapia diets led to increased populations of intraepithelial leucocytes, a higher absorptive surface area index and higher microvilli density in the intestine. These data suggest that AquaStar() Growout can modulate both the intestinal microbiota and morphology of tilapia. PMID:26115752

  13. An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-Franois

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

  14. Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gullian-Klanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1, 500 (T2 and 600 (T3 fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3. RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily. The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%. The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1 and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1 was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1. The specific growth rate (SGR of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%. The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W. Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g for transfer to grow-out facilities.

  15. Accumulation of microcystins in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., and effects of a complex cyanobacterial bloom on the dietetic quality of muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikova, Miroslava; Mares, Jan; Kopp, Radovan; Hlavkova, Jana; Navratil, Stanislav; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Chmelar, Lubomr; Blaha, Ludek

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of accumulation and elimination of microcystins in the tissues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to evaluate the effect of cyanobacterial exposure on fish muscle quality (levels of total fat and ash, protein, dry matter and the composition of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). Fish were exposed for 28 days to a natural cyanobacterial bloom with total microcystin concentration around 1,200 ?g g? biomass dry weight. The hepatopancreas accumulated microcystins up to 350 ng g? fresh weight, but concentrations in muscle were generally below the detection limit (2 ng g? fresh weight). Following the exposure, fish were moved to the clean water, but only minor microcystin removal from the hepatopancreas was observed during a 4 week depuration period. Exposures of tilapia to the complex cyanobacterial bloom had only minor and temporary impacts on the investigated parameters of dietetic quality. PMID:21533573

  16. Integrated multi-trophic culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Amazon river prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum) in brackish water / Cultivo multi-trfico integrado de tilpia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e camaro da Amaznia (Macrobrachium amazonicum) em gua salobra

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.G., Henry-Silva; C.S.P., Maia; R.S.T., Moura; A.P., Bessa Junior; W.C., Valenti.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a viabilidade do cultivo multitrfico integrado da tilpia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e do camaro-da-amaznia (Macrobrachium amazonicum) em gua salobra, mediante a avaliao de suas caractersticas limnolgicas e de seu desempenho econmico. O experimento [...] foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repeties: tratamento controle somente com tilpia-do-nilo, estocado com duas tilpias/m (P2C0) e trs tratamentos de cultivo multitrfico integrado, estocados com duas tilapias/m e camares nas densidades de quatro, oito e 16 camares/m (P2C04, P2C08 e P2C16, respectivamente). As variveis limnolgicas temperatura, pH, oxignio dissolvido, turbidez, amnia, ortofosfato e clorofila "a" foram avaliadas e, durante todo o experimento, mantiveram-se dentro dos limites recomendados para o cultivo. O experimento durou 150 dias, com amostragem mensal dos animais. Diferenas significativas no foram observadas para a biomassa total de peixe nem para a taxa de sobrevivncia total em peixes e camares. Entretanto, o peso individual do camaro diminuiu medida que a densidade de estocagem aumentou. A receita bruta no foi significativamente diferente entre os tratamentos, assim como a rentabilidade. A rentabilidade foi 40,1% (P2C0), 36,7% (P2C04), 41,2% (P2C08) e 50,1% (P2C16). Conclui-se que, apesar de vivel do ponto de vista da larvicultura, o cultivo multitrfico integrado de M. amazonicum e O. niloticus no influenciou significativamente a rentabilidade quando comparado com o sistema de monocultura. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of integrated multi-trophic culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Amazon River prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum) in brackish water by evaluating its limnological characteristics and economic performance. The experiment was completely r [...] andomized with four treatments and four repetitions: control treatment with Nile tilapia only, stocked with 2 tilapias/m (P2C0) and three integrated multi-trophic culture treatments stocked with 2 tilapias/m and prawns at densities of 4, 8 and 16 prawns/m (P2C04, P2C08 and P2C16, respectively). The limnological variables of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, ammonia, orthophosphate and chlorophyll "a" were evaluated and throughout the experiment remained within the limits recommended for culture. The experiment lasted 150 days with monthly animal sampling. No significant differences were observed for total fish biomass or for fish and prawn total survival rates. However, prawn individual weight decreased as stocking density increased. Gross revenue was not significantly different between treatments, as well as profitability. The profitability was 40.1% (P2C0), 36.7% (P2C04), 41.2% (P2C08) and 50.1% (P2C16). It is concluded that although feasible from the view point of husbandry, the integrated multi-tropic culture of M. amazonicum and O. niloticus did not influence significantly profitability compared to the monoculture system.

  17. Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Tabita Kamara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc, Flavourzyme (Flav and Neutrase (Neut, and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 3-(2-pyridyl 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine, radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the samples. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU for humans. Lower molecular weight sizes 8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%. They have ‘U’ shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients.

  18. Effects of exercise training on carbohydrate and lipid catabolism in the swimming muscles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Wei, X L; Lin, X T; Xu, Z N; Mu, X P

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of exercise training on carbohydrate and lipid catabolism in the swimming muscles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by measuring the levels of related enzymes, lipids and free fatty acids. We designed one control group and two training groups of fish that were exercised at different training intensities [0, 1 and 1.5 body lengths per second (bl/s)]. The fish in the experimental groups were trained for 12 h/day for 4 weeks. Compared with the control group, the 1 and 1.5 bl/s groups showed significantly increased hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities in red muscle (p < 0.05). In white muscle, pyruvate kinase activity was significantly higher in the 1.5 bl/s group than in the control group (p < 0.05), and hexokinase activity did not significantly differ between the groups. The activities of hormone-sensitive lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in both muscle types were significantly lower in the training groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). The plasma-free fatty acid level decreased (p < 0.05), while the lipid percentages increased in red muscle (p < 0.05) after exercise training. These findings clearly indicated that with exercise training, glycolysis increased and lipid oxidation decreased in the swimming muscle of tilapia. PMID:25736102

  19. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in different organs of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hasan; Ayd?n, Fatih; Grkan, Mert; Y?lmaz, Sevdan; Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri

    2015-11-01

    Nano-size zinc oxide particles (ZnO NPs) are used in diverse industrial and commercial fields. However, the information from existing studies is not sufficient in evaluating the potential toxic effects of ZnO NPs. In this study, tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to different concentrations of small and large ZnO NPs in vivo. Accumulation in various organs/tissues (liver, gill, intestine, kidney, brain and muscle) and possible oxidative stress mechanisms were investigated comparatively. Fish were exposed to 1 and 10mg/L concentrations of small (10-30nm) and large (100nm) ZnO NPs semi-statically for 14 days. Both small and large ZnO NPs accumulated substantially in the tissues. Accumulation for the small ZnO NPs was significantly higher compared to larger NPs under same exposure regimes. Significant fluctuations were observed in antioxidant defense system biomarkers, including Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione (GSH) levels depending on particle size, exposure time and concentration. Lipid peroxidation measured with TBARS levels were higher in groups exposed to the suspensions of small ZnO NPs than that of large ZnO NPs and controls. These results imply that colloidal suspensions of small ZnO NPs induce elevated oxidative stress and toxic effects on tilapia compared to the larger NPs. PMID:26513690

  20. Neuroendocrine and Eosinophilic Granule Cells in the Gills of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects of Waterborne Copper Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Drcia; Falco, Ana; Luzio, Ana; Fontanhas-Fernandes, Antnio; Monteiro, Sandra Mariza

    2015-11-01

    The contamination of aquatic ecosystems with copper (Cu) poses a serious threat to aquatic organisms. Although the histopathological changes caused by Cu in fish gills are well documented, knowledge about the impact of this metal in gill specific cell types, such as neuroendocrine cells (NECs) and eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs), is still limited. In the present work, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed for 21days to nominal concentrations of Cu (40 and 400gL(-1)). Stereological methods were used to estimate the volumetric density of both NECs and EGCs in fish gill filament after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of exposure. The results showed that Cu significantly increased the relative volume of NECs, whereas the relative volume of EGCs decreased. NECs were more affected by Cu in the first 7days of exposure, during which a greater increase in their relative volume was observed. The Cu exposure induced a progressive decrease in the relative volume of EGCs, which reached statistical significance after 14days of exposure. An exception was observed in subepithelial EGCs with a slight increase in their relative volume after 3days of exposure. Our findings confirm that Cu can modulate both neuroendocrine and immune systems and becomes immunotoxic after a prolonged exposure. PMID:26054594

  1. Lamproglena monodi capart, 1944, attachment scheme and associatedpathology on the gills of oreochromis niloticus, with a special reference tothoracic appendages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises a parasitological and histopathological examinationof the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, naturally infected withLamproglena monody (Crustacea: Lernaeidae). Fish specimens were collectedweekly from El-Minia Nile basin, Egypt Between April 2006 to March 2008).From a total of 420 fish examined, 96 (22.86%) were found infected.Attachment of L monodi was mainly enhanced by the armed maxillae that wereseen deeply introduced into the underlying tissues reaching the axialcartilage the gill filament. The maxillipeds were not involved in theattachment to the gill epithelium. Histological changes were restricted onlyto the free ends of gill filament, where copepods were found attached; thecentral and basal parts appeared normal and their gill lamellae remainedintact. Deep and shallow lesions associated sometimes with compressed orexfoliated hyperplastic epithelium were encountered in front of cephalothoraxand around oral apparatus of the parasite. In slight and moderate infectionsgill lamellae showed partial fusion. In many cases of heavy infection, theattacked area of gill filaments was eroded through. The cephalothorax wassometimes found in a deep cavity of the proliferated epithelium that wasinfiltrated by granular cells and lymphocytes. (author)

  2. Molecular characterization, transcriptional activity and nutritional regulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, An-Yuan; Liu, Cai-Zhi; Chen, Li-Qiao; Ning, Li-Jun; Qin, Jian-Guang; Li, Jia-Ming; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a master regulator in lipid metabolism and widely exists in vertebrates. However, the molecular structure and transcriptional activity of PPAR? in fish are still unclear. This study cloned PPAR? from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) referred as NtPPAR? and transfected the NtPPAR? plasmids into HEK-293 cells to explore its mechanism of transcriptional regulation in fish. The expression of NtPPAR? was compared in fed and fasted fish. Two transcripts of NtPPAR? varied at the 5'-untranslated region and the DNA binding domain was highly conserved. Thirty-nine amino acid residues in the ligand binding domain in Nile tilapia were different from those in human. Two transcripts showed different expression profiles in 11 tissues, but both were highly expressed in liver, intestine and kidney. The transcriptional activity assay showed that NtPPAR? collaborates with retinoid X-receptor ? (NtRXR?) to regulate the expression of Nile tilapia fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), the compartment of which have been identified as the target gene of PPAR? in human. In the fish fasting trial, the mRNA expression of NtPPAR?1 and NtPPAR?2 in intestine and liver at 3h post-feeding (HPF) was lower than those at 8 HPF, 24 HPF and in fish fasted for 36h, but was relatively stable in kidney among different feeding treatments. In conclusion, the DNA binding domain in PPAR? was highly conserved, while the ligand binding domain was moderately conserved. In Nile tilapia, the PPAR? collaborates with RXR? to perform transcriptional regulation of FABP4 at least in vitro. The plasmid system established in this study along with a cell line from Nile tilapia will be useful tools for the further functional study of PPAR? in fish. PMID:26002036

  3. Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in ?-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against ?-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to ?-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to ?-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  4. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of angiogenic and apoptotic factors and the expression of thyroid receptors in the ovary of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of angiogenic and apoptotic factors and the expression of thyroid receptors in the ovary of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in captivity were studied. The morphological evaluation of the ovaries was performed by histological paraffin embedded and stained with HE. The immunohistochemical expressions of CDC47, VEGF, Flk-1, angiopoietin, Tie-2 and thyroid receptor (TR? were performed by the technique of streptavidein-biotin-peroxidase. Apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL kit. The relative expression of thyroid hormone receptors (TR? and TR? was assessed by RT-PCR real time. The nuclear expression of CDC47 increased with the stage of maturation of the oocyte and was observed in the follicle cells. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the follicular cells of atretic follicles and postovulatory follicles from the ovaries of 150g and 350g fish. Expression of VEGF and its receptor Flk-1 was also observed in the follicular cells, and the expression of both increased with the maturity of the oocyte, with a higher intensity observed in the full-grown follicle. The expression of angiopoietin and of its receptor (Tie 2 was discrete and moderate respectively. TR? expression was independent of follicular development. However, the 350 g tilapia exhibited higher expression of TR? compared with the 50 g tilapia. We conclude that the proliferative activity and the expression of VEGF and its receptor increase with follicular maturation and that the TRs expression increases with ovarian maturity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

  5. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.This study was carried out to determine the digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The chromic oxide (0.1% was used as an inert indicador in the semi-purified diet and faeces were collected by Guelph system. Fish were fed to apparent satiation. The apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal were: 77.84, 71.99, 86.92, 88.19, 67.16, and 29.86% for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, respectively, corresponding to 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69.97, 32.6, 1.2, 0.41, and 0.28% of, digestible energy, dry matter, protein and lipids and available calcium and phosphorus, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment evidence that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize canola meal eficiently.

  6. Silagem de resduos da filetagem de tilpia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, com cido frmico - anlise Bromatolgica, fsico-qumica e microbiolgica Silage of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus filetage residues with formic acid Bromatological, phisico-chemical and microbiological analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinez Moraes de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento avaliou o valor nutritivo da silagem cida da filetagem da tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758, visando sua utilizao em substituio farinha de peixe na alimentao de organismo aqutico. A silagem consistiu de resduos da filetagem de tilpia (carcaa e 3% de cido frmico, armazenada em temperatura ambiente (mxima mdia de 21,5C e temperatura mnima mdia de 15C, por trinta dias, em baldes de polietileno com um orifcio, por onde os gases saiam. O pH foi monitorado no 1, 15 e 30 dia. Foram realizadas anlises microbiolgicas para contagem total de microrganismos e coliformes a 35C e 45C. O pH apresentou mdia de 3,95 ao final dos 30 dias. Nas anlises microbiolgicas observou-se a ausncia de coliformes a 45C e, que a quantidade de microrganismos diminuiu gradativamente. Do ponto de vista microbiolgico, a silagem cida de resduo da filetagem de tilpia mostrou-se como alimento alternativo vivel para a alimentao animal.The experiment was carried out for evaluate the nutritional value of the silage of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 filetage residues with formic acid as a replace of fish meal in aquatic organisms feeding as protein source. The silage consisted of tilapia filetage residues (carcass and 3% formic acid, and it was stored in environmental temperature with a maximum average of 21,5 C and a minimum average of 15 C, during thirty days, in polyethylene pails with an orifice for the exhaustion of gases. The pH was monitored on the 1st, 15th and 30th day. The microbiological analyses were made for the total count of microorganisms and coliforms at 35 C and 45 C. The average pH was 3.95 at the end of 30 days. The microbiological analyses showed absence of coliformes at 45 C and a gradual reduction in the quantity of microorganisms. From the microbiological standpoint, the acid silage of tilapia residues was shown to be an alternative viable diet for animal feeding.

  7. Custos de produo de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus em um modelo de propriedade da regio oeste do Estado do Paran, Brasil Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paran, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luiz Barboza de Andrade

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produo da piscicultura praticada na regio oeste do Paran. Os custos so apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se explorao comercial de uma rea de 24.000m, em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produo de 14,4t de tilpia (Oreochromis niloticus por ciclo de produo, com o peso unitrio mdio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantao, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao ms e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o ltimo representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo varivel representou 70,18% do custo total de produo e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que so bastante sensveis s variaes nos preos das matrias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsvel pela governana da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivncia.The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paran, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m area, in eight tanks, which enable the production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of raw material prices. The necessity of the establishment of a responsible agent for the leadership of the food chain was exposed to guarantee its survival.

  8. Hematological and biochemical investigations on the effect of vitamin E and C on Oreochromis niloticus exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaladi, Ali; El-Deen, Nasr A M Nasr; Afifi, Mohamed; Zinadah, Osama A Abu

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the LC50 of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on Oreochromis niloticus and to investigate the effect of vitamin E and C on hematological and biochemical alterations induced by two sublethal concentrations (1 and 2mg/L) of ZnONPs. One hundred and eighty fish were used for studying the lethal concentrations of ZnONPs. For sublethal study two hundred and twenty-five males of O. niloticus were equally divided into five groups, control, the second and the third were treated with 1 and 2mg/L ZnONPs respectively. The fourth and fifth were exposed to the same concentrations of ZnONPs plus vitamins E and C. The results revealed that the 96h LC50 of ZnONPs was 3.10.4mg/L. The sublethal study revealed the presence of normocytic normochromic anemia in groups (2, 3 and 5) along the experiment period. The 4th group showed normocytic normochromic anemia at the 7th day and microcytic hypochromic anemia at the 15th day. Leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were recorded at the 7th day in all treated groups compared with the normal control. At the 15th day heteropenia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were reported in all treated groups. A significant increase in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, urea, creatinine and erythrocytic nuclear and morphological abnormalities along the experimental periods in all treated groups compared with the normal control. Serum total protein and albumin levels were significantly decreased at the same period in the same groups. Addition of vitamin E and C to the diet (groups 4 and 5) significantly improved all measured parameters compared with groups (2 and 3) which treated with ZnONPs only. PMID:26288558

  9. Parmetros hematolgicos e bioqumicos da tilpia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) sob estresse por exposio ao ar Hematological parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) under air exposure stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Dias da Silva; Laudicia Oliveira Rocha; Bruno Duarte Alves Fortes; Dirson Vieira; Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti

    2012-01-01

    No presente trabalho avaliaram-se os parmetros hematolgicos e bioqumicos de exemplares adultos de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus) sob a influncia do fator estresse fisiolgico em animais submetidos exposio ao ar durante a engorda em sistema raceway. Foram analisados o eritrograma, teor de hemoglobina, volume globular, o volume corpuscular mdio (VCM), a hemoglobina corpuscular mdia (HCM), a concentrao de hemoglobina corpuscular mdia (CHCM), o leucograma, contagem diferencial de l...

  10. Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schleis, S.M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at <-70 ??C. Frozen fillets were individually homogenized, extracted, and FFA concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Florfenicol amine is rapidly eliminated from tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance limit, calculated as the 99th percentile of the potential residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 ??g/g maximum residue level by 6.14 d after the dosing period.

  11. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction

  12. Phosphorous digestibility and activity of intestinal phytase in hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vorgna, M.W.; Hafez, Y.; Hughes, S.G.; Handwerker, T.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the degree to which phytate-bound phosphorus from plant protein sources could be used by hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus). Utilizing an inert marker technique with chromic oxide, hybrid tilapia in our study were effective at utilizing both inorganic and phytate phosphorus as evidenced by average apparent digestibility values of 93.2% and 90.0% for total and phytate phosphorus, respectively. Analysis of the intestinal brush border membrane of the tilapia revealed enzyme activity that was capable of hydrolyzing phytic acid. The presence of phytic acid hydrolyzing enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border provides a probable mechanism by which these hybrid tilapia are able to utilize phytate phosphorus effectively. ?? 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A. [Food Engineering Department, ZEA/FZEA/USP, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, 13635 900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

  14. Outbreak of betanodavirus infection in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigarré, L; Cabon, J; Baud, M; Heimann, M; Body, A; Lieffrig, F; Castric, J

    2009-08-01

    A betanodavirus associated with a massive mortality was isolated from larvae of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, maintained in fresh water at 30 degrees C. Histopathology revealed vacuolation of the nervous system, suggesting an infection by a betanodavirus. The virus was identified by indirect fluorescent antibody test in the SSN1 cell line and further characterized by sequencing of a PCR product. Sequencing of the T4 region of the coat protein gene indicated a phylogenetic clustering of this isolate within the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus type. However, the tilapia isolate formed a unique branch distinct from other betanodavirus isolates. The disease was experimentally reproduced by bath infection of young tilapia at 30 degrees C. The reservoir of virus at the origin of the outbreak remains unidentified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural nodavirus infection in tilapia reared in fresh water. PMID:19500206

  15. Bone development in the jaw of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-06-01

    East African cichlids have evolved feeding apparatus morphologies adapted to their diverse feeding behaviors. The evolution of the oral jaw morphologies is accomplished by the diversity of bone formation during development. To further understand this evolutionary process, we examined the skeletal elements of the jaw and their temporal and sequential emergence, categorized by developmental stages, using the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus as a model cichlid. We found that chondrogenesis started in Stage 17. The deposition of osteoid for the dermal bones commenced in Stage 18. The uptake of calcium dramatically shifted from the surface of larvae to the gills in Stage 20. The bone mineralization of the skeleton began in Stage 25. These data provide important information regarding the sequential events of craniofacial development in East African cichlids and lay the groundwork for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation of jaw structure to feeding behavior. PMID:18430028

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, S. F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P. J. A.

    2007-11-01

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

  17. Reproductive aspects of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae at Coatetelco lake, Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Gómez-Márquez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio, size at maturity, maturity stages, fecundity and egg diameter of Oreochromis niloticus from Coatetelco Lake, Morelos State, Mexico, were studied from January to December 1993. Sex ratio (male:female was approximately 1:1.02. Length at maturity was 117 mm (males and 120 mm (females. The fecundity ranged between 104 and 709 eggs, with egg diameter from 1 000 to 3 000 µm. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic index indicate that the species breeds during summer and winter.En este estudio se analizaron algunos aspectos reproductivos de la mojarra-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. en el lago de Coatetelco, Morelos. La información esta basada en los datos biológicos de 319 organismos obtenidos de enero a diciembre de 1993 de la captura comercial. Las hembras (161 representaron el 51% y los machos (158 el 49 % del total de la población. La proporción de sexo fue de 1:1.02 _ = 0.02; p=0.05. Los peces alcanzan la primera madurez sexual a los 117 mm y 120 mm de longitud total (hembras y machos respectivamente. El número de óvulos presentes en las gónadas osciló entre 104 y 709 con diámetro de 1 000 a 3 000 µm, lo cual hace que esta especie tenga baja fecundidad pero alta fertilidad por los hábitos de reproducción que presenta la especie. Se aplicó el indice gonadosomático y hepatosomático con los cuales se detectaron dos períodos (verano e invierno de máxima actividad reproductiva.

  18. Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus);Efeitos da irradiacao e refrigeracao na qualidade e no valor nutritivo da tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

  19. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  20. Shelf life of air and modified atmosphere-packaged fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets stored under chilled and superchilled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cyprian, Odoli; Lauzon, Hlne L; Jhannsson, Ragnar; Sveinsdttir, Kolbrn; Arason, Sigurjn; Martinsdttir, Emila

    2012-01-01

    Optimal packaging and storage conditions for fresh tilapia fillets were established by evaluating sensory and microbiological changes, as well as monitoring physicochemical properties. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in recirculation aquaculture system was filleted, deskinned, and packaged in air and 50% CO2/50% N2 prior to chilling and superchilling storage at 1C and ?1C. Sensory analysis of cooked samples revealed a shelf life of 1315 days for air-packaged fillets during stor...

  1. Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ruchi; A.K.Singh; Tripathi, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT) on specific growth rate (SGR% day?1), condition factor (k), gonado-somatic-index (GSI), histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 ?g/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day?1 (0.90.04) as compared to control (1.230.026). The GSI value was significantly (p

  2. Effects crude protein levels on female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reproductive performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marinez Moraes; Ribeiro, Tainá; Orlando, Tamira Maria; de Oliveira, Dênio Garcia Silva; Drumond, Mariana Martins; de Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca; Rosa, Priscila Vieira

    2014-11-10

    The goal of the present work was to study the reproductive performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) female broodstock fed diets containing different levels of crude protein (CP). Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) were used at an average age of 30 months, with 180 females and 60 males. The broodstock were lodged separately in masonry tanks with continuous water flow. The females were stocked in thirty tanks with dimensions of 8 m(3) in a completely randomized design consisting of five treatments and six replications. The treatments consisted of five diets with different levels of CP (32, 34, 36, 38 and 40%) and with digestible energy per gram of protein of 9.5 kg of feed. The crude protein (CP) levels positively influenced (plarvae survival capacity), the somatic indexes (gonadosomatic (GSI), hepatosomatic (HIS), viscerosomatic (VSI)), total plasma protein, albumin and triglycerides. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) observed with regard to spawning weight and female weight. The reproductive parameters studied in the present research indicate that diets formulated with 38% CP with digestible energy per gram of CP of 9.5 were the best diets for tilapia females during the reproductive period. PMID:25201770

  3. Parasite community of wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzalah, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Soliman, Maha F M

    2011-12-01

    A total of 323 O. niloticus (168 wild fishes and 155 cultured fishes) were collected from Lake Manzala, Egypt from July to September 2010. The fish samples were examined for both ectoparasites and endoparasites. The parasite community of wild and cultured, O. niloticus consisted of ten parasitic species, one protozoon (Trichodina spp.), six monogenea (Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. halli typicus, C. tilapiae, C. ergensi, C. tiberianus), one acanthocephalan (Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae) and two crustacean species (Lernaea cyprinacea and Ergasilus sp.). Mean parasite species richness significantly differed between wild (4.9 +/- 0.3) and cultured (6.6 +/- 0.8). The overall prevalence of infection in cultured O. niloticus (54.84%) was significantly higher as compared to that in wild fish (39.9%). The most prevalent parasite was C. thurstonae (37.46%) and C. sclerosus (35.91%) while the less prevalent one was Ergasilus sp. (14.55%). Host sex and host body size significantly affect parasitism in most parasite species. PMID:22435161

  4. A new record of Myxobolus brachysporus and M. israelensis in the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from the Nile River, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Zayed, Eman; Sakran, Thabet; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey for myxosporean parasites infecting tilapias in the River Nile, Egypt. In the present study, 77 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were collected from boat landing sites at Beni-Suef governorate, Egypt and examined for the myxosporean infection. The infection was encountered as a huge number of free spores in the kidney and the spleen. The infection showed a prevalence of 51.9% (40/77) for Myxobolus brachysporus while it was 25.9% (20/77) for Myxobolus israelensis. Mature spores of M. brachysporus were ellipsoidal and measured 8.6נ13.2?m. The polar capsules were subcircular with 5-6 filament turns and measured 4.7נ3.6?m. Spores of M. israelensis were ellipsoidal in the frontal view and fusiform in the lateral view. Spore measurements were 13.4?m long and 8.7?m wide. The polar capsules were elongated with 6-7 filament coils and measured 8.6נ3.1?m. The findings presented here proved that tilapia fishes in the Nile River are still suffering from infections with Myxobolus species. Therefore, further studies should be carried out to survey the Myxobolus infection among tilapias under culture conditions to clarify the pathological impacts of this parasite in tilapias aquaculture. PMID:26286347

  5. Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.5470 Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.5470

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lower consumption (p The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lower consumption (p < 0.05 than in other treatments.

  6. Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotipuntu, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

  7. Disponibilidade aparente de fósforo em ingredientes pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent phosphorus availability in food for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma Carvalho de Miranda

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada a disponibilidade aparente do fósforo de ingredientes alimentares para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram utilizados 105 alevinos, revertidos, com peso vivo inicial médio de 16,0  0,5g. Foram distribuídas, cinco por aquário em 21 unidades de fibra de vidro (80L e sistema Guelf para coleta de fezes. Cada conjunto, constituído de três aquários, foi dotado de aeração, filtro biológico e fluxo contínuo (vazão de 0,75 L/mim. Foram avaliados o fosfato bicálcico, as farinhas de osso e de peixe, os farelos de soja e de trigo e fubá de milho, os quais substituíram parte de uma dieta purificada, usada como referência, marcada com óxido de crômio. Ao final, pode-se concluir: o fosfato bicálcico, disponibilidade aparente de 74,24%, deve ser a fonte preferencial de fósforo nas rações; a farinha de osso (54,59% apresenta-se como fonte alternativa; a de peixe apresentou baixa disponibilidade (27,15% e, dentre os produtos de origem vegetal, o farelo de soja apresentou a melhor (35,13%, e os farelos de trigo (30,49% e de milho, a pior disponibilidade (7,33%.Apparent availability of phosphorus from various foodstuffs for sexually reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was provided. Fish with an average weight of 16.0  0.5g were randomly stocked in 21 aquariums equipped with feces collector (Guelf system, at the rate of five fish per aquarium. Each set of three aquariums was provided with a biological filter, aeration and flowing water (0.75 L/min discharge. An egg albumin-gelatin purified diet containing 0.1% chromic oxide was used as reference and basal diet. Dicalcium phosphate, bone and fish meals, soybean and wheat bran and middlings were added to the basal diet at 3.5, 6.0, 21.67, 40.0, 12.0 and 10.62% respectively, at the expense of albumin, gelatin and dextrose. Dicalcium phosphate was the best phosphorus source (apparent availability of 74.23% for tilapia fingerlings. In decreasing order it was followed by bone and soybean meals (54.59 and 35.13%, wheat middlings (30.49%, fish meal (27.15% and corn meal (7.33%. Whereas fish meal had the lowest apparent phosphorus availability among animal foodstuff, soybean meal was the best among plant foodstuffs.

  8. Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Jos Lus Costa; Carvalho, Edmir Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm), total weight (g), reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation), and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full). We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads), reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females), and feeding habits (by stomach contents). The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman's Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I) package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F). Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5 degreeC), and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18 degreeC). The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: Linfinity=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phyto-planktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. PMID:23894941

  9. Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Costa Novaes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm, total weight (g, reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation, and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full. We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads, reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females, and feeding habits (by stomach contents. The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F. Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5°C, and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18°C. The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: L∞=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phytoplanktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 721-734. Epub 2012 June 01.

  10. Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual aquaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30 as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15 and subordinate (N = 15 fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl, glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl, triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl. However, when isolated (N = 30 and paired (N = 30 tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

  11. Quantification of fatty acids in tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed with different sources of vegetable oilsQuantificao de cidos graxos de alevinos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com diferentes fontes de leos vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Hayashi Higuchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to quantify the fatty acids in total lipids of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed with different sources of vegetable oils mechanically extracted. Were used 320 tilapias (O. niloticus with average initial weight and average total initial length of 2.550.57 g and 5.590.43 cm, respectively, fed for a period of 60 days, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replications. The diets were prepared with 320 g/kg crude protein and 3.500 kcal of digestible energy per kg of feed enriched with eight different oils: sunflower, canola, sesame, linseed, peanut, Paras nut soy and macadamia, with an addition of 4%. Among the major fatty acids the oleic, palmitic, linolenic and linoleic were obtained in higher concentration (mg/g of LT in fish from all treatments. The sums of polyunsaturated fatty acids after 60 days of cultivation had increased in all treatments compared to the 30 days of the experiment. This is due to the addition of oils with high contents of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The fatty acids in the carcass are a reflection of the energy source of oil used. As a conclusion it is recommended the use of linseed oil in the diet of tilapia fingerlings due to great improvement in the relationship between n-6/n-3. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar os cidos graxos nos alevinos de tilpias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes fontes de leos vegetais extrados mecanicamente. Foram utilizadas 320 tilpias com peso inicial mdio e comprimento total inicial mdio de 2,550,57 g e 5,590,43 cm, respectivamente, alimentados por um perodo de 60 dias, num delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repeties. As raes foram elaboradas com 320 g/ kg protena bruta (PB e 3.500 kcal de energia digestvel (ED por kg de rao, enriquecidas com oito diferentes leos: girassol, canola, gergelim, linhaa, amendoim, castanha do Par, soja e macadmia, com uma incluso de 4%. Dentre os cidos graxos majoritrios o olico, palmtico, linolnico e linolico foram os obtidos em maior concentrao (mg/g de LT nos peixes em todos os tratamentos. As somatrias dos cidos graxos poliinsaturados aos 60 dias de cultivo apresentaram aumento em todos os tratamentos em comparao aos 30 dias de experimento. Isto se deve a adio dos leos com alto contedo de cidos graxos n-6 e n-3 nas raes. Os cidos graxos na carcaa so o reflexo da fonte energtica de leo utilizada. Como concluso recomenda-se o uso do leo de linhaa na alimentao de alevinos de tilpias, devido grande melhoria na razo entre n-6/n-3.

  12. Growth performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings reared in Na2CO3 limed waters = Desempenho produtivo de alevinos de tilpia niltica, Oreochromis niloticus, em aqurios submetidos calagem com Na2CO3

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    Davi de Holanda Cavalcante

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment was undertaken during 6 weeks with Nile tilapia,Oreochomis niloticus, fingerlings (1.28 . 0.03 g to assess the effects of moderate Na2CO3 liming on water quality and fish growth performance. Twenty-four 25 L-aquaria, with 15 fish per aquarium, were used, of which twelve aquaria were placed in the labs indoor room and twelve in the outdoor area. Two types of water (clear or green and three different water-quality managements (none, HCl acidification and Na2CO3 liming were simultaneously evaluated in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Total ammonia, calcium hardness, pH and total alkalinity in the green water aquaria were significantly higher than rates in the clear water aquaria. Slight liming acid water with Na2CO3 did not produce any significant effect on its water calcium hardness. No significant differences between controls and theexperimental group were observed for any growth variables. Lime rearing water with Na2CO3 has no significant effect on tilapia growth performance if the initial total alkalinity of water is higher than 20 mg CaCO3 L-1.O presente estudo foi realizado por seis semanas com alevinos de tilpia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (1,28 . 0,03 g, para avaliar os efeitos da calagem moderada da gua de cultivo com Na2CO3 naqualidade da gua e no desempenho produtivo dos peixes cultivados. Vinte e quatro aqurios de polietileno de 25 L foram utilizados para manter os peixes experimentais (15 peixes por aqurio. Doze aqurios foram instalados na sala interna do laboratrio e 12 aqurios na rea externa. Dois tipos de guas (claras, sem fitoplncton ou verdes,ricas em fitoplncton e trs diferentes manejos de qualidade de gua (nenhum, acidificao com HCl ou calagem com Na2CO3 foram avaliados simultaneamente em delineamento fatorial 3 x 2. A concentrao de amnia total, dureza clcica, pH e alcalinidade total das guas verdes foram significativamente maiores que para as guas claras. A calagem das guas fracamente cidas com Na2CO3 no produziu nenhumefeito significativo na dureza clcica da gua. No se observaram diferenas significativas entre os grupos-controle e o grupo experimental para nenhuma das variveis de desempenho produtivo observadas. Concluiu-se que fazer a calagem da gua de cultivo de tilpias com Na2CO3 no trar nenhum benefcio ao desempenho zootcnico dos peixes se a alcalinidade inicial da gua exceder 20 mg L-1 de CaCO3.

  13. An outbreak of granulomatous inflammation associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Hu, Qiandong; Chang, Ouqin; Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Wang, Guangjun; San, Guibao; Wu, Shuqin

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, a novel disease was detected in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in Guangzhou, South China. To identify the causative pathogen, we conducted histological examination, bacteria isolation, and purification, and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of isolates. Infected fish had a large number of white granulomas in the kidney, liver, heart, and spleen. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen. A bacterium strain designated as gz201301 was recovered from the spleen of infected tilapia. The 16S rRNA sequence of gz201301 revealed that it was highly similar to F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. This is the first report of a Francisella-like infection in farmed tilapia in China.

  14. Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207

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    Ary Gomes da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilpia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.

  15. Rendimento de carcaa, fil e subprodutos da filetagem da tilpia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L, em funo do peso corporal Carcass, fillet and byproducts yield of filleting of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L. in relation to body weight

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    Taciano Cesar Freire Maranho

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na indstria de processamento de pescado Frigopeixe, em Toledo, Estado do Paran, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar os rendimentos de carcaa, fil e subprodutos de filetagem (rendimento dos msculos abdominais, porcentagens de pele bruta e resduos da tilpia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae em duas categorias de peso vivo. Os resduos foram definidos como as porcentagens de cabea, vsceras e nadadeiras. Foram utilizados 100 exemplares, alimentados com rao peletizada com 22%PB, cultivados por um perodo de 5 meses e previamente depurados em tanques de alvenaria, por 24 horas antes do abate. A seguir, foram submetidos a choques trmicos, eviscerados e filetados. O processo de filetagem foi realizado em srie, por mais de uma pessoa, conforme metodologia empregada pela indstria. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (categorias de peso P1 = 300-400 g e P2 = 401-500 g, com 50 repeties, sendo considerado o peixe a unidade experimental. A categoria de peso P2 proporcionou o maior rendimento de carcaa sem cabea (78,18%, msculos abdominais (3,51% e pele bruta (6,56%, enquanto o P1 foi significativamente superior para porcentagens de cabea (14,29% e vsceras (10,09%. No houve diferena significativa para rendimento de fil (P1 = 36,50% e P2 = 36,84% e porcentagens de nadadeiras (P1 = 8,14% e P2 = 8,00% entre as duas categorias de peso da tilpia do Nilo.The experiment was undertaken at the fish processing industry Frigopeixe in Toledo, state of Paran, Brazil. Its aim was to analyze carcass, fillet and other byproducts yields (ventral abdominal muscles yield, percentage of skin and residues of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae for two live weight categories. Residues consisted of head, viscera and fin percentages. One hundred specimens were fed with pellet rations with 22% of crude protein during 5 months. Fish were placed in tanks for 24 hours before put down, underwent thermal shock, eviscerated and filleted. Filleting process was done in series by more than one person using industry methodology. Completely randomized design with two treatments (weight categories W1=300-400 g e W2=401-500 g, with 50 replications. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. The W2 category produced high yield in carcass without head (78.18%, ventral abdominal muscles (3.51% and crude skin (6.56%. The W1 was significantly higher for head (14.29% and viscera (10.09% percentages. There was no significant difference for fillet yields (W1=36.50% and W2=36.84% and fin percentages (W1=8.14% and W2=8.00%, between the two weight categories of Nile tilapia.

  16. Exigência de lisina pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, na fase de terminação Lysine requirement of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, for grow-out phase

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    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de lisina pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Setenta e dois peixes revertidos sexualmente e com peso vivo médio inicial de 117,9 ± 0,67g foram alimentados por 50 dias com quatro rações (25% proteína bruta e 3090kcal de energia digestível kg-1 contendo diferentes teores de inclusão de L-Lisina HCl: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7%, correspondente a rações com 1,13; 1,27; 1,42 e 1,57% de lisina, respectivamente. Os peixes foram distribuídos em 12 tanques com volume de 1000L cada, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e seis peixes por unidade experimental. Não foram observadas diferenças na temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica e transparência da água nos diferentes tratamentos. Não foi observado efeito (P>0,05 dos teores de inclusão de lisina sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar, gordura visceral, índice hepato-somático e rendimento de carcaça. Foi observado efeito quadrático (PThe present study was carried out to determine the lysine requirement for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Seventy two reversed fish with average weight initial of 117.9 ± 0.67g were for by 50 days with four diets (25% of crude protein and 3090kcal kg-1 of digestible energy containing different values of inclusion of L-Lysine HCl: 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7%, corresponding to rations with 1.13; 1.27; 1.42 and 1.57% of lysine, respectively. Fish were distributed in 12 tanks of 1000-L each, in a completely randomized design with four treatments, three replicates and six fish per experimental unit. No differences were observed in the temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity of the water in the different treatments. No effects (P>0.05 of lysine inclusion were observed on survival rate, feed conversion, visceral fat, hepatosomatic index and carcass yield. There was no sign of quadratic effect (P<0.05 on weight gain and protein efficiency ratio, estimating the requirements values of 1.42% (5.7% of crude protein or 4.8mg of lysine kcal-1 of digestible energy in diet and 1.35% of lysine (5.4% of crude protein, respectively. Considering the performance, a requirement value of 1.42% of lysine (5.7% of protein or 4.8 mg of lysine/kcal of digestible energy in diet was obtained for Nile tilapia, in grow-out phase.

  17. Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração denominada controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros, contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registradas as respostas dos animais para cada ingrediente, separadamente. Concluiu-se que as respostas comportamentais da tilápia variam de acordo com o ingrediente oferecido e que parece existir uma correlação positiva entre o grau de atrato-palatabilidade de um ingrediente e a ocorrência de confrontos agonísticos entre os indivíduos. Sugere-se que ingredientes classificados como de alta atrato-palatabilidade (farinhas de crisálidas, de peixe, de carne, de camarão e ovo liofilizado integral sejam adicionados às dietas especiais para peixes, visando ao aumento da ingestão alimentar nos períodos pré-invernais, situações de estresse ou estados patológicos.Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus responses to attractivity and taste of fourteen food ingredients, here classified as animal sources (shrimp, fish, silkworm and meat meal, integral lyophilized egg and sugar-cane-yeast, vegetable protein sources (maize gluten, soybean bran, sunflower meal and cotton bran and energetics (maize flour, manioc scraping, manioc bran and wheat bran were investigated. These ingredients were compared to a control diet, using a two-choice method. Four 750 liters aquaria stocked with three fries each and two feeders installed respectively at the right and left corner where used to register the responses of the fries to each ingredient separately. The results showed that behavioral patterns of the fries change according to the type of ingredient and that three seems to be a positive correlation between the attractivity and taste degree and the occurrence of agonistic behavior in the studied species. It may be suggested that the most attractive and tasty ingredients (silkworm, fish, meat and shrimp meal, and integral lyophilized egg be added to special fish diets, in order to increase food consumption in pre-hibernal periods and under stress and pathological conditions.

  18. Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil

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    José Luis Costa Novaes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm, total weight (g, reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation, and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full. We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads, reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females, and feeding habits (by stomach contents. The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F. Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5°C, and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18°C. The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: L∞=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phytoplanktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 721-734. Epub 2012 June 01.La exótica tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus es la especie mayormente capturada en la pesquería artesanal del embalse de Barra Bonita, sudeste de Brasil, de gran importancia socioeconómica para la región y para una población de unos 500 pescadores. El estudio analizo: la reproducción, la dinámica alimentaria y la explotación de O. niloticus, la cual fue capturada en la pesquería del embalse de Barra Bonita. Asimismo, se tomaron muestras mensuales y se analizo un total de 1 715 animales desde julio-2004 a junio-2005. De cada espécimen, se obtuvieron los siguientes datos biológicos y biométricos: longitud estándar (cm, peso total (g, datos reproductivos (sexo y estadio de maduración, contenido estomacal (vacio, parcialmente lleno y lleno. Estos datos fueron utilizados para estimar la proporción de sexo (a través de la observación macroscópica de las gónadas, el periodo reproductivo (a través de la distribución de la frecuencia de los estadios macroscópicos del desarrollo de los ovarios, y la media de la proporción del índice gonadosomático IGS de hembras, así como los hábitos alimentarios (a través de la observación del contenido estomacal. Para verificar las posibles relaciones entre los factores abióticos y el periodo reproductivo fue aplicada la correlación de Spearman. El software FiSAT (ELEFAN I fue utilizado para evaluar los parámetros de crecimiento, tasa de mortalidad e inferir el grado de explotación, en donde se usaron los datos de frecuencia de longitud estándar. La población de O. niloticus presento una proporción de sexo 1.3:1 (M:H. Los resultados indicaron que hembras fueron muestreadas durante todo el ano, pero ha sido más frecuente en el invierno-2004-59.0% (temperatura media=20.05°C y primavera-2004-60.5% (temperatura media=21.18°C. Los valores medios del IGS fueron: invierno-2004=1.71, primavera- 2004=1.72, verano-2005=0.80 y otoño-2005=1.19. La correlación de Spearman fue positiva para pH, oxigeno disuelto, conductividad eléctrica, transparencia y clorofila a, y negativo para temperatura, pluviosidad acumulada y variación del nivel del agua en el embalse. Los principales ítems de alimentación fueron fitoplancton y algas perifiticas observadas en 99.6% de los estómagos analizados. Los parámetros estimados del crecimiento y mortalidad fueron los siguientes: L∞=33.60cm, k=0.63/año, longevidad= 4.76 años, Z= 2.81/año, M=1.20/año y F=1.61año. La relación peso-longitud fue Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. Los valores de producción por reclutamiento estimado fueron=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 y E0.5=0.349. Estos resultados indican que la población de O. niloticus está bien establecida en el embalse de Barra Bonita. Además, su reproducción ocurre durante todo el ano, pero es más intensa en el invierno y primavera; su dieta tiene como base el fitoplancton. Los resultados indican que no está ocurriendo sobrepesca de O. niloticus, por tanto, recomendamos que, debido a su naturaleza exótica, no se tomen restricciones a la hora de su pesca.

  19. Effect of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate on growth and disease resistance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situmorang, Magdalena Lenny; De Schryver, Peter; Dierckens, Kristof; Bossier, Peter

    2016-01-15

    The growth promoting effect of the bacterial storage compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has been studied for young fish of high trophic level (European sea bass) and intermediate trophic level (Siberian sturgeon). Here, the effect of PHB on growth, digestive enzyme activities, body composition and diseases resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of low trophic level was investigated. Although dietary PHB supplementation (5, 25 and 50 g PHB kg(-1) formulated semi-purified diet) during 28 days resulted in a trend of increased weight gain, there was no significant difference in the mean final body weight (258-284 mg) when compared to the fish from the control group (on average 218 mg). Lipase activity increased significantly with about 20-40% by the supplementation of PHB in the diet, which may have led to the significant increase in total lipid content with about 10% in the PHB treatment groups. However, the profile of total (n-6) fatty acids (FAs), total monounsaturated FAs and total saturated FAs relative to the total lipid was similar among various PHB treatments. An additional challenge test on gnotobiotic Nile tilapia larvae using the pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri gly09R showed that feeding challenged larvae with PHB-enriched Artemia nauplii resulted in a 20% higher survival as compared to the challenged control larvae. Overall, it is suggested that the trend of increased body weight gain resulted from intestinal lipid digestion, absorption and deposition and that PHB is effective as an antimicrobial agent for application in Nile tilapia larviculture. PMID:26711027

  20. Effect of feeding different carbohydrate to lipid ratios on the growth performance and body composition of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings$^1$

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Amanat; Al-Asgah, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    Effets de divers régimes alimentaires à base de glucides et de lipides sur la croissance et la composition corporelle du Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerling. Cette étude avait pour but d'évaluer les performances de croissance et la composition corporelle du Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) alimenté avec différents régimes isoazotés et isoénergétiques (A, B, C, D, et E) contenant 18,27 à 40,37 % de glucides (CHO) et 8,14 à 19,53 % de lipides (LIP), dans des proportions CHO/LIP variant de...

  1. Energia digestível para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus na fase de reversão sexual Digestible energy for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus larvae in the sexual reversion phase

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    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na ração sobre o desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, durante a fase de reversão sexual. Foram utilizadas 375 larvas com peso e comprimento inicial de 21,0 ± 4,0 mg e 11,9 ± 7,2 mm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, composto por cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental foi considerada como um aquário contendo 15 larvas. As rações foram formuladas de modo a conterem 3.300; 3.525; 3.750; 3.975 e 4.200 kcal/kg de energia digestível e serem isoprotéicas (38,6% de proteína digestível. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum cinco vezes ao dia. Ao final do experimento, foram analisadas as médias de peso final (PF, sobrevivência (SO, fator de condição (FC e comprimento final (CF. O aumento de ED nas rações proporcionou redução linear no PF e CF dos peixes. Não foram observadas diferenças na SO e FC dos peixes nos diferentes tratamentos. Conclui-se que o aumento nos níveis de energia digestível em rações para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo durante a reversão sexual proporciona redução no desempenho.This experiment was conducted to evaluate different levels of digestible energy on the performance of Nile tilapia larvae (Oreochromis niloticus during the sexual reversion phase. Three hundred and seventy-five larvae with initial average length and weight of 21.0±4.0 mg and 1.19±0.72 cm, respectively, were allotted to 25 30L-aquarium. A completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates was used. The aquarium with 15 larvae was the experimental unit. The diets were formulated to contain levels of 3,300, 3,525, 3,750, 3,975, and 4,200 kcal/kg of digestible energy and to be isoprotein (38.6% digestible protein. The animals were fed ad libitum five times a day. At the end of the experiment, the averages of weight (PF, survival rate (SO, condition factor (FC and length (CF were analyzed. Linear reduction of fishes PF and CF, as the dietary digestible energy levels increased, was observed. No differences on fish SO and FC of different treatments were observed. Deleterious effects on performance due to the increasing dietary digestible energy levels were noticed for Nile tilapia larvae during the sexual reversion.

  2. Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    G. A Torres R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con el fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR, electrónica de transmisión (TEM y de barrido (MEB; como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca. Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos.The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminating pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

  3. Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vsceras e crislida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

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    Wilson Rogrio Boscolo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilizao de 5% de incluso das farinhas de peixe (FP, vsceras (FV, carne e ossos (FO, crislida (FC e controle (farelo de soja e milho como atractantes sobre o consumo de rao e desempenho de alevinos tilpia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 168 alevinos de tilpia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial mdio de 0,72 0,18g, distribudos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repeties, sendo a unidade experimental constituda por um aqurio de 50 L com sete animais. As raes foram formuladas com 32% de protena bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestvel/kg, sendo as mesmas isoproticas, isocalricas, isofbricas e isoaminoacdicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores mdios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A converso alimentar dos animais alimentados com rao contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porm no diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final mdio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, no diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivncia no diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que no seria necessria a utilizao dos alimentos testados, a 5% de incluso, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilpia do Nilo.The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, meat and bones meal (FO and silkworm meal (FC and a control (soybean meal and corn as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nile tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 0.18 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and five replications, where the experimental unit was constituted of a 50 L aquarium with seven animals. The diets were formulated with 32% of crude protein and 3000 kcal of digestible energy/kg, and were isoprotein, isoenergy, isofiber and isoaminoacid for lysine and methionine + cystine. Average values of weight gain in the control or FV and FP treatments as atractant were higher than the FC or FO treatments. Feed:gain ratio of the animals fed ration with FV was better than FC or FO treatment, however they did not differ significantly from the control and the FP treatments. Average animal final size fed the control treatment was higher than the FC treatment and did not differ from the others. Feed intake and survival rate did not differ among the treatments. It was concluded that it's not necessary to include the evaluated feeds, at a level of 5%, to estimulate feed intake or to promote Nile tilapia fingerlings growth.

  4. Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    A. M. Shalaby

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum, used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (71g/fish were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC, and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.

  5. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cylindrospermopsin and the effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine to prevent its toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Praena, D; Risalde, M A; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Vasconcelos, V; Cameán, A M

    2014-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several cyanobacteria species. It has been demonstrated that CYN is a potent protein and glutathione synthesis inhibitor, and induces genotoxicity and oxidative stress. The present study investigated the protective role of two different doses of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) (22 and 45 mg/fish/day) against the pathological changes induced in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) orally exposed to a single dose of pure CYN or CYN from an Aphanizomenon ovalisporum CYN-producer strain (200 μg/kg of CYN in both cases). Moreover, an immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was carried out in order to elucidate the CYN distribution in exposed fish. The histological findings were more pronounced when fish were intoxicated with CYN from the cyanobacterial strain, being liver and kidney the main targets for CYN toxicity. NAC pre-treatment was effective reducing the damage induced by CYN, especially at the highest dose employed (45 mg/fish/day), with a total prevention in all organs. The IHC analysis showed that CYN-antigen appeared mainly in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, although it was also present in kidney and gills. In this case, the immunopositive results were more abundant in those fish exposed to pure CYN. NAC reduced the number of immunopositive cases in a dose-dependent way. Therefore, NAC can be considered a useful chemoprotectant in the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxications in fish. PMID:24291634

  6. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A.; Mikhail, Wafai Z. A.; Abdo, Hanaa M.; Abou El Defan, Tarek A.; Poraas, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF) and scaled mass index (SMI). Metal pollution index (MPI) showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue) showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal's bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI) as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals' cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates. PMID:26617637

  7. Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    G. A Torres R; S González P; E Peña S

    2010-01-01

    La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con el fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos prima...

  8. Validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) resfriados embalados em atmosfera modificada e irradiados Shelf life of refrigerated tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus) packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Guerra Monteiro; Eliane Teixeira Mársico; Claudia Emília Teixeira; Sérgio Borges Mano; Carlos Adam Conte Júnior; Helio de Carvalho Vital

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos dos processos de irradiação (com dose de 1,5kGy) e embalagem em atmosfera modificada (60% N2 e 40% CO2), aplicados isoladamente ou combinados, na extensão da validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) resfriados. Nos experimentos, foram utilizados 120 filés separados em lotes, de acordo com o tratamento: (T1) embalagem em ar (controle), (T2) embalagem em atmosfera modificada, (T3) embalagem em ar e irradiação, (T...

  9. Custos de produo de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus) em um modelo de propriedade da regio oeste do Estado do Paran, Brasil Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paran, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Luiz Barboza de Andrade; Ricardo Luiz Wagner; Ilson Mahl; Ricardo Silveira Martins

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produo da piscicultura praticada na regio oeste do Paran. Os custos so apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se explorao comercial de uma rea de 24.000m, em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produo de 14,4t de tilpia (Oreochromis niloticus) por ciclo de produo, com o peso unitrio mdio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantao, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao ms) ...

  10. Determinacin y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en tilapia niltica (Oreochromis niloticus cultivada en Campeche, Mxico

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    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en granjas de tilapia niltica (Oreochromis niloticus en el Municipio de Champotn, Campeche, Mxico. Materiales y mtodos. La colecta de organismos se realiz en tres granjas de cultivo de tilapia niltica del municipio de Champotn, Campeche, Mxico. Los organismos se examinaron externa e internamente y se tom una muestra de rin la cual fue sembrada en forma de estra en medios de cultivo: Lwesntein-Jensen, TCBS, KF y en TSA; las placas fueron incubadas a 35C de 24 a 48 horas, los rganos fueron fijados en formalina tamponada al 10% para ser procesados para histologa de rutina para anlisis posteriores. Asimismo, muestras de cultivo bacteriolgico y de tejido fueron teidas con la tcnica de Ziel-Neelsen con el fin de observar la presencia de bacilos cido-alcohol resistentes. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la presencia de Mycobacterium spp., es constante y en alta prevalencia y puede ser un factor que este mermando la rentabilidad del cultivo. Conclusiones. La presencia de Mycobacterium spp., representa un riesgo para el cultivo de tilapia en el municipio de Champotn, por ser una enfermedad muy persistente y difcil de erradicar una vez ocurrido e brote de infeccin, por lo cual es importante llevar estudios ms detallados de la presencia de este gnero bacteriano, as como, medidas de prevencin y dispersin de este patgeno en los cultivos adyacentes.

  11. PCNA and apoptosis during post-spawning ovarian remodeling in the teleost Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rafael M C; Martins, Yuri S; Luz, Ronald K; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2015-12-01

    The balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis is crucial for tissue development and homeostasis. The present study investigated the contribution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and apoptosis during ovarian remodeling after spawning in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Breeding females were kept in controlled conditions and ovary samples were collected weekly for TUNEL assay, immunohistochemistry for PCNA and caspase-3 and morphometric analysis. During the follicular growth, PCNA labeled mainly the nuclei of oocytes and follicular cells in a high proportion of follicles especially in primary growth, while a low occurrence of apoptosis in follicular and theca cells was detected. At 0-3 days post-spawning, post-ovulatory follicles showed no proliferative activity, however the follicular cells exhibited high rates of apoptosis. At 7-10 days, PCNA labeled the thecal cells in a low proportion of post-ovulatory follicles, which showed follicular cells with lower rates of apoptosis. PCNA labeled mainly the theca in the advanced and late stages of atretic follicles, while the follicular cells exhibited a significant increase of apoptosis along follicular atresia. We concluded that PCNA and apoptosis work cooperatively to ensuring the success of follicle development and maintaining of tissue homeostasis during follicular growth. PCNA and apoptosis are also essential mechanisms in the follicular regression during post-spawning ovarian recovery in the Nile tilapia. PMID:26542933

  12. Induction of triploidy and tetraploidy in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, A.-R.A.; Davis, K.B.; Jenkins, J.A.; Les, Torrans E.

    1999-01-01

    Induction of triploidy and tetraploidy in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated by heat shock, cold shock, hydrostatic pressure, and/ or chemicals (cytochalasin A, B, and D). Additionally, efficacy of combined protocols was determined. Heat shock 10 min after fertilization induced triploidy when incubation temperature was 24 C but not when incubation temperature was 31 C. Heat shock of 40-41 C at 4-6 min after fertilization was effective in inducing up to 100% triploidy with hatchability similar to controls. Cold shock at 13 C for 45 min five min after fertilization induced 85-100% triploids. Heat shock and multiple heat shocking were the most effective treatments for the induction of tetraploidy. Two heat treatments of 41 C applied at 65 and 80 min after fertilization for 5 min each produced approximately 80% tetraploidy in hatched fry. Immersion of fertilized eggs in cytochalasin A, B, or D at concentrations up to 10 ??g/L applied at various times and durations was ineffective in inducing triploidy or tetraploidy.

  13. EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE ESTOCAGEM NA SEGUNDA ALEVINAGEM DE TILPIA NILTICA (Oreochromis niloticus, EM SISTEMA RACEWAY

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    Ndia Pales Machado

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as densidades de estocagem na segunda alevinagem de tilpia niltica (Oreochromis niloticus em sistema raceways. O experimento foi realizado de novembro a dezembro de 2003, no Setor de Piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Gois, totalizando 35 dias. Utilizaram-se doze tanques de 90 L, com troca de gua a cada sessenta minutos no incio e 45 minutos no final. O peso inicial dos alevinos era de 8,04 1,81 g. Avaliaram-se as seguintes densidades: 700 alevinos/m3; 1.000 alevinos/m3 e 1.300 alevinos/m3,, segundo as variveis mortalidade; peso final; comprimento final; biomassa final; converso alimentar aparente; ganho de peso; ganho de peso dirio;taxa de eficincia protica; taxa de crescimento especfico e fator de condio. Para tanto, fez-se uso do teste Tukey e anlise de varincia, com 95% de confiana. O tratamento intermedirio e com a maior densidade apresentaram biomassa final significativamente maior (p<0,05 que o tratamento com a menor densidade. As demais variveis no apresentaram diferenas significativas entre os tratamentos (p>0,05, sendo que o oxignio dissolvido atingiu valores crticos ao final. A mortalidade no incio da pesquisa diminuiu a densidade populacional, com produtividade semelhante entre os tratamentos, uma vez que no se atingiu o limite mximo de suporte desse sistema de produo. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Densidade de estocagem, raceway, segunda alevinagem, tilpia

  14. The effects of COX2-inhibitors (etoricoxib and etodolac on growth rate and mortality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Mutaz A. Al-Qutob

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs represent one of the most commonly detectedcompounds in sewage treatment plant (STP effluent and surface water with scarce informationconcerning possible ecotoxicological risks. As in mammals, COX has been shown to play a role inreproduction in fish. Since studies on human breast cancer cells showed that COXs-inhibitors decreasedaromatase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression at the transcriptional level we tested theeffects of supplementation of COX2-inhibitors (etodolac and etoricoxib in the diet of fry tilapia on growthrate and mortality during the crucial period of sexual differentiation. Highlight on etoricoxibpharmacokinetics was carried out by determination of etoricoxib in fish feces using reversed-phase HighPerformance Liquid Chromatography (RF-HPLC with Evaporative Light Scattering and Photo Diode arraydetector (ELSD-PDA system. At an age of 8 days post-hatched, 30 genetically mixed population ofOreochromis niloticus larvae were stocked in duplicate, into 45 L aquariums in a closed system for sixmonths. Treatments included 5 different experimental diets including, respectively, 0.5% etodolac, 1%etodolac, 2% etodolac, 0.5% etoricoxib, and 1% etoricoxib concentrations and one standard diet servingas control with two repeats for each group from 0.5% groups of diets. Fish were fed experimental dietsfor 8 weeks and were changed to control diet after. Another experiment was conducted using 10 adultsmixed population stocked in triplicate in a closed system and treated as above. Growth rates (GR weresignificantly affected with the highest growth rate obtained with the 0.5% etodolac. However, noincrease or decrease in growth was observed in mixed adults population. GR increased with increasingconcentrations with the highest GR in the aquarium treated with 2% etodolac, followed by 1% etodolac,but 1% etoricoxib showed a decreased GR compared to standard which could indicates a toxic potentialtoward fish at this concentration. No etoricoxib peak was detected on HPLC in feces samples whichreflected, that, it was well absorbed by tilapias, extensively metabolized with no unchanged fractionexcreted, or may undergo enter hepatic circulation, increasing further its toxic potential. No mortalitywas observed in adults mixed population. Mortality rates were 3.7% with 0.5% etodolac, 10% with 0.5%etoricoxib, 30% with 1% etodolac, 37%with 1%etoricoxib, and 50% with 2% etodolac treatments,respectively. It is clear evident that even administration of high concentrations of these drugs was welltolerated by fish.

  15. Effect of dietary probiotic dose and duration on immune and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Maria Amélia Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics, “living organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host”, can contribute to a more sustainable aquaculture. Their administration through the diet or raising water can modulate the host immune status, improving their resistance towards infection. The antioxidant defence system of the organism is strongly related to immune system and previous studies reported enhancement in antioxidant status of shrimps and fish after probiotic administration, contributing to enhanced resistance towards infections. Nevertheless the information on oxidative stress parameters after probiotic administration in fish is still limited. The present work evaluates the effects of dietary probiotics supplementation on innate immune and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. A standard diet (27.5% CP, 8.2% CL, 19.6MJ.kg-1 DM was supplemented with a commercial multi-species probiotic (Bacillus sp., Pedicoccus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. at two concentrations: A1 (3 g.kg-1; 9 × 105 CFU.g-1 and A2 (6 g.kg-1; 2 × 106 CFU.g-1 and tested against an unsupplemented diet (A0. Fish (12.8 g were hand-fed the experimental diets (3 tanks/treatment; 20 animals per tank, 3 times a day, until visual satiation for 8 weeks. Animals were reared at 24ºC in a closed recirculating freshwater system. During the experiment, at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, blood, head-kidney and liver were sampled to study the following immunological and oxidative stress parameters: plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activity (expressed as ACH50, respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production of head-kidney leucocytes and liver lipid peroxidation (LPO, catalase (CAT, total glutathione (TG, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and glutathione reductase (GR activities. Respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production in head-kidney leucocytes were not significantly affected by probiotic treatment and the same was observed regarding plasmatic lysozyme activity. However ACH50 levels were significantly higher in fish fed the A2 diet (38.3 ± 15.3 U ml-1 when compared to fish fed A0 diet (24.7 ± 9.7 U ml-1 after the 8 weeks of feeding. The present data shows that dietary supplementation of multi-species probiotics induce some degree of immune stimulation, in a time and dose dependent manner. The oxidative stress status in liver, currently under analysis, will provide a more comprehensive outlook of probiotics effects.

  16. Survival and heavy metal accumulation of two Oreochromis niloticus (L.) strains exposed to mixtures of zinc, cadmium and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvin-Aralar, M L

    1994-05-30

    Two Nile tilapia strains of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) (Cichlidae, Teleostei) fingerlings were exposed to mixtures of zinc, cadmium and mercury. The two strains used were Chitralada or NIFI (originally from the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Thailand) and CLSU (from the Freshwater Aquaculture Center of the Central Luzon State University, The Philippines). Short-term (10 days) exposure to a metal mixture of 5 mg l-1 zinc (Zn), 0.5 mg l-1 cadmium (Cd) and 0.02 mg l-1 mercury (Hg) gave significantly higher survival percentage in the NIFI strain compared with the CLSU strain. Similar exposure conditions using larger and older fingerlings of the two strains also showed a slightly higher survival percentage in the NIFI strain but the difference was not significant. Prolonged exposure of the fingerlings to a lower concentration of the metal mixture (1.0 mg l-1 Zn, 0.1 mg l-1 Cd, 0.01 mg l-1 Hg) also resulted in similar survival percentages between the two strains at the end of the 60 days run. Whole body accumulation of Zn was significantly higher in CLSU than in NIFI after 14-day exposure to the low concentration metal mixture. There was no significant difference in the accumulation of Cd and Hg between the two strains. Of the three metals, Hg had the highest bioaccumulation factor (BF) which was approximately 900-1000, followed by Cd with 225-280 and Zn with 180-195 times the nominal concentration in the water. Concentration of Cd and Hg in fish tissues increased with exposure period while the concentration of Zn was maintained in NIFI and decreased in CLSU between the 6th and 14th day of exposure, suggesting that Zn (an essential element) accumulation maybe regulated by both strains. PMID:8016636

  17. Development of the islets, exocrine pancreas, and related ducts in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carol M; Pohajdak, Bill; Tam, Janet; Wright, James R

    2004-09-01

    Pancreatic development and the relationship of the islets with the pancreatic, hepatic, and bile ducts were studied in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, from hatching to the onset of maturity at 7 months. The number of islets formed during development was counted, using either serial sections or dithizone staining of isolated islets. There was a general increase in islet number with both age and size. Tilapia housed in individual tanks grew more quickly and had more islets than siblings of the same age left in crowded conditions. The pancreas is a compact organ in early development, and at 1 day posthatch (dph) a single principal islet, positive for all hormones tested (insulin, SST-14, SST-28, glucagon, and PYY), is partially surrounded by exocrine pancreas. However, the exocrine pancreas becomes more disseminated in older fish, following blood vessels along the mesenteries and entering the liver to form a hepatopancreas. The epithelium of the pancreatic duct system from the intercalated ducts to the main duct entering the duodenum was positive for glucagon and SST-14 in 8 and 16 dph tilapia. Individual insulin-immunopositive cells were found in one specimen. At this early stage in development, therefore, the pancreatic duct epithelial cells appear to be pluripotent and may give rise to the small islets found near the pancreatic ducts in 16-37 dph tilapia. Glucagon, SST-14, and some PPY-positive enteroendocrine cells were present in the intestine of the 8 dph larva and in the first part of the intestine of the 16 dph juvenile. Glucagon and SST-14-positive inclusions were found in the apical cytoplasm of the mid-gut epithelium of the 16 dph tilapia. These hormones may have been absorbed from the gut lumen, since they are produced in both the pancreatic ducts and the enteroendocrine cells. At least three hepatic ducts join the cystic duct to form the bile duct, which runs alongside the pancreatic duct to the duodenum. PMID:15281064

  18. Molecular characterization of Galectin-8 from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.) and its response to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unajak, Sasimanas; Pholmanee, Nutthida; Songtawee, Napat; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Srisapoome, Prapansak; Kiataramkul, Asama; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Areechon, Nontawith

    2015-12-01

    Galectins belong to the family of galactoside-binding proteins and play a major role in the immune and inflammatory responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. The galectin family is divided into three subtypes based on molecular structure; prototypes, chimera types, and tandem-repeated types. We isolated and characterized the cDNA of galectin-8 (OnGal-8) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). OnGal-8 consisted of a 966bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 321 amino acid protein (43.47kDa). Homology and phylogenetic tree analysis suggested the protein was clustered with galectin-8s from other animal species and shared at least 56.8% identity with salmon galectin-8. Structurally, the amino acid sequence included two distinct N- and C- terminus carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of 135 and 133 amino acids, respectively, that were connected by a 39 amino acid polypeptide linker. The N- and C-CRDs contained two conserved WG-E-I and WG-E-T motifs, suggesting they have an important role in mediating the specific interactions between OnGal-8 and saccharide moieties such as ?-galactoside. The structure of OnGal-8 was characterized by a two-fold symmetric pattern of 10-and 12-stranded antiparallel -sheets of both N- and C-CRDs, and the peptide linker presumably formed a random coil similar to the characteristic tandem-repeat type galectin. The expression of OnGal-8 in healthy fish was highest in the skin, intestine, and brain. Experimental challenge of Nile tilapia with S. agalactiae resulted in significant up-regulation of OnGal-8in the spleen after 5 d. Our results suggest that OnGal-8 is involved in the immune response to bacterial infection. PMID:26602818

  19. Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vieira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g, estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L, alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5. O ganho de peso (GDP e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%. Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L, kept under controlled environmental conditions inside 1000-L plastic pools, were fed to satiation, for 42 days, with purified diets supplemented with 0, 375, 750, 1125, 1500 or 1875 mg of choline chloride per kg of feed. Trial was set up in an incomplete, totally randomized block design (n=5. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and survival rate (S%; there were significant differences for weight gain (WG and food conversion ratio (FCR between the control and all the other treatments, but not between supplementation levels. A second trial (52 days evaluated the effects of higher rates of choline -- 1250 or 2500 mg per kg of feed, and the substitution of choline by betaine in the diets -- 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg of betaine per kg of feed. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and S%, but the FCR and WG of fish fed betaine-supplemented and control diets were significantly worse. There were no differences on the performance among groups fed the choline-supplemented diets. Supplementation of 375 mg of choline per kg of feed met nutritional requirements of Nile tilapia, and betaine did not substitute choline effectively in diets for the species.

  20. The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

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    TATIANA S FIUZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

  1. NUTRITIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF WATER HYACINTH LEAVES COMBINED WITH WHEAT BRAN AND COTTON SEED CAKE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

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    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to evaluate the different levels of water hyacinth plant leaves in the diet of Nile Tilapia and their effect on growth performance so as to eliminate the water hyacinth plant from the Nile and provide a cheap food for fish. In this experiment the dried water hyacinth leaves (Eicchornia crassipse, wheat bran and cotton seed cake were used in different ratio to formulate two experimental diets (A and B. Diet (A contains 70% wheat bran, 20% cotton seed cake and 10% water hyacinth leaves, while diet (B contains 65%, 20% cottons seed cake and 15% water hyacinth leaves. These diets were fed to studied fish with 5% per their body weight for 105 days. The results of this study revealed that the diet (A has higher growth performance on studied fish than those fed on diet (B. The results of food conversion ratio (FCR, 4.04 in diet (A and food conversion ratio (FCR, 5.73 in diet (B, and the increment of growth rate in fish fed with diet (A more efficient on the growth performance of studied fish than diet (B except in the case of protein efficiency rate (PER it's found to be more in diet (A than diet (B. It was concluded that the diet (A had better growth performance than diet (B on the feeding regime of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

  2. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  3. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for using oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) as partial replacements of fishmeal in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutrient digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion rates were examined. A......-based control diets. Overall, the study confirmed the potential of using copra and palm kernel meals to partially replace fishmeal in Nile tilapia diets based on their effects on short-term growth and feed utilization, nutrient digestibilities and lower ammonia excretion rates, while soybean meal in an...... unrefined form is not a promising replacement for fishmeal in tilapia diets....

  4. Effect of salinity and feed sterilization in interactions between gut and water microbial communities in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Catarina Marcelino Costa

    2010-01-01

    Algumas espécies de Tilápia, como Oreochromis niloticus, são consideradas boas candidatas à cultura em água salobra devido à sua tolerância à salinidade e às suas boas performances de crescimento. Neste relatório, foi testado o efeito da salinidade na dominância bacteriana no intestino de peixe, assim como a sua relação com as comunidades microbiológicas presentes na água e no alimento. O efeito de uma dieta livre de bactérias foi comparado ao de uma dieta regular, com objectivo de verificar ...

  5. Custos de produo de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus) em um modelo de propriedade da regio oeste do Estado do Paran, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Rafael Luiz Barboza de; Wagner Ricardo Luiz; Mahl Ilson; Martins Ricardo Silveira

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produo da piscicultura praticada na regio oeste do Paran. Os custos so apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se explorao comercial de uma rea de 24.000m, em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produo de 14,4t de tilpia (Oreochromis niloticus) por ciclo de produo, com o peso unitrio mdio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantao, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao ms) ...

  6. Determining the safety and suitability of fluorescein dye for characterization of skin ulcerations in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to identify the presence of lesions in fish skin as soon as they erupt. Fish skin lesions are either macroscopic (can be visualized by the naked eye or microscopic (difficult to detect with the naked eye. Skin wounds resulting in loss of the epithelium (superficial or deep ulcers are serious as they may interfere with osmoregulation and open portals for opportunistic pathogens. Herein, we report on the use of a fluorescein dye for the detection of skin ulcers that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Due to their importance in aquaculture endeavors in Egypt, this study focused on two indigenous species, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the scale-less African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Fluorescein dye was tested for safety to fish without interfering with microbiological analysis. Parallel to the use of the flourescein dye, the detected ulcers were examined for the presence of bacteria or tissue alterations. Further, we experimentally induced the formation of skin ulcers in O. niloticus physically or by injecting Aeromons hydrophila, and then assessed the utility of fluorescein dye in detecting the induced skin lesions. Results obtained in this study demonstrated that fluorescein dye application is harmless to Nile tilapia at concentrations up to 0.5 mg fluorescein/ml water for up to 15 min. Indeed, a low dose of fluorescein (0.10 mg/ml for 5 min could identify very minute skin abrasions. We highly recommend the use of fluorescein dye for the evaluation of skin health in farmed fish species and the visualization of minute skin abrasions.

  7. Growth, body composition, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureaus, fed diets containing various levels of linoleic and linolenic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of various levels of dietary linoleic (LA) and linolenic acids (LN) on growth, body proximate and fatty acid composition, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile, sex-reversed all-male hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. areaus, were evaluated. A basal pu...

  8. Production algale et consommation par le Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., au Lac Muhazi (Rwanda. Résumé de thèse de doctorat

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    Mukankomeje, R.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda. The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  9. Effects of dietary levels of vitamin A on growth, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental levels of vitamin A (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 IU/kg diet) on the growth performance, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Each diet was fed to Nil...

  10. HYPOXIC CONDITIONS INDUCE HSP70 PRODUCTION IN THE BLOOD, BRAIN AND HEAD KIDNEY OF JUVENILE NILE TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS(L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The levels of constitutive and inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was measured in blood, brain, liver, muscle and head kidney tissues of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), subjected to increasingly severe hypoxic stress (dissolved oxygen ~ 4.9 - 0.1 mg L-1) for 48 h. A highly sig...

  11. Ecotoxicity of natural insecticide based on tobacco plant extract and hematological effects on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicity and hematological effects of a natural insecticide based on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum extract on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.14131

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    Marisa Narciso Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural insecticides derived from plant extracts have been used as an alternative to synthetic products in order to reduce environmental contamination. The present study aimed to examine the effects of Fumydro®, a natural insecticide based in the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus by determining the 48-h LC50 and evaluating their effects on hematological variables. Adult specimens of O. niloticus were exposed to four Fumydro® concentrations (200, 300, 400 and 500 μL L-1. The 48-h LC50 of Fumydro® was determined as 370 ± 50 μL L-1. Surviving fish showed increasing in the red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The thrombocytes did not change but the percentage of neutrophils increased. These results indicated that the insecticide Fumydro® is toxic to Nile tilapia and the changes of the erythrocyte variables suggested hypoxemia induction with low effect on the immune system.Natural insecticides from plant extracts represent an alternative to the highly toxic synthetic products in order to reduce environmental contamination; however some might also be toxic for non-target organisms. The present study determined the 50% lethal concentration (48h; LC50 for adults Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to the natural insecticide Fumydro®, based on the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum, and evaluated its effect on hematological variables. After preliminary tests, adult specimens of O. niloticus were exposed to four Fumydro® concentrations (200, 300, 400 and 500 μL L-1. The 48h; LC50 of Fumydro® was determined at 370 ± 50 μL L-1. The surviving fish after exposure to Fumydro® showed an increase in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The number of thrombocytes and leukocytes has not changed, unlike the differential leukocyte count that presented an increased percentage of neutrophils. The results indicated that the insecticide Fumydro® is highly toxic to Nile tilapia and changes in erythrocyte variables suggested the induction to hypoxemia with low effect on the immune system.

  12. Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae

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    Marco A. Lin-Cabello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (approximately 5.0cm in length were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH; b fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R; c fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH; and d fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N. The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T, and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K; survival percentage (S, feed conversion rate (FCR, percentage weight gain (WG and (v daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group, being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (pActualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interaccin de la hormona del crecimiento (HC con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT. En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.0cm de longitud, fueron asignados al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque, en un perodo de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH, b peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adicin de HC (R, c los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH, y d los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N. La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra, se inyect en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfomtricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T y en los das 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T, Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condicin (K, porcentaje de supervivencia (S, la tasa de conversin alimenticia (FCR, porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP y el aumento de peso al da. El nivel ptimo diettico fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversin de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de protena. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyeccin de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH, y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p<0.05 para ambas comparaciones. De manera similar, los altos valores de K se presentaron en los tratamientos R y RGH durante los primeros das de cultivo. Esto puede haber sido asociado con un mejor estado nutricional que afect tanto el desarrollo de peso y la longitud del cuerpo del pez, como resultado del efecto aditivo de 17-MT y GH. Los tratamientos no andrgenos y los grupos tratados con andrgenos y con HC mostraron un mayor incremento en la ganancia de peso por da, los mayores valores de K y menores tasas de conversin del alimento, lo que sugiere una mayor eficiencia de la alimentacin en los peces tratados con hormonas. Peces en el tratamiento RGH mostraron el mayor crecimiento, lo que sugiere una posible interaccin entre el 17 de ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT y hormona de crecimiento inyectada.

  13. Ameliorative effects of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract and Vitamin C on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anazi, Marim Saleh; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai; Siddiqui, Muzammil Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    The present studywas undertaken to assess the bioaccumulation potential of cadmium in liver, kidney, gills and muscles of freshwater fish, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney with or without simultaneous treatment with waterborne vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. Adult tilapia were divided into seven groups. Six groups were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd, three groups to 5 ppm, while other three to 10 ppm. Two groups from each of the Cd exposed groups were treated with Vitamin C (5ppm) and rosemary leaf extract (2.5 ppm) for a period of 21 days. Cadmium concentration in liver, kidneys and gills was significantly higher in the cadmium exposed groups being invariably high in the groups exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O.Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced cadmium concentration in comparison to non-treated Cd exposed groups. Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced oxidative stress in Cd exposed fish as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and reduced activity of catalase and higher activity of superoxide dismutase in liver and kidney as compared to control fish. Reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress and bioaccumulation was comparable between the two antioxidant treatments, Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. The key findings suggest that both the antioxidants used showed ameliorative potential to reduce tissue accumulation of Cd and associated oxidative stress in fresh water fish, Nile tilapia. PMID:26688980

  14. Histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to long-term sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab; Al-Asgah, Nasser; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-07-01

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 mg/L cadmium (as CdCl2), which represent 10%, 20%, and 30% of their previously determined 96-h LC50. After exposure for 20 days, sections of the liver and intestine of treated fish were examined histologically. Histopathological changes varied from slight to severe structural modification, depending on the exposure concentration. The hepatic tissues of fish exposed to 10% LC50 showed markedly increased vacuolation of the hepatocytes and coarse granulation of their cytoplasm. Abundant erythrocytic infiltration among the hepatocytes was observed in fish exposed to 20% LC50. In the intestinal tissues of fish exposed to all doses, goblet cells proliferated and were greatly increased in size, the longitudinal muscularis mucosa was disturbed and, in the crypts of the sub-mucosal layer, apoptosis increased, indicated by large numbers of degenerated nuclei. Large numbers of inflammatory cells and dilated blood vessels were observed in the intestine of the group treated with 30% LC50.

  15. Spatial and temporal variation in population genetic structure of wild Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus across Africa

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    Bezault Etienne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructing the evolutionary history of a species is challenging. It often depends not only on the past biogeographic and climatic events but also the contemporary and ecological factors, such as current connectivity and habitat heterogeneity. In fact, these factors might interact with each other and shape the current species distribution. However, to what extent the current population genetic structure reflects the past and the contemporary factors is largely unknown. Here we investigated spatio-temporal genetic structures of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus populations, across their natural distribution in Africa. While its large biogeographic distribution can cause genetic differentiation at the paleo-biogeographic scales, its restricted dispersal capacity might induce a strong genetic structure at micro-geographic scales. Results Using nine microsatellite loci and 350 samples from ten natural populations, we found the highest genetic differentiation among the three ichthyofaunal provinces and regions (Ethiopian, Nilotic and Sudano-Sahelian (RST = 0.38 - 0.69. This result suggests the predominant effect of paleo-geographic events at macro-geographic scale. In addition, intermediate divergences were found between rivers and lakes within the regions, presumably reflecting relatively recent interruptions of gene flow between hydrographic basins (RST = 0.24 - 0.32. The lowest differentiations were observed among connected populations within a basin (RST = 0.015 in the Volta basin. Comparison of temporal sample series revealed subtle changes in the gene pools in a few generations (F = 0 - 0.053. The estimated effective population sizes were 23 - 143 and the estimated migration rate was moderate (m ~ 0.094 - 0.097 in the Volta populations. Conclusions This study revealed clear hierarchical patterns of the population genetic structuring of O. niloticus in Africa. The effects of paleo-geographic and climatic events were predominant at macro-geographic scale, and the significant effect of geographic connectivity was detected at micro-geographic scale. The estimated effective population size, the moderate level of dispersal and the rapid temporal change in genetic composition might reflect a potential effect of life history strategy on population dynamics. This hypothesis deserves further investigation. The dynamic pattern revealed at micro-geographic and temporal scales appears important from a genetic resource management as well as from a biodiversity conservation point of view.

  16. Stressful and behavioral conditions that affect reversible cardiac arrest in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Liliam Midori; Hoffmann, Anette

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the reversible cardiac arrest (RCA) to visual stimuli in the unrestrained Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as well as the modulation of this response and its behavioral component (arousal/orientation or startle response) by external and internal factors that interfere with alertness and emotionality. The study was preceded by the determination of the autonomic receptors that contribute to the establishment of the heart rate (HR) and the RCA. Systemic injection of atropine and propranolol showed that a double cardiac autonomic control is present in the tilapia. Basal HR was 79.8+/-1.8 beats min(-1) and HR assessed after double autonomic blockade was 74.1+/-3.3 beats min(-1). The mean interbeat interval was 0.79+/-0.40 s during baseline recording and the magnitude of RCA induced by a moving shadow (2.67+/-0.22 s) was higher than that induced by light (1.53+/-1.11 s). RCA is peripherally mediated by muscarinic receptors for it is abolished by atropine but not by propranolol. Stressful conditions like handling the animal outside the water or a nociceptive stimulus (subcutaneous 2% or 3% formalin injection) reduced the cardiac interbeat interval. A subanesthetic dose of barbiturate (5 mg kg(-1)) inhibited RCA induced by a moving shadow stimulus and the startle response, suggesting that an ideal degree of vigilance is necessary for its occurrence. Benzodiazepine injections (1.0 and 2.0 mg kg(-1)) abolished the reduction in magnitude of RCA induced by handling stress and facilitated the startle response, seen in the dry-cold season, in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that drugs that act on alertness and on emotionality modulate the magnitude of cardiac interbeat intervals and the corresponding behavioral response. PMID:11890960

  17. Production of oocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for in vitro fertilization via hormonal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A F A; Alvarenga, É R; Oliveira, D A A; Aleixo, C G; Prado, S A; Luz, R K; Sarmento, N L A F; Teixeira, E A; Luz, M R; Turra, E M

    2013-12-01

    Only a few studies have described hormonal treatments for induction of synchronicity and gamete collection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), both important for assortative matings in breeding programmes and essential for polyploidy technologies. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of carp pituitary extract (CPE), Nile tilapia pituitary extract (TPE), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) protocols on the induction of spawning and egg production in Nile tilapia. Among the hormonal treatments analysed, only hCG was effective for producing viable gametes for in vitro fertilization. To verify the viability of this hormonal treatment, hCG was tested using different doses (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 IU/kg) in a large number of females (208 animals) from two Nile tilapia lines. The results indicated that hCG doses between 1000 and 5000 IU/kg could be used to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia with collection of stripped oocytes. This is the first study to report differential reproductive responses to hormonal treatment between tilapia lines: line 1 was more efficient at producing eggs and post-hatching larvae after hCG induction than line 2. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hCG protocol may be applied on a large scale to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia. The development of a protocol for in vitro fertilization in Nile tilapia may aid in breeding programmes and biotechnological assays for the development of genetically modified lines of Nile tilapia. PMID:23834584

  18. In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the river Nile: II. Detection of DNA strand-breakage and apoptosis in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alaa G M; Abuel-Fadl, Khaled Y; Kloas, Werner

    2012-08-30

    This work is part of a wider eco-toxicological study proposed to evaluate the biological impact of contaminants along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. Here we present data on the presence of DNA strand-breaks and apoptotic cells assessed by use of comet and diffusion assays in erythrocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The results showed high degrees of DNA damage and increased frequencies of apoptotic nuclei in blood of fish collected from downstream compared with those sampled from upstream river Nile. Qualitative analysis revealed a shift in the frequency of DNA-damage classes towards higher damage levels correlating with the increasing pollution gradient. The degree of DNA damage measured by use of comet assay and diffusion assay exhibited seasonal variations. Both fish species showed significant increases in DNA damage during the summer. The results of our study indicated that the alkaline comet assay seems to be a useful technique for in situ genotoxic monitoring. At the same time the diffusion assay is sensitive enough to detect low frequencies of apoptotic nuclei. The results reveal species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared with the African catfish. Based on the outcome of the comet and diffusion assays, it can be concluded that the water quality of the river Nile with respect to the presence of genotoxic compounds needs to be improved, especially in its estuaries. As far as we know this is the first time that the comet and diffusion assays are used for genotoxic monitoring of the river Nile. PMID:22525358

  19. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus O. mossambicus

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    Siriporn Tola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mgkg?1 on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mgkg?1. Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p < 0.05. Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05. Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus spp. group B in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in hapas nets and earth nurseries in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil

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    Salvador Rogério

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Streptococcus spp. in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in net-pens and earth nurseries. Eight intensive tilapia-rearing farms were investigated in north Paraná, Brazil from April 1st 2001 to April 30th 2002. The fish were reared in a system of hapas nets on four farms and in earth nurseries on other four farms. A total of 370 samples were analyzed of material collected from 120 fish (brain, liver, kidney, skin scrapes, ascites liquid and eye that were sown on BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract and sheep blood. Streptococcus spp. was isolated in 36 of the samples (18 brain, eight liver, eight kidney and two ascites liquid from 25 fish. Streptococci were isolated in both systems, almost in the same proportion. First the streptococci were characterized by the catalase and esculin test, growth in methylene blue and sodium chloride at 6.5%. They were classified in groups by the Slidex Strepto-Kit (BioMerieux, France. The phenotypic characteristics were determined by the Api 20 Strep microtest system (BioMerieux, France. The 36 Streptococcus spp. samples did not present hemolysis and were classified as Lancefield group B. Further 16 samples were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae and 20 were not identified by the Api 20 Strep, but presented the same biochemical profile described for the reference strain of Streptococcus difficile (ND-2-22.

  1. Comparing the Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel, Diesel and 5% Biodiesel/Diesel Blend on Oreochromis niloticus Using Histological Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; da Cruz, Andr Lus; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon Arajo; Yamashita, Sayuri Rocha; Carqueija, Csar Roberto Goes; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade

    2015-11-01

    This study estimated end compared the potential toxic effects of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of biodiesel (B100), diesel and the commercial biodiesel (B5) on Oreochromis niloticus. After a 24 h-exposition to WSF-0% (control) and WSF-serial concentrations of 4.6%, 10%, 22%, 46% and 100%, samples of gill and liver of the exposed fishes were fixed in Bouin's solution, processed, stained using hematoxylin/eosin and analyzed by light-microscopy. WSF-hydrocarbons and methanol contents, analyzed by gas chromatography, were checked against the occurrence of abnormal histopathological alterations. These were not found in the control and WSF-4.6% exposed fishes, while exposures to or above 10%-WSF resulted in histopathological alterations whose severity increased in a dose-dependent manner, being higher in fishes exposed to WSF-diesel, or WSF-B5 when compared to biodiesel. These results, which were corroborated by the chemical analyses, highlighted the histological technique as an appropriate diagnostic tool that can be used for the preservation of water bodies' quality. PMID:26358645

  2. EFEITO DO LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

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    José Luís Pedreira Mouriño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided into two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

  3. Effects on growth and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as total replacement of fish meal without amino acid supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish meal (FM) is the main protein source in numerous aquaculture diets due to its palatability and quality. Quantities of FM have remained constant for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in diets used for the global aquaculture industry. Ther...

  4. The influence of social status on the rate of growth, eye color pattern and insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Cruz, Emmanuel M; Brown, Christopher L

    2007-05-01

    Many aspects of teleost physiology are subject to regulation by social interactions. To evaluate the relationship of social status with growth, eye color pattern and hepatic Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA expression, 30 Oreochromis niloticus were isolated for 10 days and were used in a social pair study. Results revealed that growth of both dominant (except 1 day after social interaction) and subordinate individuals was suppressed, but growth suppression was greater in the subordinates. The dominant fish completely inhibited the feeding of the subordinate individuals during and 1 day after they were introduced into the aquaria together. After that, a pattern of highly aggressive attacks by dominant fish only partially inhibited feeding by the subordinates. Differential alterations in growth rate between dominants and subordinates were attributed more to behavioral changes (i.e., feeding) as transduced by physiological regulators (i.e., IGF-I level and possibly serotonin and/or neuropeptide Y) but may also be due to changes in metabolism. The fish's relative position in the social hierarchy consistently influenced the levels of IGF-I mRNA in the liver and the eye color pattern. Lower social status depressed hepatic IGF-I levels while dominant status stimulated hepatic IGF-I production, possibly in response to inhibition of somatostatin release in the hypothalamus, leading to greater secretion of pituitary growth hormone (GH). A significant positive association was detected between the IGF-I mRNA expression of the dominant fish and the level of aggression (number of attacks) during the encounter. Social status also influenced the eye color pattern of the fish. During aggressive interactions, most of the fish (22 out of 24) displayed decreased eye darkening. At the later part of the encounter, all subsequent subordinates displayed eye-darkening patterns which acted as a social signal announcing social submission. After the encounter dominant fish had paler eye color pattern than subordinates. PMID:17462644

  5. The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Binga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum indicum and raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa replaced fishmeal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 30, 70 and 100% test materials inclusion levels. Each dietary treatment was randomly duplicated in tanks stocked with twenty fingerlings (2.71 0.003 g and fed three times (08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h to satiation for 56 days. The result revealed best live weight gain and feed utilization in the fish fed diet D4 followed by diet D1 and D3 with the least value recorded in fish fed diet D2 level. Generally, there was significant increase (p4 and control. The result supports the suggestion that tilapia can be fed with mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed and raw African locust bean which is hoped will reduce tremendously the over dependence on fishmeal protein and human utilization of the very scarce fish meal.

  6. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. PMID:25804486

  7. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacfico seco de Costa Rica

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    Donald Arguedas Corts

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parsito trematodo zoontico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonmico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrpodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposicin experimental se demostr que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, despus del examen clnico, anatomopatolgico y parasitolgico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extradas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solucin salina fisiolgica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y despus esquematizadas con una cmara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotnico, estimndose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinndose as el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parsito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

  8. Molecular characterization, functional analysis, and defense mechanisms of two CC chemokines in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to severely pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakharuthai, Chatsirin; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-06-01

    Two full-length cDNAs encoding CC chemokine genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (On-CC1 and On-CC2) were cloned and characterized. On-CC1 and On-CC2 showed signature cysteine motifs consisting of four cysteines. The expression levels of On-CC1 and On-CC2 were analyzed by RT-PCR, which showed that low expression of these two genes was only observed in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and spleen of normal fish. Expression levels of these two molecules were quantified in 13 tissues of fish infected with virulent strains of Streptococcus agalactiae and Flavobacterium columnare. Most tissues, especially PBLs, the spleen and the liver, expressed significantly higher mRNA levels than the controls, particularly at 12 and 24 h after infection (P analysis and searching in Ensembl databases demonstrated that two different functional CC chemokine genes and other pseudogene fragments were discovered in the Nile tilapia genome. PMID:26853931

  9. The protective effect of vitamin E against changes in fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses in gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Elif Ipek; Bayar, Ahmet Serhat; Kizmaz, Veysi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of deltamethrin on the fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses (phosphatidylchlonine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositole (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS)) in gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) and the possible protective effect of vitamin E against deltamethrin were determined by gas chromatography. The changes in the fatty acid profile were analysed after 14 d of exposure. Treatments included Group I (fed with basal diet only), Group II (fed with vitamin E-supplemented diet), Group III (fed with basal diet and exposed to deltamethrin) and Group IV (fed with vitamin E-supplemented diet and exposed to deltamethrin). The effects of deltamethrin on PI, PE and PS were valid for the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The effect on PC was detected in total SFAs and total PUFAs. The vitamin E-supplemented diet did not show complete protective effect on fatty acid composition of the fish exposed to deltamethrin. However, the protective effect was observed in total SFAs, total MUFAs and total PUFAs in PC. In PI, protective effect was only recorded on total PUFAs. There was no protective effect in PS and PE. The results of the present study demonstrated that deltametrin exposure had harmful effects on cell membrane and treatment with vitamin E could only partially protect fish gills. PMID:26766025

  10. RNA/DNA ratio and LPL and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus fed with elevated levels of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayisi, Christian Larbi; Zhao, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Palm oil is of great potential as one of the sustainable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds. In this present study, five isonitrogenous diets (32% crude protein) with elevated palm oil levels of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used during an 8-week feeding trial to evaluate its effects on RNA/DNA ratio and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus. The results showed that RNA, DNA content as well as ratio of RNA to DNA were significantly affected ( P muscle were not significantly affected by the different palm oil levels, although the highest expression was observed in fish fed with 6% palm oil level. There also existed a strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression of LPL, MyoD and SGR, PER, while their correlation with FCR was negative. In conclusion, elevated palm oil affected the RNA, DNA concentration as well as RNA/DNA ratio significantly, although the mRNA expression of LPL and MyoD were not affected significantly by elevated palm oil levels.

  11. Exigência de lisina pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), na fase de terminação Lysine requirement of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), for grow-out phase

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Daniele Botaro; Patrícia Ribeiro Neves; Lilian Carolina Rosa Silva; Carmino Hayashi

    2004-01-01

    O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de lisina pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Setenta e dois peixes revertidos sexualmente e com peso vivo médio inicial de 117,9 ± 0,67g foram alimentados por 50 dias com quatro rações (25% proteína bruta e 3090kcal de energia digestível kg-1) contendo diferentes teores de inclusão de L-Lisina HCl: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7%, correspondente a rações com 1,13; 1,27; 1,42 e 1,57% de lisina, respectivamente. Os peixes foram ...

  12. Processing yield of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: head cut types and two weight classes Rendimento do processamento da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus: tipos de corte da cabeça em duas categorias de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the best type of head cut of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus resulting in better fillet processing yields. The experiment was carried out at the Pisciculture Station of UEM/Codapar, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. One hundred and twenty specimens were slaughtered, head cut, eviscerated, and had their fin, skin and fillet removed. The fillet processing was undertaken by a single person. Plotting was completely randomized by a 2x3 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of two weight categories ( W1=250-400g and W2=401-550g and three types of head cut (C1=oblique, OB; C2=Contour, CO, and C3=strainght, ST, with 20 replicates. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Mean values of yield were expressed in relation to fish body weight. There was an influence of head cut types and weight categories on the dressed out and fillet yield. The yields in W2 (OB=50.42%, 35.27%; CO=50.70%, 35.18% and ST=48.50%, 33.82% were higher (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o melhor tipo de corte de cabeça para decapitação da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, que resulte em melhores rendimentos de filetagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação de Piscicultura da UEM/Codapar, Maringá, PR. Foram abatidos 120 exemplares cortadas as cabeças, eviscerados, removidas as nadadeiras, pele e filés. O processo de filetagem foi realizado por uma única pessoa. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3. Os tratamentos foram: duas categorias de peso (P1= 250-400 g e P2= 401-550 g e três tipos de corte de cabeça (C1=oblíquo, OB; C2=contornado, CO e C3=reto, RE, com 20 repetições. Cada peixe foi considerado a unidade experimental. Os valores médios de rendimento foram expressos em relação ao peso corporal do peixe. Houve influência do tipo de corte e categoria de peso sobre o rendimento do tronco limpo e filé. Os rendimentos em P2 (OB=50,42%, 35,27%; CO=50,70%, 35,18% e RE=48,50%, 33,82% foram superiores (p 1 (OB=47,35%, 32,64%; CO=47,65%, 31,86% e RE=40,79, 27,72% para tronco e filé, respectivamente. Dentro da menor categoria de peso (P1, os rendimentos de tronco e filé foram influenciados (p 1 (57,13%; 2,45% e 3,75%, respectivamente para as características analisadas. Além disso, a categoria de peso não influenciou a percentagem de pele e outros resíduos, exceto a da cabeça (p 1 foi significativamente superior (30,67% e inferior para P2 (27,07%. Por outro lado, o rendimento e percentagem de subprodutos foram influenciados (p < 0,05 pelo tipo de corte de cabeça, com CO mostrando melhores rendimentos para carcaça sem cabeça (62,47% e músculo abdominal ventral (4,33% e porcentagem de pele (5,99%; e menores percentagens de cabeça (24,79% em comparação ao OB e RE. Não houve influência do corte no músculo hipaxial profundo (OB=4,01%, CO=4,36% e RE=4,03%. Os resultados sugerem que, nestas condições de filetagem, os peixes acima de 400 g de peso corporal são os mais indicados para serem abatidos, utilizando-se o corte contornado e oblíquo para obtenção dos melhores rendimentos de filé e tronco limpo para tilápia.

  13. Lack of association between Flavobacterium columnare genomovar and virulence in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) x Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease can be problematic in tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) production. An understanding of the pathogenesis and virulence of F. columnare is needed for the development of prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the virulence of genetically defined isolates of Fl...

  14. Dietary administration of a commercial mixed-species probiotic improves growth performance and modulates the intestinal immunity of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, B T; Peggs, D L; Rawling, M D; Foey, A; Davies, S J; Santos, G A; Merrifield, D L

    2016-02-01

    The growth performance, immunological status, intestinal morphology and microbiology of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were investigated after dietary administration of the commercial probiotic AquaStar() Growout. Tilapia (29.020.33g) were split into five treatments; control (CON), 1.5gkg(-1) probiotic (PRO-1.5), 3gkg(-1) probiotic (PRO-3), pulsed probiotic feeding (PRO-PULSE) or an initial probiotic feed followed by control feeding (PRO-INI). After six weeks of experimental feeding, fish fed PRO-3 displayed significantly higher final weight, weight gain and SGR compared to the CON or PRO-INI treatments. Supplementation of the probiotic at this dose induced an up-regulation of intestinal caspase-3, PCNA and HSP70 mRNA levels compared to the CON fed fish. Immuno-modulatory pathways were also affected; significantly higher expression of TLR2, pro-inflammatory genes TNF? and IL-1?, and anti-inflammatory genes IL-10 and TGF? suggest that the probiotic may potentiate a higher state of mucosal tolerance and immuno-readiness. Histological appraisal revealed significantly higher numbers of intraepithelial leucocytes in the intestine of PRO-3 fed fish compared with treatments CON, PRO-PULSE and PRO-INI but not PRO-1.5. Additionally, fish receiving PRO-3 had a significantly higher abundance of goblet cells in their mid-intestine when compared with fish from all other treatments. Together, these data suggest that continuous provision of AquaStar() Growout at 3gkg(-1) can improve tilapia growth and elevate the intestinal immunological status of the host. PMID:26672904

  15. Fermented Golden Apple Snails as an Alternative Protein Source in Sex-Reversed Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus Diets

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    Noppawan CHIMSUNG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to find out the possibility of using fermented golden apple snail (FGAS as an alternative protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mosambicus diets. FGAS was prepared by incubating minced golden apple snail (GAS with locally screened lactic acid bacteria and using molasses as carbon sources at ambient temperature for 10 days. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacing fishmeal with FGAS at level of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of fishmeal protein. Another diet with minced GAS was also included in the experiment. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of fish with an initial weight of 2.73 ± 0.09 g for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed 75 % fishmeal replacement diet were significantly better (p < 0.05 than those fed the control diet. The fish fed 100 % replacement diet showed lower growth rates compared with the control diet but were not significantly different (p > 0.05. In addition, fish fed a diet containing minced GAS showed better growth performance and feed utilization than those of the control diet. The digestibility study indicated that fish utilized protein from snail meal either in a minced or fermented form much better than protein from fishmeal. It was concluded that snail meal is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diets. Replacement of fishmeal protein with minced snail meal could be at 50 % and FGAS could be up to 100 % but 75 % is recommended.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.26

  16. INAA and ICP-MSHS. Metal pollutants in fish tissues Nile tilapia (Oreochromic niloticus) in Pampulha Lake, Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampulha Lake, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is being polluted via its tributaries, Sarandi and Ressaca. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry high resolution were applied to determine Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, Zn and Ti in Nile tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus. The organs analyzed were: intestine, spleen, heart, testicle, kidney, liver, gills and muscle. The results demonstrated relatively high concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, P and Ti in gills, Al and Cu in liver, Al in intestine and Fe in muscle and spleen. (author)

  17. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Nobuhiro Tajiri; Daisy Pontes Netto; Márcia Sassahara; Mari Sylmara Martins Rodrigues; Cristina Arduini Cavalcanti de Arruda

    2011-01-01

    Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. This study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, ...

  18. Genetic characterization of a betanodavirus isolated from a clinical disease outbreak in farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawcharoen, J; Techangamsuwan, S; Ponpornpisit, A; Lombardini, E D; Patchimasiri, T; Pirarat, N

    2015-01-01

    Betanodavirus infection was diagnosed in larvae of farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in central Thailand. Extensive vacuolar degeneration and neuronal necrosis were observed in histological sections with positive immunohistochemical staining for betanodavirus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the nucleotide sequences (1333 bases) of the capsid protein gene. The virus strain was highly homologous (93.07-93.88%) and closely related to red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). PMID:24164433

  19. Development of the embryo, larva and early juvenile of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Developmental staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-05-01

    We described the developmental stages for the embryonic, larval and early juvenile periods of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to elucidate sequential events of craniofacial development. Craniofacial development of cichlids, especially differentiation and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal skeleton, progresses until about 30 days postfertilization (dpf). Because there is no comprehensive report describing the sequential processes of craniofacial development up to 30 dpf, we newly defined 32 stages using a numbered staging system. For embryonic development, we defined 18 stages (stages 1-18), which were grouped into seven periods named the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula and hatching periods. For larval development, we defined seven stages (stages 19-25), which were grouped into two periods, early larval and late larval. For juvenile development until 30 dpf, we defined seven stages (stages 26-32) in the early juvenile period. This developmental staging system for Nile tilapia O. niloticus will benefit researchers investigating skeletogenesis throughout tilapia ontogeny and will also facilitate comparative evolutionary developmental biology studies of haplochromine cichlids, which comprise the species flocks of Lakes Malawi and Victoria. PMID:17501907

  20. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nobuhiro Tajiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. This study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, between July 2006 and May 2007, in three fish stores located in regions west and north of Paraná State. Samples of tilapia fillet were analyzed in relation to the presence of cadmiun, lead and copper, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead has not been detected in the analyses. Cadmium has been detected in three samples, on concentrations of 0.012 µg.g-1, 0.011 µg.g-1 and 0.014 µg.g-1. Copper has been detected in all fillets, and the average concentration of each cold storage plant was of 0.122 µg.g-1, 0.106 µg.g-1 and 0.153 µg.g-1. The concentrations found in this study are within the limits allowed by both the European and the Australian legislations.

  1. Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus(L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g on the weight gain (WG, food conversion FC, retained protein (PR, retained energy (ER and protein efficiency ratio (PER in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” (Oreochromis niloticus. Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between the experimental diets. In diets with 30% proteins, the increase of digestible energy significantly enhances WG, FC, PR, ER and PER, where the level of 3.7 kcal/g had the best performance. With 35% protein, the increase of digestible energy had not significant influence on the GP, CA, PR, ER and PER, however the growth of sex reversal Nile Tilapia was improved with the level of 3.3 kcal/g. When were compared both diets, were not find significant differences. Considering the protein cost, it can be concluded that best response was obtained with a diet containing 30 % of protein and 3.7 kcal/g of digestible energy and optimum digestible energy/ digestible protein ratio of 13.75 kcal/g protein.

  2. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2013-10-02

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  3. The effect of water quality on the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells and gonadotropin-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Mostafa A; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Hashem, Amal M; Khalil, Noha A

    2015-03-01

    The present experiments investigated the effect of water quality characteristics on the condition factor, the ovarian activity, cortisol level, and the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH- and melanin stimulating hormone; MSH- and somatolactin; SL- secreting cells) and gonadotropin (GTH)-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. After 3 months of exposure to mixtures of water from different sources (Tap and Lake Manzalah waters), with high levels of minerals and heavy metals, water quality affected the number, size, and immunostaining of stress-response-immunoreactive (ir) cells and GTH-ir cells, which showed a dramatic decrease in their size. The integrated optical density (IOD) of immunoreactivity of MSH- and GTH- cells was significantly increased; however, it was significantly decreased for ACTH- and SL- cells. Also, high levels of cortisol were observed in females exposed to waters with high concentrations of minerals and heavy metals. In parallel, low values of gonadosomatic index (GSI%) and the ovarian histology revealed a decrease of maturing follicles concomitant with an increase of atretic follicles in females exposed to Lake Manzalah polluted water. Taken together, the increased activity of stress-response-ir pituitary cells, serum cortisol level and ovarian atretic follicles in response to elevated concentrations of minerals and heavy metals, supports the possible role of ACTH, MSH, and SL in the adaptive stress response of fish. Therefore, minerals and heavy metals must be considered when discussing tilapia aquaculture status. PMID:25675939

  4. Effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins on growth performance, some serum biochemical parameters and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Wei Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the effects of diet supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs on fish growth performance, some serum parameters and body composition. Three hundred tilapia fingerlings with the initial average body weight of 9.50±1.25 g were randomly divided into five treatment groups with four replicates in each group and 15 fish in each replicate. The dietary GSPs levels of five treatment groups were 0 (control group, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The trial period was 49 days. Growth performance parameters were significantly improved by GSPs supplementation (P<0.05, while survival rates were similar among all groups (P>0.05. Serum parameter results showed that activities of aminotransferase aspartate in 200 and 400 mg/kg GSPs groups and alanine aminotransferase in 400 mg/kg GSPs group were lowered significantly (P<0.05. Levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol (except 200 mg/kg GSPs group were significantly lowered, while lysozyme activity and albumin level were significantly higher in fish of GSPs supplemented groups, independently from the level of supplementation. The highest crude protein level and lowest crude lipid level were found in fish of all GSPs supplemented groups, while levels of moisture and ash in fish of all groups were similar (P>0.05. The results indicated that dietary 200 mg/kg GSPs could exert beneficial effects on growth and body composition of tilapia fingerlings, and ameliorate serum biochemistry parameters related to health status.

  5. The use of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2016-05-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  6. Reproductive biology of female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) reared in monoculture and polyculture with African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoko, A P; Limbu, S M; Mrosso, H D J; Mgaya, Y D

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproductive biology and early breeding behaviour of female Oreochromis niloticus reared in monoculture and polyculture with Clarias gariepinus in earthen ponds for 8months. Results revealed no significant difference in length at first maturity (L50) between females reared in monoculture and polyculture systems. Similarly, no significant differences were detected in absolute fecundity, relative fecundity, gonado-somatic index and condition factor between the two culture systems. The absolute fecundity was more strongly correlated with total length and body weight than with ovary weight. The study concluded that early breeding of O. niloticus in captivity is not affected by the culture systems used. Therefore, O. niloticus production in either system can be improved only through proper pond management techniques. PMID:26090322

  7. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

  8. Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper Alterações histopatológicas no epitélio hepático e branquial da Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, exposta a diferentes concentrações de cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Figueiredo-Fernandes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were reared in freshwater and exposed to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 of waterborne copper for a period of 21 days. Liver and gill samples were collected after 21 days of exposure to copper and lesions were analyzed by light microscopy. The main histopathological changes observed in gills exposed to the highest concentration were edema, lifting of lamellar epithelia and an intense vasodilatation of the lamellar vascular axis. Although less frequent, lamellar fusion caused by the filamentar epithelium proliferation and some lamellar aneurisms were also found. The liver of control group exhibited a quite normal architecture, while the fish exposed to copper showed vacuolation and necrosis. These hepatic alterations were more evident in fish exposed to 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 copper concentrations. The number of hepatocytes nucleus per mm² of hepatic tissue decreased with the increase of copper concentration. In contrast, the hepatic somatic index was high in fish exposed at 2.5mg L-1 of copper. In short, this work advance new knowledge as influence of copper in the gill and liver histology of O. niloticus and demonstrated that their effects could be observed at different concentrations.Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram mantidas em água doce e expostas a concentrações de 0.5, 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1 de sulfato de cobre durante um período de 21 dias. Amostras de fígado e de brânquia foram coletadas após o tempo de exposição e as lesões foram analisadas por microscopia óptica. As principais alterações histopatológicas observadas nas brânquias foram edema, "lifting" do epitélio lamelar e uma intensa vasodilatação do eixo lamelar. Embora menos freqüentes, a fusão lamelar causada pela proliferação do epitélio filamentar e alguns aneurismas lamelares também foram observadas. O fígado do grupo controle exibiu uma arquitetura normal, enquanto os dos peixes expostos ao cobre apresentaram vacuolização e necrose. Estas lesões hepáticas foram mais evidentes nos peixes expostos a concentrações de cobre de 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1. O número dos núcleos dos hepatócitos / mm² de tecido hepático decresceu com o aumento da concentração de cobre. Em contraste, o índice hepatossomático foi mais elevado nos peixes expostos a 2.5mg L-1 de cobre. Em resumo, este trabalho acrescenta nova informação sobre a influência do cobre ao nível da histologia da brânquia e do fígado de O. niloticus e demonstra que os seus efeitos podem ser observados em diferentes concentrações.

  9. Partial and total substitution of soy oil for tilapia oil in rations for larvae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus / Substituição parcial e total do óleo de soja pelo óleo de tilápia em rações para larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Reidel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experimentwas undertaken out to evaluate the performance and the survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in the sexual reversion phase. The fish were fed with rations with different levels of tilapia oil in substitution of the soy oil. 7 larvae, with average weight of 0,012 ±0,002 g e 0,931 ±0,144 cm, respectively were used. Fish were distributed in 25 aquariuns with 15 larvae in an entirely randomly design with 5 treatments and 5 repetitions. The rations contained levels of 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0% of tilapia oil inclusion. Rations with 3.800 Kcal/kg of digestible energy and 38.6% of digestible protein were used. Differences for the final weight, final length, survival and condition factor were not observed. The tilapia oil can totaly substitute the soy oil in Nile tilapia larvae diets during sexual reversion.O presente experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho e a sobrevivência da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus na fase de reversão sexual, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis de inclusão de óleo de tilápia substituindo o óleo de soja. Foram utilizadas 7 larvas, com peso e comprimento médio de 0,012 ±0,002 g e 0,931 ±0,144 cm, respectivamente, distribuídas em 25 aquários com 15 larvas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos e 5 repetições. As rações continham níveis de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0% de inclusão de óleo de tilápia, substituindo 100% do óleo de soja. As rações apresentavam 3.800Kcal/kg de energia digestível e 38,6 % de proteína digestível. Não foram observadas diferenças para o peso final, comprimento final, sobrevivência e fator de condição não apresentaram diferença. O óleo de tilápia pode substituir totalmente o óleo de soja para larvas de tilápia do Nilo durante a reversão sexual.

  10. Lead-induced biochemical changes in freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruparelia, S.G.; Verma, Y.; Mehta, N.S.; Salyed, S.R. (National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad (India))

    1989-08-01

    Lead, a non-essential and non-beneficial element has considerably added the problem of health hazard to human and experimental mammals. It has also received much attention over the past few years as potentially important aquatic pollutant. Fishes are of great nutritional significance and their intoxication by lead causes retardation of growth and deterioration in the nutritional value. Very little attention has been paid to biochemical changes which develop more quickly in response to toxicants than any apparent morphological changes. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of lead on plasma chemistry of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus. This fish was selected because of its wide availability, edibility in India and its suitability as a model fish for toxicity testing. The variables such as glucose, cholesterol and protein representing carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism were studied.

  11. Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic T ilapia zillii and native O reochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai , Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padanillay C. Prabu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detritus, blue green algae, diatoms, green algae, Ceratium, Euglena,and Phacus constituted foods of plant origin, whereas chironomid larvae, Copepoda, Cladocera,Rotifera, Nematoda, fish eggs, and fish scales constituted foods of animal origin. Foods of the latter type such as Ephemeroptera and mollusks were also noted in the diet of adult T. zillii.Despite the extensive overlap in food habits of the two species, however, the food items were found in the diet of the species with different average percentage frequencies of occurrence. The level of gonad maturation and gonadosomatic index (GSI values showed that in Lake Zwai breeding was year-round for both T. zillii and O. niloticus, with a peak during April-September and February-August respectively, indicating extended breeding season overlap in reproduction. The two species were always found together in the catches from the sampling sites, which indicated some niche overlap between them.

  12. Densidade de estocagem no desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., durante a reversão sexual Stocking density effect on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. fry performance during sex reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Ferrari Sanches

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar os efeitos da densidade de estocagem no desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, durante a fase de reversão sexual em águas verdes, foram estocadas 1.500 larvas com peso médio de 12,41mg e comprimento total médio de 9,38mm em tanques-rede de 12,5 litros, nas densidades de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 larvas/litro, em delineamento totalmente aleatório com 4 repetições. Essas foram tratadas com ração comercial fina com 43% de PB, contendo 60mg de metiltestosterona/kg, 6 vezes por dia, durante 28 dias. O aumento da densidade resultou em menor peso e comprimento médios finais, definidos por modelos de regressão. O efeito da densidade sobre a diminuição do crescimento se evidenciou a partir da terceira semana de criação. A biomassa total e a conversão alimentar mostraram-se incrementadas com o aumento da densidade. A sobrevivência, o fator de condição e o coeficiente de variação foram independentes da densidade. Conclui-se que 2 larvas/litro devem ser usadas, quando se objetiva produção de alevinos maiores; mas densidades maiores podem ser utilizadas, obtendo-se alevinos menores, porém incrementando a biomassa total.To study the effects of stocking density on the performance of newborn fries of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, during sex reversal stage in green waters, 1500 fries were stocked with 12.41mg of average weight and 9.38mm of total average length in hapas of 12,5 litres, at densities of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 fries/litre, in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. They were fed with a fine commercial diet containing 43% CP, and 60mg of methyltestosterone/kg, six times a day, during 28 days. The density increase resulted in lower final average weight and length defined by regression models. The effect of density on the growth decrease started to be significative on the second week of rearing, while the total biomass and feed conversion were increased with the density increase. Survival, condition factor and coefficient of variation were found to be density independent. It is concluded that 2 fries/litre must be used to produce bigger fingerlings, but larger densities can be used, obtaining smaller fingerlings, however incrementing total biomass.

  13. Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Massuo Ishikawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg. Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, total white blood cell count (WBC and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr. There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758 através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2 correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC, concentração de hemoglobina (Hb, hematócrito (Ht, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, trombócitos totais (Tr, contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc. Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus.

  14. A comparative toxicity study between small and large size zinc oxide nanoparticles in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Organ pathologies, osmoregulatory responses and immunological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hasan; Aydın, Fatih; Gürkan, Mert; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri

    2016-02-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was exposed to different sizes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to evaluate their organ pathologies (kidney, liver, gill, and intestine), osmoregulatory responses and immunological parameters. Sub-chronic exposure was conducted in fresh water with 1 and 10 mg/L concentrations of the small (10-30 nm) and large-size ZnO (100 nm) particles for 7 and 14 days. In this study, it is found that small and large forms of ZnO-NPs cause various pathologic findings in the target organs at all concentrations. These findings are increased of melanomacrophage aggregates, tubular deformations, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolations in the kidney, oedema, mononuclear cell infiltrations, fatty changes, pyknotic nuclei and hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, hyperplasia, aneurysms, and epithelial liftings in the gills, and hyperplasia, swelled of goblet cells, villus deformations in the intestine. Results showed that respiratory burst and potential killing activity at the small-size ZnO concentration significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.05) but significant reductions of these parameters at the large-size ZnO concentrations compared to control (p < 0.05) were measured. These findings demonstrate the potential of each particle size to cause significant damage to the immune system. Moreover, because ZnO NPs inhibit the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity at all concentrations and increase serum Ca(2+) and Cl(-) levels especially in gill, these particles are osmoregulatory and toxicant for tilapia fish. As a summary, both sizes of the particles have led to organ damage, osmoregulatory changes and immune disorder in tilapia fish. PMID:26398925

  15. Current status of the fish stocks of Lake Victoria (Uganda)

    OpenAIRE

    Okaronon, J.O.; Muhoozi, L.; Bassa, S.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 457 hauls were taken during experimental bottom trawl surveys in the Uganda sector of Lake Victoria between November 1997 and June 1999 to estimate composition, distribution and abundance of the major fish species in waters 4-60 m deep. Fifteen fish groups were caught with Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.), constituting 94% by weight. Haplochromines and L. niloticus occurred in all areas sampled, while Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and other tilapiines were restricted to ...

  16. Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the performance and fatty acid profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings = Influência das dietas contendo diferentes óleos vegetais na performance e perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0, oleic (18:1n-9, linoleic (18:2 n-6, and linolenic (18:3 n-3 acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%, while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended. Foram examinados o perfil de ácidos graxos nas carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes óleos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os resultados indicaram que o ácido palmítico (16:0, esteárico (18:0, oléico (18:1n-9, linoleico (18;2n-6 e linolênico (18:3n-3 foram os ácidos predominantes em todas as frações analisadas (no óleo vegetal, dietas e carcaças dos peixes. O óleo de linhaça apresentou o maior valor de ácido linolênico (45,63%, quanto aos outros óleos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os óleos vegetais não afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relação a qualidade nutricional o uso do óleo de linhaça é recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilápia.

  17. Desempenho de diferentes linhagens de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus na fase de reverso sexual - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1794 Performance of different Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains, during sex reversal phase - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1794

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    Margarida Maria Barros

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento utilizou 4 linhagens de tilpias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus chamadas de CESP, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina e Tailandesa. O objetivo do projeto foi comparar o desempenho e a sobrevivncia dessas diferentes linhagens de tilpia do Nilo na fase de reverso sexual. As ps-larvas foram estocadas em aqurios de 4,5L em sistema de recirculao e com temperatura constante. Os peixes foram alimentados com rao contendo 60mg/kg de 17 alfa-metiltestosterona, fornecida 6 vezes ao dia, por perodo de 30 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos (linhagens e 7 repeties. Os parmetros avaliados foram: comprimento total, ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento especfico, taxa de sobrevivncia e eficincia de reverso sexual. Os dados foram submetidos anlise de varincia e as mdias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. A anlise de reverso foi submetida ao teste de qui-quadrado. O resultado demonstra que houve maior eficincia na taxa de reverso sexual nas linhagens Santa Catarina e Pernambuco quando comparados com a CESP e a Tailandesa. As linhagens Tailandesa e Santa Catarina obtiveram maior taxa de sobrevivncia e desempenho satisfatrio durante a fase de reverso sexual, portanto, apresentam-se como as mais propcias para a criao em sistema de recirculao na fase de reverso sexual.This experiment aimed at comparing growth performance and survival of four Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains called CESP, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina and Thailand in sex reversal phase. Thirty Nile tilapia fries were stocked in 4.5L aquaria (6.66 fries/L with recirculation system and water temperature control. The fishes were fed with ration containing 60mg/kg of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, six times a day during 30 days. The experimental design was randomized with four treatments (strains and seven replications. Total length, weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate and sexual reversion efficiency were submitted to Anova, means compared by Tukey test and sex reversion by qui-square means. Santa Catarina and Pernambuco strains demonstrated better sex reversion efficiency when compared with CESP and Thailand. Thailand and Santa Catarina strains showed better values of survival, growth performance and specific growth rate than CESP and Pernambuco strains. Thus, Thailand and Santa Catarina strains are more indicated to rear in recirculation system during sex reversal phase.

  18. Isolation of Streptococcus spp from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and quality of water in hapas nets in North Region of Parana State, Brazil/ Isolamento de Streptococcus spp de tilpias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e qualidade da gua de tanques rede na Regio Norte do Estado do Paran, Brasil

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    Aleksey Machado Moreno

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated 12 intensive breed of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in four properties localized in the north of Parana State, Brazil. In the period of 13 months, 71 fishes were collected and analyzed of hapas nets that presenting morbidity and mortality of tilapias. Parallel, to evaluate the quality of the water of these hapas nets, there was measured the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia. Of the 71 fishes, were collected 220 biological samples. 17 (23.94% fishes were positive for Streptococcus spp. Of the 53 biological samples from 17 fishes, in 24 (45.28% were isolated streptococci. The main clinical signs and macroscopic lesions in the fishes with isolation of Streptococcus spp. were hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, skin lesion and base of the fins and exoftalmia with cornea opacity. The higher incidence of infections caused by streptococci happened in the months with higher temperatures, mainly in the transition period winter for spring. The values of dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia of the water were normal.Foram estudados doze tanques-rede de quatro propriedades de criao intensiva de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochomis niloticus da regio Norte do Paran, Brasil. No perodo de 13 meses foram analisados 71 peixes provenientes de tanques apresentando morbidade e mortalidade de tilpias. Paralelamente, para avaliar a qualidade da gua destes tanques, foi medida a temperatura, oxignio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade, nitrito e amnia. Dos 71 peixes, foram coletadas 220 materiais biolgicos. Em 17 (23.94% peixes foram isolados Streptococcus spp e dos 53 materiais biolgicos provenientes destes peixes, 24 (45.28% apresentaram Streptococcus spp. Os principais sinais clnicos e leses macroscpicas nos peixes com isolamento de Streptococcus spp foram hepatomegalia e esplenomegalia, leso de pele e base das nadadeiras e exoftalmia com opacidade de crnea. O maior nmero de infeces estreptoccicas ocorreu nos meses com temperaturas mais elevadas, principalmente no perodo de transio inverno para primavera. Os valores de oxignio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade, nitrito e amnia da gua estiveram dentro da normalidade.

  19. Purificao, caracterizao fsico-qumica e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.9400 Purification, physical and chemical characterization, and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.9400

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    Glcio Souza Arajo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituio heparina (HEP nas cincias mdicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar fsico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilpia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extrados com papana em tampo acetato de sdio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cistena e EDTA (5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca inica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As fraes obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padro (193 UI mg-1. O perfil cromatogrfico mostrou a separao de duas diferentes fraes de GAGs (F I e F II, eludas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, fraes distintas em densidade de cargas, porm ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS padro, sugerindo-se a identificao preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I e 23,80 (F II UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombtica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS, suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I and 23.80 (F II IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

  20. Verification of contamination by dimetoato and aldicarb in liver of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus collected in two cold-storages in the State of Paran / Verificao da contaminao por dimetoato e aldicarb em fgado de tilpias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus coletados em dois frigorficos do Estado do Paran

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    Alexandre Nabuhiro Tajiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of fish as a protein source in food is unquestionable, but its role as an indicator of environmental contamination is also very important. This study aimed to analysis the livers of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, collected from commercial cold-storages in two municipal districts in the State of Parana, for investigation of contamination by organophosphorus compounds and carbamates. It was collected 30 samples of Nile tilapias (O. niloticus liver in the cold-storage A and 45 samples in the cold-storage B, totaling 75 samples. At each location were three visits, and at random, collected the samples from July 2006 to May 2007. For extraction and analysis of samples it was used the qualitative methodology of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Patterns of organophosphate and carbamate used in the analysis of the TLC were respectively Dimethoate and Aldicarb. Of the samples tested were found cabarmate in seven samples, one of the samples collected in the cold-storage A and six collected in the cold-storage B. The organophosphate compound was found in fifteen samples from 75 samples, seven of the cold-storage A and eight samples from the cold-storage B. The results infer the possibility of contamination of the tanks in the creation of farms and the need for constant monitoring for the presence of residues of pesticides in this important food matrix.A importncia dos peixes como fonte protica na alimentao humana indiscutvel, porm seu papel como indicador de contaminao ambiental tambm muito relevante. O presente trabalho objetivou a anlise de fgados de Tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, coletados em frigorficos comerciais de dois municpios do Estado do Paran para averiguao de contaminao pelos compostos organofosforados e carbamatos. Coletou-se 30 amostras de fgado de Tilpia do Nilo (O. niloticus no frigorfico A e 45 amostras no frigorfico B, totalizando 75 amostras analisadas. Em cada local foram realizadas trs visitas, e de forma aleatria, coletadas as amostras no perodo de julho de 2006 a maio de 2007. Para extrao e anlise das amostras utilizou-se a metodologia qualitativa de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada (CCD. Os padres de organofosforado e carbamato utilizados na anlise de CDD foram respectivamente o Dimetoato e Aldicarb. Nas amostras analisadas foi encontrado o praguicida cabarmato em sete amostras, sendo uma das amostras coletada no frigorfico A e seis coletadas no frigorfico B. O composto organofosforado foi encontrado em quinze amostras das 75 amostras analisadas, sendo sete amostras do frigorfico A e oito das amostras do frigorfico B. Os resultados obtidos inferem na possibilidade da contaminao dos tanques de criao nas pisciculturas e da necessidade de monitoramento constante quanto presena de resduos de praguicidas nesta importante matriz alimentcia.

  1. Genotoxicity of sub-lethal di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Genotoksičnost subletalne koncentracije di-n-butil ftalata (DBP-a) u nilskoj tilapiji (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Aysel Çağlan Karasu; Erkmen, Belda; Erkoç, Figen

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) erythrocytes after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of 10 mg L-1 di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 24 and 96 h. The results showed that mean MN frequencies in both DBP and ethyl methane-sulfonate (EMS, positive control for MN bioassay) groups were significantly different (p<0.01) with respect to control and solvent control groups, in both exposure scenarios. When analysing nuclear abnormalities, the frequency of notched nuclei was significantly different (p<0.05) but the frequencies of other subtypes did not change. The 96-h exposure led to an increase in the mean frequencies of notched nuclei, and also caused significant differences between MN frequencies in all groups (p<0.01). Our findings indicate that sub-lethal DBP concentrations when tested in controlled laboratory conditions have genotoxic potential towards Nile tilapia. Further detailed studies should be done for the determination of the environmental risk assessment for aquatic life since DBP is a high risk contaminant of freshwater and marine ecosystems. PMID:27092636

  2. The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum) and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Binga; K.M. Adamu; B.S. Audu

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum indicum) and raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) replaced fishmeal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 30, 70 and 100% test materials inclusion levels. Each dietary treatment was randomly duplicated in tanks stocked with twenty fingerlings (2.71 0.003 g) and fed three times (08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h) to satiation for 56 days. The result revealed best live weight gain and feed utilization in the fish fed diet D4 followed by ...

  3. Yield improvement of the sea lice MY32/Cr novel antigen production and IgM immune response characterization in Oreochromis niloticus as a model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana, Basabe; Yamila, Carpio; Diamil, Gonzalez; Antonio, Morales; Mario P, Estrada.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las prdidas anuales provocadas por el piojo de mar en los pases lderes en la acuicultura salmonera superan los 300 millones de euros. La mayora de los tratamientos emplean compuestos qumicos, con sus limitaciones de generacin de resistencia en los parsitos, el potencial dao al medioambiente [...] y sus altos costos. A pesar de los estudios en peces sobre vacunas contra esta plaga como un posible mtodo de control, no existe actualmente ninguna vacuna comercial. Esto pudiera deberse a que los candidatos estudiados no han mostrado un respuesta inmunolgica y protectora suficiente, o a la carencia de un proceso apropiado para su produccin con perspectivas comerciales. Previamente, se clon el gen que codifica para la protena akirin de Caligus rogercresseyi (MY32/Cr). Esta se produjo de forma recombinante en Escherichia coli, y mostr un 57 % de proteccin contra la infestacin por piojo de mar en un estudio de vacunacin-reto en salmn. En el presente trabajo se mejor la productividad de MY32/Cr hasta cuatro veces mediante procesos de fermentacin empleando diferentes medios de cultivo. Tambin se estudi el efecto de este nuevo antgeno como preparado vacunal sobre la respuesta inmune humoral en tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). La inmunizacin provoc una respuesta de anticuerpos IgM estadsticamente significativa despus de la reinmunizacin con MY32/Cr. El proceso obtenido constituye un mtodo eficiente como premisa esencial para la produccin de este antgeno recombinante a escala comercial. Los resultados sugieren que la protena MY32/Cr podra ser empleada como antgeno blanco para evaluaciones en salmn, con vistas a desarrollar una vacuna para el control de las infestaciones por piojo de mar en peces. La administracin de una dosis de reinmunizacin resultara til para mejorar la respuesta inmune mediada por anticuerpos. Abstract in english Sea lice cause over 300 million annual losses in salmon aquaculture-leading countries and most treatments consist of chemicals, with their limitations regarding the generation of parasite resistance, environmental damage and high costs. Researches about fish vaccines against sea lice as a method f [...] or controlling parasites have been accomplished; however there is no commercial vaccine available up to date against this pest. It could be due to an insufficient immunological and protective response of the selected antigen or to the lack of appropriate/suitable process for its production with commercial perspectives. Previously, the gene coding for the akirin protein of Caligus rogercresseyi (MY32/Cr) was cloned. It was produced recombinant in Escherichia coli and it showed 57 % of protection in a vaccination-challenge experiment against sea lice infestation in salmon. In the present study, the MY32/Cr yield was improved up to four fold in fermentation process by testing different culture media. It was also studied the effect of this novel antigen, for a potential vaccine, on humoral immune response of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). It was observed that the immunization with MY32/Cr elicited a statistically significant IgM antibody response after a double injection of the recombinant protein. The process obtained is a suitable method, an essential tool as a first step to produce this recombinant antigen at commercial scale. The results suggest that the MY32/Cr protein may be used as a target to be tested in salmon, for developing of a vaccine to control sea lice infestations in fish; and that the administration of a single booster dose could be useful to improve antibody response.

  4. Shelf life of air and modified atmosphere-packaged fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets stored under chilled and superchilled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprian, Odoli; Lauzon, Hlne L; Jhannsson, Ragnar; Sveinsdttir, Kolbrn; Arason, Sigurjn; Martinsdttir, Emila

    2013-03-01

    Optimal packaging and storage conditions for fresh tilapia fillets were established by evaluating sensory and microbiological changes, as well as monitoring physicochemical properties. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in recirculation aquaculture system was filleted, deskinned, and packaged in air and 50% CO2/50% N2 prior to chilling and superchilling storage at 1C and -1C. Sensory analysis of cooked samples revealed a shelf life of 13-15 days for air-packaged fillets during storage at 1C and 20 days at -1C. At the end of shelf life in air-packaged fillets, total viable counts (TVC) and pseudomonads counts reached log 8 colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1). In 50% CO2/50% N2-packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria were extended and recorded counts were below the limit for consumption (indicator of tilapia fillets quality and a major factor in influencing retail purchase decisions. In view of that, air packaged at -1C storage temperature was the optimal condition for fresh tilapia fillets. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and trimethylamine (TMA) were not good indicators of spoilage of tilapia fillets in this study. PMID:24804022

  5. Parmetros hematolgicos e bioqumicos da tilpia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. sob estresse por exposio ao ar

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    Roberta Dias da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliaram-se os parmetros hematolgicos e bioqumicos de exemplares adultos de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus sob a influncia do fator estresse fisiolgico em animais submetidos exposio ao ar durante a engorda em sistema raceway. Foram analisados o eritrograma, teor de hemoglobina, volume globular, o volume corpuscular mdio (VCM, a hemoglobina corpuscular mdia (HCM, a concentrao de hemoglobina corpuscular mdia (CHCM, o leucograma, contagem diferencial de leuccitos, o plaquetograma, a glicose, a protena total, o colesterol, o triglicerdeo e os eletrlitos (clcio, cloretos, sdio e potssio. Os resultados revelaram que houve uma homogeneidade de distribuio para hemcias, volume globular, hemoglobina, ndices hemantimtricos, protena total, glicose, colesterol, e ons sricos, indicados pelos valores relativamente baixos do coeficiente de variao. Houve correlao positiva somente para leuccitos totais, clulas de defesa orgnica (neutrfilos e linfcitos, glicose, colesterol, sdio e clcio. Quanto ao leucograma, medida que os animais foram expostos ao ar, o nmero de leuccitos diminuiu gradativamente (leucopenia, ocorrendo simultaneamente neutrofilia e linfopenia. O ndice glicmico constituiu um bom indicador de estresse fisiolgico, devido hiperglicemia (82,020,88mg/dL demonstrada nos tratamentos. A exposio ao ar constituiu um fator de desequilbrio na homeostase inica, e na sntese de colesterol endgeno. Entretanto, o tempo de recuperao no ocasionou a completa reabilitao fisiolgica frente ao desafio imposto.

  6. Kaftas prepared with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to smoking techniques

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    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaftas with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were developed and the effects of the smoking technique on the characteristics of chemical composition, microbiological, sensory and benzo(apyrene were investigated. The filleting chips were ground and filleting included condiments and bacon. Kaftas were molded, frozen and distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T 1 = baked in a grid; T 2 = smoked by friction and T 3 = smoked by liquid smoke with 10 replications. The kaftas subjected to hot smoke had lower moisture content (13.97%, whereas the no-smoking kaftas had the highest content (20.49%. Kaftas with liquid smoke had high crude protein content (48.06% and ash (9.49%, whereas the ash content was different only from no-smoking kaftas (8.79%. There was no significant difference in sensory parameters, except for flavor; smoked kaftas with liquid smoke were more accepted by the judges and the worst kaftas were no-smoked kaftas. Microbiological analysis showed that kaftas developed were appropriate to feed human beings within the required standards. Chips filleting is an alternative for the development of kaftas and those subjected to liquid smoke were considered the best.

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of CD59 from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Yishan; Zhu, Weiwei; Tang, Jufen; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe

    2015-05-01

    CD59, the major inhibitor of membrane attack complex, plays a crucial role in regulation of complement activation. In this paper, a CD59 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD59) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for complement-inhibitory activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD59. In healthy Nile tilapia, the On-CD59 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the brain. When immunized with inactivated S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD59 in the skin, brain, head kidney, thymus and spleen, with quite different kinetic expressions. The assays for the complement-inhibitory activity suggested that recombinant On-CD59 protein had a species-selective inhibition of complement. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-CD59 protein may possess both binding activities to PGN and LTA and inhibiting activity of S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-CD59 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. PMID:25661843

  8. Effect of flaxseed oil in diet on fatty acid composition in the liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Santos, Leandra Pereira; Stevanato, Flavia Braidotti; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; de Souza, Nilson Evelzio; Visentainer, Jesu Vergilio

    2007-09-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different concentrations of flaxseed oil (FO) on the proximate composition and the contents of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-3) fatty acids in the liver of cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). During the five-month culture period, tilapias were given diets with incremental concentrations of FO (0.00%; 1.25%; 2.50%; 3.75%, and 5.00%) as a replacement of sunflower oil (control). There was no significant difference in moisture and ash content in the liver between treatments. Protein values ranged from 12.1% (treatment II) to 13.9% (treatment V) and total lipids ranged from 5.6% (treatment V) to 7.2% (treatment II). There was no significant difference between most treatments. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were quantitatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography against a C(23:0), internal standard. Variations in concentrations (in mg g(-1) of total lipids) of fatty acids between treatment I and treatment V ranged from 4.2 to 51.2 (LNA), from 0.2 to 2.3 (EPA), and from 10.6 to 56.2 (DHA), respectively. This experiment demonstrated that increasing amounts of LNA in feed may markedly increase the amounts of LNA, EPA, and DHA in the liver of Nile tilapia. PMID:18271406

  9. CARACTERSTICAS FSICO-QUMICAS DO PAT DE TILPIA DO NILO (Oreochromis niloticus, COMPARADO A PRODUTOS SIMILARES COMERCIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. MINOZZO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Pat um produto cozido, com tradies gastronmicas importantes e com caractersticas sensoriais bastante apreciadas. Os primeiros pats foram feitos com fgado de ganso (foie-grass e fgado de porco. Porm, novos produtos foram lanados no mercado, inclusive o pat de peixe, devido s vantagens nutricionais que estes produtos detm. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a elaborao e caracterizao de pat de fil de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e sua comparao produtos similares. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratrio de Tecnologia de Alimentos da UFPR - Universidade Federal do Paran. O pat de tilpia e os de marcas comerciais, pat de atum e de presunto, foram submetidos s anlises bromatolgicas, onde se obteve os seguintes valores: umidade 59,47%, 76,30%, e 52,13% respectivamente, cinzas 2,20%, 2,96%, e 2,53%, protenas 8,53%, 6,83% e 9,05%, lipdios 27,41%, 3,49% e 17,72% e carboidratos 2,39%, 10,22% e 18,57% para os pats de tilpia atum e presunto respectivamente.

  10. The protective role of vitamin E on the fatty acid composition of phospholipid structure in gill and liver tissues of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Elif Ipek; Kan, Yeter; Kizmaz, Veysi; Ba?han, Mehmet; Yanar, Mahmut

    2012-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a commonly used pyrethroid pesticide. Vitamin E is a antioxidant that plays an important role in protecting cells against toxicity by inactivating free radicals generated following pesticides exposure. Therefore, in the present study, it was evaluated whether deltamethrin induced changes on the fatty acid composition of phospholipid in gill and liver tissues in Oreochromis niloticus and, the possible protective effect of vitamin E against deltamethrin was determined. Fish was fed with no pesticide+control diet, no pesticide+vitamin E-supplemented diet, 1.45 ?g/l deltamethrin+control diet, 1.45 ?g/l deltamethrin+vitamin E-supplemented diet for twenty days. Pesticide and diet quality made an impact on the fatty acid composition of phospholipid. In treatments of deltamethrin, group fed with control diet showed much greater damage in comparison with group fed with vitamin E supplemented diet. The results indicated that the deltamethrin led to an increase in the percentages of total SFAs (saturated fatty acids) and total MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) and a decrease in total PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in the gill tissues. However, coadministration of deltamethrin and vitamin E showed decrease in the percentages of saturated fatty acids and increase in the percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the gill tissues. In group fed with control diet, deltamethrin led to a decrease in the percentage of SFAs and a increase in total MUFAs in the liver. Coadministration of deltamethrin and vitamin E showed increase in the percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver tissues. These results have demonstrated that administration of vitamin E along with deltamethrin decreases the peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and thus protects the cell membranes. PMID:22541830

  11. EFECTO DE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN PESQUERA DEL EMBALSE EL GUÁJARO ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA

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    Pedro Caraballo G, M.Sc.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus sobre la producción pesquera en el embalse de El Guájaro, departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El embalse tiene un área aproximada de 14.000 ha y allí pescan diariamente 2.500 pescadores provenientes de ocho municipios que rodean el ecosistema. Por medio de evaluaciones mensuales del desembarco durante 48 horas en todos los puertos, fue evaluada la composición y abundancia de las capturas en 1988 y 2002. Los resultados de la evaluación hecha en 2002 fueron comparados con los obtenidos en 1988. Resultados. 38 especies de peces, perteneciendo a 14 familias fueron identificadas. Sólo las dos especies que dominan las capturas, presentaron una variación en su participación global. La producción durante 2002 fue de 431 ton/mes, superior a las 84 ton/mes evaluadas en el año 1988. Durante 2002, las capturas fueron dominadas por tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (53% y arenca Triportheus magdalenae (36% lo que representa una variación en la composición de las capturas que, durante 1988 fueron respectivamente de 13% y 73%. Esta variación no afectó la proporción de herbívoros y carnívoros que se mantuvo en 90-10%. Conclusiones. La variación en la composición y abundancia de la producción total implica el desplazamiento de una especie nativa (Triportheus magdalenae por una exótica (Oreochromis niloticus, hecho que viene siendo observado en toda la cuenca del Magdalena en esta década.

  12. Investigation of acute toxicity of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide on larvae and adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut

    2005-09-01

    A 48h LC(50) values of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D), a widely used agricultural herbicide, were determined on the larvae and adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Each test was repeated three times. The data obtained were statistically evaluated by the use of the E.P.A computer program based on Finney's probit analysis method and a 48h LC(50) value for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus L.) larvae and adults were found to be 28.23mg/L and 86.90mg/L, respectively in a static bioassay test system. 95% lower and upper confidence limits for the LC(50) were 22.55-32.98 and 80.67-92.80mg/L, respectively. Water temperature was 24±1°C. Behavioral changes of both tilapia life forms were examined for various herbicide concentrations. PMID:21783599

  13. Influncia das dietas contendo diferentes leos vegetais na performance e perfil em cidos graxos de alevinos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v28i2.1169 Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the performance and fatty acid profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v28i2.1169

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Terezinha Marques Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados o perfil de cidos graxos nas carcaas de alevinos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes leos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaa, arroz e milho. Os resultados indicaram que o cido palmtico (16:0, esterico (18:0, olico (18:1n 9, linoleico (18;2n 6 e linolnico (18:3n 3 foram os cidos predominantes em todas as fraes analisadas (no leo vegetal, dietas e carcaas dos peixes. O leo de linhaa apresentou o maior valor de cido linolnico (45,63%, quanto aos outros leos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os leos vegetais no afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relao a qualidade nutricional o uso do leo de linhaa recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilpiaThe fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0, oleic (18:1 n 9, linoleic (18:2 n 6, and linolenic (18:3 n 3 acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%, while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended

  14. Geographical distribution of protozoan and metazoan parasites of farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Yucatán, México

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes-Trujillo, Amelia; Velázquez-Abunader, Iván; Torres-Irineo, Edgar; Romero, David; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Yucatán State, southern México, as in many other parts of the world where tilapia has been introduced for aquaculture, the deficient application of management measures has led to the establishment of non-native parasites. The aims of this study were to describe the geographical distribution of protozoan and helminth parasites of farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) throughout the Yucatán and to examine the potential statistical associations of the prevalence and mean a...

  15. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The...... significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion....

  16. Complexo zinco aminoácido em dietas práticas para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1716 Zinc-amino acid complex in practical diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1716

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As dietas balanceadas para piscicultura são suplementadas com fonte inorgânica de zinco, sendo o óxido de zinco (ZnO a fonte mais utilizada no Brasil. Complexos organometálicos, contudo, podem aumentar a absorção do mineral no trato digestório. Nesse sentido, comparou-se os efeitos de um complexo zinco-aminoácido (Zn-AA sobre o desempenho produtivo e a composição da carcaça de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L., em relação ao verificado com o uso do ZnO. Dietas experimentais, isoprotéicas e isocalóricas, à base de farelo de soja e fubá de milho, foram fornecidas aos peixes durante 75 dias, sendo suplementadas com 30, 90, 150 ou 210mg Zn/kg, a partir do ZnO ou do Zn-AA. Os peixes (1,79 ± 0,10g foram distribuídos em 36 caixas de água de 250L, sendo alimentados ad libitum, quatro vezes ao dia. Ao final do período experimental, os peixes alimentados com as dietas suplementadas com ZnO, independentemente do nível de suplementação, apresentaram ganho em peso significativamente maior que os animais arraçoados com as dietas contendo Zn-AA (P0,05. Os resultados do presente trabalho permitem concluir que, em relação ao observado com o uso do ZnO, o Zn-AA acarretou pior desempenho produtivo nos peixes estudados.Commercial diets for fish culture are supplemented with an inorganic zinc sources. Zinc oxide (ZnO is the most utilized Zn supplementation in Brazil. However, organic metal complexes may increase mineral absorption in the digestive tract. Based on this knowledge, the effects of a amino acid zinc complex (Zn-AA upon growth performance and carcass composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., fingerlings, were compared to the ones observed for ZnO. Isoproteic and isoenergetic soybean meal/corn-based diets were offered to fish for 75 days, supplemented with 30, 90, 150 or 210mg Zn/kg, from ZnO or Zn-AA. Fish (1.79 ± 0.10g were allocated in thirty six 250-L tanks, and fed ad libitum four times a day. Fish fed with ZnO-supplemented diets, regardless of the supplementation level, showed a significantly higher weight gain than the animals fed with Zn-AA-supplemented diets (P0.05 for different experimental treatments. The experiment showed that Zn-AA supplementation produced worse fish growth performance than ZnO.

  17. Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without lysine supplementation on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptococcus iniae challen...

  18. Efeitos do FeCl2 e CuCl2 na atividade da acetilcolinesterase cerebral de Oreochromis niloticus

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    Vagne de Melo Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetilcolinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7 uma enzima cuja principal funo a modulao dos impulsos nervosos nas sinapses colinrgicas. o alvo primrio de alguns pesticidas e sua atividade pode sofrer interferncia de ons. Estudos apontam o on Cu2+ como um inibidor da AChE ao passo que o on Fe2+ pode inibir a atividade enzimtica em concentraes maiores. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar in vivo e in vitro o efeito do cloreto de ferro (FeCl2 e do cloreto de cobre (CuCl2 sobre a atividade da acetilcolinesterase cerebral de alevinos de tilpia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. O teste in vivo com FeCl2 (3 g/mL mostrou uma atividade da colinesterase de 100,13 24,58%, enquanto a anlise in vitro para 0,127; 1,27; 12,7; 126,7; 1267 g/mL mostraram atividade AChE de 100,82 5,20%, 101,96 2,45%, 96,27 3,71%, 103,82 1,76% e 89,65 2,43%, respectivamente, em relao ao grupo controle (100%, enquanto o teste in vivo com CuCl2 (3 g/mL mostrou uma atividade colinestersica de 88,44 2,01%, e a anlise in vitro para 0,17; 1,70; 17,0; 170,5; 1705 g/mL mostraram atividade AChE de 98.78 5.74%, 81 0.29%, 87.79 10.27%, 81.50 9.84% e 62.55 5.06%, respectivamente. Os resultados sugerem que a acetilcolinesterase cerebral de O. niloticus apresenta sensibilidade baixa ao on Fe2+ e acentuada ao Cu2+, porm apenas na concentrao de 1.705 g/mL (10 mM, o que no representa impedimento ao uso dessa enzima como biomarcador de pesticidas, uma vez que tal concentrao s encontrada na natureza em amostras associadas empreendimentos industriais e de minerao.

  19. Efeito do peso de tilpia no nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sobre e rendimento e a qualidade de seus fils defumados com e sem pele Effect of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus weight on yield and quality of their smoked and in natura fillets with and without skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes pesos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, sobre o rendimento e a qualidade dos seus fils com e sem pele, submetidos defumao, tendo em conta o potencial de industrializao da referida espcie. Foram utilizados 100 exemplares em trs classes de peso (C1 = 500 a 600g, C2 = 601 a 700g e C3 = 701 a 800g. De cada peixe foram retirados um fil com pele e outro sem pele e submetidos salmouragem e defumao a quente. O peso influenciou no rendimento dos fils in natura (C1 = 38,54; C2 = 40,23 e C3 = 40,47% e defumado (C1 = 22,97; C2 = 24,51 e C3 = 24,68%, e o ndice de Massa de Fil in natura (C1 = 36,69; C2 = 39,45 e C3 = 41,18 g.cm-2, sendo maior para os peixes das classes C2 e C3. Os fils com pele apresentaram maior (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different weights of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus on yield and quality of smoked and in natura fillets, with and without skin. One hundred tilapias, divided into three weight classes (C1=500-600g; C2=601-700g; C3=701-800g were used. Two fillet types, with skin and without skin were removed from each sample, salted and hot smoked. Weight affected yield of in natura (C1 = 38.54; C2 = 40.23 e C3 = 40.47% and smoked fillets (C1 = 22.97; C2 = 24.51 e C3 = 24.68%, and in natura fillet mass index (C1 = 36.69; C2 = 39.45 e C3 = 41.18 g.cm-2. The latter was higher in classes C2 and C3. Fillet with skin had a higher (p<0.05 water activity (0.99 rate than that of fillet without skin (0.98. Salt rate was higher (p<0.01 in smoked fillets than in natura ones. It was observed higher salt levels in the C1 skinless class. With the exception of a* and b* in natura fillet, no difference was reported in color. Smoked fillets from C3 class fish were more acceptable by judges. In larger fish the equation Y= -21.52 + 0.16034X (r=0.80, where X is the weight of fish, may be employed to calculate smoked fillets size, while Y= -17.74 + 0.14198X (r=0.81 for smoked skin-less fillets. Regardless of skin presence, the smoked fillets from largest fishes (C2 and C3 classes yielded better results (approximately 24%, as well as in the sensorial analysis, related to salt ratio and general acceptance. Fillets in natura showed low values to a* and b*. Weight classes and skin presence in the fillets had no influence in composition, but caused a variation in their area and thickness. The largest fillets were with skin, belonging to class C3.

  20. Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. - Myrtaceae Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Myrtaceae

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    T.S. Fiuza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae é uma planta que ocorre no bioma Cerrado e é utilizada popularmente no tratamento de diarréias, inflamações, hiperglicemia e hipertensão. Estudos prévios revelaram atividade antimicrobiana da E. uniflora in vitro. Tendo em vista o uso popular, este trabalho objetivou avaliar as possíveis atividades celulares e teciduais sistêmicas do extrato bruto e das frações das folhas dessa planta em brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. (tilápia nilótica. Para isso, o extrato etanólico e as frações das folhas dessa planta foram administrados no peixe, por via oral, adicionadas à ração. Após um período de 24 horas, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada peixe foi dissecado, fixado em formalina neutra, desidratado, incluído em parafina e cortado. Nas análises histológicas, utilizaram-se tricômico de Masson e hematoxilina e eosina (HE. Pelas análises qualitativas na microscopia de luz, concluiu-se que o extrato etanólico bruto e as frações das folhas da E. uniflora apresentaram efeito sistêmico nas tilápias nilóticas atingindo as brânquias. As ações tóxicas como destacamento e descamação do epitélio respiratório e hiperplasia das células do epitélio interlamelar, foram mais pronunciadas nas tilápias que ingeriram maiores concentrações. Este trabalho colaborou para identificar o efeito vasodilatador dessa planta, e contribuiu para estabelecer a tilápia nilótica como sistema-modelo para testes com princípios ativos de plantas. Espera-se, com esses testes, viabilizar o uso de plantas como medicamentos para tratamentos de peixes, a manutenção da saúde de animais em cultivo intensivo e extensivo, a partir do qual se possibilite emprego alternativo aos medicamentos sintéticos.Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae is a plant found in the Cerrado biome and traditionally used in the treatment of diarrheas, inflammations, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Previous studies have revealed in vitro antimicrobial activity of E. uniflora. Considering its popular use, this study aimed to assess possible systemic cellular and tissue activities of the crude extract and the fractions from the leaves of this plant on Oreochromis niloticus L. (Nile tilapia gill. Thus, ethanol extract and fractions from the leaves of this plant were orally administered to the fish in their rations. After 24 hours, the fish were sacrificed and the second gill arch of each fish was dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Masson's trichome and hematoxylin and eosin (HE were used in the histological analyses. Qualitative analyses using a light microscope led to the conclusion that the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from E. uniflora leaves presented systemic effect on Nile tilapias, affecting the gills. Toxic actions such as respiratory epithelium detachment and lifting, and hyperplasia of interlamellar epithelial cells were more pronounced in the tilapias that ingested higher concentrations. This study helped to identify the vasodilator effect of this plant and contributed to the definition of the Nile tilapia as a model system for testing plant active principles. These tests are expected to make feasible not only the use of plants as fish medication but also the maintenance of the health of animals in intensive and extensive cultures through the possible use of alternatives to synthetic medication.

  1. Rendimento do processamento de linhagens de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus) em funo do peso corporal / Process yield of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) strains in function of body weight

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vander Bruno dos, Santos; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato; Thiago Archangelo, Freato; Laura Helena, Orfo; Lucas Cavaliere, Millioti.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os rendimentos do processamento de linhagens de tilpias em funo dos pesos de abate, um experimento foi conduzido no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, M.G. - Brasil. Foram utilizados 93 peixes da linhagem Chitralada e 78 da Supreme, pesando entre 15 [...] 0 e 790 g. Os peixes foram cultivados em dois tanques de alvenaria de 40 m, sendo alimentados com rao comercial fornecida de acordo com a biomassa e a temperatura da gua. A temperatura e o oxignio da gua foram tomados diariamente, no incio do dia e no final da tarde, e o pH aferido semanalmente. Com o crescimento dos animais, amostras aleatrias foram tomadas. Nas amostragens, os peixes foram abatidos aps terem passado por um jejum de 24 horas e insensibilizao por choque trmico. Em seguida, foram pesados e dissecados. A anlise de regresso indicou que em pesos mais elevados, a linhagem Chitralada apresenta maior porcentagem de cabea e rendimento de pele. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maior peso de carcaa, fil e resduos, sendo mais expressivos em pesos superiores a 500 g e menor valor maturidade para a % de vsceras. Conclui-se que as duas linhagens possuem crescimento das partes componentes proporcional ao aumento do peso corporal, e este aumento no altera o rendimento desses constituintes. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maiores rendimentos de carcaa e fil do que a Chitralada, sendo a mais indicada para a produo e comercializao de fils mais pesados. Abstract in english With the objective of evaluating the yield processing of tilapia strains in function of body weight, an experiment was carried out at the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G. - Brazil. A total 93 fish of the Chitralada strain and 78 of the Supreme strain [...] , weighting between 150 and 790 g were used. The fish were cultivated in two tanks of 40 m, fed with commercial ration supplied according to the biomass and water temperature. The water temperature and oxygen were evaluated every day, at the early morning and at the late afternoon, and the pH checked weekly. During the fish growth, random samples were taken. After 24 hours of fasting, the fish were insensibilized (thermal shock), slaughtered (anoxia), weighted and dissected. The regression analysis showed that in higher weight, the Chitralada strain presented higher head percentage and skin yield. The Supreme strain presented higher carcass, fillet and residue weights, being more expressive in body weights superior to 500 g and smaller limiting value for the percentage of viscera. It was concluded that the two strains have growth of body parts proportional to the increase of the body weight, and this increase does not modify the parts yield. The Supreme strain showed more carcass and fillet yield than Chitralada, and is should be indicated for production and commercialization of heavier fillet.

  2. Dietary lipid levels impact lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and fatty acid synthetase gene expression in three tissues of adult GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Juan; Wu, Fan; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Wei; Wen, Hua

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary lipids on growth performance, body composition, serum parameters, and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT strain) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. We randomly assigned adult male Nile tilapia (average initial body weight = 220.00 9.54 g) into six groups consisting of four replicates (20 fish per replicate). Fish in each group were hand-fed a semi-purified diets containing different lipid levels [3.3 (the control group), 28.4, 51.4, 75.4, 101.9, and 124.1 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. The results indicated that there was no obvious effect in feeding rate among all groups (P > 0.05). The highest weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio in 75.4 g kg(-1) diet group were increased by 23.31, 16.17, and 22.02 % than that of fish in the control group (P fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing dietary lipid levels. With the exception of MUFAs, the fatty acid profiles of liver and muscle were similar. Dietary lipid levels were negatively correlated with low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol content and positively with triacylglycerol and glucose contents. In the lipid-fed groups, there was a significant down-regulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in liver, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues. There was a rapid up-regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA in muscle and liver with increasing dietary lipid levels. In visceral adipose tissue, LPL mRNA was significantly down-regulated in the lipid-fed groups. Dietary lipids increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA expression levels in the three tissues. These results strongly suggested that moderate dietary lipid levels were beneficial for adult tilapia growth performance and feed efficiency. However, excessive dietary lipid levels contributed to lipid deposition. Additionally, excessive dietary lipids may induce a competition between lipolysis and lipogenesis. FAS did not have tissue-specific regulation; however, the regulation of dietary lipids on LPL expression is tissue specific. FAS was a negative feedback regulator on fat deposition, and HSL was an indicator of fat content in tilapia. PMID:25347968

  3. Substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo teor de tanino em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989 Replacement of corn by sorghum silage with low and high tannin contents in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo como fonte de energia para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Foram formuladas 3 dietas práticas isocalóricas (3000kcal de energia digestível e isoprotéica (28% de proteína bruta. O farelo de milho foi substituído pela silagem de sorgo de baixo (0,44% (SSBT e alto (1,14% (SSAT teor de tanino. Os peixes (55,09 ± 0,94g foram distribuídos em tanques de fibro-cimento (1000L e alimentados com dietas experimentais até à saciedade 3 vezes ao dia, durante 67 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a conversão alimentar, eficiência protéica, índice hepato-somático, gordura visceral e taxa de sobrevivência. O ganho de peso dos peixes alimentados com SSBT foi significativamente maior que os alimentados com dietas contendo milho e SSAT. Os peixes alimentados com dietas contendo SSBT consumiram mais ração do que os peixes alimentados com a dieta com SSAT. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de 44% de silagem de sorgo nas dietas podem suportar normal crescimento nos juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, com potencial para substituir o milho.This work was carried out to evaluate the replacement of corn by sorghum silage as an energy source for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Three isocaloric (3000kcal of digestible energy and isoproteic (28% of crude protein practical diets were formulated. Corn meal was totally substituted by low (0.44% (LTSS and high (1.14% (HTSS tannin contents silage sorghum. Fish (55.09 ± 0.94g were reared in fiberglass tanks (1000L and hand-fed with experimental diets until reach they satiation, three times a day during 67 days. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat and survival ratio of fish fed with the diets were not significantly different. Weight gain of fish fed with LTSS diet was significantly higher than those fed with corn and HTSS diets. Fish fed with LTSS diet had significantly higher feed intake than fish fed with corn and HTSS diets. Results indicate that a 44% inclusion of silage sorghum in the diet can support normal growth of the juvenile Nile tilapia with the potential for substituting corn.

  4. Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.63.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM-2 for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.070.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.120.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.31.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.05.2 and 33.81.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.52.5 and 1.60.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62.69.8% compared to the survival rates of 97.00.9% and 97.30.8% in controls and DES treated groups, respectively. YYRR males and YYRR neofemales were produced by integrating existing YYrr males and YYrr neofemales from the Egypt-Swansea-Philippine isolate and YYRR androgenetic males from the Stirling isolate with XXRR females and XYRR males of the Stirling isolate of Egyptian strain O. niloticus. In summary, this study provides valuable information regarding the colour and sex determination mechanisms of O. niloticus. The research in this thesis also demonstrated that both YY genotype and red coloration can be combined in a single strain in order to produce all male and stable red coloured O. niloticus. (author)

  5. Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayuecel, I

    1999-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6{+-}3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM{sup -2} for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07{+-}0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12{+-}0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3{+-}1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0{+-}5.2 and 33.8{+-}1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5{+-}2.5 and 1.6{+-}0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62.6{+-}9.8% compared to the survival rates of 97.0{+-}0.9% and 97.3{+-}0.8% in controls and DES treated groups, respectively. YYRR males and YYRR neofemales were produced by integrating existing YYrr males and YYrr neofemales from the Egypt-Swansea-Philippine isolate and YYRR androgenetic males from the Stirling isolate with XXRR females and XYRR males of the Stirling isolate of Egyptian strain O. niloticus. In summary, this study provides valuable information regarding the colour and sex determination mechanisms of O. niloticus. The research in this thesis also demonstrated that both YY genotype and red coloration can be combined in a single strain in order to produce all male and stable red coloured O. niloticus. (author)

  6. Analysis of differential gene expression under low-temperature stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changgeng; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua; Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Fan; Gou, Gengwu

    2015-06-15

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) do not survive well at low temperatures. Therefore, improvement of the low-temperature resistance has become an important issue for aquaculture development of tilapia. The objective of this study was to construct a digital gene expression tag profile to identify genes potentially related to low temperature in tilapia. In this study, tilapia was treated at 30°C to lethal temperature 10°C in decrement of 1°CD(-1). Digital gene expression analysis was performed using the Illumina technique to investigate differentially expressed genes in tilapia cultured at different temperatures (30°C, 26°C, 20°C, 16°C, and 10°C). A total of 206,861, 188,082, 185,827, 188,067, and 214,171 distinct tags were obtained by sequencing these five libraries, respectively. Compared with the 30°C library, there were 304, 407, 709, and 772 upregulated genes and 342, 793, 771, and 1466 downregulated genes in 26°C, 20°C, 16°C, and 10°C libraries, respectively. Trend analysis of these differentially expressed genes identified six statistically significant trends. Functional annotation analysis of the differentially expressed genes identified various functions associated with the response to low-temperature stress. When tilapia are subjected to low-temperature stress, expression changes were observed in genes associated with nucleic acid synthesis and metabolism, amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate content and types, material transport, apoptosis, and immunity. The differentially expressed genes obtained in this study may provide useful insights to help further understand the effects of low temperature on tilapia. PMID:25617524

  7. ?-defensin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Sequence, tissue expression, and anti-bacterial activity of synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun-Jian; Wu, Fang; Ye, Xing; Sun, Cheng-Fei; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Mai-Xin; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Zhi-Hang

    2015-07-15

    Beta-defensins (?-defensins) are small cationic amphiphilic peptides that are widely distributed in plants, insects, and vertebrates, and are important for their antimicrobial properties. In this study, the ?-defensin (On?-defensin) gene of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cloned from spleen tissue. On?-defensin has a genomic DNA sequence of 674 bp and produces a cDNA of 454 bp. Sequence alignments showed that On?-defensin contains three exons and two introns. Sequence analysis of the cDNA identified an open reading frame of 201 bp, encoding 66 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis showed that On?-defensin encodes a cytoplasmic protein molecule containing a signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequence of this peptide contains six conserved cysteine residues and two conserved glycine residues, and shows 81.82% and 78.33% sequence similarities with ?-defensin-1 of fugu (Takifugu rubripes) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the level of On?-defensin expression was highest in the skin (307.1-fold), followed by the spleen (77.3-fold), kidney (17.8-fold), and muscle (16.5-fold) compared to controls. By contrast, low levels of expression were found in the liver, heart, intestine, stomach, and gill (<3.0-fold). Artificial infection of tilapia with Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS] strain) resulted in a significantly upregulated expression of On?-defensin in the skin, muscle, kidney, and gill. In vitro antimicrobial experiments showed that a synthetic On?-defensin polypeptide had a certain degree of inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli DH5? and S. agalactiae. The results indicate that On?-defensin plays a role in immune responses that suppress or kill pathogens. PMID:25871516

  8. Effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzymes activity of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing four graded supplements of genistein: 0, 30, 300, and 3 000 ?g/g. Each diet was randomly assigned in triplicate to tanks stocked with 15 juvenile tilapia (10.471.24 g). The results show that 30 and 300 ?g/g dietary genistein had no significant effect on growth performance of Nile tilapia, but the higher level of genistein (3 000 ?g/g) significantly depressed the final body weight and specific growth rate. There was no significant difference in survival rate, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio or whole body composition among all dietary treatments. An assay of digestive enzymes showed that the diet containing 3 000 ?g/ggenistein decreased stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, and amylase activity in the liver and intestine, while a dietary level of 300 ?g/g genistein depressed stomach protease and intestine amylase activities. However, no significant difference in stomach amylase activity was found among dietary treatments. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that a high level of dietary genistein (3 000 ?g/g, or above) would significantly reduce the growth of Nile tilapia, partly because of its inhibitory effect on the activity of major digestive enzymes. Accordingly, the detrimental effects of genistein, as found in soybean products, should not be ignored when applied as an alternative ingredient source in aquaculture.

  9. Digestibilidade aparente de alguns alimentos proticos pela tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent digestibility of some protein sources for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fbio Meurer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um ensaio de digestibilidade para determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CD da matria seca (MS, energia bruta (EB e protena bruta (PB da farinha de peixe (FP, farinha de vsceras de aves (FV, glten de milho (GM e levedura de lcool spray dried (LS pela tilpia do Nilo, da linhagem tailandesa. Foram utilizados 100 peixes revertidos sexualmente, (peso mdio de 37,6 5,0 g acondicionados em dois tanques de alimentao de 500 L e duas cubas cilndricas com fundo cnico, de 150 L, para coleta de fezes. A determinao dos CD foi feita por intermdio da metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 0,1% de xido crmico (Cr2O3, como indicador. As mdias de temperatura, oxignio dissolvido, pH e condutividade eltrica durante o perodo experimental foram de 25,8 1,0C; 3,2 1,4 mg/L; 6,8 0,1; e 205,7 16,6 S/cm, respectivamente. Os CD da PB, EB e MS foram respectivamente de 90,66; 89,53 e 87,63 para FP; 82,03; 72,09 e 62,21 para FV; 97,61; 93,52 e 91,01 para GM; 77,39; 62,77 e 58,68 para LS. Os valores de protena (% e energia (kcal/kg digestveis, na matria natural, de 53,01 e 3568,0 para FP; 47,65 e 3650,9 para FV; 65,34 e 5036,7 para GM e 32,19 e 2706,9 para LS.A digestibility trial was carried out to determine the dry matter (MS, gross energy (EB and crude protein (PB apparent digestibility coefficients (CD for fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, gluten meal (GM and alchool spray dried yeast (LV for Thai Nile tilapia fingerlings. A hundred sexually reverted fishes (average weight 37.6 5.0 g were assigned to two 500-L feeding tanks and two 150-L cylindrical tanks with conical bottom, to feces collection . CD analysis was performed by the indirect method, using 0.1% chromic oxide (Cr2O3, as marker. Average water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were 25.8 1.0C; 3.2 1.4 mg/L; 6.8 0.1; and 205.7 16.5 S/cm, respectively. CD of PB, EB and MS were 90.66, 89.53 and 87.63 for FP; 82.03, 72.09 and 62.21 for FV; 97.61, 93.52 and 91.01 for GM; 77.39, 62.77 and 58.68 for LS, respectively. The digestible values of protein (% and energy (kcal/kg, as fed basis, were 53.01 and 3568.0 for FP; 47.65 and 3650.9 for FV; 65.34 and 5036.7 for GM; and 32.19 and 2706.9 for LS.

  10. Toksisitas Produk Ekstraseluler dan Intraseluler Bakteri Pseudomonas sp. pada Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus (TOXICITY OF EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR PRODUCT OF PSEUDOMONAS SP IN TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

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    Esti Handayani Hardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the toxicity of extracellular product (ECP and intracellularproduct (ICP of Pseudomonas sp. on tilapia. A total of 40 tilapias weighing 15 grams were injected withECP and ICP. The ECP and ICP were harvested from Pseudomonas sp. culture on two kinds of culturemedia and different time of incubation. The Pseudomonas was cultured on trypticase soy agar (TSA andtrypticase soy broth (TSB and incubated at 24, 48 and 72 hours. The slurry of the bacteria was centrifugedat 10000 g, for 30 minutes on 4oC to get ECP and in room temperature to get ICP. The supernatant wasfiltered with 0.45 ?m paper mesh. A hundred percent mortality was found in tilapia six hours postinjection with ICP (72 hours whereas tilapias were injected with ECP caused 60% mortality in 12 hours.The tilapia showed whirling at 24 hour post injected with ECP of Pseudomonas sp which was cultured inTSA for 48 hours incubated. Opacity of the cornea and exopthalmia were occurred at 48 hours postinjection of ECP and ICP which were harvested from both media. Injection of ICP caused pathologychanges on internal organ of fish i.e. pale appearance of spleen and liver. In conclusion, the ECP and ICPwere a virulence factors of Pseudomonas sp. and the ICP seem more pathogenic and caused mortality thanECP. Both culture media and time of incubation influence of ECP and ICP production. The ECP and ICPwhich were harvested from Pseudomonas sp incubate for 24-48 hour more virulent than 72 hour.

  11. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condies de manejo e alimentao no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.162 Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.162

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    Marcela Maia Yamashita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematolgico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilpia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados s condies de manejo e alimentao a que os animais estavam expostos. Alm de rao, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vsceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e rao artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciao com sunos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de rao comercial como o nico alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematcrito e o nmero de eritrcitos nas tilpias da regio de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leuccitos. As tilpias expostas a dejetos de sunos apresentaram tambm maior nmero de linfcitos. Os valores hematolgicos de carpas no apresentaram variaes significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pig manure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest values of total leukocyte count were observed in A and C from Blumenau and Ituporanga. Tilapia exposed to pig dung showed the highest number of lymphocyte in the circulating blood. Haematological values of carp did not show significant changes that were related to the environment.

  12. Defumao da tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus inteira eviscerada e fil: aspectos referentes s caractersticas organolpticas, composio centesimal e perdas ocorridas no processamento Smoking process of whole eviscerated and fillet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: organoleptic characteristics, proximate composition and losses during processing

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    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito da defumao da tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus inteira eviscerada e fil sobre as caractersticas organolpticas (aparncia, aroma, cor, sabor, textura, teor de sal e aceitao geral, a porcentagem de perda de peso (PP e composio centesimal. Foram comparados FP1 (peixe inteiro eviscerado, 5 horas de fumaa e FP2 (fil, 4 horas de fumaa. Os peixes foram descamados, eviscerados, para obteno de FP1 ou filetados por uma nica pessoa, para obteno de FP2, e ento submetidos salmouragem mida (30% e defumao. O rendimento mdio para FP1 e FP2 foi de 63,98 e 27,11%, respectivamente. O valor mdio para porcentagem de perda de peso ocorrida na defumao para o fil (31,33% foi superior ao peixe inteiro (27,04%. A anlise sensorial revelou que o peixe inteiro teve melhor aceitao quanto ao sabor e teor de sal e no diferiu do fil quanto ao aroma, cor e textura. O processo de defumao reduziu o contedo de umidade e proporcionou aumento nos teores de protena bruta, lipdios e cinzas. As perdas foram maiores para o fil, que apresentou maior teor de protena bruta e menor teor de lipdios comparado ao peixe inteiro. Verificou-se tambm que o sabor do fil pode ser melhorado em funo de uma correo na salmouragem.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the smoking process effect of whole eviscerated and fillet of Nile tilapia on the organoleptic characteristics (appearance, aroma, color, flavor, texture, salt content and general acceptance, percent weight loss (PP and proximate composition. FP1 (whole eviscerated fish, 5 hour smoking and FP2 (fillet, 4 hour smoking were compared. Scaled, eviscerated fish, FP1 and fillets cut by only one person, FP2 were submitted to brine (30% and smoking process. Average yield for FP1 and FP2 was 63.98% and 27.11%, respectively. Average loss weight during smoking for fillet (31.33% was higher, when compared to whole fish (27.04%. Sensorial analysis showed that whole fish was more accepted, regarding flavor and salt content; however, aroma, color and texture were not different between whole fish and fillet. Smoking process reduced moisture and increased crude protein, lipid and ash contents. Losses were higher for fillet, which presented higher crude protein and lower lipid contents compared to whole fish. It was also verified that fillet flavor can be improved by correcting the brine step.

  13. Ectoparasitos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, das linhagens Chitralada e GIFT, em diferentes densidades e alimentadas com dois níveis de proteína = Ectoparasites in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from Chitralada and GIFT strains, in different densities, fed with two protein levels

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    Graciela Lucca Braccini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificada a infestação por ectoparasitos em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, nas linhagens Chitralada e GIFT, em tanques e viveiros, utilizando-se ração com dois níveis de proteína. Durante o ensaio, foram analisados a temperatura, o pH, o oxigênio dissolvido e a condutividade elétrica. Foram realizadas amostras de raspados de tegumento e brânquias de machos pós-revertidos, em duas fases do experimento. A primeira, em 240 alevinos provenientes de 18 caixas de fibra de vidro de 500 L em três densidades. A prevalência total de parasitos na linhagem Chitralada (densidades de 30, 40 e 50 peixes m-3 foi 72,2, 83,3 e 59,5%, com predominância de Trichodina (38,9, 63,3 e 26,2%, respectivamente. Para a linhagem GIFT, nas mesmas densidades, foram observados 83,3, 73,3 e 80,9%, com maior predominância também de Trichodina (33,3, 73,3 e 45,2%,respectivamente. Na segunda fase, foram analisados 90 peixes de cada linhagem, de dois viveiros (140 m2 e duas dietas com 25 e 30% de proteína bruta. A prevalência total, para as linhagens Chitralada e GIFT com 25% PB foi 86,7 e 76,7%, respectivamente, e para 30% PBfoi 60,0%, para ambas as linhagens. O nível de 30% PB, independentemente da linhagem, apresentou a menor prevalência parasitária.Ectoparasites infestation in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was observed in Chitralada and GIFT strains cultivated in cages and ponds, using rations with two protein levels. During the assay, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity were analyzed. Tegument scraping and gill samples from reverted males were evaluated, in two experiment phases. The first phase was carried out with 240 fingerlings from 18 500 L fiberglass boxes using three stocking densities. Total prevalence of parasites in the Chitralada strain (stocking density of 30, 40 and 50 fish m-3 was 72.2, 83.3 and 59.5%, with Trichodina predominance (38.9, 63.3 and 26.2%, respectively. For the GIFT strain, at the same stocking density, 83.3, 73.3 and 80.9% were observed, with higher Trichodina predominance (33.3, 73.3 and 45.2%, respectively. In the second phase, 90 fish from each strain, from two ponds (140 m2 each and fed with two crude protein levels (25 and 30% were evaluated.Total prevalence for Chitralada and GIFT strains with 25% CP was 86.7 and 76.7, respectively, and for 30% CP was 60%. The 30% CP level, regardless of strain, had the lowest parasite prevalence.

  14. Polyculture of fresh water shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 wifh Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus feeding with ration pelleted and mashed / Policultivo do camaro de gua doce Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 com a Tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com raes peletizada e farelada

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    Leandro Bohnenberger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fresh water shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 in performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus cultivated in polyculture system and feeding with ration pelleted and mashed. The work was realized in Centro de Pesquisa em Aqicultura Ambiental-CPAA/IAP Toledo/PR during 37 days. Were utilized like experimental unit 16 ponds excavated, covered with concrete but with bottom of soil with dimension the 4 x 3 m and useful volume the 3,5 m3. Were utilized 30 tilapias e 150 shrimps for experimental unit distributed at an entirely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications, where TF: tilapia feeding with ration mashed; TCF: tilapia and shrimp feeding with ration mashed; TP: tilapia feeding with ration pelleted; TCP: tilapia and shrimp feeding with ration pelleted. The density used were the 2,6 fishes/m2 with medium initial weight the 5,58 0,10 g and initial length the 5,56 cm, and the density of shrimp was the 13 shrimps/m2 with initial length the 1,04 cm. The temperature was gauged daily, while the variables dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity, weekly. The quantity of ration supplied was the 10% of total biomass of fishes, with feed frequency the 4 times a day, being corrected weekly in function of the biometry. During the experimental period the medium values of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity of the ponds water were 23,42 0,83C, 5,32 0,52 mg/L, 7,02 0,39, e 100,96 1,81 S/ cm respectively. Wont registering any influence of shrimp during the cultivation and the ration pelleted provide the better conversion alimentary and performance of tilapias.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influncia do camaro de gua doce Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 no desempenho da Tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus cultivada no sistema de policultivo e alimentada com raes peletizadas e fareladas. O trabalho foi realizado no Centro de Pesquisa em Aqicultura Ambiental-CPAA/IAP Toledo/PR por um perodo de 37 dias. Utilizaram-se como unidades experimentais 16 tanques escavados, revestidos com concreto e com fundo de terra, com dimenso de 4 x 3 m e volume til de 3,5 m3. Foram utilizadas 30 tilpias e 150 camares por unidade experimental distribudos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com 4 tratamentos e 4 repeties, sendo TF: tilpia alimentadas com rao farelada; TCF: tilpia e camaro alimentados com rao farelada; TP: tilpia alimentada com rao peletizada e TCP: tilpia e camaro alimentados com rao peletizada. A densidade utilizada foi de 2,6 peixes/m2 com peso inicial mdio de 5,58 0,10 g e comprimento inicial mdio de 5,56 cm, sendo a densidade de camares de 13 camares/m2 com comprimento inicial mdio de 1,04 cm. A temperatura foi aferida diariamente, enquanto que as variveis oxignio dissolvido, pH e condutividade eltrica, semanalmente. A quantidade de rao fornecida foi de 10% da biomassa total dos peixes, com freqncia alimentar de 4 vezes ao dia, sendo corrigida semanalmente em funo das biometrias. Durante o perodo experimental os valores mdios de temperatura, oxignio dissolvido, pH e condutividade eltrica da gua dos tanques foram de 23,42 0,83 C, 5,32 0,52 mg/L, 7,02 0,39, e 1,00 0,01 mS/cm respectivamente. No se registrando qualquer influncia do camaro durante o cultivo e a rao peletizada proporcionou uma melhor converso alimentar e desempenho das tilpias.

  15. Efeito do tanino na digestibilidade dos nutrientes da ração pela tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1863 Effect of tannin on apparent digestibility of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma Carvalho de Miranda

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do tanino de barbatimão (Dimorphandra mollis, Benth adicionado a rações balanceadas para peixes. Foi avaliada a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo em juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L.. Empregaram-se 80 peixes distribuídos em 5 grupos, os quais receberam rações contendo 0,0%; 0,23%; 0,46%; 0,69%; 0,92%; 1,37% e 1,82% de taninos totais, a partir do extrato de barbatimão. Após o período de aclimação de 3 dias, foram colhidas amostras representativas das fezes produzidas diariamente até completar 5 repetições de cada tratamento. A partir das análises químicas das rações e das fezes e utilizando-se óxido de crômio como marcador inerte, foram calculados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que, para tilápia do Nilo na fase juvenil, a presença de tanino em concentração igual ou maior que 0,46% na ração interfere na digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e proteína bruta, e que os taninos prejudicam significativamente a digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo de ração, quando presentes a partir de 0,23%.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of tannin (Dimorphandra mollis, Benth on the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of fish diets. It was analyzed the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ether extract by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.. It were utilized 80 fish distributed in 5 groups, which were fed diets containing 0.0%; 0.23%; 0.46%; 0.69%; 0.92%; 1.37% and 1.82% of total tannin. After a acclimatization period of three days, representative samples of feces were obtained daily until reach five replicates each treatment. The ADC was calculated based on chemical analysis of diets and feces to determine chemical composition and chromic oxide. It was concluded that to Nile tilapia the presence of tannin on concentration similar or higher than 0.46% on diet, interfere on the apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein and tannin prejudice significantly the apparent digestibility of ether extract when the concentration is bigger than 0.23%.

  16. Reduced growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus O. Niloticus) at intermediate stocking density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yi-Bo; Yang, Yun-Xia; Cai, Fa-Sheng

    2002-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  17. Efeito do tempo de fornecimento de rao suplementada com leo de linhaa sobre a composio fsico-qumica e de cidos graxos em cabeas de tilpias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Effect of ration supply time with flaxseed oil on physico-chemical composition and fatty acids of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) heads

    OpenAIRE

    Jesu V. Visentainer; Sandra T.M. Gomes; Carmino Hayashi; Oscar O. Santos-Jnior; Adriano B. M. da Silva; Karin C Justi; Nilson E. de Souza; Makoto Matsushita

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um estudo sobre a composio fsico-qumica e, especialmente sobre a composio de cidos graxos nos lipdios totais de cabeas de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus), submetidas a diferentes tempos (0, 10, 20, 30 dias) de fornecimento de rao suplementada com leo de linhaa (fonte do cido a-linolnico, 18:3n-3 LNA), em substituio ao leo de girassol. No houveram diferenas (P>0,05) entre os teores de umidade, cinza, protena e lipdios totais para...

  18. Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper Alterações histopatológicas no epitélio hepático e branquial da Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, exposta a diferentes concentrações de cobre

    OpenAIRE

    António Figueiredo-Fernandes; Jorge V. Ferreira-Cardoso; Sofia Garcia-Santos; Sandra M. Monteiro; João Carrola; Pedro Matos; António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were reared in freshwater and exposed to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 of waterborne copper for a period of 21 days. Liver and gill samples were collected after 21 days of exposure to copper and lesions were analyzed by light microscopy. The main histopathological changes observed in gills exposed to the highest concentration were edema, lifting of lamellar epithelia and an intense vasodilatation of the lamellar vascular axis. Although less frequent...

  19. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein sources in diets of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research efforts by nutritionist to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other more expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains af...

  20. Técnicas de controle de qualidade utilizadas na criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471 Quality control techniques used in the breeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Hermann Leonhardt

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, de 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14g, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 180 dias. Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de destilaria alcooleira. Os resultados médios obtidos para os parâmetros limnológicos no controle da qualidade da água através de análises físico-químicas e gráficos de controle foram normais durante todo o período experimental. Os valores da temperatura média mensal revelaram estar “fora de controle estatístico”, e mostraram, através da aplicação dos índices de capacidade (Cp e Cpk, que 35,20% estão abaixo do limite inferior de especificação (LIE. A análise dos resultados obtidos, através da aplicação das técnicas de Pareto e Problema da Mochila, evidenciou a solução ótima para resolver os problemas de predadores, biometrias e doenças com a função objetivo Z* maximizada. A utilização das técnicas de controle de qualidade permite um aumento da taxa de estocagem nos tanques sem redução da taxa de crescimento individual e com obtenção de altas produções de peixes de boa qualidade.Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus, 45 days old, sexually reverted, with initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14g, distributed in a totally randomized design during 180 days, were used in this experiment. Effects of substitutions of 10%, 20% and 30% of the rations by yeast obtained from alcohol distillery were evaluated. Average results obtained for the limnological parameters in water quality control by means of chemical analyses and control graphs were considered normal during the entire experimental period. Values of monthly average temperature were statistically out of control and by the application of the capacity rates (Cp and Cpk showed that 35.20% were below the lowest specification limit (LSL. By means of Pareto’s techniques and knapsack problem used, results presented the best solution for problems of predators, biometry and diseases with the maximized function Z* objective. Quality control techniques have made possible an increase of stocking rate in the tanks without a reduction of the individual growth rate and with high productions of good quality fish.

  1. Effect of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in a sequential polyculture system Efecto de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sobre el crecimiento del camarón blanco del Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei, en un sistema de policultivo secuencial

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    Cesar Hernández-Barraza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out at the Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL, University of Arizona, to assess the effect of the addition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, at different densities, on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. The growth rate and feed conversion of shrimp, both in polyculture and monoculture, were evaluated. Shrimp-tilapia proportions were 20:8 individuals in Treatment One (T1, 20:4 individuals in Treatment Two (T2 and 20:2 individuals in Treatment Three (T3, while in Treatment Four (T4 shrimp were stocked as a control group with a ratio of 20:0. The experiment lasted for four weeks at 10 ppt water salinity. The shrimp and fish were fed once a day with 8% and 3% of their body weight, respectively, using a 35% protein feed. At the end of the experiment, the average individual weight and best feed conversion ratio were obtained in shrimp polyculture treatment with highest tilapia density 6.08 ± 0.18 g and 1.26 ± 0.01 respectively, while the lowest scores were found in the monoculture treatment with 5.14 ± 0.59 g and 1.35 ± 0.01, respectively (P El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Investigación del Medio Ambiente (ERL. de la Universidad de Arizona, para evaluar el efecto de la adición de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus a diferentes densidades, en el desempeno del crecimiento del camarón blanco del Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei. La tasa de crecimiento y conversión alimenticia del camarón, tanto en policultivo y monocultivo, fueron evaluados. Las proporciones de camarón y la tilapia fueron de 20:8 individuos en el tratamiento uno (T1, 20:4 en el tratamiento dos (T2 y de 20:2 en el tratamiento tres (T3, mientras que en el tratamiento cuatro (T4, únicamente fueron sembrados camarones, participando como grupo control con una relación de 20:0. El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y agua a 10 ppm de salinidad. Los camarones y peces fueron alimentados una vez al día con el 8% y 3% de su peso corporal, de manera respectiva, empleando alimento con el 35% de proteína. Al final del experimento, el peso individual promedio y la mejor conversión alimenticia de los camarones fueron obtenidos en el policultivo con mayor densidad de tilapia 6.08 ± 0,18 g y 1,26 ± 0,01, mientras que, los resultados más bajos se encontraron en el tratamiento de monocultivo con 5,14 ± 0.59 g y 1,35 ± 0,01, respectivamente (P < 0,05. El presente estudio demuestra que el cultivo integral de camarón y tilapia, con un sistema de tanques secuenciales, es técnicamente viable e incrementa la producción de camarón, la cual es más alta que en el monocultivo, sin ninguna interacción adversa entre los peces y camarones.

  2. Physiological and haematological response of Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae exposed to single and consecutive stress of capture - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1719 Resposta fisiológica e hematológica de Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae exposto ao estresse único e consecutivo de captura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1719

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    Karina Ribeiro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a sequence of studies on tropical fish of economic importance that evaluated the effects of two different stress of handling on the physiology and haematology of Oreochromis niloticus L. acclimated for 10 days before the essay. The stress consisted in net capture of all fish from each aquarium for 30s emersion. Fish exposed to single stress (SS the samples were collected in the times 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300min. after stress. In the consecutive stress (CS the samples were collected in the times 0; 15min. after the first stress; 15min. after the second stress; 15min. after the third stress and 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240min. after the fourth stress totalizing four stimuli every 60min. Fish exposed to SS showed increased cortisol and glucose concentrations at 60min. as well as in the leucocytes number and hematocrit at 50min. after stress. Cortisol did not alter in fish exposed to CS, but glucose increased 15min. after the third stress. On the other hand, CS provoked reduction in the leucocytes number and later hematocrit increasing. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia were related to SS and CS.Este trabalho é seqüência de estudos com peixes tropicais de importância econômica avaliando os efeitos de dois tipos de estresse sobre a fisiologia e hematologia de O. niloticus L, aclimatados durante 10 dias antes do experimento. O estresse consistiu na captura de todos os peixes do aquário com rede e emersão por 30 s. Nos animais submetidos ao estímulo único de captura (EU as amostras foram coletadas nos tempos 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240 e 300min. após o estresse. No estímulo consecutivo (EC as amostras foram coletadas nos tempos 0; 15min. após o primeiro estresse; 15min. após o segundo estresse; 15min. após o terceiro estresse e 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240min. após o quarto estresse totalizando quatro estímulos a cada 60min. Os peixes expostos ao EU apresentaram aumento nas concentrações de cortisol e glicose 60min., bem como no número de leucócitos e hematócrito 50min. após o estresse. Não houve alteração do cortisol nos peixes do EC, mas a glicose aumentou 15min. após o terceiro estresse. Por outro lado, o EC provocou redução no número de leucócitos e aumento tardio do hematócrito. Observou-se neutrofilia e linfopenia após o EU e EC.

  3. APPORTS RELATIFS EN NOURRITURES NATURELLE ET ARTIFICIELLE DANS L’ALIMENTATION DU TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS EN CAPTIVITE

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    BAMBA Y.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Des études sur le rythme alimentaire, la ration alimentaire journalière et la quantité des nourritures naturelles et artificielles consommées ont été réalisées chez des populations d’alevins (6 g, de juvéniles (30 g et d’adultes (250 g d’Oreochromis niloticus. L’échantillonnage a été effectué toutes les 3 heures, sur deux cycles de 24h dans 4 bassins bétonnés (alevins et dans 8 étangs (juvéniles et adultes. Le contenu des estomacs a été analysé. Les poids frais du contenu des estomacs ont été traités par le logiciel MAXIMS pour déterminer les taux d’ingestion, d’évacuation et la ration alimentaire journalière. Les courbes de la prise de nourritures présentent deux pics montrant une activité alimentaire périodique et diurne. En dehors des périodes de nourrissage (9h et 15h, le contenu des estomacs est composé majoritairement d’aliments naturels chez les alevins et juvéniles. En revanche, chez les adultes, les nourritures apportées sont plus abondantes entre 9 h et 24 h. En dehors de cette période, le bol alimentaire est constitué presque uniquement de nourritures naturelles chez toutes les populations des poissons prélevés. Les rations alimentaires distribuées quotidiennement estimées sont de 10 % ; 6,7 % et 3,7 % du poids corporel respectivement chez les alevins, les juvéniles et les adultes. Dans ce même ordre des populations indiquées, les nourritures naturelles consommées ont été approximativement de 4 %, 2,31 % et 1 % contre 6, 4,45 et 2,7 % pour l’aliment artificiel.

  4. Influence of water quality deterioration on blood profile of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of water quality deterioration on the haematological indices and blood profile of cultured fish, which was most frequently used in pathophy-siological investigations in fish reared in the ponds and tanks culture conditions, compared with normal healthy fish in natural water (White Nile River). The results showed that water quality characteristics of experimental tanks level of NH4, NH3, NO3 and NO2 concentration significantly (p4, NH3, NO3 and NO2) with moderate regression factors. Relationship between RBC, and water quality characteristics was positive and with very low regression factors. (Author)

  5. Metalloproteomic Profile Determination of Muscle Samples from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Using AAS and ESI-MS/MS after 2D-PAGE Separation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna, Cavecci; Paula M. de, Lima; Joo V. de, Queiroz; Camila P., Braga; Cilene C. F., Padilha; Aline L., Leite; Marlia A. R., Buzalaf; Luiz E., Pezzato; Pedro M., Padilha.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the metalloproteomic profile of muscle tissue samples from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) methods was used for protein fractionation and identification based on image analysis. Determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn an [...] d Zn was performed in the protein spots by flame and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS), the protein spots were characterized by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). FAAS and GFAAS determinations have indicated the presence of calcium in seven protein spots, iron in only one spot, manganese in six spots, and zinc in two spots. Of the seventeen protein spots where the presence of metal ions was detected, ten were characterized by ESI-MS/MS.

  6. High levels of dietary vitamin E improve the reproductive performance of female Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.19830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thálita Stefann Ribeiro Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on reproductive responses of female tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. To this, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with different levels of vitamin E supplementation (200, 300, 400, and 500 mg kg-1 were provided to groups of females for 90 days. Supplementation positively influenced the volume of eggs produced, spawning rate, fecundity, hatching rate, average production of larvae, reproductive frequency and survival. The fertilization rate, weight, and diameter of the eggs were not affected by supplementation. This study showed that 400 mg kg-1 vitamin E in the diet during the reproductive period of female Nile tilapia are sufficient to ensure the best reproductive performance, providing efficient production of a larger number of larvae in the individuals of this species.

  7. Effect of Orally-Administered 17a-Methyltestosterone at Different Doses on the Sex Reversal of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linneaus 1758

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    Pinar Celik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain all male population, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus larvae which just finished the yolk sac were fed with feed containing 17a-Methyltestosterone at five different doses (0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mgMT kg-1 feed for 28 days. As a result of the experiment repeated twice, it was found out that the sex reversal rates among the groups were at the levels of 57.1, 69.8, 69.4, 70.9, 86.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the highest sex reversal rate occurred in the group to which 60 mgMT kg-1 feed dose was applied.

  8. Sex Reversal Of Nila Gift (Oreochromis Niloticus) After Feeding By Natural Testosteron Hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural testosteron hormonal derived from cow testis was given on fish larva for sex reversal. Concentration of natural testosteron hormone was determined by isotopic dilution technique using Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results of experiments in aquarium showed that the A treatment produced only 24% of male nila gift, B treatment was 87%, and C treatment was 92%. While result of sex reversal was observed in fish pond was 29%, 83%, and 87% for A,B, and C treatments respectively. Fish weight after 40 days was 2.60 gram and 0.65 gram for male and female respectively. Natural testosteron hormone given to nila gift as sex reversal, was successful to produce male nila gift

  9. Oxidative stress in tissues of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from a polluted site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainy, A.C.D. [UFSC, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carvalho, P.S.M. [CETESB, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Saito, E.; Leitao, M.A.S.; Junqueira, V.B.C. [IQUSP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Pro and antioxidant parameters were compared in the erythrocytes, gill, liver and kidney of Nile Tilapia from a fish farm (Reference group) and from a polluted site at Billings Reservoir (Reservoir group). The erythrocyte oxidative stress was characterized by the increased oxygen uptake and decreased time induction (induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide, t-BHP) evidencing a higher susceptibility to oxidative damage. Moreover, a decrease in both catalase (CAT) activity and total glutathione content (GSH) in erythrocytes of Reservoir fish were observed. The higher gill cytochrome b{sub 5} levels is probably related to the enhanced oxyradical production. This fact associated to the diminished CAT and G6PDH activities establish a gill oxidative stress of Reservoir fish. The liver pro-oxidant parameters were greatly increased in the Reservoir fish. These results together with the increase in SOD activity and decrease in CAT, glutathione reductase (GR) and G6PDH activities indicate a liver oxidative stress condition. The observed increase in kidney NADH cytochrome c reductase and in both P-450 and b{sub 5} contents did not reflect in enhanced oxyradical production. The decrease in GSH observed in this tissue is probably associated to the conjugation reactions for ulterior excretion. These results furnish useful data for prospections of polluted aquatic sites in order to correlate the presence of pollutants to associated biological effects.

  10. Dietary levels of Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS for nile-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: Intestinal Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of aquaculture production systems exposes fish to numerous stressors, which may negatively affect their growth and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. In addition, fish farmers are now obliged to conform to Best Management Practices (BPMs regulations. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS are complex carbohydrates derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls. This study was set out to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dietary MOS on intestinal morphology of Nile-tilapia. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR and fed diets containing increasing levels of MOS (0.0; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% during 30 days (n=4. The proximal intestine fragment of two specimens from each replicate was taken for histological observations. The histological sections (5 μm were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H & E and documented photographically with a digital camera (DCM 130E digital camera for microscope 1.3 pixels, CMOS chip Software Scopephoto connected to a light microscope (EDUTEC 502 AC. The images were analyzed by using (BEL Eurisko software for intestinal villi measures. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. It was observed influence (p<0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia intestinal morphology. Fish fed diet containing 0.4% MOS supplementation showed increased (p<0.05 villi height (436.98±66.81 μm when compared to fish fed unsupplemented control diet (401.01±70.73 μm, 0.2% (364.59±61.68 μm and 0.8% (404.08±61.62 μm. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS are complex carbohydrates derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls and present mannose as primary carbohydrate, providing substrate for selective attachment of pathogenic intestinal bacteria, impairing bacterial adhesion to entherocytes, thus preventing infection of host cells. Thereby, the inhibition of bacteria adhesion to enterocytes prevents formation of mixed colonies, the entrapment of nutrients for bacterial growth and infection of host cells, leading to better gut health by increasing regularity, height and integrity of the gut villi and consequent better utilization and absorption of nutrients. In conclusion, dietary MOS at 0.4% supplementation for 30 days presented prebiotic effects for juvenile Nile-tilapia.

  11. Efeito do extrato etanlico bruto e das fraes da Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley em brnquias de Oreochromis niloticus L.

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    T.S. FIUZA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alguns problemas relacionados criao intensiva de peixes esto mais evidentes devido ao aumento da aquicultura em todo o mundo, destacando-se os distrbios nutricionais e o aumento de doenas nos sistemas de produo. Com isso as pesquisas envolvendo produtos derivados de plantas vem ganhando espao nessa rea. A Hyptidendron canum uma planta utilizada na medicina popular como antimalrica, anti-inflamatria, antiulcerativa e anti-hepatotxica. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos celulares e teciduais do extrato etanlico bruto e das fraes hexano, clorofrmio e acetato de etila da H. canum nas brnquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. Para isso, o extrato etanlico e as fraes foram administrados no peixe atravs da rao. Aps 24 horas da ingesto da rao, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada um foi processado histologicamente e corado com tricmico de Masson e Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE. Pela anlise qualitativa das brnquias ao microscpio de luz, observou-se que o extrato bruto e as trs fraes promoveram, em diferentes intensidades nas lamelas, descamao e destacamento do epitlio respiratrio, alterao da curvatura, desorganizao do eixo, hiperplasia celular do tecido epitelial interlamelar e vasodilatao nas lamelas e no vaso central do filamento. Os resultados deste experimento mostraram que o extrato etanlico bruto e as trs fraes de H. canum promoveram processos inflamatrios e/ou leses sistmicas, dose dependente para O. niloticus.

  12. Hematology and productive performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A Sebastião

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Columnaris disease is one of the main causes of mortality in tilapia rearing and is responsible for large economic losses worldwide. Hematology is a tool that makes it possible to study organisms' physiological responses to pathogens. It may assist in making diagnoses and prognoses on diseases in fish populations. The hematological variables of nile tilapia were studied in specimens with a clinical diagnosis of columnaris disease and in specimens that were disease-free. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin rate, hematocrit percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, organic defense blood cell percentages (leukocytes and thrombocytes and hepatosomatic and splenosomatic index were determined. The results showed that there were changes in the erythrocytic series and in organic defense blood cells, in the fish infected with the bacterium, with reductions in erythrocytic variables and significant increases in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and neutrophils.

  13. Reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea-Mendoza, B; Gmez-Mrquez, J L; Salgado-Ugarte, I H; Ramirez-Noguera, D

    2005-01-01

    The reproductive season of tilapia was studied by monthly samplings at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos State, Mexico. From February 1999 through February 2000 a sample of 50 fish was taken from the commercial catch (castnet, 6.5 cm of mesh size). The observed sex ratio was 1:1.29 (females:males) (chi(2)=10.26; p<0.05). The tilapia reached maturity at 151.3 mm (females) and 152.0 mm (males) of total length. Rainy (August) and dry (February) seasons were determined as the breeding period. Fecundity variation was better correlated with length (r=0.7473: p<0.002) than with weight (r=0.7395; p<0.002). The fecundity ranged between 243 and 847 oocytes per fish, with egg diameter from 300 to 3 700 microm. Intensive breeding activity in August and February coincide with phytoplankton biomass increase. PMID:17354460

  14. Development of a bacterial challenge test for gnotobiotic Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situmorang, Magdalena Lenny; Dierckens, Kristof; Mlingi, Frank Thomas; Van Delsen, Bart; Bossier, Peter

    2014-04-23

    Gastrointestinal microbiota have an important impact on fish health and disease, stimulating interest in a better understanding of how these gastrointestinal microbial communities are composed and consequently affect host fitness. In this respect, probiotic microorganisms have been extensively used in recent aquaculture production. To study the use of probiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases, the establishment of a method of experimental infection to obtain consistent results for mortality and infection in challenge tests is important. In pathogen-screening tests, 4 candidate pathogenic bacteria strains (Edwardsiella ictaluri gly09, E. ictaluri gly10, E. tarda LMG2793 and Streptococcus agalactiae LMG15977) were individually tested on xenic Nile tilapia larvae. Only Edwardsiella strains delivered via Artemia nauplii, with or without additional pathogen delivery via the culture water, led to increased mortality in fish larvae. A gnotobiotic Nile tilapia larvae model system was developed to provide a research tool to investigate the effects and modes-of-action of probiotics under controlled conditions. A double disinfection procedure using hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite solution was applied to the fish eggs, which were subsequently incubated in a cocktail of antibiotic and antifungal agents. In the gnotobiotic challenge test, E. ictaluri gly09R was added to the model system via Artemia nauplii and culture water, resulting in a significant mortality of the gnotobiotic fish larvae. The developed gnotobiotic Nile tilapia model can be used as a tool to extend understanding of the mechanisms involved in host-microbe interactions and to evaluate new methods of disease control. PMID:24781794

  15. Genetic parameters for fillet traits and body measurements in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fillet weight is an economically important trait in Nile tilapia production for the European market which asks for fish with average body weights of at least 700 g. Genetic parameters to design or optimize breeding programs for these body weights are lacking. In an earlier study we showed that high phenotypic correlations exist between body measurements and fillet weight and low phenotypic correlations exist between body measurements and fillet yield. To evaluate the potential of mass selecti...

  16. Compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus O. niloticus) reared in seawater, following restricted feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yibo; Yang, Yunxia; Cai, Fasheng

    2004-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia weighing 7.71 g were reared in seawater at 24.0 29.0C for 8 weeks. The controls were fed to satiation twice a day throughout the experiment, whereas treatment groups were fed at 0.5%, 1.5% or 3.0% body weight per day for 4 weeks, and then to satiation for the remainder of the experiment. During the first 4-week period, there was a curvilinear relationship between growth rate and ration size. Fish fed 0.5% and 1.5% rations displayed compensatory growth response of 2 weeks duration during realimentation. The weight-adjusted growth rate of fish fed at 3% ration was not significantly different from that of the controls by the end of the experiment, when none of the treatment groups had caught up in body weight with the controls. Hyperphagia was observed for the first 2 weeks of realimenatation in fish previously fed at 3% ration, but persisted for the whole realimentation period in groups previously fed at 0.5% and 1.5% rations. None of the feed restricted groups showed improved digestibility, feed efficiency, or protein and energy retention efficiency.

  17. Comparative physical maps derived from BAC end sequences of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Lindblad-Toh Kerstin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nile tilapia is the second most important fish in aquaculture. It is an excellent laboratory model, and is closely related to the African lake cichlids famous for their rapid rates of speciation. A suite of genomic resources has been developed for this species, including genetic maps and ESTs. Here we analyze BAC end-sequences to develop comparative physical maps, and estimate the number of genome rearrangements, between tilapia and other model fish species. Results We obtained sequence from one or both ends of 106,259 tilapia BACs. BLAST analysis against the genome assemblies of stickleback, medaka and pufferfish allowed identification of homologies for approximately 25,000 BACs for each species. We calculate that rearrangement breakpoints between tilapia and these species occur about every 3 Mb across the genome. Analysis of 35,000 clones previously assembled into contigs by restriction fingerprints allowed identification of longer-range syntenies. Conclusions Our data suggest that chromosomal evolution in recent teleosts is dominated by alternate loss of gene duplicates, and by intra-chromosomal rearrangements (~one per million years. These physical maps are a useful resource for comparative positional cloning of traits in cichlid fishes. The paired BAC end sequences from these clones will be an important resource for scaffolding forthcoming shotgun sequence assemblies of the tilapia genome.

  18. Evaluation on the Pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of a Streptococcus agalactiae was evaluated in a three-period experiment. Two groups of 40 fishes were intraperitoneally (i.p. challenged in each experimental period with different infective doses of the pathogen. Doses varied from 1.0 x 10(6 to 1.5 x 10(8 CFU/fish. One group of 40 tilapia i.p. injected with tryptic soy broth (TSB was used as a control group in each period. Mortalities varied from 67.5% in group 8 (infective dose 1.0 x 10(6 CFU/fish to 90.0% in group 1 (infective dose 1.5 x 10(8 CFU/fish. Significant differences in mortalities were found only between group 8 and each of the other groups, except group 5 (infective dose 6.0 x 10(6 CFU/fish; mortality 75.0%. The highest mortality coefficients were observed in days 1-2 after inoculation (accumulated mortality 44.4%, and a second peak of mortality occurred at days 6-7. Challenged fishes from all the groups showed alterations in behaviour and similar clinical signs. These were anorexia, lethargy, erratic swimming, exophthalmia and ascites. Macroscopically, skin hemorrhage, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly with organ paleness and visceral adherences were observed. S. agalactiae was re-isolated from all the fishes from the experimental groups submitted to bacteriological examination. The illness observed in tilapia naturally infected with S. agalactiae was experimentally reproduced in this study, and the clinical signs produced were similar to those reported from the natural infections.A patogenicidade do S. agalactiae foi avaliada experimentalmente em três períodos. Dois grupos de 40 peixes foram inoculados intraperitonealmente (i.p. em cada período com diferentes doses infectantes do patógeno. As doses variaram de 1,0 x 10(6 a 1,5 x 10(8UFC/peixe. Como controle, um grupo de 40 peixes foi inoculado tryptic soy broth (TSB via i.p. em cada período. Mortalidades variaram de 67,5% no grupo 8 (dose infectante 1,0 x 10(6 UFC/peixe a 90,0% no grupo 1 ( dose infectante 1,5 x 10(8 UFC/ peixe. Diferença significativa de mortalidade foi observada somente entre o grupo 8 e os demais grupos, exceto com grupo 5 (dose infectante 6,0 x 10(6 UFC/peixe - 75,0% de mortalidade. Os maiores coeficientes de mortalidade foram observados no 1 e 2° dia após a inoculação (mortalidade acumulada de 44,4%, e o segundo pico de mortalidade ocorreu no 6 e 7° dia. Em todos os peixes inoculados foi observada alteração de comportamento e sinais clínicos semelhantes. Anorexia, letargia, natação errática, exoftalmia e ascite. Macroscopicamente, foi observada hemorragia na pele, esplenomegalia, hepatomegalia, palidez dos órgãos e aderências viscerais. S. agalactiae foi re-isolado dos peixes submetidos ao exame bacteriológico. A doença observada nas tilápias infectadas naturalmente com essa cepa de S. agalactiae foi experimentalmente reproduzida nesse trabalho, e os sinais clínicos foram similares à infecção natural.

  19. Composicao quimica, perfil de acidos graxos e quantificacao dos acidos ƒ¿-linolenico, eicosapentaenoico e docosahexaenoico em visceras de tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus = Percentual composition, fatty acids and quantification of the LNA (Alfa-Linolenic, EPA (Eicosapentaenoic and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acids in visceras of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a composição química de vísceras de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em cativeiro Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídios totais foram de 64,4%; 1,3%; 6,3% e 18,0%, respectivamente, caracterizando alta concentração de lipídiostotais em relação a outros resíduos de peixes. Foram identificados 49 ácidos graxos, sendo majoritários os ácidos: oléico, (32,8%, seguido do palmítico, (19,9% e linoléico, (18,2%. As razões entre n-6/n-3 e ácidos poliinsaturados/saturados foram de 5,5 e 0,9, respectivamente. As quantificações dos ácidos graxos alfa-linolênico, eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico, em mg/g de lipídios totais, foram de 10,4, 1,4 e 9,3, respectivamente. O elevado teor de lipídios totais das vísceras contribuiu significativamente para as quantidadesde ácidos graxos n-3. Todos os parâmetros analisados foram satisfatórios sob o ponto de vista nutricional e neste sentido as vísceras de tilápias poderão ser utilizadaa para alimentar peixes ou outros animais.The chemical composition was evaluated in visceras of tilapias raised in captivity. The moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipids contents were 64.4%; 1.3%; 6.3% and 18.0%, respectively, characterizing high total lipids concentration in relation other residues of fish. Forty nine fatty acids were detected, the major fatty acids were oleic (32.8%, palmitic (19.9% and linoleic-1 (18.2% and oleic (9.4%. The ratio n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids, showed the values 5.5 and 0.9, respectively. The quantifications of alfa-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (in mg/g of total lipids, were 10.4, 1.4 and 0.3, respectively. The higher contents of total lipids in visceras contributed significantly for amounts of n-3 fatty acids. All the parameters analyzed were shown nutritional value satisfactory in this sense visceras of tilapias can be used in the feed of fish and other animal.

  20. Effect of Feeding Frequency on the Growth of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Earthen Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouomogne, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate groups of Nile tilapia fingerlings (30.9 g were fed at three different frequencies, i. e. 2, 3 and 6 meals a day, in six 400 m2 earthen ponds. Fish stocked at 22.4 g/m2 (about 60 ind./are was thus fed an experimental diet containing 25 % protein from vegetal origin. The feed was daily distributed, by hand, at equal time intervals between 8 a. m. and 3 p. m. After fifteen weeks trials, significantly (p <0.05 best growth was obtained in the 6 times a day treatment (daily growth rate 1.3 g/day as compared to 0.9 g/day for each of the two other treatments. It could be noticed that increase in the feeding frequency was associated with increase in growth rate and decrease in FGR (from 1.6 to 1.3. In term of fish production, there was an estimated extra tilapia production of 8.7 kg/are/year with the 6 times a day frequency, comparatively to the two other treatments. In an environment where labour is not actually limiting, the study suggests that Nile tilapia in production ponds should be fed six times a day.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus : Analysis in Liver and Bile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravit Cheevaporn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mainly from petroleum products, are a source of worldwide contamination, and it is in the present study, we exposed Nile Tilapia in aquaria to No-Observed-Effect-Levels (NOELs of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene for periods up to 9 days in a continuous flow system. Additional studies were carried out on fish exposed to lubricating oil, gasoline and diesel oil. Two methods were used to measure the levels of these PAHs: determination of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD activity in liver extracts, and fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF of PAH in bile. Optimal excitation wavelengths for FF analyses were determined to 290, 260 and 341 nm for naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively. The optimal emission wavelengths were 335, 380 and 383 nm, respectively. EROD activity and fluorescence intensity increased with increasing PAH concentrations and increasing exposure times. Similar results were obtained after exposure to lubricating oil, gasoline, or diesel oil. There was a high and significant correlation between the two methods. In view of its higher accuracy, lower cost, and convenience FF offered better possibilities than EROD determination to monitor PAH contamination in fish.

  2. Incorporation and profile of fatty acids in tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus fed with tung oil

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    Elton Guntendorfer Bonaf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of tung oil enriched diet and the incorporation of conjugated linolenic acid - CLnA into fillets of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT were investigated. The diet was well accepted, and after 10 days CLnA was incorporated into the fillets with a 1.02% content of total fatty acids (FA. In addition, biosynthesis of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers - CLA (0.31% of fillet total FA content from CLnA, and the presence of alpha-linolenic acid - LNA (1.08% of fillet total FA content, eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA (2.85% of fillet total FA content and docosahexaenoic acid - DHA (3.08% of fillet total FA content were observed. Therefore, the consumption of this fish can increase the intake of different FA (CLnA, CLA, LNA, EPA and DHA, which play an important role in human metabolism.

  3. Feeding motivation as a personality trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): role of serotonergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, P.I.M.; Martins, C.I.M.; Hglund, Erik; Gjen, H. M.; verli, .

    2014-01-01

    Consistent individual variation in behaviour and physiology (i.e. animal personality or coping style) has emerged as a central topic in many biological disciplines. Yet, underlying mechanisms of crucial personality traits like feeding behaviour in novel environments remain unclear. Comparative...... studies, however, reveal a strong degree of evolutionary conservation of neural mechanisms controlling such behaviours throughout the vertebrate lineage. Previous studies have indicated duration of stress-induced anorexia as a consistent individual characteristic in teleost fishes. This study aims to...... determine to what degree brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) activity pertains to this aspect of animal personality, as a correlate to feed anticipatory behaviour and recovery of feed intake after transfer to a novel environment. Crucial to the definition of animal personality, a strong degree of...

  4. Evaluation of tamoxifen citrate efficiency on sexual inversion of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zanoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of tamoxifen on sexual inversion of Nile tilapia larvae from two days of life, the experimental desing was compounded of five treatments and three replicates, and fish were fed diets with different amounts of tamoxifen: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 of feed. After 28 days of treatment, larvae were counted and transferred to water tanks of 500 liters and then which were fed with a diet containing 28% crude protein for more 60 days. After this period the fry were sexed by the “squash”. The survival 75.5 ± 5.74, 73 ± 4.76, 66 ± 11.19, 76.5 ± 4.12, 75 ± 3.46 and average percentage of male individuals 62.5 ± 5, 70 ± 8.1, 60 ± 8.2, 70 ± 0.0, 62.5 ± 9.5 for treatments 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of tamoxifenkg-1 diet, respectively, showed no statistically significant differences (p<0,05. The number of gonads in each fish experienced a significant reduction in the treatments with 75 and 100 mg of tamoxifen (89.3 and 79.3 ± 0.527 ± 0.378 when compared with treatments 0, 25 and 50 mg of tamoxifen (98, 9 ± 1.0, 97.6 ± 1.0 and 94.5 ± 1.0, respectively, the histological structure of female gonads did not differ and ovaries in all treatments showed well-defined and oocytes at several stages of maturation.

  5. Body composition and compensatory growth in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under different feeding intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Ziwei; Hur, Jun-wook; Lee, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the growth and body composition of Nile tilapia under five different feeding regimes. A control group was fed to satiation twice daily for 185 days; four treatment groups were fed at intervals of 2, 3, 4 or 7 days (dietary `restricted' period, days 0-80) and then fed to satiation (`refeeding' period, days 80-185). Compensatory growth in weight and length of the feed-restricted groups was observed during the refeeding period. However, the growth of none of the restricted groups caught up with that of the control group over the experimental period. Feed intake upon refeeding increased with the duration of deprivation. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency between the restricted and control groups during the refeeding stage, suggesting that hyperphagia was the mechanism responsible for the increased growth rates during this period. Tilapia preferentially used n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nonessential amino acids during the restricted-feeding period. Higher production was achieved by higher feed consumption. We suggest that if attainment of market size in minimum time is required, fish should be consistently fed to satiation, while taking care to avoid the possible negative consequences of overfeeding.

  6. Feeding motivation as a personality trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): role of serotonergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricia I M; Martins, Catarina I M; Hglund, Erik; Gjen, Hans Magnus; verli, yvind

    2014-10-01

    Consistent individual variation in behaviour and physiology (i.e. animal personality or coping style) has emerged as a central topic in many biological disciplines. Yet, underlying mechanisms of crucial personality traits like feeding behaviour in novel environments remain unclear. Comparative studies, however, reveal a strong degree of evolutionary conservation of neural mechanisms controlling such behaviours throughout the vertebrate lineage. Previous studies have indicated duration of stress-induced anorexia as a consistent individual characteristic in teleost fishes. This study aims to determine to what degree brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) activity pertains to this aspect of animal personality, as a correlate to feed anticipatory behaviour and recovery of feed intake after transfer to a novel environment. Crucial to the definition of animal personality, a strong degree of individual consistency in different measures of feeding behaviour (feeding latency and feeding score), was demonstrated. Furthermore, low serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus was highly correlated with a personality characterized by high feeding motivation, with feeding motivation represented as an overall measure incorporating several behavioural parameters in a Principle Component Analyses (PCA). This study thus confirms individual variation in brain 5-HT neurotransmission as a correlate to complex behavioural syndromes related to feeding motivation. PMID:24858238

  7. Screening and identification of microsatellite markers associated with cold tolerance in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H P; Liu, Z G; Lu, M X; Gao, F Y; Ke, X L; Huang, Z H

    2015-01-01

    Tilapia is an important fish cultured in tropical and subtropical areas. Cold sensitivity limits the expansion of tilapia culture into colder regions of the world, and mass mortalities of cultured tilapia have been reported due to severe cold currents in winter. Since the late 1990s, several strains of Nile tilapia have been domesticated to improve the ability to adapt to low temperatures. Previous studies revealed that these varieties were more cold-tolerant than the founder population and overwintered naturally well in ponds in the west-south area of Guangdong Province. In this study, to develop tilapia strains with improved cold tolerance for breeding programs through marker-assisted selection, two microsatellite markers, UNH916 and UNH999, showed complete co-segregation with cold tolerance among the polymorphic microsatellite primers. Our results provide a foundation for identifying resistant gene(s) linked with these markers, as well as identifying simple sequence repeat markers associated with cold tolerance that can be used for maker-assisted selection programs in tilapia breeding to increase the growing range and productivity of tilapia aquaculture. PMID:26345969

  8. Molecular cloning and gene expression of Foxl2 in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Foxl2 cDNA was cloned from the Nile tilapia ovary by RT-PCR and subsequent RACE. Alignment of known Foxl2 sequences from vertebrates confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame and protein sequences, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region, while some homopolymeric runs of amino acids are found only in mammals but not in non-mammalian vertebrates. RT-PCR revealed that Foxl2 is expressed in the tilapia brain (B), pituitary (P), gill, and gonads (G), with the highest level of expression in the ovary, reflecting the involvement of Foxl2 in B-P-G axis. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization also revealed an evident sexual dimorphic expression pattern in the gonads. Foxl2 mRNA was mainly detected in the granulosa cells surrounding the oocytes. The ovarian expression of Foxl2 in tilapia begins early during the differentiation of the gonads and persists until adulthood, implying the involvement of Foxl2 in fish gonad differentiation and the maintenance of ovarian function

  9. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus as a food source in advanced life support systems: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Tilapia are currently under evaluation as a source of food and their contribution to reducing waste in advanced life support systems (ALSS). The nutritional composition of tilapia whole bodies, fillet, and carcass residues were quantitatively determined. Carbon and nitrogen free-extract percentages were similar among whole body (53.76% and 6.96%, respectively), fillets (47.06% and 6.75%, respectively), and carcass (56.36% and 7.04%, respectively) whereas percentages of N, S, and protein were highest in fillet (13.34, 1.34, and 83.37%, respectively) than whole body (9.27, 0.62, and 57.97%, respectively) and carcass (7.70, 0.39, and 48.15%, respectively). Whole body and fillet meet and/or exceeded current nutritional recommendations for protein, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, and selenium for international space station missions. Whole body appears to be a better source of lipids and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorous than fillet. Consuming whole fish appears to optimize equivalent system mass compared to consumption of fillets. Additional research is needed to determine nutritional composition of tilapia whole body, fillet, and carcass when fed waste residues possibly encountered in an ALSS.

  10. Endocrine disruption mechanism of o,p'-DDT in mature male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vivo, the potential of o,p'-DDT to disrupt the endocrine system of mature male tilapia. In particular, the possibility that o,p'-DDT effects were mediated directly via the estrogen receptor (ER). Compounds with known ability to bind to the ER were employed: estradiol to induce and tamoxifen to inhibit the estrogenic effects result of the activation of the ER. In addition, an aromatase inhibitor, 4-hydrxyandrostenedione (4-OHA), was used to assess the ability of o,p'-DDT to induce estrogenic effects in a surrounding of low estradiol concentration. The effects of estradiol and o,p'-DDT were studied alone or in the presence of tamoxifen or 4-OHA at the end of a 12-day period of exposure. The main endpoints measured were plasma alkaline-labile phosphorous (ALP; an indirect indicator of vitellogenin), estradiol, testosterone and o,p'-DDT. It was found that o,p'-DDT was able to induce the vitellogenesis (measured as plasma ALP increase) and decrease the circulating levels of estradiol and testosterone. Interestingly, o,p'-DDT kept this ability in whole fish with low concentrations of estradiol which would exclude endogenous estradiol as indirect mediator of the estrogenic effects induced by o,p'-DDT. In addition, the plasma concentration of o,p'-DDT, instead of that of estradiol, was closely related to the plasma ALP increase induced by o,p'-DDT. This indicates that o,p'-DDT could have directly activated the vitellogenesis. The antiestrogenic action of tamoxifen to inhibit the vitellogenesis and the decrease on plasma estradiol induced by o,p'-DDT indicates that o,p'-DDT can bind directly to the ER. In conclusion, this in vivo study shows that o,p'-DDT has the potential to disrupt the endocrine system and strongly supports that the estrogenic actions of o,p'-DDT involve binding to the ER

  11. Reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peña-Mendoza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive season of tilapia was studied by monthly samplings at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos State, Mexico. From February 1999 through February 2000 a sample of 50 fish was taken from the commercial catch (castnet, 6.5 cm of mesh size. The observed sex ratio was 1:1.29 (females:males (²=10.26; pSe analizó la biología reproductiva de la tilapia en la presa Emiliano Zapata, Morelos, México. Para esto se realizaron muestreos de febrero 1999 a febrero 2000. Se tomaron 50 organismos mensuales de la captura comer-cial obtenidos con una atarraya de 6.5 cm de luz de malla. La proporción sexual fue de1:1.29 hembras:machos (X²=10.26; p<0.05. La madurez sexual se alcanza a los 151.3 mm (hembras y a los 152.0 mm (machos de longi-tud total. Se detectaron dos épocas de reproducción para la especie: durante la estación lluviosa (agosto y durante la estación de secas (febrero. La fecundidad relativa presentó mayor correlación con la longitud (r=0.7473; p<0.002 que con el peso (r=0.7395; p<0.002. Por otra parte, el intervalo para la fecundidad osciló entre 243 y 847 ovocitos por pez, con diámetros de 300 a 3 700 µm. Asimismo, la actividad reproductiva de la especie en Agosto y Febrero, coincide con el incremento de biomasa fitoplanctónica.

  12. Synergetic effect of metals of electroplating industry effluent on physiology of the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaraj, P. S.

    2003-05-01

    The electroplating industry effluent is discharged indiscriminately in to the environment with out proper treatment. This poses havoc to the water body, which could be seen in the physiology and biochemistry of the chosen fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. The metals strongly present in the electroplating effluent is chromium and nickel which is being tested individually and collectively to assess its toxic nature. The intensity of the toxicity of synergetic action of these metals is much stronger than individuai effect. The result is being noticed in feeding budget and respiratory physiology of the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ail parameters of the feeding budget show a significant result in the synergetic effect of these metals. Subsequently the respiratory rate and oxygen consumption of the fish in the stress medium is highly affected by this combination. A serious threat is observed in the environment by these metals and a proper treatment is suggested before releasing into the environment.

  13. Defumação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) inteira eviscerada e filé: aspectos referentes às características organolépticas, composição centesimal e perdas ocorridas no processamento Smoking process of whole eviscerated and fillet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): organoleptic characteristics, proximate composition and losses during processing

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza; Ana Eliza Baccarin; Elisabete Maria Macedo Viegas; Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito da defumação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) inteira eviscerada e filé sobre as características organolépticas (aparência, aroma, cor, sabor, textura, teor de sal e aceitação geral), a porcentagem de perda de peso (PP) e composição centesimal. Foram comparados FP1 (peixe inteiro eviscerado, 5 horas de fumaça) e FP2 (filé, 4 horas de fumaça). Os peixes foram descamados, eviscerados, para obtenção de FP1 ou filetados por uma única pessoa...

  14. Morphometrics, fillet yield and fillet composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, strains thai chitralada, Brazil local and their hybrid/ Caractersticas morfomtricas, rendimento e composio do fil de tilpia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, da linhagem tailandesa, local e do cruzamento de ambas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Machado Moreno

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics, fillet yield and fillet composition differences were researched in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, strain thai-chitralada (Tai, Brazil (Local Northern Paran and their hybrid (Hbr, male Thailand x Brazilians female . The experiment was designed entirely randomly with three treatments (strains andthree repetitions per treatment in hapa nets in ponds. The initial weights were 0.39 0.20, 0.45 0.22 and 0.41 0.15 g for the strains Tai, Bras and Hbr, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the weights were 650.67, 534.25 and 360.00 g for the same previous sequence, with statistically significant differencesbetween groups (P0.05. The strain Hbr produced (P0.05. Considering fillet composition, Local strain had the least crude lipid content of (1.88 %, as compared to Hbr (2.44 % and Tai (2.96 % which were significantly different (P 0.05.As caractersticas morfomtricas, rendimento e a composio do fil foram pesquisadas em tilpia do Nilo Oreochromis niloticus, das linhagens tailandesa chitralada (Tai, local (Local, Norte do Paran, Brasil, e da proveniente do cruzamento de ambas (Hbr, macho tailandesa x fmea local. Ao incio do experimento os peixes (n: 900 apresentavam peso de 0,39 0,20; 0,41 0,22 e 0,45 0,15 g e ao final 650,67; 534,25 e 360,00 g para as variedades Tai, Local e Hbr, respectivamente. Foram estabelecidas quatro razes morfomtricas, sendo que a razo entre a altura da cabea/ comprimento da cabea da variedade Tai foi maior (P 0,05. A composio centesimal do fil da linhagem Local apresentou menor teor de lipdeos (1,88% (P 0,05 entre as variedades.

  15. Influence of Modern Cooking Techniques on Heavy Metals Concentrations of Some Freshwater Fish Fillets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrahman S.A. Talab; Hossam S. Jahin; Seleem E. Gaber; Hala E.A. Ghannam

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the influence of two modern cooking techniques (microwave and halogen cooking) on the heavy metals concentrations (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn) of five freshwater fish fillets (Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Bagrus bajad and Mugil cephalus)using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The obtained results were statistically compared with those of raw fish fillets. The concen...

  16. Modelagem das trajetrias mdias do peso vivo e do rendimento de carcaa de tilpias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus por meio de funes B-spline

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    D.C.C. Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Empregando o mtodo dos quadrados mnimos e polinmios B-spline quadrticos, diferentes modelos estatsticos foram testados para identificar o mais apropriado para modelar as trajetrias mdias do peso vivo e do rendimento de carcaa de tilpias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Dados de peso vivo (8.758 e de rendimento de carcaa (2.042 de tilpias com idades entre 106 e 245 dias foram obtidos de 72 famlias provenientes de 36 machos e 72 fmeas. As variveis sexo e tanque de criao foram consideradas como classificatrias, e os coeficientes dos polinmios B-spline quadrticos com dois a cinco intervalos de mesmo tamanho foram utilizados como covariveis. Segundo a maioria dos critrios de ajuste utilizados, os modelos com polinmio B-spline quadrtico com cinco intervalos de mesmo tamanho apresentaram os melhores ajustes. O aumento do nmero de intervalos do polinmio B-spline melhorou o ajuste dos polinmios aos dados. A incluso dos efeitos classificatrios de sexo, tanque de criao, interao entre esses efeitos e polinmio B-spline quadrtico aninhado a essa interao indicou que, com o decorrer do tempo, cada sexo, cultivado em diferente tanque, apresentou trajetria mdia diferente, sendo necessria a incluso do aninhamento do tempo na interao sexo x tanque de criao para que, em programas de melhoramento gentico da espcie, os valores genticos dos candidatos seleo no sejam sub ou superestimados.

  17. Ontogenetic changes in location and morphology of chloride cells during early life stages of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus adapted to fresh and brackish water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, S; Bron, J E; Rana, K J

    2011-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in the location, size, density and morphology of chloride cells in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus adapted to fresh and brackish water are described using Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase immunohistochemistry, light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The pattern of chloride cell distribution changed during development under both treatments, with chloride cell density decreasing significantly from hatch to 7 days post-hatch, but appearing on the inner opercular area at 3 days post-hatch and increasing significantly thereafter (P larvae. In both treatments, chloride cells located on the outer operculum and tail showed a marked increase in size with age, but cells located on the abdominal epithelium of the yolk sac and the inner operculum showed a significant decrease in size (P larvae from 1 day post-hatch onwards were always significantly larger (P larvae. SEM revealed structural differences in chloride cell apical morphology according to environmental conditions. There appears to be clearly defined temporal staging of the appearance of adaptive mechanisms that confer an ability to cope with varying environmental conditions during early development. PMID:21884103

  18. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

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    Kwasi Adu Obirikorang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal resulted in a significantly higher feed bulk density relative to the fishmeal control diet. The inclusions of copra and palm kernel meals, however, resulted in lower feed bulk densities. Sinking rates, water stabilities and nutrient retention efficiencies of feed pellets were directly related to feed bulk densities. The soybean meal diet had the fastest sinking velocities, greatest water stability and highest nutrient retention rates. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal, however, significantly impaired feed intake compared to the other three diets. Mean daily feed intakes of the control, palm kernel meal and copra meal diets corresponded to 28.88, 27.01 and 28.31g during the experimental period and varied significantly from the mean daily intake of the soybean meal diet which corresponded to 20.01g. Faecal matter production (g dry mass kg?1 ingested feed was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion.

  19. Fatty composition of the developmental stage of some pond reared fresh water fishes in the oil palm belt of Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayinla, O.A.; Idoniboye-Obu, T.I.E.; Omuaru, V.; Vehlow, U.

    1993-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the development stages (fingerling, juvenile and adult) of some pond raised fresh water fishes (Heterobranchus bidorsalis, ‘hybrid’ of H. bidorsalis and C. gariepinus, Chrysichtys nigrodigitatus, Heterotis niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus) were determined by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Fatty acids abundant in the stages of these fishes are palm tic acid (C16:0), Oleic acid (C18:1) and Linolenic acid (C18:3w3) . Highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) such ...

  20. Ectoparasitos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, das linhagens Chitralada e GIFT, em diferentes densidades e alimentadas com dois níveis de proteína - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.1015 Ectoparasites in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from Chitralada and GIFT strains, in different densities, fed with two protein levels - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.1015

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    Maria de los Angeles Peres Lizama

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificada a infestação por ectoparasitos em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, nas linhagens Chitralada e GIFT, em tanques e viveiros, utilizando-se ração com dois níveis de proteína. Durante o ensaio, foram analisados a temperatura, o pH, o oxigênio dissolvido e a condutividade elétrica. Foram realizadas amostras de raspados de tegumento e brânquias de machos pós-revertidos, em duas fases do experimento. A primeira, em 240 alevinos provenientes de 18 caixas de fibra de vidro de 500 L em três densidades. A prevalência total de parasitos na linhagem Chitralada (densidades de 30, 40 e 50 peixes m-3 foi 72,2, 83,3 e 59,5%, com predominância de Trichodina (38,9, 63,3 e 26,2%, respectivamente. Para a linhagem GIFT, nas mesmas densidades, foram observados 83,3, 73,3 e 80,9%, com maior predominância também de Trichodina (33,3, 73,3 e 45,2%, respectivamente. Na segunda fase, foram analisados 90 peixes de cada linhagem, de dois viveiros (140 m2 e duas dietas com 25 e 30% de proteína bruta. A prevalência total, para as linhagens Chitralada e GIFT com 25% PB foi 86,7 e 76,7%, respectivamente, e para 30% PB foi 60,0%, para ambas as linhagens. O nível de 30% PB, independentemente da linhagem, apresentou a menor prevalência parasitária.Ectoparasites infestation in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was observed in Chitralada and GIFT strains cultivated in cages and ponds, using rations with two protein levels. During the assay, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity were analyzed. Tegument scraping and gill samples from reverted males were evaluated, in two experiment phases. The first phase was carried out with 240 fingerlings from 18 500 L fiberglass boxes using three stocking densities. Total prevalence of parasites in the Chitralada strain (stocking density of 30, 40 and 50 fish m-3 was 72.2, 83.3 and 59.5%, with Trichodina predominance (38.9, 63.3 and 26.2%, respectively. For the GIFT strain, at the same stocking density, 83.3, 73.3 and 80.9% were observed, with higher Trichodina predominance (33.3, 73.3 and 45.2%, respectively. In the second phase, 90 fish from each strain, from two ponds (140 m2 each and fed with two crude protein levels (25 and 30% were evaluated. Total prevalence for Chitralada and GIFT strains with 25% CP was 86.7 and 76.7, respectively, and for 30% CP was 60%. The 30% CP level, regardless of strain, had the lowest parasite prevalence.

  1. The fish stocks of Lake Victoria, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Okaronon, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental bottom trawl survey was carried out in the Uganda sector of Lake Victoria from November 1997 to December 1998 to estimate the composition, distribution, and abundance of the major fish species. In 12 cruises, 295, thirty-minute hauls were taken in waters from 4-60 m deep. Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L) made up 95% of the catch by weight. Haplochromine cichlids and L. niloticus occurred in all areas sampled while Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and other tilapiines we...

  2. Evaluación preliminar de las poblaciones bacterianas asociadas al tracto intestinal de la tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) expuesta a aceites esenciales de orégano en la dieta

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez De La Rosa, Melisa Giset

    2011-01-01

    El efecto de los aceites esenciales orégano (AEO) sobre la diversidad bacteriana del tracto intestinal (TI) de Oreochromis niloticus fue evaluado por la suplementación con diferentes relaciones de carvacrol:timol en la dieta. El estudio se realizó en la estación piscícola la Terraza (Villavicencio). Los peces fueron alimentados con una dieta basal con 200 ppm de AEO. El TI fue muestreado de 24 tilapias adultas, seguido de la extracción del ADN total usando un protocolo modificado, la amplific...

  3. Avaliação de variáveis limnológicas e suas relações com uma floração de Euglenaceae pigmentada em viveiro povoado com tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2018 Limnologic variables evaluation and its relation to a pigmented Euglenaceae bloom in Nile Tilapia pond (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, São Paulo, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2018

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    Cleide Schmidt Romeiro Mainardes Pinto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocorrência de floração de euglenas (Euglenophyceae pigmentada em viveiro povoado com tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus (Cichlidae foi estudada no Núcleo de Aquicultura de Pindamonhangaba, localizado a22º55´S, 45º27´W, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Durante um mês (Fevereiro de 2001, a cada três dias variáveis da água foram monitoradas. Destas, a amônia, os pigmentos totais, a transparência da água, o fósforo e o oxigênio dissolvido tiveram seus valores fora do recomendado. Os resultados levaram a supor que a entrada de nitrogênio e de fósforo advinda da fertilização inorgânica por superfosfato e sulfato de amônio e do arraçoamento ocasionaram a floração algácea. A mortandade de peixes provavelmente relacionou-se às baixas concentrações de oxigênio e aos níveis de amônia. Os valores baixos de oxigênio poderiam relacionar-se diretamente ao excesso de algas ou à própria decomposição da matéria orgânica advinda do arraçoamento e das células algais em senescênciaThe occurrence of algal bloom in a fish pond with Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus (Cichlidae was recorded at the Experimental Fish Culture Station in Pindamonhangaba, located at 22º55´S, 45º27´W, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. During one month (February 2001 at every three days of study the water quality was performed. From results, it was observed that the ammonia, total pigments, water transparency, phosphate and dissolved oxygen showed values out of the recommended limit. The algal bloom was associated to the loads phosphate and nitrogen and the fish mortality to the low oxygen and toxic ammonia. The low oxygen values were associated to the bloom and the organic material in decomposition

  4. Efeito da temperatura da água sobre desempenho e perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1184 Effect of environmental temperature on fatty acids profile of Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1184

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    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram analisados o perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, submetidos a dietas enriquecidas com óleo de linhaça a diferentes temperaturas (23, 26, 29 e 32oC. Tilápias em fase inicial de desenvolvimento não apresentaram diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 em sua composição físico-química e lipídica, nas diferentes temperaturas estudadas. O perfil de ácidos graxos, analisados por cromatografia gasosa equipada com coluna capilar, mostrou aproximadamente 15% de ácidos graxos n-3 com valores em torno de 0,12 a 0,18% para o ácido eicosapentaenóico (EPA e de 1,21 a 2,10% para o ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA. Os resultados mostraram que a temperaturas mais baixas 23 e 26oC, as tilápias do Nilo cresceram menos que em temperaturas mais altas 29 e 32oC, mas a variação de temperatura entre 23 a 32oC não influenciou no perfil em ácidos graxos dos alevinosIn this study the fatty acid profile in tilápia Oreochromis niloticus alevins carcass, fed with enriched diets from flaxseed oil, was examined at different temperatures (23, 26, 29 and 32oC. Tilapia in its initial phase of development did not present differences (P >0.05 on physical-chemical and lipids compositions, at the different temperatures studied. The fatty acids profile, analyzed by gas chromatography using a capillary column, showed approximately 15% of n-3 fatty acids, with values around 0.12 to 0.18% for the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and from 1.21 to 2.10% for the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Results showed that at lower temperatures 23 and 26oC, Nile tilapia grows less than at higher temperatures around 29 and 32oC. Temperature variation from 23 to 32oC did not influence on fatty acids profile of the alevins

  5. Quality index method (QIM application on shef life estimation of skinned fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus kept in iceAplicação do método do índice de qualidade (MIQ para o estudo da vida útil de filés de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sem pele, armazenados em gelo

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    Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva Soares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop the Quality Index Method (QIM for skinned fillets from farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and apply it in the establishment of its shelf life. The skinned fillets (120 g in average were kept in boxes with ice in the proportion of 1:1 (fillet:ice under average temperature of 0°C and stored at refrigeration chamber (4°C during 18 days. To evaluate the freshness during storage time sensory analysis (QIM and physicochemical (pH and TVB-N were performed every 72 hours from time zero, in triplicate. The maximum life of the Nile tilapia fillet in ice was estimated at 15 days. The MIQ was considered effective in evaluating the freshness of the Nile tilapia, since the sensory rejection by MIQ was determinant in the shelf life establishment. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver o Método do Índice de Qualidade (MIQ para filé sem pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada, e aplicá-lo no estabelecimento da sua vida útil. Os filés (média de 120 g cada foram mantidos em caixas com gelo na proporção de 1:1 (filé:gelo na temperatura média de 0°C e armazenados em câmaras de refrigeração (4°C por 18 dias. Para avaliar o frescor durante o armazenamento, realizaram-se análises sensoriais (MIQ e físico-químicas (pH e Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais a cada 72 horas, a partir do tempo zero, em triplicata. A vida útil máxima do filé sem pele de tilápia do Nilo, em gelo, foi estimada em 15 dias. O MIQ foi considerado eficiente na avaliação do frescor da tilápia do Nilo, já que a rejeição sensorial pelo MIQ foi determinante no estabelecimento da vida de prateleira.

  6. Estimativa da variabilidade genética em linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus com a técnica de RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1236 Genetic variability estimation of Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus using the RAPD technique - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1236

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    Lauro Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A variabilidade genética é essencial para que se possa obter melhoramento genético e, portanto, é de grande importância a sua estimação. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente experimento foi estimar, pela técnica Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD, a divergência e a variabilidade genética nas linhagens de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Bouaké e Chitralada em duas gerações de reprodutores do rio Nilo. Foram utilizados 20 animais de cada linhagem. A matriz de coeficientes de similaridade de Jaccard entre indivíduos foi utilizada para a construção de um dendrograma e para a determinação, com o teste de Mantel, da divergência genética entre linhagens. A variabilidade genética foi estimada pelo índice de Shannon e pela porcentagem de loci polimórficos. As linhagens Bouaké e Chitralada formaram grupos distintos. A primeira apresentou menor divergência e variabilidade genética em relação à segunda. A variabilidade genética foi semelhante entre as duas gerações de reprodutores em ambas as linhagensGenetic variability estimation is highly important in order to achieve genetic improvement. The present experiment aims at estimating the genetic divergence and variability of the Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus, Bouaké and Chitralada, in two breeders offsprings, using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Twenty animals from each strain were used. The Jaccard similarity coefficients matrix was used for both designing a dendrogram and determining the genetic divergence of the strains, using Mantel’s test. The genetic variability was estimated by Shannon’s index and the percentage of polymorphic loci. Bouaké and Chitralada’s strains formed different groups. The former strain showed lower genetic divergence and variability in relation to the latter one. The two breeders offsprings had similar genetic variability in both strains

  7. Tilapia by-product meal in rations for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings/ Farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Adilson Reidel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectifying to evaluate the inclusion of tilapia processing residues (FT in the feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings, 125 Nile tilapia fingerlings (with average initial weight of 0.72±0.19g were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions in 25 aquariums (30L. The rations were formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15% of FT and 0% FT plus methionine (0+met. Isoproteics, isocalcitics, isophosphorics and isoenergetics diets were used. After 28 days of experiment, final weight (PF, weight gain (GP, feed conversion ratio (CA and survival (SO, were evaluated. No differences were observed (P>0.05 for the studied parameters. It was concluded that the FT can be used up to 15% in substitution to the soybean meal in the diet of nile tilapia fingerlings.Objetivando avaliar a inclusão de farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias (FT na alimentação de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo com peso inicial médio de 0,72±0,19g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em 25 aquários (30L cada. As rações foram formuladas de forma a conterem 0, 5, 10, 15% de FT e 0% de FT mais metionina (0+met, sendo as mesmas isoenergéticas isoprotéicas, isocalcíticas e isofosfóricas. Após 28 dias de experimento foram avaliados as médias de peso final (PF, ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar aparente (CA e sobrevivência (SO. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 entre os parâmetros avaliados. Conclui-se que a FT pode ser utilizada em até 15% em substituição ao farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia sem causar prejuízo ao seu desempenho.

  8. Histologia das brânquias de larvas da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L., de origem tailandesa, submetidas a diferentes níveis de vitamina C Histology of branchiae of larvae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. from Thailand, with different levels of vitamin C

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    Maria Raquel Marçal Natali

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi avaliado o efeito da vitamina C sobre a integridade histológica branquial e morfologia das células mucosas, em larvas de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, cichlidae de origem tailandesa, durante a fase de reversão sexual, em Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Larvas foram submetidas a três diferentes dietas sendo: T1- isenta de vitamina C, T2- 1.000 mg de vitamina C e T3- 2.000 mg por quilo de ração. As alterações histológicas foram classificadas por graus de severidade, numa escala de 1 a 3 unidades de Valor Médio de Alteração (V.M.A., tais como: elevação epitelial, hiperplasia de células dos filamentos, telangectasia e fusão lamelar, que foram significativamente mais freqüentes no T1 em relação ao T2 e T3. As análises morfométricas demonstraram significativo aumento no tamanho médio das células no T1, em relação às do T2 e do T3, (p The effect of vitamin C (ascorbic acid on the histological integrity and the morphology of mucous cells from gill structure of larvae of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, cichlidae, from Thailand, during sex reversion process was evaluated. Assay was performed during 28 days in Maringá PR Brazil. Three diets were given to the larvae: vitamin C-free diet; and two diets with monophosphated vitamin C, or rather, T1 (0; T2 (1,000; T3 (2,000 mg of vitamin C per kilo of diet respectively. Histological changes were classified according to severity levels in a scale ranging from 1 to 3 unities of Mean Assessment Value (MAV. These were epithelial lifting, hyperplasia of filament cells, telangectasy, and lamellar fusion, significantly more frequent in T1 than in T2 and T3. Morphometrical analyses showed an increase in average size of cells in T1 when compared to those of T2 or T3 (p < 0.05. Number of mucous cells showed a higher significant frequency of cells in T1 filaments as a contrast to those of T2 and T3. Results indicate that best inclusion level for larval phase of Nile tilapia from Thailand was 1000mg of vitamin C per kilo of diet.

  9. Efeito do peso de tilpia no nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) sobre e rendimento e a qualidade de seus fils defumados com e sem pele / Effect of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) weight on yield and quality of their smoked and in natura fillets with and without skin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de, Souza; Elisabete M. Macedo, Viegas; Paulo Jos do Amaral, Sobral; Srgio do Nascimento, Kronka.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes pesos de tilpia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), sobre o rendimento e a qualidade dos seus fils com e sem pele, submetidos defumao, tendo em conta o potencial de industrializao da referida espcie. Foram utilizados 100 exemplares em [...] trs classes de peso (C1 = 500 a 600g, C2 = 601 a 700g e C3 = 701 a 800g). De cada peixe foram retirados um fil com pele e outro sem pele e submetidos salmouragem e defumao a quente. O peso influenciou no rendimento dos fils in natura (C1 = 38,54; C2 = 40,23 e C3 = 40,47%) e defumado (C1 = 22,97; C2 = 24,51 e C3 = 24,68%), e o ndice de Massa de Fil in natura (C1 = 36,69; C2 = 39,45 e C3 = 41,18 g.cm-2), sendo maior para os peixes das classes C2 e C3. Os fils com pele apresentaram maior (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different weights of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on yield and quality of smoked and in natura fillets, with and without skin. One hundred tilapias, divided into three weight classes (C1=500-600g; C2=601-700g; C3=701-800g) were used. [...] Two fillet types, with skin and without skin were removed from each sample, salted and hot smoked. Weight affected yield of in natura (C1 = 38.54; C2 = 40.23 e C3 = 40.47%) and smoked fillets (C1 = 22.97; C2 = 24.51 e C3 = 24.68%), and in natura fillet mass index (C1 = 36.69; C2 = 39.45 e C3 = 41.18 g.cm-2). The latter was higher in classes C2 and C3. Fillet with skin had a higher (p

  10. In vitro assessment on intestinal microflora from commonly farmed fishes for control of the fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda

    OpenAIRE

    LOH, Jiun Yan; LIM, Yau Yan; HARMIN, Sharr Azni; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the microflora isolated from the intestines of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus), snakehead (Ophicephalus striatus), snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis), climbing perch (Anabas testudineus), and river catfish (Pangasius pangasius) for their potential probiotic development. Isolates were initially screened for their inhibitory effect against one of the most common fish pathogens, Edwardsiella tarda. Positive antagon...

  11. Effects of paraquat and lead on fish Oreochromis hornorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, G.S.; Martinez-Tabche, L.; Galar, I. (National School of Biological Sciences, Hidalgo (Mexico))

    1991-02-01

    Herbicides are used for controlling weeds in ponds, reservoirs, and irrigation canals. Paraquat (PQ) causes toxic effects on fish Roach fry and Perch fry, and produce morphologic alterations on salmon. In aquatic contamination, lead (pb) also produced ecologic unbalance. It is accumulated in gills and liver of fish and diminished reduced-glutathion in eritrocites. This work reports results of studies of exposure to PQ and Pb in fish.

  12. Finding an adequate Tilapia feed for rural fish farmers in Mombasa.[Internship Report

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Seven different possible fish feeds for tilapia (a hybrid from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus crossed with Sabaki tilapia, Oreochromis spilurus) were carried out on an internship on Mtopanga farm at Bao-bab Trust, Bamburi. The ingredients tested should be easily available to local farmers in Mombasa and should take into account that valuable nutrients produced on a farm should not be fed to livestock as these are urgently needed in local communities. As a valuable animal protein which ca...

  13. Mercury concentrations in commercial fish species of Lake Phewa, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Basnet, Suresh; Kang, Shichang; Rosseland, Bjrn Olav; Zhang, Qianggong; Pan, Ke; Borgstrm, Reidar; Li, Qing; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Huang, Jie; Teien, Hans-Christian; Sharma, Subodh

    2013-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in four commercial fish species (Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, Spiny Eel Mastacembelus armatus, African catfish Clarias gariepinus, and Sahar Tor putitora), were investigated in Lake Phewa, Nepal. Mean values of total mercury (THg mg kg(-1), ww) in these fishes were 0.02, 0.07, 0.05, and 0.12 respectively. Methylmercury contributed 82 % of THg. The lowest value was detected in O. niloticus, an exclusive plant feeder. The biomagnification rate of Hg through the fish community was 0.041 per ?(15)N (). The present investigation produced an important baseline data of Hg pollution in the fish community in this region. PMID:23839154

  14. Farelo de canola para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem Chitralada - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896 Canola meal for juvenile Nile tilapia, Chitralada strain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Romano Fernandes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de diferentes níveis de farelo de canola em rações, sobre o desempenho e composição de carcaça de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., linhagem Chitralada. Foram utilizadas 15 caixas de polipropileno com capacidade para 310L, com dez peixes por unidade. Os peixes foram alimentados à saciação com cinco rações isoprotéicas (28% e isocalóricas (2900 Kcal ED/Kg, duas vezes ao dia, durante seis meses. O farelo de canola foi utilizado em quatro níveis (TT=0%, T1=8%, T2=16%, T3=24%, e T4=32%/dieta, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p0,1 sobre a composição corporal dos peixes, sendo que os níveis de 16% e 24% de farelo de canola proporcionaram os melhores ganhos de peso. Conclui-se que a utilização do farelo de canola é viável quando incluído em até 24% na ração para a tilápia do Nilo, linhagem Chitralada.This work evaluated the inclusion of several levels of canola meal in ration used in the development and carcass compositions of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., Chitralada strain. Were used 15 polypropylene boxes, with 310 liters (10 fish each. The fish were fed with five isonitrogenous (28% and isocaloric ration (2900 Kcal EM/kg, twice a day for six months. The canola meal was used in four levels (TT = 0%, T1 = 8%, T2 = 16%, T3 = 24% and T4 = 32% / diet, in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and three repetitions each. The data obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA and the averages compared by the Tukey test (p0,1 on fishes body composition, however had best body weight gain with canola meal on levels 16% and 24%. These values seem to show that for the Nile Tilapia, Chilatrada strain, the use of canola meal is viable when included in up to 24% of the diet, without any performance loss.

  15. Suitability and Production Performance of Oreochromis niloticus (GIFT and Cyprinus carpio Under Mono and Mixed Culture System in Coastal Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Sarker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals with the suitability and production potential of two exotic fish species (GIFT: Genetically Improved Farm Tilapia; O. niloticus, C. carpio as mono culture and mixed culture system of integrating a short term (mid August-mid December brackish water aquaculture in the south-west coastal paddy fields of monocropped coastal saline soil at high rain fed region during monsoon season. Twelve paddy plots size ranged from 1320-2080 m2 with peipheral trenches (40 cm depth and 45 cm width and one meter deep ditch in 3% of the area were stocked with fish at a density of 5928 ha-1 for mono and mixed culture (50+50%, after 105 days of rearing average weight and production rate of fish from monoculture of GIFT (T1, mixed culture of GIFT and C.carpio (T2 and monoculture of C. carpio were found 112.5 g, 479.36 kg; (114.2+110.6 g; (241.68+185.21 kg; 114.03 g, 398.95 kg ha-1, respectively. Higher significant production was found in case of GIFT monoculture in T1 than that of other treatments. Highest net return was obtained from T1 while lowest net return from rice monoculture crop farming in T4. So, rice fish farming was economically more rewarding than the rice mono-crop farming. Besides, GIFT monoculture plays a significant production potential for coastal paddy fields.

  16. Composio qumica, perfil de cidos graxos e quantificao dos cidos ?-linolnico, eicosapentaenico e docosahexaenico em vsceras de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i1.1501 Percentual composition, fatty acids and quantification of the LNA (Alfa-Linolenic, EPA (Eicosapentaenoic and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acids in visceras of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i1.1501

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a composio qumica de vsceras de tilpias (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em cativeiro Os teores de umidade, cinza, protena bruta e lipdios totais foram de 64,4%; 1,3%; 6,3% e 18,0%, respectivamente, caracterizando alta concentrao de lipdios totais em relao a outros resduos de peixes. Foram identificados 49 cidos graxos, sendo majoritrios os cidos: olico, (32,8%, seguido do palmtico, (19,9% e linolico, (18,2%. As razes entre n-6/n-3 e cidos poliinsaturados/saturados foram de 5,5 e 0,9, respectivamente. As quantificaes dos cidos graxos alfa-linolnico, eicosapentaenico e docosahexaenico, em mg/g de lipdios totais, foram de 10,4, 1,4 e 9,3, respectivamente. O elevado teor de lipdios totais das vsceras contribuiu significativamente para as quantidades de cidos graxos n-3. Todos os parmetros analisados foram satisfatrios sob o ponto de vista nutricional e neste sentido as vsceras de tilpias podero ser utilizadaa para alimentar peixes ou outros animais.The chemical composition was evaluated in visceras of tilapias raised in captivity. The moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipids contents were 64.4%; 1.3%; 6.3% and 18.0%, respectively, characterizing high total lipids concentration in relation other residues of fish. Forty nine fatty acids were detected, the major fatty acids were oleic (32.8%, palmitic (19.9% and linoleic-1 (18.2% and oleic (9.4%. The ratio n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids, showed the values 5.5 and 0.9, respectively. The quantifications of alfa-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (in mg/g of total lipids, were 10.4, 1.4 and 0.3, respectively. The higher contents of total lipids in visceras contributed significantly for amounts of n-3 fatty acids. All the parameters analyzed were shown nutritional value satisfactory in this sense visceras of tilapias can be used in the feed of fish and other animal.

  17. Impact of Acetamiprid Toxicity on Lactate Dehydrogenase in Some Tissues of the Fish Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Justin Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted on fish, Oreochromis mossambicus to study the effect of acetamiprid on tissue biomarker lactate dehydrogenase. Acetamiprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide and it is used by the farmers to protect their crops. This pesticide residue reaches to the aquatic ecosystem by many ways and affects the aquatic fauna. Lethal Concentration (LC50 of acetamiprid for O. mossambicus has been calculated by probit analysis and recorded as 5.99 ppm at 96 h. Chronic exposure shows increased activity of LDH in liver, brain and gill tissues during all the exposure periods when compared with the control. This significant increase in enzyme activity was observed due to toxic effect of acetamiprid. Long term exposure of organisms to pesticides means a continuous health hazard for the fish population and it is on high risk by consuming these toxicated fishes.

  18. Protective role of adjuvant and potassium permanganate on oxidative stress response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Saprolegnia ferax

    OpenAIRE

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy

    2013-01-01

    Saprolegniosis are one of the most important oomycetes affecting freshwater fish worldwide. It leads to huge losses in fish farms due to their massive destruction to the fish epidermis leading to sever heamodilution and death, yet little literature studied the oxidative stress response regarding the saprolegniosis. Nile tilapia fish were subcutaneously abraded and divided into four groups: control group, abraded but not challenged, infected group, challenged with Saprolegnia. ferax (S. ferax)...

  19. Effects of oxygen concentration and body weight on maximum feed intake, growth and hematological parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Duy, A.; Schrama, J.W.; Dam, A.A., van; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Feed intake and satiation in fish are regulated by a number of factors, of which dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) is important. Since fish take up oxygen through the limited gill surface area, all processes that need energy, including food processing, depend on their maximum oxygen uptake capacity. Maximum oxygen uptake capacity relative to body weight in bigger fish is smaller than in smaller fish because the gill surface area is allometrically related to body weight. In this study, effec...

  20. Efecto del probiótico Bacillus subtilis sobre el crecimiento y alimentación de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus y langostino (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Günther

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron tres experimentos para analizar el efecto del probiótico Bacillus subtilis sobre el crecimiento de juveniles de tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticusy de langostino de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii . Los experimentos se realizaron en condiciones de laboratorio, minimizando de esta manera los efectos indirectos del probiótico sobre la calidad del agua y manteniendo únicamente los posibles efectos bactericidas y de apoyo a la digestión.También se diseñó un modelo de estrés en tilapia para comparar el efecto con individuos en situación normal.La dosis del probiotico en el alimento tratado en todos los casos fue de 0.1%(5x10 8 CFU/g y 99.9%maltrinaen la dieta seca.Cada 14 días se pesaron en grupo y se contaron los animales de cada acuario (tilapias ±0.1 g, langostinos ±0.001 gobteniéndose el peso promedio individual.En el primer experimento (tilapiasel crecimiento y la utilización del alimento fueron un poco peores en relación con el factor probiótico,pero las diferencias no fueron significativas.En el segundo experimento (tilapias tanto la tasa específica de crecimiento como el factor de conversión empeoraron con la adición de B.subtilis a la dieta;la diferencia fue significativa al 94%,apenas por debajo del 95%que se utiliza por convención estadística.El factor estrés,por el contrario,provocó un notable empeoramiento tanto del crecimiento como del factor de conversión.En el experimento con langostinos la adición de B.subtilis a la dieta provocó un ligero deterioro del crecimiento y de la utilización del alimento,con una probabilidad de error menor del 10%en el caso del crecimiento.Durante el experimento debieron prevalecer los efectos directos sobre el sistema digestivo de los animales experimentales,ya sea por aporte de macro-y micronutrientes o de enzimas que contribuyen a la digestión.El efecto negativo por la inclusión del probiótico fue pequeño (alrededor de un 10%en la tasa específica de crecimiento y en el factor de conversión alimenticiay por ello difícil de detectar.Los informes sobre la acción benéfica de los probióticos sobre el crecimiento se han realizado generalmente en estanques o en cultivos masivos y nuestros datos no contradicen directamente una posible acción benéfica de B.subtilis en cultivos a nivel de estanques.Como el efecto sobre el sistema digestivo aparenta ser relativamente modesto,en aquellos ambientes podría ser compensado por otros efectos benéficos sobre la calidad del agua y el efecto bactericida sobre otras bacterias exógenas de naturaleza patogénica.Effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the growth and food utilization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii under laboratory conditions.Three experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the growth of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii .The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions,minimizing the indirect effects of the probiotic on the water quality and leaving only the possible bactericidal and digestion-support effects.A model of stress was also designed in tilapia to compare the effect with tilapia under normal conditions.The dose in the food was 0.1 %of the probiotic (5x10 8 CFU/g and 99.9 %maltrinein the dry diet.Every 14 days the animals were weighed in group (tilapias ±0.1 g,prawns ±0.001 gto estimate average body weight.In the first experiment (tilapiathe specific growth rate (SGRand the feed conversion ratio (FCRwere bad in relation with the factor probiotic,but the differences were not significant. In the second experiment (tilapiaboth the SGR and the FCR deteriorated with the addition of B.subtilis to the diet;the difference was significant to 94%.The stress factor,on the contrary,caused a notable worsening of both the growth and the food utilization.In the experiment with prawns the addition of B.subtilis caused a light deterioration of the growth and of the food utilization,with a statistical probability of mistake of 10%in case of the growth.During the experiment the direct effects over the digestive system should have prevailed,either by the contribution of macro-and micronutrients,or by the enzymes that contribute to the digestion.The negative effect due to the addition of the probiotic to the food was small (about 10%in both the SGR and the FCRbeing difficult to detect statistically.The reports on the positive action of probiotics on the growth in aquatic animals have been conducted mainly in ponds,and our information does not contradict directly a possible positive action of B.subtilis in this type of systems.Since the effect on the digestive system seems to be relatively small,in those environments the effect might be compensated by other positive effects on water quality,and by bactericidal effects on pathogenic bacteria.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:937-943.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  1. Histological variations in liver of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation effect of 60Co at the three dose level of 3 mGy, 30 mGy and 300 mGy on the histology of liver of the freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated. The liver of O. mossambicus was dissected out and processed for light microscopy studies. 60Co exposed O. mossambicus were found to result in several alterations in the histoarchitecture of liver. The alterations included mild congestion of blood vessels, structural alteration, cellular swelling, vacuolation and necrotic liver cells, indicating a definite response to 60Co irradiation. The results suggest that the liver of O. mossambicus exposed to 60Co were structurally altered with increasing dose levels. It is to record that alteration in the liver does not affect the physiology, behaviour or lethality of the individuals. Self regulating mechanisms would have influenced the liver to remain sustained. To confirm the same further studies in the direction by increasing dose level is required. - Highlights: ► Fish Oreochromis mossambicus irradiated to the dose of 3 mGy, 30 mGy and 300 mGy. ► Histoarchitecture of liver altered with increasing dose levels of 60Co. ► Alteration in the liver does not affect the physiology, behaviour or lethality. ► Self regulating mechanisms might have prevented from Lethality. ► HSI index value for exposed group reported (60Co.

  2. IMPACTS OF NON-NATIVE FISHES ON THE FISH COMMUNITY AND THE FISHERY OF THE CIENAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA ESTUARY, NORTHERN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Florez, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In tropical coastal ecosystems very little is known about the impacts of non-native fish species on the native ichthyofauna and to the author's knowledge, there are no published studies focusing on Caribbean estuaries. This study aims to determine the impacts of the non-native fish Oreochromis niloticus on the abundance, species composition, feeding habits and fishery of native fishes, as well as the impacts of the non-native fish Trichogaster pectoralis on the abundance of native ichthyofaun...

  3. Viabilidad y crecimiento de poblaciones diploides y triploides de tilapia nilotica, oreochromis niloticus, línea Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis M. Cesar

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this research was to produce triploid offspring of O. niloticus, applying warm thermic shocks (41A-42 oC to eggs during 3,5-4 min., 3,5 mino after fertilization, or cold shocks (10,8-11,3 oC to oocytes during one hour, 5 min after their fertilization. The best tissue to confirm triploids was kidney and brain of larvae and alevines. Then, the survival of fertilized eggs and growth rate were determined. The results show that the warm and cold shocks are efficient to produce 100% triploids, with different rates of survival. Also, that 25,5% oftspring was deformed when cold shocks were applyed, and 32,5% deformities with warm shocks. There were not significant difterences in growth between triploid and diploid populations
    after three months of age.La triploidía se obtuvo aplicando choques térmicos calientes (41.4 - 42 OC a oocitos durante 3.5 - 4 minutos, 3.5 min. después de la fertilización, y choques térmicos fríos (10.8 - 11.3 oC a oocitos durante una hora, 5 minutos de su fertilización. La triploidía se comprobó por análisis cromosomal en larvas y alevinos. Luego se monitoreó la tasa de crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los huevos fertilizados. Los resultados indican que los choques calientes y fríos fueron eficientes para producir ciento por ciento de triploidía, con tasas variables de sobrevivencia. Se observaron deformidades de peces trioloides (25.5% con choques frfos, y 32.5% con choques calientes. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre poblaciones triploides y diploides luego de tres meses de cultivo.

  4. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Robert; Prosper Mfilinge; Samwel M. Limbu; Mwita, Chacha J.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ?3 and ?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ?3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated ...

  5. Identification, characterization and nutritional regulation of two isoforms of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 gene in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, An-Yuan; Liu, Cai-Zhi; Chen, Li-Qiao; Ning, Li-Jun; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Li, Er-Chao; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2014-07-15

    In peroxisome, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, which catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Two isoforms of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 were firstly identified in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in this study. ACOX1 isoform1 (ACOX1i1) and ACOX1 isoform2 (ACOX1i2) were encoded by the single gene with 661 amino acids in length. The coding region of both isoforms consisted of 14 exons. The residues from 89 to 193 in ACOX1i1 were encoded by exon 3b, while in ACOX1i2 they were encoded by exon 3a. Homologous alignment analysis indicated that the varied region (the residues from 89 to 193) of ACOX1i1 was more conserved than ACOX1i2 in vertebrates (Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia and Pisces). The mRNA expression level of ACOX1i1 and ACOX1i2 was detected separately in eleven tissues and the results indicated that ACOXi1 expression was the highest in liver followed by kidney and brain, while the expression of ACOXi2 was the highest in kidney followed by liver. The normalized levels of both transcript variants were comparable in most tissues, however the level of ACOX1i2 was significantly higher than that of ACOX1i1 in white muscle and kidney (5.1 fold and 3.1 fold), and ACOX1i1 was significantly higher than ACOX1i2 in gill and brain (4.8 fold and 1.9 fold). In different nutritional states, the expression levels of both isoforms in liver were comparable between fasting and most of post-feeding time points, except that the expression at 3h post-feeding was significantly lower than others. The expression of ACOX1i1 in the kidney also showed the similar pattern, indicating the lowest expression at 8h post-feeding, however, no significant change was seen in ACOX2i2 among all nutritional states. These results suggested that ACOX1i1 and i2 may play different roles in tissues, and their expression levels were differently modulated by nutritional stage. PMID:24802117

  6. Redução da proteína da dieta com base no conceito de proteína ideal para tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em tanques-rede Dietary protein reduction based on ideal protein concept for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus cultured in net pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Botaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em tanques-rede e alimentadas com dietas contendo 27,0 (controle; 25,2; 24,3 e 22,7% de proteína digestível. Aminoácidos cristalinos (L-lisina, DL-metionina e L-treonina foram adicionados à dieta considerando o conceito de proteína ideal e simulando o perfil de aminoácidos da dieta controle. Os peixes (34,63±19 g foram alimentados manualmente com dietas isoenergéticas (3.075 kcal de energia digestível/kg de dieta até saciedade aparente, três vezes ao dia, durante 91 dias. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e 25 peixes/unidade experimental. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de proteína digestível sobre o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar, a taxa de eficiência protéica, o peso da carcaça eviscerada, o rendimento de carcaça, o peso e o rendimento de filé, a sobrevivência e o hematócrito. Houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de proteína digestível sobre o consumo; o maior valor foi estimado para a dieta contendo 24,41% de proteína digestível e excreção de nitrogênio, na qual o melhor resultado estimado foi obtido com peixes que receberam a dieta contendo 24,92% de PD. Com a redução nos níveis de proteína digestível, observou-se aumento linear na retenção de nitrogênio. É possível reduzir o nível de proteína digestível, de 27 (29,1% de PB para 24,3% (26,6% de PB, em dietas para tilápias-do-nilo criadas em tanques-rede. Essa redução deve ser feita por meio da suplementação de aminoácidos (com base no conceito de proteína ideal, considerando o desempenho e o custo da dieta/kg ganho em filé.This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia, cultured in net pens, and fed diets containing 27.0 (control, 25.2, 24.3, and 22.7% of digestible protein. Crystalline amino acids (L-lysine, DL-methionine and L-threonine were added to keep amino acid levels according to the ideal protein profile and to simulate amino acid levels of the control diet. Fish (34.63±1.19 g were hand-fed one of the four isoenergetic (3,075 kcal of digestible energy/kg, as fed basis experimental diets until apparent satiation, three times a day during 90 days. A completely randomized design with four treatments, three replicates and 25 fishes per experimental unit was utilized. No effects of dietary digestible protein levels on weight gain, feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, empty carcass weight, carcass yield, fillet weight and yield, survival, and hematocrit were observed. It was observed quadratic effect on feed intake and nitrogen excretion, wich increased up to 24.41 and 24.92% of dietary digestible protein, respectively. The reduction of digestible protein levels resulted in a linear increase of nitrogen retention. It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the dietary digestible protein from 27.0 (29.1% of CP to 24.3% (26.6% of CP in amino acid supplemented diets (based on ideal protein concept, for juvenile Nile tilapia, cultured in net pens, without adverse effects on growth performance, carcass yield and composition, hematological parameters and cost of diet/kg of fillet gain.

  7. COMPOSIÇÃO CORPORAL DE LINHAGENS DE TILÁPIA DO NILO (Oreochromis niloticus) EM DIFERENTES CLASSES DE COMPRIMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de Freitas; Telma Reginato Martins; Vander Bruno Santos

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the body composition of Nile tilapias in different length classes of Thai and Commercial strains, being the latter derived from the GIFT program (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) on the levels of moisture, crude protein, ether extract, ash and energy. The fish were cultivated in cages in a dam in Presidente Prudente, SP – Brazil. With the growth, fish sampled randomly from each strain were weighed and measured in length. The body composition ...

  8. Multibiomarker approach in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1892) fish to assess the impact of pollution in Mula River

    OpenAIRE

    Dipti R. Gohil; Sapana B. Gadekar; Archana A. Sharbidre

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the advantages of the use of biomarkers as environmental indicators by applying it to Mula River, in Pune, which is in a critical environmental situation. We use a multi-biomarker approach in Oreochromis mossambicus fish as an integrated strategy to assess the impact of pollution. It comprehends a general biomarkers of fish immunity i.e. the respiratory burst activity, and specific biomarkers of contaminant exposure such as acetylcholinesterase (A...

  9. Flora bacteriana de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada em sistema semi-intensivo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2007 Bacterial microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, cultured in a semi-intensive system- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2007

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    Benetido Prado Dias Filho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A flora bacteriana de diferentes partes do trato gastrintestinal de tilápia Oreochomis niloticus L. (Cichlidae foi determinada. O número médio de bactérias foi maior no intestino anterior e posterior quando comparado ao estômago. A porcentagem total de espécies bacterianas isoladas e a porcentagem de espécies isoladas em uma espécie particular variaram significativamente entre as regiões do trato gastrintestinal. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Flavimonas oryzihabitans e Plesiomonas shigelloides foram os bacilos Gram-negativos encontrados com maior freqüência. Destas espécies, somente Plesiomonas shigelloides esteve presente em cada região do trato gastrintestinal, apresentando maior número no intestino posterior (76%, quando comparado com o intestino anterior (4.8% e o estômago (0.6%. Aeromonas hydrophila (0.6%, Escherichia coli (7.4%, e Flavimonas oryzihabitans foram isoladas somente do estômago, e Citrobacter freundii e Burkholderia cepacia foram encontradas somente no intestino posterior. Chromobacterium violaceum foi a espécie dominante isolada do estômago e do intestino anterior com 90% e 55%, respectivamente. Organismos não identificados compreendem 0 – 39.3% da microbiota gastrintestinalThis experiment measured total bacterial numbers in the gastrointestinal regions of semi-intensively cultured tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Mean bacterial numbers were higher in both anterior and posterior gut than in stomach. The percentage of isolated species and the percentage of isolates from any particular species varied significantly among gastrointestinal tract regions. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Plesiomonas shigelloides were the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli. From these samples, only Plesiomonas shigelloides was present in both gastrointestinal regions, with higher number in the posterior gut (76%, when compared to anterior gut (4.8% and stomach (0.6%. Aeromonas hydrophila (0.6%, Escherichia coli (7.4%, and Flavimonas oryzihabitans were isolated only in the stomach, and Citrobacter freundii and Burkholderia cepacia were found only in the posterior gut. Chromobacterium violaceum was the dominant bacteria isolated from stomach and anterior gut, with 90% and 55%, respectively. Unidentified organisms comprised 0 - 39.3% of the gastrointestinal microflora

  10. Coordinated microRNA and messenger RNA expression profiles for understanding sexual dimorphism of gonads and the potential roles of microRNA in the steroidogenesis pathway in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Wenzhong; Liu, Qing; Li, Baojun; An, Lixia; Hao, Ruirong; Zhao, Jinliang; Liu, Shaozhen; Song, Jing

    2016-03-15

    Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in animals. However, the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating this dimorphism is not fully understood. In our study, we used an integrated approach to identify functional targets of miRNA by combining the paired expression profiles of miRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in ovaries and testes of young Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The results revealed that 67 upregulated and nine downregulated miRNAs and 2299 upregulated and 3260 downregulated genes were identified in the ovary compared with those in the testis (Preal-time polymerase chain reaction on the basis of the significantly negative relationships. Our results suggest that the integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling can provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism of sexual dimorphism. PMID:26719037

  11. Evaluación de un sistema de alimentación orgánico sobre el desempeño productivo de la tilapia nilótica, oreochromis niloticus, cultivada en estanques de tierra

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, A.; Muñoz-Ramírez, A.P.; Wills, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de un sistema de alimentación que incluía dietas formuladas con recursos alternativos orgánicos y diferentes niveles de fertilización orgánica sobre parámetros zootécnicos en peces de consumo cultivados en estanques de tierra. Se utilizaron 1324 juveniles de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus), con peso inicial promedio de 161,9 ± 7,0 g, solo machos sexados manualmente,  sin reversión hormonal.  Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos y t...

  12. Modelagem das trajetórias médias do peso vivo e do rendimento de carcaça de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) por meio de funções B-spline

    OpenAIRE

    D.C.C. Santos; D.C.B. Scalez; T.L. Passafaro; E.M Turra; A.F.A. Fernandes; E.R. Alvarenga; G.F.O. Alves; F.L.B. Toral

    2015-01-01

    Empregando o método dos quadrados mínimos e polinômios B-spline quadráticos, diferentes modelos estatísticos foram testados para identificar o mais apropriado para modelar as trajetórias médias do peso vivo e do rendimento de carcaça de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Dados de peso vivo (8.758) e de rendimento de carcaça (2.042) de tilápias com idades entre 106 e 245 dias foram obtidos de 72 famílias provenientes de 36 machos e 72 fêmeas. As variáveis sexo e tanque de criação foram ...

  13. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ERα) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 μg/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 μg/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  14. The use of crude extracts from traditional medicinal plants to eliminate Trichodina sp. in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

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    Chanagun Chitmanat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment for ectoparasitic diseases in freshwater fish with formalin seems at present to be ineffective. For this reason it is evidently a useless cost. In addition, formalin possibly leaves toxic residues in fish flesh and in the environment which are eventually harmful to consumers. The alternative way to solve this problem is to use traditional medicinal plants instead. The purpose of this research is to determine the possibility of using garlic (Allium sativum and Indian almond (Terminalia catappa as optional chemicals to treat fish ectoparasites, Trichodina sp. The results showed that crude extracts of either garlic or Indian almond at 800 mg/l significantly (P < 0.05 eliminated Trichodina sp. infections in tilapia (average weight 3.620.06 g each. To evaluate the acute toxicity of these products to the host fish, groups of 20 tilapia (same size as abovewere exposed to 3 concentrations of each product for 96 h. Mortality was then determined. The 2 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to crude extract of garlic was 2,259.44 mg/L while the 16 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to Indian almond extract was 46,665.94 mg/L. This information is the beneficial and fundamental knowledge to develop guidelines to reduce the use of chemicals and antibiotics in freshwater fish culture businesses. The research is underway to determine the long-term effect of Indian almond and garlic to tilapia, if any.

  15. Histochemical localisation of carbonic anhydrase in the inner ear of developing cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, M.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    2008-12-01

    Inner ear otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAH). CAH is located in specialised, mitochondria-rich macular cells (ionocytes), which are involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange, and the enzyme is responsible for the provision of the pH-value necessary for otolithic calcium carbonate deposition. In the present study, for the first time the localisation of histochemically demonstrated CAH was analysed during the early larval development of a teleost, the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. CAH-reactivity was observed already in stage 7 animals (onset of otocyst development; staging follows Anken et al. [Anken, R., Kappel, T., Slenzka, K., Rahmann, H. The early morphogenetic development of the cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes, Teleostei). Zool. Anz. 231, 1-10, 1993]). Neuroblasts (from which sensory and supporting cells are derived) proved to be CAH-positive. Already at stage 12 (hatch), CAH-positive regions could be attributed to ionocyte containing regions both in the so-called meshwork and patches area of the macula (i.e., clearly before ionocytes can be identified on ultrastructural level or by employing immunocytochemistry). In contrast to the circumstances observed in mammalian species, sensory hair cells stained negative for CAH in the cichlid. With the onset of stage 16 (finray primordia in dorsal fin, yolk-sac being increasingly absorbed), CAH-reactivity was observed in the vestibular nerve. This indicates the onset of myelinisation and thus commencement of operation. The localisation of CAH in the inner ear of fish (especially the differences in comparison to mammals) is discussed on the basis of its role in otolith calcification. Since the vestibular system is a detector of acceleration and thus gravity, also aspects regarding effects of altered gravity on CAH and hence on the mineralisation of otoliths in an adaptive process are addressed.

  16. Efeito da vitamina C sobre o hematócrito e glicemia de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em transporte simulado Effect of vitamin C over the haematocrit and glycemia of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus alevins in simulated transport

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    D. Okamura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do ascorbato sobre o hematócrito e glicemia em alevinos de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus submetidos à simulação de práticas relacionadas ao transporte. Foram utilizadas três dietas experimentais com diferentes níveis de vitamina C (16, 500 e 1000mg de vitamina C/kg, fornecidas durante os 14 dias anteriores à simulação do transporte que se estendeu por 14 horas. O tratamento que continha 16mg de vitamina C/kg foi o que apresentou a glicemia mais elevada logo após a simulação, 108,5mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 91mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. A concentração de 1000mg de vitamina C/kg foi a mais eficiente no controle do aumento da glicemia, 94,6mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 74,4mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Para a concentração de 500mg de vitamina C/kg foram observados os níveis de 91,4mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 103,8mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Os valores do hematócrito não apresentaram variação significativa (P>0,05. A suplementação com 1000mg de vitamina C/kg por 14 dias anteriores ao transporte pode ser utilizada de forma profilática em alevinos de tilápia nilótica para amenizar o aumento da glicemia relacionado ao estresse.The effects of ascorbate on the haematocrit and blood glucose level were evaluated in Nile tilapia alevins (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to a transport simulation. Three experimental diets with different levels of vitamin C (16, 500 and 1000mg/kg were given for 14 days before the simulation of the transport. The treatment containing 16mg of vitamin C showed the highest level of glucose after the simulation (108.5mg/dl immediately after the transport and 91mg/dl 12 hours after the transport. The vitamin C concentration of 1000mg/kg was the most efficient treatment to control glycemia increases (94.6mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 74.4mg/dl 12 hour after simulation. In the 500mg/kg treatment, the glucose level was 91.4mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 103.8mg/dl 12 hours after the simulation. The haematocrit values did not show any significative variation (P<0.05. The supplementation with 1000mg/kg of vitamin C for a 14 days period can be used in a prophylactic way to soften glycemia increases in Nile tilapia alevins submitted to transport stress.

  17. Parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. sob estresse por exposição ao ar Hematological parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. under air exposure stress

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    Roberta Dias da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliaram-se os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos de exemplares adultos de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus sob a influência do fator estresse fisiológico em animais submetidos à exposição ao ar durante a engorda em sistema raceway. Foram analisados o eritrograma, teor de hemoglobina, volume globular, o volume corpuscular médio (VCM, a hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM, a concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, o leucograma, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, o plaquetograma, a glicose, a proteína total, o colesterol, o triglicerídeo e os eletrólitos (cálcio, cloretos, sódio e potássio. Os resultados revelaram que houve uma homogeneidade de distribuição para hemácias, volume globular, hemoglobina, índices hemantimétricos, proteína total, glicose, colesterol, e íons séricos, indicados pelos valores relativamente baixos do coeficiente de variação. Houve correlação positiva somente para leucócitos totais, células de defesa orgânica (neutrófilos e linfócitos, glicose, colesterol, sódio e cálcio. Quanto ao leucograma, à medida que os animais foram expostos ao ar, o número de leucócitos diminuiu gradativamente (leucopenia, ocorrendo simultaneamente neutrofilia e linfopenia. O índice glicêmico constituiu um bom indicador de estresse fisiológico, devido à hiperglicemia (82,0±20,88mg/dL demonstrada nos tratamentos. A exposição ao ar constituiu um fator de desequilíbrio na homeostase iônica, e na síntese de colesterol endógeno. Entretanto, o tempo de recuperação não ocasionou a completa reabilitação fisiológica frente ao desafio imposto.The present study evaluated the hematological and biochemical parameters of adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus under the influence of the physiological stress factor in animals submitted to air exposure during fattening in raceway system. Blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukogram, differencial leukocyte count, platelet, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and electrolytes (calcium, chloride, sodium and potassium were analyzed. The results showed a uniform distribution for red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, secondary Wintrobe indices, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and serum ions, indicated by a relatively low variation coefficient. There was positive correlation only for total white blood cells, organic defense cells (neutrophils and lymphocytes, glucose, cholesterol, sodium and calcium. As for the leukocytes (WBC, as the animals were exposed to aeration, the number of leukocytes gradually decreased (leukopenia, simultaneously occurring neutrophilia and lymphopenia. The glycemic index was a good indicator of physiological stress due to hyperglycemia (82.0±20.88mg/dL demonstrated in the treatments. The air exposure constituted an imbalance factor at the ion homeostasis and at the endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Besides, the recovery time did not result in the complete physiological rehabilitation face the imposed challenge.

  18. Morphological characteristics of ovarian development of two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains in mixed-culture systems Características morfológicas do desenvolvimento ovariano de duas linhagens de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, em sistemas de cultivo misto

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    P.R. Neves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to morphologically characterize and classify the stages of gonad development in different Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus. Eighty-four and ninety-two ovaries from Bouaké and Chitralada strains, respectively, were evaluated at different ovarian developmental phases: initial (104 days of culture, intermediate (152 days of culture, and the final (279 days of culture. The ovaries were microscopically evaluated and submitted to histological processing and hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine their characteristics and be classified. No morphological differences in ovaries between strains were observed during the initial phase (stage A - immature. During the intermediate growing phase, higher gonad development was observed for Chitralada strain (stage B - maturation in comparison with Bouaké strain (stage A - immature. During the final growing phase, no differences between strains were observed for morphological characteristics (stage C - mature. Despite the similarities in reproductive behavior of the Bouaké and Chitralada females at the end of the final growing phase (gain weight phase, differences for macroscopic and microscopic aspects and oocytes during the initial and intermediate growing phases of the strains were observed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfologicamente e classificar os estádios de desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus de linhagens distintas. Foram avaliados 84 ovários da linhagem Bouaké e 92 da linhagem Chitralada, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento: inicial (imatura - 104 dias de cultivo, intermediária (crescimento - 152 dias de cultivo e final (ganho de peso - 279 dias de cultivo. Os ovários foram analisados macroscopicamente e submetidos a procedimento histológico, corados com hematoxilina-eosina, para determinação das características microscópicas e subsequente classificação. Não foram observadas diferenças morfológicas nos ovários entre as linhagens na fase inicial (estádio A - imaturo. Na fase intermediária, os ovários revelaram diferenças morfológicas, evidenciando maior desenvolvimento gonadal para a linhagem Chitralada, (estádio B - maturação em relação à Bouaké (estádio A. Na fase final (ganho de peso os ovários não apresentaram diferenças morfológicas entre as linhagens (estádio C - maduro. Apesar de semelhanças no comportamento reprodutivo das fêmeas das linhagens Bouaké e Chitralada, na fase final (ganho de peso, diferenças, em relação à classificação da fase intermediária nos aspectos macroscópicos e microscópicos e diâmetro dos ovócitos, foram observadas.

  19. Masculinização de larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. a partir de banhos de imersão com 17alfa-metiltestosterona Masculinization of larvae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. by immersion baths with alpha-methyltestosterone

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    Robie Allan Bombardelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os períodos ontogênicos de maior sensibilidade das larvas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus à masculinização, com 17 alfa-metiltestosterona (MT, a partir de banhos de imersão, contendo 2,0 mg MT.L-1, por 36 horas, em um experimento realizado em duas fases - a primeira com tratamentos hormonais e a segunda na fase de alevinagem. Foram utilizadas 1.200 larvas provenientes de um mesmo lote de reprodutores e distribuídas em 24 recipientes plásticos (0,5 L, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos hormonais e quatro repetições. Considerou-se, como unidade experimental, um recipiente plástico contendo 0,5 L de solução hormonal e 50 larvas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se na imersão das larvas em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento ontogênico, correspondentes a 133,7 UTAs (dias - grau ou 5 DPE (dias após a eclosão; 188,2 UTAs ou 7 DPE; 242,3 UTAs ou 9 DPE; 296,8 UTAs ou 11 DPE; 352,6 UTAs ou 13 DPE; e 408,2 UTAs ou 15 DPE. Após os tratamentos, as larvas foram cultivadas até atingirem o comprimento padrão mínimo de 25 mm. Os resultados de masculinização evidenciaram a existência de um período de maior sensibilidade aos 15 DPE ou 408,2 UTAs, com 85,19% de machos. Observou-se relação linear positiva entre o período ontogênico e as taxas de masculinização. As médias de comprimento total e peso final, fator de condição e sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos.An experiment was carried out to in two steps (the first was hormonal treatments and the other the larvae grow up phase to determine the best ontogenic periods for larvae of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus regarding masculinization hormonal treatments with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT by immersion baths in 2.0 mg MT.L-1 solution for 36 hours. One thousand and two hundred larvae of Nile tilapia, from the same reproduction bunch, were allotted to 24 plastic containers with 0.5 L in a completely randomized experimental design composed of six treatments and four replicates. An experimental unit consisted of a 0.5 L plastic container with hormonal solution and 50 larvae. Treatments consisted of immersion of larvae at different ontogenic phases, 133.7 UTA (days - degrees or 5 DAE (days after eclosion; 188.2 UTA or 7 DAE; 242.3 UTA or 9 DAE; 296.8 UTA or 11 DAE; 352.6 UTA or 13 DAE; and 408.2 UTA or 15 DAE. After the treatments the larvae were cultivated till they reached a standard length of 25 mm. Masculinization results showed 15 DAE or 408.2 UTA as the best period, with 85.19% males. Results also suggested a positive linear relationship between the ontogenic period and masculinization rates. There was no difference in treatments with regard to average final length and weight, condition factor and mortality.

  20. Effect of core homeopathic homeopatila 100® in productive efficiency of fingerlings reverted from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Efeito do núcleo homeopático homeopatila 100® na eficiência produtiva em alevinos revertidos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was researched the effect of Core Homeopathic Homeopatila 100® on the integrity branchial histological, weight, final length, survival, feed conversion and apparent index hepatossomátic in fingerlings from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. We used in the control treatment (T1 with 20mL/kg water-alcohol solution (alcohol 30 GL and three treatments with 20mL/kg (T2, 40mL/kg (T3 e 60mL/kg (T4 of core homeopathic Homeopatila 100® in fingerlings male reversed, with initial weight and initial length the 1,05 ± 0,32g and 4,15 ± 0,42cm respectively. It was distributed a total of 832 fingerlings in 16 polyethylene water tanks with individual capacity of 2000 liters, contends 1000 liters each one, where they ha remained during 61 days. At the end of experiment, was not observed statistic difference between the different treatments in histological changes examined in gills: epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, telangectasy and lamellar fusion. The fingerlings which received 40mL/kg of Homeopatila 100® (T3 showed a higher rate of survival and also lower rate than the other hepatossomátic the fingerlings in control group (T1.Foi pesquisado o efeito do Núcleo Homeopático Homeopatila 100® na integridade histológica branquial, na sobrevivência, peso, comprimento final, conversão alimentar aparente e índice hepatossomático em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foi utilizado um tratamento controle (T1 com 20mL de solução hidroalcólica (álcool 30° GL a cada kg de ração e três tratamentos com 20mL/kg (T2, 40mL/kg (T3 e 60mL/kg (T4 do Núcleo Homeopático Homeopatila 100®, em alevinos machos revertidos, com peso e comprimento médio inicial de 1,05 ± 0,32g e 4,15 ± 0,42cm respectivamente. Foi distribuído um total de 832 alevinos em 16 caixas d´agua com capacidade individual de 2000 litros, contendo 1000 litros cada uma, onde permaneceram durante 61 dias. No final do experimento, não foi observada diferença estatística entre os diferentes tratamentos nas alterações histológicas examinadas nas brânquias: elevação epitelial, hiperplasia, telangectasia e fusão lamelar. Os alevinos que receberam 40mL/kg de ração de Homeopatila 100® (T3 apresentaram maior sobrevivência e índice hepatossomático menor do que os alevinos do grupo controle (T1.

  1. Zinco e levedura desidratada de álcool como pró-nutrientes para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1862 Zinc and spray dried alcohol yeast as pronutrient for Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1862

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    Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a levedura desidratada de álcool (Saccharomyces cerevisiae e o zinco (óxido de zinco como pró-nutrientes em ração inicial para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.. As rações experimentais, isoprotéicas (30,00%PD e isoenergéticas (3200kcal ED/kg dieta foram suplementadas com 3 níveis de levedura (0,5%; 1% e 2% e 3 níveis de óxido de zinco (150, 300 e 600mg/kg. Utilizou-se, ainda, uma ração controle sem esses pró-nutrientes. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (níveis de levedura e zinco com tratamento adicional (controle e 4 repetições. Avaliou-se o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente, taxa de crescimento específico, taxa de eficiência protéica e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente para matéria seca, proteína bruta, lipídio total e energia bruta das rações experimentais. A levedura desidratada de álcool e o zinco atuam como pró-nutrientes para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, sendo que os níveis de 1% de levedura e 300mg Zn/kg dieta proporcionaram melhores respostas no desempenho produtivo e nos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. Houve interação positiva entre os níveis de levedura e zinco para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente e coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, lipídio total e energia bruta.This research aimed to evaluate spray dried alcohol yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and zinc (zinc oxide as pronutrient in initial diet for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.. The experimental diets, isoproteic (30.00%DP and isoenergetic (3200kcal DE/kg diet, were supplemented with three yeast levels (0.50, 1.00 and 2.00% and three zinc levels (150, 300 and 600mg/kg. An additional diet with no pronutrient was used. The experiment was a factorial 3 x 3 (yeast levels and zinc plus an additional treatment (control and four replications in completely randomized block design. Weight gain, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, protein efficiency rate, and apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, total lipid and gross energy of experimental diets were analyzed. The spray dried alcohol yeast and zinc acted as pronutrient for Nile tilapia fingerlings and the levels of 1.00% of yeast and 300mg Zn/kg diet, presented better responses on growth performance and on the apparent digestibility coefficient. There was a positive interaction between yeast levels and zinc on the weight gain, apparent feed conversion and apparent digestibility coefficient of the dry matter, total lipid and gross energy.

  2. Valores hematológicos e bioquímicos em tilápia do Nilo Oreochromis niloticus cultivada em sistema semi-intensivo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2028 Haematological and biochemical values for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in semi-intensive system - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2028

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    Benetido Prado Dias Filho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os valores de referências hematológicos e bioquímicos para a tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, cultivada em sistema semi-intensivo. A contagem de eritrócitos foi 6,93 ± 8,28 x 106/mm3, hemoglobina 10,52 ± 3,09g/dL de sangue, hematócrito 31,85 ± 8,45%, volume corpuscular médio (MVC 148,80 ±.153,19µ3, hemoglobina corpuscular média (MCH 40,74 ± 34,19pg e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média 35,24 ± 14,92%. Os valores de proteína plasmática total e da glicose obtidos foram de 3,06 ± 0,65g/dl e 60,32 ± 20,22mg/dl, respectivamente. Uma matriz de correlação foi estabelecida para comparar o grau de associação entre os dados biométricos e parâmetros hematológicos, e entre estes e os valores bioquímicos. Uma correlação positiva foi observada entre peso, comprimento, MCV e MHC, bem como entre comprimento e hematócrito. O nível de glicose sanguínea foi positivamente correlacionado com o peso e o comprimento, enquanto proteína total foi positivamente correlacionada com a hemoglobina. A contagem de eritrócito foi positivamente correlacionada com a hemoglobina e negativamente correlacionada com MCH e MHC. A observação microscópica do esfregaço sangüíneo revelou a presença de eritrócitos, neutrófilos, linfócitos e monócitos. Sob as condições empregadas no estudo não foram encontrados basófilos, ensinófilos ou seus precursores no esfregaço sangüíneo de tilápia do NiloThe aim of the present study was to investigate the reference ranges for haematological and biochemical values for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, cultivated in a semi-intensive system. Erythrocytes number was 6.93 ± 8.28 x 106/mm3, hemoglobin 10.52 ± 3.09g/dL of blood and hematocrit 31.85 ± 8.45%, mean corpuscular volume (MVC 148.80 ±. 153.19µ3, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH 40.74 ± 34.19 pg and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC 35.24 ± 14.92%. Total plasma protein and glucose values obtained were 3.06 ± 0.65g/dl and 60.32 ± 20.22mg/dl, respectively. A correlation matrix was established to compare de degree of association among biometric data and hematological parameters, and among each of them and biochemical values. A positive correlation was observed among weight, length, MCV and MHC, as well as between length and hematocrit. The blood glucose level was positively correlated with weight and length, whereas total protein was positively correlated with hemoglobin. The erythrocytes count was positively correlated with hemoglobin and negatively correlated with MCV and MHC. Microscopy examination of blood smears revealed the presence of erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Under the conditions employed here, no basophils or eosinophils, nor their precursors, could be found in blood smears of Nile tilapia

  3. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefields group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  4. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments of vaccines. The objective of this project was ...

  5. Growth and Production Performance of Monosex Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Fed with Homemade Feed in Earthen Mini Ponds

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    M. Shamsuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of monosex tilapia using homemade feed with Peninsula Group fish meal and commercially available feed with local fish meal in earthen mini ponds from June-September 2010. Three ponds (T1 were supplied with prepared feed and the other three ponds (T2 with commercially available fish feed. Fish were fed at the rate of 10% of their body weight for the first thirty days then gradually reduced to 6% for the next ten days, 2% for the next ten days and 3% for remaining days. The temperature were ranged from 31.5-33.0°C, DO from 5.5-15 mg L-1 in T1 and 6.5-14 mg L-1 in T2, pH from 7.1-8.0 in T1 and 7.1-7.7 in T2, alkalinity from 105-160 mg L-1 in T1 and 100-145 mg L-1 in T2, nitrate was 0.06 mg L-1 in both treatments and ammonia from 0.02 and 0.04 mg L-1 in T1 and T2, respectively. The results of the present study showed that the best weight gain was observed as 123.48 g in T1 than T2 (111.82 g. The Specific Growth Rate (SGR was recorded 3.09 and 2.97 and the Food Conversion Ratio (FCR was 1.51 and 1.40 in T1 and T2, respectively. There was significant (p1 and T2, respectively. The fish productions were 19076 and 16312.11 kg ha-1 in T1 and T2. The highest net profit (Taka/ha/70 days of Tk. 15, 83,213 was obtained with T1. So, the prepared feed showed better performance with monosex tilapia in compared with commercial fish feed with local fish meal.

  6. EVALUACIN DEL POLICULTIVO DE BOCACHICO Prochilodus magdalenae Y TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus UTILIZANDO SUPERFICIES FIJADORAS DE PERIFITON: EVALUATION OF THE POLYCULTURE OF BOCAChICO Prochilodus magdalenae AND TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus USING PERIPHYTON FIXING SURFACES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. J, Garca; L. M, Celis; E. L, Villalba; L. C, Mendoza; S. B, Br; V. J, Atencio; S. C, Pardo.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La piscicultura es una actividad importante para satisfacer la demanda alimenticia de una poblacin en crecimiento y en su prctica es necesario desarrollar tecnologas responsables con el ambiente. El policultivo de tilapia-bocachico es relevante por la importancia de estas especies a nivel naciona [...] l; tilapia por sus caractersticas zootcnicas, y bocachico por su hbito alimentario detritvoro-ilifago, recientemente visto como un pez ecolgico. El cultivo basado en perifiton permitira un sistema altamente eficiente y ms limpio, pues aporta alimento natural a los peces y mejora la calidad del agua. Para evaluar el efecto del perifiton sobre el desempeo del policultivo tilapia-bocachico, se ejecut un experimento durante ocho meses en 18 estanques de 90 m, con 2,6 tilapias/m y 0,7 bocachicos/m, sin fertilizacin; como sustrato para perifiton se instalaron de forma vertical tubos plsticos (3,3 tubos/m), que se constituyeron en una variable por evaluar. Adicionalmente, tres estrategias alimentarias fueron evaluadas: 0 (sin alimento), alimentacin con racin del 20% de protena bruta (PB) y alimentacin con racin del 25% de PB. Se utiliz un diseo factorial 2x3 en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento y se analizaron datos productivos mediante ANOVA con un modelo lineal general (P Abstract in english Fishculture is very important to satisfy human food demand. However, the ignorance in more efficient and environment-friendly systems is a big problem for fish farming activities. Tilapia-Bocachico polyculture is of great interest; tilapia, for the excellent productive characteristics, and bocachico [...] for being a bottom-feeder specie, beside of the great socio-cultural value in this region. An alternative approach is the adoption of periphyton-based pond systems; periphyton can: be a food source for fish and improve water quality, thus becoming into a highly efficient and cleaner system. With the aim to evaluate the periphyton effects on performance of Tilapia-Bocachico polyculture, a trial was carried out for 8 months. Eighteen 90 m earthen ponds were used under polyculture conditions at low stocking density (2.6 tilapia/m, 0.7 bocachico/m). These ponds were not fertilized during the experimental period. Plastic tubes of 1.2 m and 6 cm in diameter were used vertically as periphyton substrate at 3.3 tubes/m rate. Three alimentary strategies were used: 0 (without food), fish feed (20% protein) and fish feed (25% protein); thereby constituting a factorial experiment 2x3 in a randomized complete block with three replications per treatment. They were analyzed using ANOVA with a general linear model (GLM) (p

  7. Rendimento do processamento de linhagens de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em função do peso corporal Process yield of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus strains in function of body weight

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    Vander Bruno dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os rendimentos do processamento de linhagens de tilápias em função dos pesos de abate, um experimento foi conduzido no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, M.G. - Brasil. Foram utilizados 93 peixes da linhagem Chitralada e 78 da Supreme, pesando entre 150 e 790 g. Os peixes foram cultivados em dois tanques de alvenaria de 40 m², sendo alimentados com ração comercial fornecida de acordo com a biomassa e a temperatura da água. A temperatura e o oxigênio da água foram tomados diariamente, no início do dia e no final da tarde, e o pH aferido semanalmente. Com o crescimento dos animais, amostras aleatórias foram tomadas. Nas amostragens, os peixes foram abatidos após terem passado por um jejum de 24 horas e insensibilização por choque térmico. Em seguida, foram pesados e dissecados. A análise de regressão indicou que em pesos mais elevados, a linhagem Chitralada apresenta maior porcentagem de cabeça e rendimento de pele. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maior peso de carcaça, filé e resíduos, sendo mais expressivos em pesos superiores a 500 g e menor valor à maturidade para a % de vísceras. Conclui-se que as duas linhagens possuem crescimento das partes componentes proporcional ao aumento do peso corporal, e este aumento não altera o rendimento desses constituintes. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maiores rendimentos de carcaça e filé do que a Chitralada, sendo a mais indicada para a produção e comercialização de filés mais pesados.With the objective of evaluating the yield processing of tilapia strains in function of body weight, an experiment was carried out at the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G. - Brazil. A total 93 fish of the Chitralada strain and 78 of the Supreme strain, weighting between 150 and 790 g were used. The fish were cultivated in two tanks of 40 m², fed with commercial ration supplied according to the biomass and water temperature. The water temperature and oxygen were evaluated every day, at the early morning and at the late afternoon, and the pH checked weekly. During the fish growth, random samples were taken. After 24 hours of fasting, the fish were insensibilized (thermal shock, slaughtered (anoxia, weighted and dissected. The regression analysis showed that in higher weight, the Chitralada strain presented higher head percentage and skin yield. The Supreme strain presented higher carcass, fillet and residue weights, being more expressive in body weights superior to 500 g and smaller limiting value for the percentage of viscera. It was concluded that the two strains have growth of body parts proportional to the increase of the body weight, and this increase does not modify the parts yield. The Supreme strain showed more carcass and fillet yield than Chitralada, and is should be indicated for production and commercialization of heavier fillet.

  8. Application of Probiotic, Prebiotic and Synbiotic for the Control of Streptococcosis in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    . Widanarni; Tanbiyaskur

    2015-01-01

    One of the fish diseases that is becoming the main problem in tilapia culture is streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae. Application of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic are expected to be an alternative for controlling the disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the administration of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic through artificial feed to control streptococcosis in tilapia. This study consisted of five treatments with three replications, name...

  9. Atypical feminized male’s agonistic behavior relative to males and females of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.

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    Felipe Becerril-Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early maturity during tilapia culture is a recurring problem. To avoid this, a series of techniques have been developed, including the production of YY-males. This technique involves the use of hormones to produce phenotypic females (XY genotype. However, incomplete transformations are frequently observed and the produced atypical feminized males (AFM could display an ambiguity in the phenotypic expression of behavioral patterns. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior as well as the role that initial residence plays when involving three phenotypes (males, females and AFM. The experiment consisted of three stages. Resident fish were AFM in the first stage, males in the second and females in the third. In each stage the resident fish confronted males, females and AFM acting as intruders. Aggressive behavior was exercised more frequently by resident fish. Intersexual confrontations showed higher levels of aggression compared to intrasexual confrontations. The frequency of confrontations was not significantly different in confrontations involving AFM, however, differences were observed in intensity of aggression. It is possible that an incomplete transformation at physiological level could be responsible for an inaccurate decoding of signal during confrontations.

  10. Systemic adaptation of lipid metabolism in response to low- and high-fat diet in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, An-Yuan; Ning, Li-Jun; Chen, Li-Qiao; Chen, Ya-Li; Xing, Qi; Li, Jia-Min; Qiao, Fang; Li, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Natural selection endows animals with the abilities to store lipid when food is abundant and to synthesize lipid when it is limited. However, the relevant adaptive strategy of lipid metabolism has not been clearly elucidated in fish. This study examined the systemic metabolic strategies of Nile tilapia to maintain lipid homeostasis when fed with low- or high-fat diets. Three diets with different lipid contents (1%, 7%, and 13%) were formulated and fed to tilapias for 10weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the growth rate, hepatic somatic index, and the triglyceride (TG) contents of serum, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue were comparable among three groups, whereas the total body lipid contents and the mass of adipose tissue increased with the increased dietary lipid levels. Overall quantitative PCR, western blotting and transcriptomic assays indicated that the liver was the primary responding organ to low-fat (LF) diet feeding, and the elevated glycolysis and accelerated biosynthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the liver is likely to be the main strategies of tilapia toward LF intake. In contrast, excess ingested lipid was preferentially stored in adipose tissue through increasing the capability of FA uptake and TG synthesis. Increasing numbers, but not enlarging size, of adipocytes may be the main strategy of Nile tilapia responding to continuous high-fat (HF) diet feeding. This is the first study illuminating the systemic adaptation of lipid metabolism responding to LF or HF diet in fish, and our results shed new light on fish physiology. PMID:26265749

  11. Composio qumica, teor de colesterol e caracterizao dos lipdios totais de tilpia (Oreochromis niloticus e pargo (Lutjanus purpureus Chemical composition, cholesterol content and characterization of total lipids of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and pargo (Lutjanus purpureus

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    Candida M. Vieira Maia Vila Nova

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A composio qumica, o teor de colesterol e a caracterizao dos lipdios totais da tilpia e do pargo, espcies de peixes de gua doce e salgada, respectivamente, foram avaliadas por serem consumidas e apreciadas no Nordeste do Brasil. A tilpia foi avaliada sob trs condies distintas: I- tilpia em meio doce; II tilpia adaptada em meio salgado; III tilpia revertida, em meio doce. Determinou-se o teor de umidade, cinzas, protena bruta, lipdios, colesterol e os lipdios neutros e fosfolipdios. Os teores de colesterol foram de 10,05; 8,22; 8,75 e 12,75mg/100g para as amostras de tilpia I, II, III e pargo, respectivamente. Os lipdios neutros variaram de 59,0 a 68,9% e os fosfolipdios de 17,1 a 31,0% nas tilpias e, no pargo variaram de 59,5 a 72,5% (neutros e os fosfolipdios de 25,1 a 34,1%. A recuperao total variou de 85,4 a 97,7%. O teor de lipdios nas tilpias foi de 0,59 a 0,99% e no pargo 1,18%. As tilpias e o pargo apresentaram predominncia de lipdios neutros. Mesmo sob condies diferenciadas, as tilpias apresentaram excelente qualidade nutricional alm de baixo teor de colesterol, tambm presente no pargo.The effect of growing conditions on chemical composition, cholesterol percentage and characterization of total lipids was determined for Nile Tilapia and Pargo, both species of river water and seawater, which present high consumption and are very well appreciated in the Brazilian Northeast. Tilapia fishes were analyzed under three different conditions: I- Tilapia growing in river water; II Tilapia adapted to sea water; III tilapia "reverted' in river water. The percentage of moisture, ash, protein total, total fat, cholesterol, neutral lipids and phospholipids were determined. Cholesterol levels were respectively 10.05; 8.22; 8.75 and 12.75mg/100g in tilapia samples I, II, III and Pargo fish. Neutral lipids changed from 59.0 to 68.9%, and phospholipids from 17.1 to 31.0% in tilapia fishes, also Pargo presented variations from 59.5 to 72.5% for neutral lipids and from 25.1 to 34.1% for phospholipids. The total recuperation of phospholipids changed from 85.4 to 97.7%. The fat content in tilapia changed from 0.59 to 0.99%, while in Pargo it was 1.18%. Neutral lipids were predominant in both species. Even when submitted to stressing conditions Tilapia presented excellent nutritional qualities and low percentage of cholesterol, qualities which were also observed in Pargo fish.

  12. RELATIVE GROWTH AND ALLOMETRIC COEFFICIENTS OF BODY COMPONENTS OF STRAINS OF NILE TILAPIA(Oreochromis niloticus CRESCIMENTO RELATIVO E COEFICIENTES ALOMÉTRICOS DE COMPONENTES DO CORPO DE LINHAGENS DE TILÁPIAS-DO-NILO (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de Freitas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the fish production facilities of the Federal University of Lavras, MG – Brazil, to study relative growth and allometric coefficients of body components on body weight of Nile tilapia. Fishes, weighing between 150 and 790g, were randomly sampled during every period of growing, have been 93 of the Chitralada strain and 78 of the Supreme. After 24 hours of fasting, the fishes were insensibilized (thermal shock, slaughtered (anoxia, weighed and dissected to obtain body components weights. The allometric equation y = axb of Huxley (1932 and the statistic t (á = 0,01 were used for hypothesis test of b=1 and than the growth of the body components parts were classified in: isogonic (b=1, later (b>1 and early (b<1. The scale and fins, head and viscera didn’t show significant difference between the strains and obtained, respectively, allometry coefficient b=1, b>1 and b<1. Chitralada strain showed early growth for carcass and filleting remnants, late for skin andisogonic for fillet. On the other hand, Supreme showed isogonic growth for carcass, skin and filleting remnants and late growth for fillet, that is desirable for meat production. KEY WORDS: Allometry, fillet, fish, Supreme, Thai. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, com o objetivo de estudar o crescimento relativo e coeficientes alométricos de componentes do corpo em relação ao peso corporal de tilápias-do-nilo. Amostraram-se, aleatoriamente, peixes pesando entre 150 e 790g durante todo o período de crescimento, sendo 93 da linhagem Chitralada e 78 da Supreme. Após jejum de 24 horas, foram insensibilizados por choque térmico, abatidos (por anóxia, pesados e dissecados para se obter o peso das partes componentes do corpo. Utilizou-se a equação alométrica de Huxley (1932, y = axb e a estatística t (á = 0,01 para testar a hipótese b=1 e classificar o crescimento das partes componentes do corpo em: isogônico (b=1, tardio (b>1 e precoce (b<1. As escamas e nadadeiras, cabeça e vísceras não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as linhagens e obtiveram, respectivamente, coeficientes de alometria b=1, b>1 e b<1. A linhagem Chitralada apresentou crescimento precoce para a carcaça e resíduos da filetagem, tardio para a pele, isogônico para o filé. No entanto, a Supreme apresentou crescimento isogônico para a carcaça, pele e resíduos da filetagem e crescimento tardio para o filé, que é desejável na produção de carne. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alometria, filé, peixe, Supreme, tailandesa.

  13. Avaliação de curvas de crescimento morfométrico de linhagens de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Evaluation of morhometric growth curves of tilapia of Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus strains

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    Vander Bruno dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar curvas de crescimento morfométrico de linhagens de tilápias em função dos pesos de abate, um experimento foi conduzido no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, M.G.- Brasil. Foram avaliados 362 peixes da linhagem Chitralada e 345 da Supreme, pesando entre 1,7 e 800 g. Com o crescimento dos animais, amostras aleatórias foram tomadas, sendo os peixes abatidos, pesados e submetidos à avaliação morfométrica. Foram ajustados diferentes modelos de crescimento de medidas corporais em função do peso de abate. Pequenas diferenças entre os ajustes dos modelos foram encontradas para o valor assintótico (A e grandes diferenças para a taxa de crescimento relativo à maturidade (K para todas as medidas. Os modelos de Brody e Logístico apresentaram maiores diferenças, ficando os modelos de Gompertz e von Bertalanffy em posição intermediária. A linhagem Supreme obteve valores de "A" ligeiramente maiores, para o comprimento padrão (CP, e ligeiramente menores, para a altura do corpo, em relação aos valores obtidos pela linhagem Chitralada, e essa apresentou maior "K" para a relação comprimento da cabeça/comprimento padrão. Conclui-se que os modelos não lineares de Gompertz, Brody, von Bertalanffy e Logístico descrevem adequadamente o crescimento morfométrico de tilápias do Nilo em função do peso corporal, sendo mais indicados os modelos de Gompertz e von Bertalanffy, tanto para a linhagem Chitralada quanto para a Supreme, considerando que foram pequenas as diferenças existentes entre as duas linhagens.The objective of this research was to evaluate the morphometric growth curves of tilapia strains in function of the body weight, an experiment was carried out at the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G-Brazil. Three hundred sixty-two (362 fish of the Chitralada strain and three hundred forty-five (345 of the Supreme strain, weighting between 1,7 and 800 g were used. With the animals' growth, random samples were taken; the fish were slaughtered, weighted and submitted morphometric evaluation. Different models of growth of body measurements in function of the body weight were fitted. In general, the measurements were adequately adjusted. Shorts differences were found between the fit of the models for limiting values (A and high differences for growth rate relative the maturity (K for all the measurements. The Brody and Logistic models had higher differences than Gompertz and von Bertalanffy that stayed in intermediary position. The Supreme strain had "A" for standard length (SL slightly higher and for body height slightly smaller than Chitralada strain. The Chitralada strain had higher "K" for head length/standard lenght relation than Supreme strain. The Gompertz, Brody, von Bertallanffy e Logistic models described adequately the morphometric growth of tilapia in function of body weight, being more indicate the models Gompertz and von Bertalanffy. The differences between Chitralada and Supreme tilapia strains were small.

  14. Fitase líquida em dieta extrusada para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus = Liquid phytase in extruded diet for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a utilização de fitase líquida sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 176 peixes com peso inicial de 45,84 ± 3,31 g, alimentados com dietas sem e com 250; 500 e 1.000 unidades de fitase (UF kg-1 da dieta, durante 62 dias. Foi utilizada dieta-controle com 3012 kcal de energia kg-1, 29% de proteína bruta e 0,23% de fósforo disponível. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de inclusão de fitase sobre o consumo, índice hepatossomático,gordura visceral, sobrevivência, retenção de cálcio nos ossos e teores de umidade, proteína bruta e cinzas na carcaça. Foi observado efeito linear crescente dos níveis de fitase sobre a retenção de fósforo e sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta e do fósforo das dietas. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de suplementação de fitase sobre o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, rendimento decarcaça e gordura na carcaça, em que foram estimados os valores de 350; 500; 500; 516 e 647 UF kg-1 de dieta para melhor valor destas variáveis, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a utilização 500 UF kg-1 é adequada em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo.This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of liquid phytase on the performance of juvenile Nile tilapia. It was used 176 fish (45.84 ± 3.31 g. The fish were fed diets without phytase and with 250; 500 and 1,000 phytase units (PU kg-1 of diet, during62 days. A control diet was used containing 3,012 kcal digestible energy kg-1, 29% crude protein and 0.23% available phosphorus. The fish were assigned to a randomized block design, with four treatments and four replications. No effect was observed on the levels ofdietary phytase on feed intake, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat, survival, as well as on the retention of bone calcium, carcass moisture, crude protein and ash. A linear increase was observed in phosphorus retention and on the apparent digestibility coefficients of dietary crude protein and phosphorus. A quadratic effect was observed for weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, carcass yield and carcass fat, which increased up to 350; 500; 500; 516 and 647 PU kg-1, respectively. It was concluded that the use of 500 PU kg-1 is adequate in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia.

  15. Vitamin C modulates cadmium-induced hepatic antioxidants' gene transcripts and toxicopathic changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Gazzar, Ahmed M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Ashry, Khaled M

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the naturally occurring heavy metals having adverse effects, while vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is an essential micronutrient for fish, which can attenuate tissue damage owing to its chain-breaking antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties. The adult Nile tilapia fish were exposed to Cd at 5mg/l with and without vitamin C (500mg/kg diet) for 45days in addition to negative and positive controls fed with the basal diet and basal diet supplemented with vitamin C, respectively. Hepatic relative mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant function, metallothionein (MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST-?1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), was assessed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hepatic architecture was also histopathologically examined. Tilapia exposed to Cd exhibited upregulated antioxidants' gene transcript levels, GST-?1, GPx1, and MT by 6.10-, 4.60-, and 4.29-fold, respectively. Histopathologically, Cd caused severe hepatic changes of multifocal hepatocellular and pancreatic acinar necrosis, and lytic hepatocytes infiltrated with eosinophilic granular cells. Co-treatment of Cd-exposed fish with vitamin C overexpressed antioxidant enzyme-related genes, GST-?1 (16.26-fold) and GPx1 (18.68-fold), and maintained the expression of MT gene close to control (1.07-fold), averting the toxicopathic lesions induced by Cd. These results suggested that vitamin C has the potential to protect Nile tilapia from Cd hepatotoxicity via sustaining hepatic antioxidants' genes transcripts and normal histoarchitecture. PMID:26385855

  16. Partial Replacement of soybean cake with amaranthus spinosus leaf meal in the diet of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study, designed to assess the potentials of oven dried Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal as partial replacement for soybean cake in the diet of Nile Tilapia, revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed and protein intake. Fish fed on Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal diets had significant (P<0.05) higher survival percentage, while that on soybean cake meal (control diet) recorded significant (P<0.05) better weight gain, average daily rate of growth, efficient feed and protein utilization as well as average final weight. (author)

  17. Nutrient retention capabilities of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS) waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    Nile tilapia were evaluated as a bio-regenerative sub-process for reducing solid waste potentially encountered in bio-regenerative life support systems. Ten juvenile Nile tilapia (mean weight = 2.05 g) were stocked into triplicate aquaria and fed one of seven experimental diets consisting of vegetable, bacterial, or food waste for a period of seven weeks. Weight gain (g), specific growth rate (mg/d), and daily consumption (g) was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in the control group (13.80, 281.60, and 47.49, respectively) followed by the wheat bran/wheat germ group (4.25, 86.87, and 24.24). Carbon and crude lipid retention was significantly higher ( p < 0.001) in fish fed the control diet (37.99 and 68.54, respectively) followed by fish fed the wheat bran/wheat germ diet (23.19 and 63.67, respectively). Nitrogen, sulfur, and crude protein retention was significantly higher ( p < 0.001) in fish fed the wheat bran/wheat germ group (40.73, 98.65, and 40.75, respectively) followed by fish fed the control diet (23.68, 21.89, and 23.68, respectively). A general loss of minerals was observed among all groups. Strong associations were observed between crude lipid retention and sulfur retention ( r2 = 0.94), crude lipid retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.92), WG and fiber content of dietary treatments ( r2 = 0.92), WG and carbon retention and ( r2 = 0.88), WG and lysine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.86), crude protein retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.84), sulfur retention and crude protein retention ( r2 = 0.84), and total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) content of residues and WG ( r2 = 0.81). Weaker associations existed between WG and crude lipid retention ( r2 = 0.77), crude fiber content and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.76), and WG and methionine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.75). Additional research is needed to improve the nutritional quality of fibrous residues as a means to improve tilapia's ability to utilize these residues as a food source in bio-regenerative support systems.

  18. Systemic adaptation of lipid metabolism in response to low- and high-fat diet in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    He, An-Yuan; Ning, Li-Jun; Chen, Li-Qiao; Chen, Ya-Li; Xing, Qi; Li, Jia-Min; Qiao, Fang; Li, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Mei-ling; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection endows animals with the abilities to store lipid when food is abundant and to synthesize lipid when it is limited. However, the relevant adaptive strategy of lipid metabolism has not been clearly elucidated in fish. This study examined the systemic metabolic strategies of Nile tilapia to maintain lipid homeostasis when fed with low- or high-fat diets. Three diets with different lipid contents (1%, 7%, and 13%) were formulated and fed to tilapias for 10weeks. At the end of t...

  19. Pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus pada beberapa konsentrasi tepung daun jaloh (Salix tetrasperma dalam pakan

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    Zuraidha Yanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of jaloh (Salix tetrasperma leaf powders as alternative raw material for tilapia fish feed. Four concentrations of jaloh leafe powders (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% were examined in this study. The experimental fish were fed three times a day on 08.00 AM, 12.00 AM and 17.00 PM. with feeding ration of 5% of body weight for 42 days. The one-way Anova test showed that the different concentrations of jaloh leaf powders gave a significantly effect on growth performance of tilapia larvae (p0.05. The Duncans test showed that the higher growth performace and survival rate were found at 5-10% of jaloh leaf powders, it was indicated that diet with 5-10% jaloh leaf powders were better than control (without jaloh leaf powders. Therefore, it is concluded that the jaloh leaf powders is suitable as alternative raws material for tilapia formulated diet at concentration of 5-10%.

  20. The sensory acceptability of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus mechanically separated meat-based spread Aceitabilidade de patê à base de carne de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus mecanicamente separada

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    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically Separated Meat (MSM is an alternative for the diversification of new fish-based products and also as a solution for the use of waste from the filleting industries. Tilapia MSM was used in this study for the formulation of a fish spread aimed at investigating its acceptability by consumers. Two spread formulations were prepared with different types of commercial salt: seasoned salt (A and common salt (B. The consumers (112 evaluated their acceptance with respect to overall impression, spreadability, appearance and flavour acceptability on a 9-point hedonic scale. A microbiological analysis of the Tilapia MSM was also carried out and the chemical composition of the Tilapia MSM-based spread determined. When considering the acceptance of all the consumers, the overall impression, appearance and flavour were significantly (P A carne mecanicamente separada (CMS é uma alternativa para a diversificação de novos produtos à base de pescado e também se mostra como um destino para os resíduos da indústria de filetagem. A carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia foi utilizada, neste estudo, na formulação de patê, com o objetivo de investigar a aceitabilidade desse produto pelos consumidores. Duas formulações de patê foram preparadas, com diferentes tipos de sais comerciais: sal temperado (A e sal comum (B. Consumidores (112 avaliaram a aceitação em relação à impressão global, à espalhabilidade, à aparência e ao sabor em escala hedônica de nove pontos. A análise microbiológica da carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia e a composição química da formulação de patê de tilápia também foram determinadas. Quando a aceitação de todos os consumidores foi considerada, a impressão global, a aparência e o sabor foram significativamente (p < 0,05 inferiores para o patê de tilápia com sal comum (B. No entanto, três diferentes grupos de consumidores foram encontrados a partir da aceitabilidade da impressão global do patê de tilápia. O maior segmento também preferiu o patê de tilápia com sal temperado (A, mas ambos tiveram alta aceitabilidade. A CMS de tilápia apresentou qualidade como matéria-prima de acordo com regulamento técnico sobre padrões microbiológicos. O produto final apresentou a seguinte composição química: umidade - 62,17%; cinzas - 2,11%; proteína - 9,75%, e lipídios - 18,81%. Esses resultados podem ser de grande importância para a indústria no desenvolvimento e na comercialização de novos produtos obtidos a partir da carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia.

  1. Incorporation and profile of fatty acids in tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus fed with tung oil Incorporao e perfil de cidos graxos em fils de tilpia (Oreochromis niloticus alimentada com leo de tungue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Guntendorfer Bonaf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of tung oil enriched diet and the incorporation of conjugated linolenic acid - CLnA into fillets of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT were investigated. The diet was well accepted, and after 10 days CLnA was incorporated into the fillets with a 1.02% content of total fatty acids (FA. In addition, biosynthesis of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers - CLA (0.31% of fillet total FA content from CLnA, and the presence of alpha-linolenic acid - LNA (1.08% of fillet total FA content, eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA (2.85% of fillet total FA content and docosahexaenoic acid - DHA (3.08% of fillet total FA content were observed. Therefore, the consumption of this fish can increase the intake of different FA (CLnA, CLA, LNA, EPA and DHA, which play an important role in human metabolism.A aceitao de tratamentos enriquecidos com leo de tungue e a incorporao do cido linolnico conjugado (CLnA em fils de tilpia melhorada geneticamente (GIFT foram investigadas. A dieta teve boa aceitao e, aps 10 dias, o ClnA havia sido incorporado nos fils, mostrando um teor de 1,02% dos cidos graxos totais (AG. Alm disso, a biossntese dos ismeros do cido linoleico conjugado - CLA (0,31% de teor de AG total no fil, a partir do CLnA, e a presena do cido alfalinolnico - LNA (1,08% de teor de AG total no fil, cido eicosapentaenoico - EPA (2,85 % de teor de AG total no fil e cido docosa-hexaenoico - DHA (3,08% de teor de AG total no fil foram observados. Assim, o consumo deste peixe pode aumentar a ingesto de diferentes AG (CLnA, CLA, LNA, EPA e DHA, que desempenham um papel importante no metabolismo humano.

  2. Fibra bruta e óleo em dietas práticas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Crude fiber and oil in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Arruda Teixeira Lanna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de fibra bruta e de óleo de soja em rações para a tilápia do Nilo. Utilizaram-se 24 aquários circulares de 250 L, dotados de sistema individual de reabastecimento de água e aquecimento. A densidade de estocagem foi de sete peixes/aquário, totalizando 168 peixes, com peso inicial médio de 6,41±0,05 g. Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente, taxa de crescimento específico e taxa de eficiência protéica foram avaliados. Foram analisados a composição química e o rendimento de carcaça, gordura visceral e índice hepatossomático dos peixes. O experimento foi realizado segundo um esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (três níveis de fibra bruta 6,00; 9,00 e 12,00%, com e sem óleo de soja no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que a fibra interfere de forma significativa na digestibilidade aparente da dieta, com ação positiva para a proteína e negativa para a matéria seca, não interferindo na digestibilidade do extrato etéreo; que a fibra bruta não tem efeito significativo sobre o rendimento de carcaça e no depósito de gordura visceral, mas a inclusão de óleo à ração tem efeito significativo no depósito de gordura visceral; que a fibra resulta em efeito significativo na composição química da carcaça (teor de água e proteína, não tendo efeito sobre sua composição em gordura; e que a inclusão de gordura à ração diminui e eleva de forma significativa, respectivamente, o conteúdo de proteína e extrato etéreo da carcaça. Concluiu-se que, na fase de alevinagem (6,40 a 31,00g, pode-se utilizar na dieta da tilápia do Nilo até 9,00% de fibra bruta, e que a suplementação de níveis excessivos de lipídeos na dieta piora a composição da carcaça e resulta em maior depósito de gordura visceral.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different crude fiber and soybean oil levels in diets for Tilapia Nile. Twenty-four circular fishbowls of 250 liters, with an individual system of water replenishment and heating, were used. The stocking rate was of seven fishes/fishbowl, totalizing 168 fishes, with average initial weight of 6.41±0.05 g. Weight gain, apparent feed:gain ratio, specific growing rate and protein efficiency rate were evaluated. The chemical composition and carcass yield, eviscerated carcass and hepatossomatic index were also studied. A completely randomized design was used, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, being three crude fiber levels (6.00, 9.00%, and 12.00%, and two soybean oil levels (0.0 and 10.0%, with four replicates. It was verified that it is possible to use, in the diet, levels up to 12.00% of crude fiber and its excess tends to decrease the weight gain and the protein efficiency rate, besides worsening the feed:gain ratio; the fiber significantly affect the dietary apparent digestibility, with positive and negative effect on the protein and dry matter digestibility, respectively, and without effect on the ether extract digestibility; the crude fiber did not significantly affect the carcass yield and the eviscerated fat deposition. However, the oil addition to the diet showed significant effect on the eviscerated fat deposition; the fiber resulted in significant effect on the carcass chemical composition of the carcass (water and protein contents, without effect on the fat composition; and the fat addition to the diet significantly decreased and increased, respectively, the carcass protein and ether extract contents. It was concluded that, in the growing phase (from 6.40 to 31.00 g, the dietary crude fiber levels up to 9.00% can be fed for Nile tilapia and the supplementation of high dietary lipid levels decrease the carcass composition and result in higher eviscerated fat deposition.

  3. Physical properties of type I collagen extracted from fish scales of Pagrus major and Oreochromis niloticas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Tanaka, Junzo; Walsh, Dominic; Mann, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    Type I collagens were extracted from fish scales of Pagrus major and Oreochromis niloticas as a possible underutilized resource for medical materials. The fish scales were demineralized with EDTA and digested by pepsin. The resultant type I collagens contained more than 33.6% of glycine as the most abundant amino acid. The denaturation temperatures of the collagens from P. major and O. niloticas were 303 and 308K, respectively, both of which were relatively lower than that of porcine dermis collagen (314K). CD spectra indicated that the denaturation temperatures were dependent on the amount of hydroxyproline, rather than proline residues. Raman spectra also indicated that the relative intensities of Raman lines at 879 and 855cm(-1) assigned to Hyp and Pro rings were changed due to the contents of the imino acids. Significantly, the content of sulphur-containing methionine was higher in the fish scales than in porcine dermis. The enthalpy and entropy estimated from thermal analyses could be correlated to amino acid sequences (Gly-Pro-Hyp) of type I collagens and the number of methionine amino acid residues. PMID:12957317

  4. Whole-body calcium flux rates in cichlid teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus adapted to freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flik, G.; Fenwick, J.C.; Kolar, Z.; Mayer-Gosta