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The Influences of Nickel Exposure on Selected Physiological Parameters and Gill Structure in the Teleost Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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The present study was focused for investigation the effects of sublethal concentration of nickel exposure after three weeks on some physiological and gill structure alterations in the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Physiological parameters such as serum sodium, chloride, osmolality, ...

Atef M. Al-Attar

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EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological niches, mainly pond aquaculture and reservoir fisheries. Tilapia fish scales found to have more percentage of Type I collagen. Fish collagen is complex structural protein that helps to maintain the strength and flexibility of skin, ligaments, bones, joints, muscles, tendons, gums, eyes, blood vessels, nails and hair. Collagen can be obtained from fish scales, fish skins by advanced enzymatic digestion methods in biotechnology. The Protein content of the above is more than 90% and having 18 kinds of amino acids out of which 7 are essential for human consumption. These products are easily absorbable and having high biological value promoting the absorption of vitamins and minerals. The enzymatic digestion technology process releases a lot of peptides in molecular collagen that helps humans in many physiological functions. Collagen has been used in biomedical pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In this paper we have determined the collagen extracted from Tilapia fish scales and also its clinical importance.

M.Hemanth kumar; V.Spandana; Tiwari Poonam

2011-01-01

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Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus) Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis/ Diferenciación Morfométrica de Dos Especies de Peces Nigerianos (Oreochromis niloticus y Lates niloticus) Utilizando Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análsis Discriminante  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las diferencias morfológicas entre dos poblaciones de peces similares se han investigado en Doma Dam, centro-norte de Nigeria utilizando análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. El propósito fue identificar correctamente las dos especies y asignarlas a los distintos grupos genéticos. Para lograr esto, siete medidas morfométricas (peso corporal, longitud estándar, longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, profundidad del cuerpo, longitud de la alet (more) a dorsal y la longitud de la aleta caudal) se realizaron en cada una de las muestras de los 252 peces estudiados (153 Oreochromis niloticus y 99 Lates niloticus) . El análisis de varianza mostró que de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in Doma Dam, north central Nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. The purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. To achieve this, seven morphometric measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length) were made on each of the studied 252 fish specime (more) ns (153 Oreochromis niloticus and 99 Lates niloticus). The analysis of variance showed that significantly (P

Yakubu, A; Okunsebor, S. A

2011-12-01

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In vivo Acute Toxicity Tests of Some Heavy Metals to Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Fingerlings tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in laboratory conditions to a range of Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) concentrations separately and the mortality rate were registered after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50s) and Median Lethal Times (LT50s) values were calculated by static bioassays for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h with the 95% fiducial limits through Probit analysis. LC50 and LT50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure times and concentrations, respectively. The LC50s for 96 h for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 1093, 3751, 16177 and 1494 ?g L-1, respectively and the LT50s for maximum concentration used for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 20.25, 11.48, 20.70 and 24.66 h, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in tilapia fish increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu was the most toxic to tilapia fish, The toxicity ranking of the four heavy metals was Cu>Pb>Cd>Zn. Comparison of LC50 values for studied heavy metals for this species with those for other fishes reveals that tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) is equally or less sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested fishes.

Abdulali Taweel; M. Shuhaimi-Othman; A. K. Ahmad

2013-01-01

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Tissue-Specific Isoenzyme Variations in Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used to analyze malate dehydrogenase (MDH), acid phosphatase (Acph) and peroxidase (Px) isoenzymes in different tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and heart) of the tilapia fish, Oreo- chromis niloticus in order to study the tissue specificity of these isoenzymes. Three, two and one fractions have been recorded respectively for the three isoenzymes in different studied tissues. The MDH-1 and MDH-2 have been ex- pressed only in muscle and heart while MDH-3 has been expressed in all studied tissues. The percentage amount of MDH in general varied significantly between muscle and different studied tissues. With respect to acid phosphatase, the percentage amount of the total enzyme showed significant difference between liver and muscle and that this variation may be due to higher gene activity in liver. Peroxidase isoenzyme was recorded in liver and heart only with significant increase in liver. The kidney was the least among the studied tissues in showing gene expression for the studied isoenzymes and therefore, liver, heart and muscle tissues are better applicable in studying the isoenzymatic profiles for fish physiology and systematics.

Mohammed Salem AL-Harbi; Sayed Amin Mohamed Amer

2012-01-01

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Biochemical Effects of Short-term Cadmium Exposure on the Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The influences of cadmium, a well known environmental pollutant, on different biochemical parameters in fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sublethal concentration of 9.3 ppm, 0.5 of 96 h LC50, for 1, 4 and 7 days were investigated. Significant increases in the levels of blood glucose and the activities of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in the fish treated with cadmium during all experimental periods. The levels of blood triglycerides and total protein were statistically elevated at second and last periods. Insignificant alterations in the levels of blood cholesterol were noted. The observed hyperglycaemia induced by cadmium might be explained in part by increasing rate of glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis. The observed hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevations of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase may be due to liver dysfunction. The observed hyperproteinaemia in the fish, Oreochromis niloticus following cadmium administration is possibly attribute to disorder of protein metabolism. However, the significance of the toxic effects of sublethal concentration of cadmium on the various biochemical parameters studied is discussed.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2005-01-01

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Potential of Psidium guajava supplemented fish diets in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fourteen herbs were extracted in water, 95% ethanol, and ether, and tested in vitro for antimicrobial activities against Aeromonas hydrophila, a fish pathogen causing motile Aeromonas septicemia. Using swab paper disc assays and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations, we noted that the ethanol extract of Psidium guajava leaf exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity. The extract allowed growth-inhibited A. hydrophila cells to regrow in fresh BHI broth indicating a bacteriostatic mode of action. In a pathogenicity test, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of A. hydrophila for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by intraperitoneal injection was 3.44 x 10(6) CFU/ml. In vivo experiments showed that fish diets containing either dry leaf powder of P. guajava or dried ethanol extract of P. guajava leaf reduced mortality of A. hydrophila infected tilapia with no detected adverse effect on the fish. This study suggests that P. guajava leaf has the potential to control fish diseases caused by A. hydrophila.

Pachanawan A; Phumkhachorn P; Rattanachaikunsopon P

2008-11-01

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Genetic structure and gene flow in an endangered native tilapia fish (Oreochromis esculentus) compared to invasive Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Yala swamp, East Africa  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The introduction of invasive Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and the rapacious predator Nile perch (Lates niloticus), into Lake Victoria resulted in a decline in population sizes, genetic diversity and even extirpation of native species which were previously the mainstay of local fisheries. However, remnant populations of native fish species, including tilapia, still persist in satellite lakes around Lake Victoria where they may coexist with O. niloticus. In this study we assessed population genetic structure, diversity, and integrity of the native critically endangered Singidia tilapia (O. esculentus) in its refugial populations in the Yala swamp, Kenya, and contrasted this diversity with populations of the invasive tilapia O. niloticus in satellite lakes (Kanyaboli, Namboyo and Sare) and Lake Victoria. Based on mtDNA control region sequences and eight nuclear microsatellite loci, we did not detect any mtDNA introgression between the native and the invasive species in Lakes Kanyaboli and Namboyo, but did find low levels of nuclear admixture, primarily from O. niloticus to O. esculentus. Some genetic signal of O. esculentus in O. niloticus was found in Lake Sare, where O. esculentus is not found, suggesting it has recently been extirpated by the O. niloticus invasion. In both species, populations in the satellite lakes are significantly genetically isolated from each other, with private mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellite alleles. For O. niloticus, genetic diversity in satellite lakes was similar to that found in Lake Victoria. Our data imply a low frequency of immigration exchange between the two populations of O. esculentus and we suggest that the populations of this endangered species and important fisheries resource should be conserved separately in Lakes Kanyaboli and Namboyo and with high priority.

Angienda PaulO; Lee HyukJe; Elmer KathrynR; Abila Romulus; Waindi EliudN; Meyer Axel

2011-02-01

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Karyotype Analysis of the Hybrid, Thai Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. X Oreochromis mossambicus Linn.)  

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Thai Red Tilapia is the hybrid fish between Oreochromis niloticus Linn. and O. mossambicus Linn. The chromosomal constitution of this hybrid were investigated using high quality metaphase preparations obtained from their bone marrow. The diploid chromosome of Tilapias consisted of...

Jiradej Manosroi; Keravit Petchjul; Umnat Mevatee; Aranya Manosroi

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The Influences of Nickel Exposure on Selected Physiological Parameters and Gill Structure in the Teleost Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was focused for investigation the effects of sublethal concentration of nickel exposure after three weeks on some physiological and gill structure alterations in the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Physiological parameters such as serum sodium, chloride, osmolality, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were chosen to evaluate the response of experimental animal to nickel intoxication. In comparison with control, serum sodium, chloride and osmolality values were decreased in nickel-exposed fish, while the levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly elevated. Nickel exposure induced some histological changes in fish gill structure. These changes included hyperplasia, hypertrophy, shortening of secondary lamellae and fusion of adjacent lamellae. The physiological and histological changes indicate that nickel is very hazardous pollutant. Moreover, the above mentioned severe alterations indicate that the fish, Oreochromis niloticus is appropriate species to act as a biological indicator of water pollution level.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2007-01-01

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Assessment of metal status in drainage canal water and their bioaccumulation in Oreochromis niloticus fish in relation to human health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to assess metal concentrations (Al, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni) in Sabal drainage canal (Al-Menoufiya Province, River Nile Delta, Egypt) water as well as their accumulation in some selected organs (skin, muscles and kidneys) of Oreochromis niloticus fish to evaluate their hazard levels in relation to the maximum residual limits for human consumption. Drainage canal water was found to be heavily polluted with metals which far exceeded the permissible limits. It was found that metals accumulated in organs of O. niloticus in concentrations higher than those of canal water. Kidneys of O. niloticus contained the highest concentrations of the detected metals, while skin appeared to be the least preferred site for the bioaccumulation of metals as the lowest metals concentrations were detected in this tissue. The present study shows that fish organs contained high levels of metals exceeding the permissible limits values. Metals in muscle of fish were higher than the maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption. Thus, consuming fish caught from drainage canals is harmful to the consumers.

Authman MM; Abbas HH; Abbas WT

2013-01-01

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Assessment of metal status in drainage canal water and their bioaccumulation in Oreochromis niloticus fish in relation to human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess metal concentrations (Al, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni) in Sabal drainage canal (Al-Menoufiya Province, River Nile Delta, Egypt) water as well as their accumulation in some selected organs (skin, muscles and kidneys) of Oreochromis niloticus fish to evaluate their hazard levels in relation to the maximum residual limits for human consumption. Drainage canal water was found to be heavily polluted with metals which far exceeded the permissible limits. It was found that metals accumulated in organs of O. niloticus in concentrations higher than those of canal water. Kidneys of O. niloticus contained the highest concentrations of the detected metals, while skin appeared to be the least preferred site for the bioaccumulation of metals as the lowest metals concentrations were detected in this tissue. The present study shows that fish organs contained high levels of metals exceeding the permissible limits values. Metals in muscle of fish were higher than the maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption. Thus, consuming fish caught from drainage canals is harmful to the consumers. PMID:22451326

Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2012-03-27

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Fish-borne trematodes in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and wild-caught fish from Thailand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections affect the health of more than 18 million people around the world, particularly in Asian countries. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a white meat fish that has an increasing national and international market. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of FZT metacercarial infections in Nile tilapia from cage and pond aquaculture systems and in wild-caught fish from Suphan Buri, Nakhon Pathom and Chachoengsao provinces, Thailand. Fish were collected from four cages in Suphan Buri and four ponds in Nakhon Pathom provinces between September-October 2011 and April-May 2012 and wild-caught fish were collected in May 2012. All fish were examined for metacercariae by a pepsin digestion and metacercariae identified using morphological and molecular methods. During the first sampling of tilapia the prevalence of metacercariae in cage culture fish were 2.5% and 10% in pond culture fish. During the second sampling, metacercariae was found in 2.0% of tilapia from cage and none from the ponds. Of the 150 wild-caught fish, a total of 80 (53.3%) were found to be infected with metacercariae, mostly the zoonotic species Stellantchasmus falcatus, Haplorchis pumilio and Procerovum varium. The results revealed a low risk for FZT in Nile tilapia cultured in cage and pond aquaculture systems. However, the high prevalence of FZT in wild-caught fish indicates a high potential for spillover from wild reservoir hosts and underscores the need for vigilance and good management practices by the aquaculture sector. Crown Copyright © 2013.

Wiriya, B.; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

2013-01-01

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Changes in Haematological Parameters of the Fish, Oreochromis niloticus Treated with Sublethal Concentration of Cadmium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sub-chronic and chronic exposure of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to sublethal concentration of 5. 5 ppm cadmium (0. 3 of 96 h LC50) for 1, 3 and 5 weeks was studied. Exposure of Tilapia to cadmium resulted into a number of haematological alterations. Erythropenia, a marked decrease in values of haemoglobin content, haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were observed at all experimental periods of cadmium exposure. The values of mean cell volume were decreased at the second and last periods. The levels of mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration decreased significantly at first period compared to the control value.

Atef M. Al-Attar

2005-01-01

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Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 {mu}g L{sup -1} of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

Monteiro, Sandra Mariza, E-mail: smonteir@utad.pt [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Santos, Nuno M.S. dos [Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto (Portugal); Calejo, Margarida [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Fontainhas-Fernandes, Antonio [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Sousa, Mario [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Centre for Reproductive Genetics Alberto Barros, Porto (Portugal)

2009-09-14

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Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 ?g L-1 of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

2009-09-14

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Replacement of fish meal with a mixture of different plant protein sources in juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) diets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A plant protein mixture (PPM) was tested to replace fish meal (FM) in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish averaging (?SD) 3.7±0.14 g were divided into 15 groups. Three groups were fed each of five isonitrogenous (33.6%) and isocaloric (4.7 kcal g?¹) diets replacing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the FM protein with similar percentages of PPM (PPM0, PPM25, PPM50, PPM75 or PPM100 respectively). The PPM consisted of 25% soybean meal, 25% cottonseed meal, 25% sunflower meal and 25% linseed meal, and 0.5% of both methionine and lysine were added to each diet except for the control. After 16 weeks of feeding, the fish fed diets PPM75 and PPM100 exhibited growth performance not differing significantly from the fish fed control diet. PPM substitution of up to 75% of the FM protein did not result in differences in the apparent protein digestibility compared with the control, whereas in the PPM100 group digestibility was significantly lower than in the other groups, except for fish fed the PPM75 diet. The incorporation of PPM in diets did not significantly affect whole-body dry matter, protein, fat or energy compared with the control. The cost-benefit analyses of the test diets indicated that the PPM diets were economically superior to FM. The protein from PPM can completely replace the FM protein in the diets for Nile tilapia, based on the results of this study.

El-Saidy DMSD; Gaber MMA

2003-11-01

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Effects of Water Pollution in Lake Mariut on Gonadal Free Amino Acid Compositions in Oreochromis niloticus Fish  

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In the present report, we have determined the gonadal free amino acid compositions in Oreochromis niloticus collected from three sites in Lake Mariut: SE basin (less polluted), main basin (moderately polluted) and SW basin (highly polluted), in an attempt to develop sensitive biomarker to eva...

Cecil A. Matta; Abdel-Moneim M. Kheirallah; Nabila E. Abdelmeguid; Ashraf M. Abdel-Moneim

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Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (p<0.05) in mark intensity were detected between treatments for otoliths and fin rays, but not for fish scales. Significant differences between concentrations were found for the 12h immersion treatment, while no significant differences were detected with osmotic induction. Our results showed that marks appeared at all concentrations, and none of the concentrations produced weak marks. Osmotic induction had a greater mortality than the 12h immersion procedure. After eight culture months the rest of the specimens were analyzed and the mark permanence was observed in all cases. According to the present results we recommend the marking process of 12h immersion treatment at 100mg/L concentration.

Ibáñez AL; Rodríguez-Canto A; Cortés-Martínez J; García-Calderón JL

2013-03-01

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Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (potoliths and fin rays, but not for fish scales. Significant differences between concentrations were found for the 12h immersion treatment, while no significant differences were detected with osmotic induction. Our results showed that marks appeared at all concentrations, and none of the concentrations produced weak marks. Osmotic induction had a greater mortality than the 12h immersion procedure. After eight culture months the rest of the specimens were analyzed and the mark permanence was observed in all cases. According to the present results we recommend the marking process of 12h immersion treatment at 100mg/L concentration. PMID:23894973

Ibáñez, Ana L; Rodríguez-Canto, Antonio; Cortés-Martínez, Jasmín; García-Calderón, José L

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (pEl uso de alizarina roja S (ARS) para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamientos: 1) Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2) Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tres estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas), sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de cultivo el resto de los ejemplares fueron analizados y se observó la permanencia de las marcas en todos los casos. En vista de lo anterior, para los propósitos de marcaje se recomienda el uso del tratamiento de inmersión por 12h y una concentración de 100mg/l.

Ana L. Ibáñez; Antonio Rodríguez-Canto; Jasmín Cortés-Martínez; José L. García-Calderón

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El uso de alizarina roja S (ARS) para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamientos: 1) Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2) Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tre (more) s estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas), sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de cultivo el resto de los ejemplares fueron analizados y se observó la permanencia de las marcas en todos los casos. En vista de lo anterior, para los propósitos de marcaje se recomienda el uso del tratamiento de inmersión por 12h y una concentración de 100mg/l. Abstract in english The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg (more) /l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (p

Ibáñez, Ana L.; Rodríguez-Canto, Antonio; Cortés-Martínez, Jasmín; García-Calderón, José L.

2013-03-01

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Seasonal effects on the nutritive value of the natural food of three omnivorous fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Citharinus citharus) in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa) Effets de la saison sur la valeur nutritive de l'alimentation naturelle de trois poissons omnivores (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Citharinus citharus) dans la mare de Batamani (Mali, Afrique de l'Ouest)  

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The chemical composition of the stomach contents and the digestibility of organic matter, proteins and energy of three planktivorous fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Citharinus citharus) were studied in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa) during the dry and wet seasons...

Blé M. C.; Arfi R.

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Investigations on the osmoregulation of freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus) following exposures to metals (Cd, Cu) in differing hardness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hardness is one of the most important factors in water chemistry as it affects fish physiology and metal toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate osmoregulatory responses in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to copper and cadmium (1.0?g/mL) in soft water (SW) (hardness 80mg CaCO3/L and conductivity 1.77mS/cm) and hard water (HW) (hardness 320mg CaCO3/L and conductivity 5.80mS/cm) for 0, 1, 7 and 14 days. Following the exposures, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, ion and Cu levels in the gill, kidney and intestine were measured. There was no fish mortality within 14 days, except Cu exposure in SW which killed all fish between 8 and 12 days. Generally, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was altered by both metal exposures in the gill and kidney as it increased in HW condition, but decreased in SW condition. There were also alterations in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the intestine as its activity generally decreased. Data, in general, showed that Cd was more effective on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity comparing to Cu. However, ion levels altered mainly in the kidney and intestine. Tissue metal accumulation was higher in fish tissues from SW condition comparing to HW condition. Data represented here showed that the effects of metals differed in differing water hardness. This suggests that special attention should be paid to the water chemistry when natural monitoring studies are carried out. This study also suggests that the response of osmoregulation system of fish may be a sensitive indicator under stressful conditions in different natural waters.

Saglam D; Atli G; Canli M

2013-06-01

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Response of ATPases in the osmoregulatory tissues of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to copper in increased salinity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An increase in salinity of freshwater can affect the physiology and metal uptake in fish. In the present study, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to copper (1.0 mg/l) in increased salinities (2, 4, and 8 ppt) for 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Following the exposures, the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase were measured in the gill, kidney, and intestine to evaluate the changes in osmoregulation of fish. Results showed that increases in salinity and Cu exposure of fish significantly altered the ATPase activities depending on the tissue type, salinity increase, and exposure durations. Salinity-alone exposures increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and decreased Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity decreased following Cu exposure in 2 and 4 ppt salinities, though the activity increased in 8 ppt salinity. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity decreased in the gill and intestine in all salinities, while the activity mostly increased in the kidney. However, there were great variations in Mg(2+)-ATPase activity following exposure to salinity alone and salinity+Cu combination. Cu accumulated in the gill and intestine following 14 days exposure and accumulation was negatively correlated with salinity increase. Data indicated that ATPases were highly sensitive to increases in salinity and Cu and might be a useful biomarker in ecotoxicological studies. However, data from salinity increased freshwaters should carefully be handled to see a clear picture on the effects of metals, as salinity affects both metal speciation and fish osmoregulation.

Kulac B; Atli G; Canli M

2013-04-01

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Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) From Four Selected Markets in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) were measured in various organs (such as in liver, gill and muscle) of Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) which were collected from Serdang night market, Bangi night and wet markets and Kajang wet market, in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of metals was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The levels of metal varied as it depended on various tissues. Zinc was the dominant metal measured during this study. In general, results indicated that all studied heavy metals concentrations were significantly higher (p-1 dry weight (DW)) less than zinc in fish gill in the same market (55.72 ?g g-1 DW). The highest Cd, Pb and Co concentration in fish liver were observed in Kajang wet market which is 0.44, 0.72 and 02.86 ?g g-1 DW, respectively. Meanwhile, in fish gill, levels of Pb and Co in Serdang night market were the lowest among all sites which is 0.34 and 0.31 ?g g-1 DW, while the highest in gill from Bangi wet market which is 0.63 and 0.41 ?g g-1 DW, respectively. Cd, Zn, Pb and Co levels in fish muscle from Serdang night market were the lowest (0.02, 11.36, 0.10 and 0.25 ?g g-1 DW, respectively), whereas the lowest Ni level was noted in fish muscle from Kajang wet market (03.84 ?g g-1 DW). On the other hand, the highest Cd and Zn level were in Bangi wet market (0.03 and 16.72 ?g g-1 dw, respectively). The results obtained in this study were compared with those reported in all other areas of earlier studies. All studied heavy metals levels are below the limits for fish proposed by World Health Organization and safe within the limits for human consumption in the edible part of studied fish.

Abdulali K.A. Taweel; M. Shuhaimi-Othman; A.K. Ahmad

2012-01-01

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The Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Two Economically Important West African Cichlids: Heterotis niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae)  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the proximate composition and mineral contents of two commercially important cichlids, Heterotis niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus, reared in fish ponds in Nigeria. The method of study followed internationally accepted procedures after AOAC. Crude proteins in both species were 18.92±0.11 gm/100 gm and 21.86±0.02 gm/100 gm for H. niloticus and O. niloticus respectively. Carbohydrate was 5 times more in H. niloticus than in O. niloticus. Ash, moisture, crude fat and NFE were similar in both species (p>0.05). Similarly, the concentration of calcium, iron, copper and phosphorus were not significant in the species (p>0.05). However, sodium and potassium were 3 and 2 times higher in H. niloticus when compared to that measured in O. niloticus. The significance of these results are discussed on the basis of their economic, social and health uses.

Paul Jimmy Udo

2012-01-01

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Digestibilidad aparente de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus)/ Apparent digestibility of fishing waste silage in red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado con tres repeticiones, se determinó la digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes y energía de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). El ensilaje químico se preparo con ácido sulfúrico 98% (20 ml/kg) y ácido fórmico (10 ml/kg) y el ensilaje biológico con miel de caña (150 g/kg) y yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris y streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). Se usó oxido cróm (more) ico como indicador y las heces se recolectaron por un sifón desde el fondo de los tanques. Se obtuvo que la digestibilidad aparente de algunos nutrientes difirió en función del tipo de ensilaje, entre tanto la proteína digestible fue mayor para el ensilaje químico y la materia seca, calcio y fósforo para el ensilaje biológico. Digestibilidades iguales (P>0,05) se presentó para los lípidos, cenizas y energía. Concluyendoque los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros presentan alto valor nutricional, lo que constituyen una fuente de proteína alternativa en la formulación de raciones para tilapias rojas. Abstract in english By means of a design completely randomized with three repetitions, in vivo digestibility of nutrients and energy in fishing waste silages were determined for red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). Chemical silage prepared with sulphuric acid 98 % (20 ml/kg) and formic acid (10 ml/kg) and the biological with sugar cane molasses (150 g/kg) and of yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris and streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). The chromic oxide was used as inert indicat (more) or and fecal sample were recollected by siphon from the bottom of tanks. As a result, the apparent digestibility of some nutrients differed from silage type; meanwhile protein was bigger for the chemical silage and the dry matter, calcium and phosphorus for the biological silage. Similar digestibility (P>0,05) was presented for lipids, ashes and energy. In conclusion, all this showed that the fishing waste silages present high nutritional value, that constitute an alternative- protein source in the formulation of rations for red tilapias.

Llanes, José E; Bórquez, Aliro; Toledo, José; Lazo de la Vega, José M

2010-12-01

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Toxicity of Malathion to Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus (Linn.) Fingerlings  

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Full Text Available The toxicity of a commercial grade malathion on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings was determined. The 24, 48, 72, and 96-h LC50 of malathion on Nile tilapia fingerlings were 7.19, 5.43, 5.34, and 5.30 mg/l, respectively. Behavioral changes in fish included rapid opercular movement, hyperexcitability, darkening of the body, and contraction of trunk muscles. Moribund fish displayed labored opercular movement, severe contraction of the trunk muscles, erratic swimming, and total loss of equilibrium. A safe level of less than 0.53 mg/l malathion for Nile tilapia fingerlings was considered.

Virginia Cariño,; Emmanuel Capinpin

1993-01-01

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Resistência a antimicrobianos de bactérias oriundas de ambiente de criação e filés de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Antibacterial resistance in bacteria from fish pond and Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available A resistência de bactérias a antimicrobianos foi determinada em uma piscicultura de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) em tanques de terra, sem utilização de antibióticos para profilaxia ou controle de doenças. Foi selecionado um tanque, capturados peixes e coletadas amostras de conteúdo intestinal e superfície dos peixes, água de abastecimento e do tanque, ração, filés de tilápias frescos e congelados. Colônias representativas foram selecionadas e analisadas pelos testes de Gram, catalase, oxidase e oxidaçãofermentação. Foram selecionadas 89 amostras e submetidas a antibiograma, utilizando vários antimicrobianos. A maioria das bactérias pertenceu às famílias Enterobacteriaceae e Vibrionaceae. Tanto no ambiente de criação como nos filés de tilápias observou-se que os isolados bacterianos apresentaramse resistentes principalmente a ampicilina e eritromicina. O índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR) foi calculado, sendo que do total de 89 isolados analisados 74 (83%), apresentaram MAR ³ 0,2, ou seja apresentaram-se resistentes a dois ou mais antimicrobianos. As freqüências de índice MAR foram altas e maiores na ração.This study was conducted in a freshwater tilapia farm that has not used any antibiotic. It was selected one pond, caught 15 fishes and collected samples of intestinal content and mucus surface, water influent and pond water, ration, fresh tilapia fillets and frozen fillets.. Phenotypical characteristics, Gram stain, oxidase production, oxidative-fermentative utilization of glucose (O-F) were determined of representative colony. Were selected 89 strains and submitted for antimicrobial sensitivy test using several antibiotics. The major identified bacterial families were belonged Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The most isolates showed resistance to ampicilin and eritromicin. From the 89 isolates evaluated 74 (83%) showed a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) ³ 0.2, that mean resistance to two or more antibiotics. The MAR índice frequency were higher and bigger in the rations.

Rejeana Márcia Santos Lima; Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo; Flaviane Castro de Faria; Roberta Hilsdorf Picolli; Júlio Silvio de Sousa Bueno Filho; Priscila Vieira Rosa Logato

2006-01-01

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Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

2002-01-01

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Effect of an Insecticide Abamectin on Some Biochemical Characteristics of Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis Niloticus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Presence of pesticide in streams and lakes is largely due to the runoff from agricultural fields. Pesticides are not highly selective but are generally toxic to many macrophytes, non-target organisms such as fish. Fish, generally accumulate contaminants from aquat...

Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

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Tecnología de producción de alimento semi-húmedo a base de ensilados de residuos pesqueros en la alimentación de tilapia roja (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) - Tecnology of production of semi-moist food on the basic of fishing offals for red tilapias (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) feeding  

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Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar una tecnología de alimento semi-húmedo a base de ensilado de desechos pesqueros como sustituto de la harina de pescado en la alimentación de peces, fueron formuladas dos dietas semi-húmedas (30% de húmeda), y un control (Alimento Comercial). Estas fueron empleadas en la alimentación de tilapia roja (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) de 3,50+0.5 g en tanques triplicados por 60 días al 8% del peso corporal/ día en dos raciones. Los resultados mostraron que existen diferencias significativas (P0.05). Se concluye que el ensilado de pescado es una alternativa a la harina de pescado y con esta tecnología es necesario cuantificar el consumo de materia seca que aporte los requerimientos nutricionales (proteína bruta principalmente) de la especie para no afectar el crecimiento. AbstractMoist food production on the basic of fishing offals for red tilapias (O. mossambicus x O. niloticus) feeding to evaluate. Two moist diets on the basis of fishing offals that were compared with a commercial food (20% of fish meal) for red feeding (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) in triplícate tanks during 60 days at 8% of body weight/ days during 60 days were evaluated. The results showed significant differences (P 0,05).

José E. Llanes Iglesias; José Toledo Pérez; José M Lazo de la Vega

2007-01-01

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Physiological Studies on Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystin  

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Full Text Available The effects of microcystin produced by the toxic cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa on bioaccumulation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) of tilapia fish (collected from Al-Khadoud spring, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia) were investigated. The results showed that microcystin contained in cyanobacterial blooms induce CAT and SOD activity in a time-dependent manner. The data also shows that microcystin concentration in muscle was much lower than in liver, as the liver is the target organ of these toxins. In addition, microcystin concentration in faeces increased gradually until the end of the treatment period.

M. A. Al-Kahtani; A. A. Fathi

2008-01-01

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Risk Assessment of Tributyltin Oxide in Aquatic Environment: A. Toxicity and Sublethal Effects on Brain AChE and Gill ATPases Activity of Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity of TBTO and the effects of its sublethal concentration on brain AChE and gill ATPases activity of tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus during acute (3-96 h) and subchronic (7-28 d) exposure periods. The results showed that TBTO is extremely toxic to O. niloticus with 96 h LC50 of 16.3 ?g L-1 using static renewal bioassay test. Sublethal concentration of 4.1 ?g L-1 (25% of 96 h LC50) of TBTO inhibited brain AChE activity by 24.01 and 24.06% of control at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by 51.8 and 54.5% at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. The activity of gill Mg2+-ATPase was decreased by 26.9 and 24.28% at 96 h and 21 d, respectively. After 7 d of recovery, AChE and Mg2+-ATPase activites were completely recovered. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase was partially recovered but the inhibition was still significant. The inhibition percentages were higher in acute exposure than in subchronic exposure in both AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase, but the opposite result was recorded in Mg2+-ATPase. It can be concluded that there is a need for more evaluation and international regulation to minimize the organotin input to aquatic environment.

Abdul Rahman A. Aba. Alkhail; Ahmed I. Askar; Layla K. Younis; Kawthar S. El-Gendy; Mamdouh M. Abbas; Abdul Salam M. Marei

2004-01-01

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Purification and characterization of a mannose recognition lectin from Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia fish): cytokine production in mice splenocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to purify and partially characterize a mannose recognition lectin from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) serum, named OniL. OniL was isolated through precipitation with ammonium sulfate and affinity chromatography (Concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B). In addition, we evaluated carbohydrate specificity, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles, and in vitro immunomodulatory activity on mice splenocyte experimental cultures through cytotoxic assays and cytokine production. The ammonium sulfate fraction F2 showed the highest specific hemagglutinating activity (331) and was applied to affinity matrix. Adsorbed proteins (OniL) were eluted with methyl-?-D: -mannopyranoside. OniL, a 17-kDa protein by SDS-PAGE constituted by subunits of 11 and 6.6 kDa, showed highest affinity for methyl-?-D: -mannopyranoside and D: -mannose. Immunological assays, in vitro, showed that OniL did not show cytotoxicity against splenocytes, induced higher IFN-? production and lower IL-10 as well as nitrite release. In conclusion, OniL lectin was successfully purified and showed a preferential Th1 response in mice splenocytes.

da Silva CD; Coriolano MC; da Silva Lino MA; de Melo CM; de Souza Bezerra R; de Carvalho EV; Dos Santos AJ; Pereira VR; Coelho LC

2012-01-01

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Influence of Dietary Palm Oil on Growth Response, Carcass Composition, Haematology and Organoleptic Properties of Juvenile Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of replacing fish (codliver) oil with palm oil at 0, 33.33, 66.67, 100 % for diets 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively, of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Each diet was formulated to contain 28% crude protein and fed to triplicate groups of 10 juvenile Oreochromis niloticus (mean wt., 9.09g). Fish mortality decreased with increasing palm oil substitution level. There was a significant difference (PO. niloticus.

Stephen N. Ochang; Oyedapo A. Fagbenro; Olabode T. Adebayo

2007-01-01

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Aggression and mortality among Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) maintained in the laboratory at different densities  

Science.gov (United States)

Because Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) density may affect stress levels, metabolism, and survival among tilapia in experimental studies and thus may affect experimental results, tilapia were held in a commonly-used commercial tank system to assess the relationship between fish density and beha...

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Assessment Study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya Seeds to Control Oreochromis niloticus Breeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of pawpaw seeds on male tilapia ...

Hossam H. Abbas; Wafaa T. Abbas

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Susceptibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed dietary sodium chloride to nitrite toxicity  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 6% NaCl for 10 weeks. Tilapia were exposed to approximately 21 mg/l nitrite-N after five and ten weeks of feeding to determine the effect of dietary NaCl supplementation on resistance to nitrite toxicity. Fish were...

 
 
 
 
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Behaviours associated with acoustic communication in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sound production is widespread among fishes and accompanies many social interactions. The literature reports twenty-nine cichlid species known to produce sounds during aggressive and courtship displays, but the precise range in behavioural contexts is unclear. This study aims to describe the various Oreochromis niloticus behaviours that are associated with sound production in order to delimit the role of sound during different activities, including agonistic behaviours, pit activities, and reproduction and parental care by males and females of the species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sounds mostly occur during the day. The sounds recorded during this study accompany previously known behaviours, and no particular behaviour is systematically associated with sound production. Males and females make sounds during territorial defence but not during courtship and mating. Sounds support visual behaviours but are not used alone. During agonistic interactions, a calling Oreochromis niloticus does not bite after producing sounds, and more sounds are produced in defence of territory than for dominating individuals. Females produce sounds to defend eggs but not larvae. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Sounds are produced to reinforce visual behaviours. Moreover, comparisons with O. mossambicus indicate two sister species can differ in their use of sound, their acoustic characteristics, and the function of sound production. These findings support the role of sounds in differentiating species and promoting speciation. They also make clear that the association of sounds with specific life-cycle roles cannot be generalized to the entire taxa.

Longrie N; Poncin P; Denoël M; Gennotte V; Delcourt J; Parmentier E

2013-01-01

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Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958) élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne  

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Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958) Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

Kone, M.; Cisse, M.; Ouattara, M.; Agathe Fantodji

2012-01-01

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The effect of the introduction of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) on small indigenous fish species (mola, Amblypharyngodon mola, Hamilton; chela, Chela cachius, Hamilton; punti, Puntius sophore, Hamilton)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is the first controlled experiment to quantify the effect of introduced tilapia on indigenous species. This experiment was conducted in small earthen ponds (100 m²) to assess the impact of mixed-sex or all-male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on small indigenous species (SIS) commonly found in south Asia, mola (Amblypharyngodon mola), chela (Chela cachius) and punti (Puntius sophore). Ponds were fertilized, then stocked with 0.56 fish m?² of water surface area in the mixed-sex and all-male tilapia treatments and 0.42 fish m?² in the treatment without tilapia. No additional nutritional inputs were applied after stocking. Treatments were: mixed-sex tilapia with SIS, mono-sex male tilapia with SIS and SIS without tilapia (control). All treatments were stocked with 14 fish per species. All species reproduced during the 21-month culture duration. The number of recruits varied by species, Tilapia reproduced in greater numbers than SIS. Tilapia numbers at harvest were the highest (451 ± 25/100 m²) in the mixed-sex treatment compared with mola (221 ± 22/100 m²), chela (94 ± 8/100 m²) and punti (100 ± 7/100 m²). The number of mola was higher (399 ± 33/100 m²) in the all-male tilapia treatment. There was reduction in the number of mola and chela in the treatment containing mixed-sex tilapia. Gut content analysis combined with water sampling revealed that all fish species fed selectively. Significant interspecies dietary overlap was found between Nile tilapia and SIS and among SIS. Thus, there is potential for tilapia to compete with indigenous fish species when space and other resources are limiting, but a longer duration study with varying level of management is needed to determine how successfully tilapia competes with locally adapted SIS.

Ahmad SAS; Bart AN; Yi Y; Rakocy JE; Diana JS

2010-05-01

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The radiosensitivity of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a very popular fish commercially in the Philippines, was studied to determine its radiosensitivity and to see its potential as a biological indicator in aquatic ecosystems. Nile tilapia was seen to be radiosensitive. The fish were exposed to gamma-irradiation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. The various types of aberrations seen were chromatid gaps, chromosome gaps, chromatid fragments, dicentric rings, fusions, despiralizations and translocations. Among the aberrations observed, dicentric rings, fusions and chromosome gaps were strongly correlated with dosage, with only the dicentric rings increasing steadily with increasing dosage. In the course of the study, the lethal dosage50 for nile tilapia with 18 days was determined and it was observed at 2.0 krad. The modal chromosome number was also established at 2n=44 with a karyotype exhibiting 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes with 2 pairs of marker chromosomes present. (Author)

2000-01-01

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Seasonal effects on the nutritive value of the natural food of three omnivorous fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Citharinus citharus) in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa) Effets de la saison sur la valeur nutritive de l'alimentation naturelle de trois poissons omnivores (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Citharinus citharus) dans la mare de Batamani (Mali, Afrique de l'Ouest)  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition of the stomach contents and the digestibility of organic matter, proteins and energy of three planktivorous fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Citharinus citharus) were studied in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa) during the dry and wet seasons. The diet contents of O. niloticus and S. galilaeus presented high levels of organic matter and proteins during the wet season (ashfree dry weight (AFDW): 753 mg·g?1 dw and 703 mg·g?1 dw, protein contents: 479 mg·g?1 AFDW and 449 mg·g?1 AFDW, respectively). In the dry season, the chemical composition of the food was characterized by high proportions of inorganic material (73% and 68% for O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, respectively). The chemical composition of the food of C. citharus was characterized by low seasonal variation. The levels of AFDW (396–461 mg·g?1 dw) and proteins (65–86 mg·g?1 AFDW) in its diet were generally low, reflecting a high proportion of mineral content. During the wet season, the digestibility of AFDW (52% and 58%), total amino acids (68% and 76%) and energy (63% and 56%) increased significantly for O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, respectively. Nutrient and energy digestibility for C. citharus showed no significant seasonal variations (AFDW: 36–45%; total amino acids: 57–64%; energy: 31–39%). The marked seasonal character of the pond, in terms of both hydrology and trophic conditions, had a low impact on the availability and quality of nutritive resources for the two tilapia species O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, while C. citharus appears to have the capacity to adapt its regime to the available food quality, whatever the season. La composition chimique des contenus stomacaux et la digestibilité de la matière organique, des protéines et de l’énergie chez trois espèces de poissons planctophages (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus et Citharinus citharus) de la mare de Batamani (Mali, Afrique de l’Ouest) ont été déterminées en saison sèche et humide. Chez Oreochromis niloticus et Sarotherodon galilaeus, les contenus stomacaux présentent des quantités élevées en matières organiques et en protéines au cours de la saison humide (matière organique totale : 753 mg·g?1 poids sec et 703 mg·g?1 poids sec, protéines : 479 mg·g?1 de matière organique totale et 449 mg·g?1 de matière organique totale respectivement). En saison sèche, la composition chimique de l’alimentation est caractérisée par de fortes quantités de minéraux (73% et 68% respectivement chez ces deux espèces). Chez Citharinus citharus, les teneurs en matière organique représentent 461 mg·g?1 de poids sec en saison humide et la composition chimique de son alimentation présente dans l’ensemble une faible variation saisonnière. Chez O. niloticus et S. galilaeus, les coefficients de digestibilité des matières organiques (52 % et 58 %), des acides aminés totaux (68 % et 76 %) et de l’énergie (63 % et 56 %) augmentent significativement pendant la saison humide. Chez C. citharus, la digestibilité des nutriments et de l’énergie est peu variable d’une saison à l’autre (matière organique : 30–45 %; acides aminés totaux : 57–64 %; énergie : 31–39 %). Le caractère saisonnier des conditions hydrologique et trophique qui caractérise la mare de Batamani a un effet limitant vis-à-vis de la disponibilité et de la qualité des ressources nutritives chez les deux espèces de tilapias (O. niloticus et S. galilaeus) tandis que C. citharus semble s’accommoder de la qualité de la nourriture disponible, et ce quelle que soit la saison.

Blé M. C.; Arfi R.

2009-01-01

46

Replacing palm oil for soybean oil in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), feed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric semi-purified feeds containing various levels of palm oil (0,1, 2 and 3%) as a replacement for soybean oil were fed to three replicate groups of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), fingerlings, mean initial weight 5.5 g, in 45-l aquaria for 5 weeks under controlled laboratory conditions. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and the chemical composition of the fish bodies did not vary significantly (P > 0.05). These results indicate that palm oil could replace soybean oil in feeds for O. niloticus fingerlings without any negative effect on the fish growth or body composition under these conditions.

Al-Owafeir MA; Belal IEH

1996-04-01

47

Caracterización genética de tres líneas de tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)/ Genetic characterization of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la diversidad genética de tres líneas de tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), mediante marcadores RAPDs. Se analizaron 90 individuos adultos (30 de cada línea) de dos piscifactorías ubicadas en las ciudades de Maringá (líneas Bouaké - B y GIFT G) y Guaíra (línea Chitralada - C), en el Estado del Paraná (Brasil). Los 13 oligonucleótidos seleccionados produjeron 72 fragmentos de los cuales 60 (83,3%) fueron polimórfi (more) cos. Fueron observadas diferencias (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains, through the RAPD markers. Ninety adult individuals (30 of each strain) of two fish farms stations located in the Maringá (Bouaké - B and GIFT - G strains) and Guaíra (Chitralada C strain) cities, in the Paraná State (Brazil) were analyzed. The 13 selected primers yielded 72 fragments of which 60 (83.3%) were polymorphic. Differences (p(more) cy of 33 fragments were observed, with 14 eliminated. The genetic variability results estimated by the percentage of polymorphic fragments and for the genetic diversity of Shannon index indicated a high intra-populational genetic variability. According with the AMOVA, most of the variation is within each strain. This result was corroborated with the FST values that showed a moderate genetic differentiation. It was also verified that C and G were the strains but similar genetically and that B and G presented less genes in common. The results of this study facilitated the correct reproductive and genetic management of these fish strains.

Lupchinski Jr., E.; Vargas, L.; Lopera-Barrero, N.M.; Ribeiro, R.P.; Povh, J.A.; Gasparino, E.; Gomes, P.C.; Braccini, G.L.

2011-12-01

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ERITROGRAMA EM Oreochromis niloticus ALIMENTADAS COM NÍVEIS DE SORGO  

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Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the substitution of corn by sorghum andanalyze the components of the red series hematology in Nile tilapia. Information on hematological parametersare of great value when used as indicators of physiological state and nutrition. We used 40 male tilapia with anaverage weight of 20g reared in tanks of 320L., Fed diets isocaloric and isonitrogenous according to replacementlevels of 0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 75 and 100.0% . Fifteen fish per treatment were anesthetized, weighed individually and blood taken by cardiac puncture, with EDTA solution (10%), the parameters analyzed were counting the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit. With these results were calculated RBC indices. ANOVA was used and no significant difference between treatments can be concluded that sorghum in addition to being a potential substitute for corn does not change the values in erythroid Oreochromis niloticus.O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a substituição do milho pelo sorgo e analisar os componentes hematológicos da série vermelha em tilápia do Nilo. Informações sobre parâmetros hematológicos são de grande valia, quando utilizados como indicadores do estado fisiológico e nutricional. Utilizou-se 40 tilápias machos com peso médio de 20g criadas em tanques de 320L., alimentadas com rações isocalóricas e isoprotéicas de acordo com os níveis de substituição de 0,0; 25,0; 50,0; 75 e 100,0%. Quinze peixes por tratamento foram anestesiados, pesados individualmente e o sangue retirado por punção cardíaca, com solução de EDTA (10%), os parâmetros analisados foram: contagem do número de eritrócitos, taxa de hemoglobina e hematócrito. Com esses resultados foram calculados os índices hematimétricos. Foi utilizado o ANOVA e não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, podendo concluir que o sorgo além de ser um potencial substituto do milho não altera os valores eritrocitários em Oreochromis niloticus.

MARTELINE, Marco Aurélio; DIAS, Luciana Thie Seki; PAIVA, Kelli Cristina; PESSA, Henderson; KIYUNA, Priscila Mieko Lima; SUSSEL, Fábio Rosa

2010-01-01

49

Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Mexico  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizaron estudios de enero a diciembre de 1993 para conocer la edad y crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus obtenida de las capturas comerciales de la laguna de Coatetelco, Morelos, Mexico. Se colectaron escamas de 318 peces. La moda de longitud patrón que se obtuvo en la captura fue de 10.5-11.5 cm. Se encontró que la formación de los anillos se realiza en Diciembre. Asimismo, no se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las hembras y los machos para las long (more) itudes retrocalculadas para cada edad. En las escamas se registraron cuatro marcas. Se encontró que de acuerdo a los parametros de la ecuación de crecimiento, los peces tienen baja tasa de crecimiento (k=0.07) y alcanzan un tamaño adecuado (L* =29.19 cm). Los resultados obtenidos por medio del análisis de distribución de frecuencias no difieren significativamente (t-student, p Abstract in english Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus from Lagoon of Coatetelco, Morelos State, Mexico were studied from January through December, 1993. Scales of 318 specimens were collected. Modal length at capture was 10.5-11.5 cm standard length. Scales rings were formed during December. Back-calculated lengths-at-age showed no significant differences by sex. Four check marks were recorded. According to the growth curve parameters for population, the fish grow at a low rate (k=0.07 (more) ) until they achieve a size (L*) of 29.19 cm. Length-frequency analysis (Bhattacharya's Gaussian component determination procedure) do not differ significantly (t-student, p

Gómez-Márquez, José Luis

1998-12-01

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Use of cottonseed meal supplemented with iron for detoxification of gossypol as a total replacement of fish meal in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) diets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of total replacement of fish meal by cottonseed meal (CSM) supplemented with various levels of iron in practical diets on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and some biological and haematological parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Juvenile fish (average weight 3.78±0.1 g) were stocked in 18 glass aquariums (80 L each) at 25 fish per aquarium. Fish meal (50% of the diet) was used as the sole source of animal protein in the control diet 1. Diets 2-6 had 100% CSM (0.145% free gossypol) protein with various levels of supplemented iron (86, 486, 972, 1458 and 1944 mg Fe kg diet-1) in diets 2-6 respectively. Diets were fed to fish twice daily at a rate of 3% of body weight during the first 12 weeks then 2% of the total fish biomass daily until the end of the experiment (30 weeks). The results of this study revealed that, groups of fish fed diets 1, 4, 5 and 6 had significantly (P < or = 0.01) the higher average body weight and specific growth rate than those of fish fed diet 2 (100% CSM without iron supplementation) and diet 3 (100% CSM plus 486 mg Fe kg diet-1). The best values for feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and condition factor (K) were recorded with groups of fish fed diet 4 (100% CSM plus 972 mg Fe kg diet-1). Red blood cell count, haematocrit and haemoglobin were increased with increasing levels of iron and significantly affected by dietary iron. Hepatosomatic index for diets 3-6 were not significantly different (P>0.05) and superior to that of diet 1 control [100% fish meal (FM)]. The gonadosomatic index of males of Nile tilapia was not influenced by CSM diets with or without iron, while females of Nile tilapia were significantly influenced with iron and the lowest values were recorded with groups of fish fed diet 2 (100% CSM without iron supplementation). Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein, fat dry matter and energy were relatively high for most diets supplemented with iron and increased by increasing iron supplementation. There were no significant differences between groups of fish fed diet 1 (100% FM) and diets 5 and 6 which contained 100% CSM with additional 1458 and 1944 mg Fe kg diet supplemental iron-1 respectively. Proximate composition of whole body was not influenced by diet. Adding 972 mg Fe kg diet-1 from ferrous sulphate to the CSM-based diets that contained 972 mg free gossypol (1:1 iron to free gossypol ratio) for Nile tilapia reduce the negative effects of gossypol and improved growth performance, feed utilization and blood parameters and can totally replace fish meal in tilapia diets.

El-Saidy DMSD; Gaber MM

2004-07-01

51

Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six p (more) airs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P

Castro, A.L.S.; Gonçalves-de-Freitas, E.; Volpato, G.L.; Oliveira, C.

2009-04-01

52

Influence of Dietary Palm Oil on Growth Response, Carcass Composition, Haematology and Organoleptic Properties of Juvenile Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of replacing fish (codliver) oil with palm oil at 0, 33.33, 66.67, 100 % for diets 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively, of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Each diet was formulated to contain 28% crude protein and fed to triplicat...

Stephen N. Ochang; Oyedapo A. Fagbenro; Olabode T. Adebayo

53

Effect of Some Water Pollutants on the Biology of the Nile Bolti, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Samples of water and Oreochromis niloticus fish were collected from El-Mahmoudya channel near Alexandria for contaminants determination. The data show that El Mahmoudya channel water includes relatively high levels of Fe, Cu and chlordane and much higher levels of Zn and lindane. Most of the dissolved, metals and organic contaminants or their metabolites were monitored in the fish and then eggs. The above pollutants were found to affect spawning behaviour and duration. The average number of eggs per spawn were higher in the control groups than the contaminated ones. The residue levels monitored in the eggs affected the fry survival of the Nile fish.

K.K. Barakat

2004-01-01

54

Biomarker responses as indication of contaminant effects in Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current study investigated oxidative stress parameters (enzymes activities, metallothionein content and lipid peroxidation) in freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus, tilapia exposure to Monjolinho River (in 4 months of year: January, April, July and November). One critical site in Monjolinho River (site B) was assessed in comparison to a reference site (site A). Water pH and oxygen concentration was lower than that recommended by CONAMA (Brazilian National Environmental Committee), resolution 357/2005 for protection of aquatic communities, and ammonium and the metals Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe (on all months) concentrations were higher than the maximum concentration recommended. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly decreased in liver and muscle in tilapia from Monjolinho River, throughout the year, in relation to reference except in gills that SOD activity increased. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly increased in liver of the tilapia from Monjolinho River in all sites, in relation to reference except in gills that GST activity increased in July and decreased in November, suggesting that GST activity could be induced to neutralize the pollutants toxicity. On the other hand, GST activity was significantly decreased in white muscle indicating a toxic effect of pollutants, resulting in a decreased ability of tilapia to perform defense reactions associated to GSTs. The decrease of catalase (CAT) activity in gills of the O. niloticus together with the increase of SOD activity, could explain the increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in this organ. Metallothionein levels in liver and gills were significantly high in all sites. Results indicate that the exposure to metals caused severe damage to tissues; despite the consensually assumed antioxidant induction as a sign of exposure to contaminants the effects seem in part to be mediated by suppression of antioxidant system with SOD, CAT and GPx as potential candidates for tissues toxicity biomarkers of pollutants.

Carvalho Cdos S; Bernusso VA; de Araújo HS; Espíndola EL; Fernandes MN

2012-09-01

55

Shrimp meal in diets for Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus") Farinha de camarão em dietas para tilápia do Nilo ("Oreochromis niloticus")  

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Full Text Available Replacement of conventional ingredients used in fish diets by non-conventional products has been an economic alternative to reduce the cost of feeding. Therefore, 90-day trial was performed to study the effect of shrimp meal (SM) inclusion on diets of Nile tilapia fries. Weight gain (WG), feed conversion (FC), apparent feed intake (AFI), fillet yield (FY), fillet income (FI) values and protein effiency ratio (PER) were evaluated. Each experimental unit was an aquaria with five tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus), mean body weight of 7,9g, total of 120 animals. Treatments were four diets with 0, 25, 50 and 100% of SM replacing the soybean meal, which protein (28.0%) and energy (3100 kcal/DE/kg) content in diet were similar. Animals were fed three times daily. The offered food was adjusted according to fish live weight. The substitution of soybean by SM reduced WG, FC, AFI, FY and PER. SM inclusion did not affect the FI. Shrimp meal inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia affects negatively the growth performance.O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a inclusão da farinha de camarão (FC) em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo. O desempenho dos animais foi avaliado através do ganho de peso (GP), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA), consumo de ração aparente (CRA), peso de filé (PF), rendimento de filé (RF) e taxa de eficiência protéica (TEP). O delineamento utilizado no experimento foi em blocos casulaizados distribuídos em 24 caixas de polietileno com capacidade de 150 L supridas por sistema de recirculação fechada de água (0,2L/min.) durante 90 dias. Cada unidade experimental era composta por um aquário com cinco tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 7,9g perfazendo um total de 120 animais. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro rações contendo 0, 25, 50 e 100% de FC em substituição ao farelo de soja, sendo estas isoprotéicas (28,0%PB) e isoenergéticas (3100 kcal de EB/kg). Os animais foram alimentados três vezes ao dia com a quantidade de ração fornecida ad libitum. A farinha de camarão pode substituir a proteína do farelo de soja até 50% de inclusão sem comprometer o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e peso do filé.

Igo Gomes Guimarães; Edma Carvalho de Miranda; Valéria Louro Ribeiro; Graciela Pessoa Martins; Carolina Carvalho de Miranda

2008-01-01

56

Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

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Full Text Available Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test), induced spawning in females (3 spawning in V and also 3 in Ch+V condition), and increased GSI in males (mean ± SEM; V: 1.39 ± 0.08, Ch+V: 1.21 ± 0.08, Ch: 1.04 ± 0.07, Iso: 0.82 ± 0.07%; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test). Chemical communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

A.L.S. Castro; E. Gonçalves-de-Freitas; G.L. Volpato; C. Oliveira

2009-01-01

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Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium  

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Full Text Available Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é idêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses.The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other teleostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

S. Garcia-Santos; S.M. Monteiro; J. Carrola; A. Fontainhas-Fernandes

2007-01-01

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Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus) após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano.

Lia Ferraz de Arruda; Ricardo Borghesi; Aelson Brum; Marisa Regitano D'Arce; Marília Oetterer

2006-01-01

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Regulação da ingestão protéica na tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Hability of protein intake regulation in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Estudou-se a habilidade de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, em regular a ingestão protéica. Mil exemplares com peso e comprimento de 13,93g ± 0,87g e 8,8cm ± 0,47cm, respectivamente, revertidos sexualmente, foram distríbuídos em oito grupos de 125 peixes, em aquários de 1.000 L com renovação contínua de água e dotados de dois alimentadores de demanda. Duas rações isoenergéticas (2.800 kcal/kg) contendo, respectivamente, 40% e 15% PB foram oferecidas diariamente, ad libitum, em combinações que caracterizaram quatro tratamentos: A: ração de 15% PB de um lado e de 40% PB do outro do aquário; B: idêntico ao tratamento A com inversão dos lados; C: ração de 15% PB fornecida em dois alimentadores; e D: ração de 40% PB fornecida em dois alimentadores. O delineamento em quadrado latino permitiu que os peixes fossem submetidos a cada tratamento durante quatro fases de 15 dias (I, II, III e IV). Entre as fases, houve intervalo de uma semana, quando os peixes receberam dieta contendo 30% PB nos dois alimentadores. O consumo alimentar dos peixes, registrado diariamente, não diferiu significativamente entre os tratamentos A e B. Porém, quando foram apresentadas simultaneamente as dietas contendo mesmo teor de PB (Tratamentos C e D), observou-se consumo significativamente maior da ração contendo 15% de PB (Tratamento C). O ajuste em porcentagem da proteína ingerida pelos peixes revelou média de 24% de PB. Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese de que a tilápia do Nilo apresenta habilidade em regular a ingestão dietética protéica por meio de livre escolha.The free-choice feed and regulation of protein intake were investigated in juveniles reverted males of tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. During the experiment 1000 fish (reverted males) with similar weigth and length were maintained in eight aquariuns supplied with recirculated water (groups of 125 fish each aquarium). Fish were fed by demand-feeders, containing the two experimental diets, formulated to contain 15% and 40% protein each and distributed in four treatments (A: 15% protein diet on one hand and 40% protein diet on the other hand, B: alike in A, therefore with an inversion on both hands, C: the two feeders supplied with 15% protein diet, D the two feeders supplied with 40% protein diet) The Latin Square was the estatistical method used for the experiment, and the treatments were distributed into four stages (I, II, III and IV). A one week stop after each stage was stipulated and the fish received a 30% protein diet. The results showed that no differences about the intake was detected between fish fed by diets containing 15% and 40% protein in the same aquarium. However, with same diets in the tanks ( Treatment C and D), the animals that were fed with the 15% protein diet showed better feed intake. The percentage of regulated protein during the experiment was about 24% protein. The results confirm the hipoteses of free-choice ability by tilápia-do-Nilo to detect the level of protein in the diet.

Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva; Débora Niero Orsoli; Lúcio Francelino Araújo; Osmar Ângelo Cantelmo; Giovana Krempel Fonseca Merighe

2004-01-01

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Regulação da ingestão protéica na tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus/ Hability of protein intake regulation in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a habilidade de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, em regular a ingestão protéica. Mil exemplares com peso e comprimento de 13,93g ± 0,87g e 8,8cm ± 0,47cm, respectivamente, revertidos sexualmente, foram distríbuídos em oito grupos de 125 peixes, em aquários de 1.000 L com renovação contínua de água e dotados de dois alimentadores de demanda. Duas rações isoenergéticas (2.800 kcal/kg) contendo, respectivamente, 40% e 1 (more) 5% PB foram oferecidas diariamente, ad libitum, em combinações que caracterizaram quatro tratamentos: A: ração de 15% PB de um lado e de 40% PB do outro do aquário; B: idêntico ao tratamento A com inversão dos lados; C: ração de 15% PB fornecida em dois alimentadores; e D: ração de 40% PB fornecida em dois alimentadores. O delineamento em quadrado latino permitiu que os peixes fossem submetidos a cada tratamento durante quatro fases de 15 dias (I, II, III e IV). Entre as fases, houve intervalo de uma semana, quando os peixes receberam dieta contendo 30% PB nos dois alimentadores. O consumo alimentar dos peixes, registrado diariamente, não diferiu significativamente entre os tratamentos A e B. Porém, quando foram apresentadas simultaneamente as dietas contendo mesmo teor de PB (Tratamentos C e D), observou-se consumo significativamente maior da ração contendo 15% de PB (Tratamento C). O ajuste em porcentagem da proteína ingerida pelos peixes revelou média de 24% de PB. Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese de que a tilápia do Nilo apresenta habilidade em regular a ingestão dietética protéica por meio de livre escolha. Abstract in english The free-choice feed and regulation of protein intake were investigated in juveniles reverted males of tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. During the experiment 1000 fish (reverted males) with similar weigth and length were maintained in eight aquariuns supplied with recirculated water (groups of 125 fish each aquarium). Fish were fed by demand-feeders, containing the two experimental diets, formulated to contain 15% and 40% protein each and distributed in four treat (more) ments (A: 15% protein diet on one hand and 40% protein diet on the other hand, B: alike in A, therefore with an inversion on both hands, C: the two feeders supplied with 15% protein diet, D the two feeders supplied with 40% protein diet) The Latin Square was the estatistical method used for the experiment, and the treatments were distributed into four stages (I, II, III and IV). A one week stop after each stage was stipulated and the fish received a 30% protein diet. The results showed that no differences about the intake was detected between fish fed by diets containing 15% and 40% protein in the same aquarium. However, with same diets in the tanks ( Treatment C and D), the animals that were fed with the 15% protein diet showed better feed intake. The percentage of regulated protein during the experiment was about 24% protein. The results confirm the hipoteses of free-choice ability by tilápia-do-Nilo to detect the level of protein in the diet.

Pereira-da-Silva, Elyara Maria; Orsoli, Débora Niero; Araújo, Lúcio Francelino; Cantelmo, Osmar Ângelo; Merighe, Giovana Krempel Fonseca

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Perfil proteico de tilápia nilótica chitralada (Oreochromis niloticus), submetida ao estresse crônico por hipóxia Proteic electrophoretic profile of chitralada tilapia nilotic (Oreochromis niloticus), exposed to hypoxia chronic stress  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a variação da resposta secundária ao estresse causado por hipóxia durante 18 dias, em sistema de recirculação, em uma linhagem de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus), chitralada, refletida no perfil proteico eletroforético do peixe e avaliou-se a diferença entre sexos para essa resposta. Foram utilizados 126 peixes, sendo 60 machos e 66 fêmeas, ambos com média de peso de 800g. O estresse crônico por hipóxia alterou (PThis study evaluated the secundary response variation to hypoxia stress in a strain of chitralada nilotic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during 18 days, in a recirculation system. The effects were measured by the proteic electrophoretic profile and the difference between the genders. One hundred twenty-six fish were used, 60 males and 66 females, both averaging 800g. The chronic hypoxia stress altered (P<0.05) the relative values of albumin, ?+?-globulins, and ?-globulin; modified (P<0.05) the levels of total protein due to an increase in the male group; significantly decreased of the absolute mean values of albumin due to a decrease in the female group; and decreased the g-globulin values in males. The proteic profile, albumin, and ?-globulin were influenced by gender.

D.C. Melo; D.A.A. Oliveira; M.M. Melo; D.V. Júnior; E.A. Teixeira; S.R. Guimarães

2009-01-01

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Induction of testis-ova in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to 17?-estradiol  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), 17?-estradiol was tested on the fish Oreochromis niloticus in order to understand the intersex relationship of fish, in which sequential hermaphrodism can consist of a male changing into a female (protandry) or a female changing into a male (protogyny). The fish were equally divided into 3 groups. The first group was the control group; the second and third groups were treated with 10 and 100 mg L-1 of 17?-estradiol, respectively, for 30 days. The overall result in this experiment had no significant effect on the growth parameters. Among the two treated groups, the low concentration group shows results similar to those of the control groups. The high concentration group shows changes to the male reproductive system with the appearance of the testis-ova present resulting in an intersex condition of the male gonads. With this experiment, it can be concluded that 17?-estradiol at high concentration reveals positive changes towards the male reproductive system of the fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

Piya Kosai; Wannee Jiraungkoorskul; Chaivira Sachamahithinant; Kanitta Jiraungkoorskul

2011-01-01

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Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P0.05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P

2008-01-01

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The protective role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress in Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ability of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to attenuate oxidative damage was evaluated in liver and brain tissues of Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) experimentally exposed to sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF). O. niloticus was exposed to sublethal concentrations of CPF at 12 ?g/L (CPF1) and 24 ?g/L (CPF2) for 96 h. The fish of vitamin C (Vit C) and CPF2 + Vit C groups were fed with Vit C supplemented diet (200 mg Vit C/100 g feed). A significant increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level (P Vit C. Vit C treatment for CPF-intoxicated animals normalized the otherwise raised activities of GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD within normal limits. The results clearly indicate that exposure to CPF caused a dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress brain and to a lesser extend in liver of fish and the ability of Vit C to attenuate CPF-induced oxidative damage. PMID:21818541

Ozkan, Ferbal; Gündüz, Suna Gül; Berköz, Mehmet; Hunt, Arzu Ozlüer; Yal?n, Serap

2011-08-05

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Parasite fauna of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites-Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae-were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers.

Akoll P; Konecny R; Mwanja WW; Nattabi JK; Agoe C; Schiemer F

2012-01-01

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Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire)  

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Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp’DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Helene Roche; Abiba Tidou; Ana Persic

2007-01-01

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Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes  

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Full Text Available The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L) containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h), the remnant larvae of fish (alive) in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05). Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lower consumption (p The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L) containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h), the remnant larvae of fish (alive) in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05). Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lower consumption (p < 0.05) than in other treatments.

Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda; Carmino Hayashi; Eliana Maria Galdioli; Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

2011-01-01

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Morphological Study of the Liver in the Teleost Oreochromis niloticus Estudio Morfológico del Hígado en el Teleósteo Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Liver samples of Oreochromis niloticus cultivated in floating net cages were fixed for histological and ultrastructural studies with the objective of describing the hepatic parenchymal structure and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, the liver showed only two hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinar arrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Structural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmic reticulum with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was concentrically distributedCon el objetivo de describir la estructura del parénquima hepático y del páncreas exocrino intrahepático del Oreochromis niloticus, fueron fijados para estudios histológicos y ultraestructurales fragmentos de hígado de peces cultivados en jaulas flotantes. Se evidenciaron sólo 2 lóbubos hepáticos. El análisis histológico demostró que los hepatocitos se encontraban organizados en forma de cordones anastomosados, dispuestos en dos capas celulares y cercados por sinusoides. El tejido pancreático exocrino intrahepático se encontró difuso en el parénquima hepático y se destacó por su organización acinar. El análisis ultraestructural demostró que los hepatocitos presentaban núcleos redondos y el retículo endoplasmático rugoso estaba dispuesto paralelamente a la membrana nuclear. Las células pancreáticas exocrinas presentaban gránulos de secreción localizados en la porción apical y el retículo endoplasmático rugoso estaba organizado de manera concéntrica

C. A. Vicentini; I. B. Franceschini-Vicentini; M. T. S. Bombonato; B. Bertolucci; S. G. Lima; A. S Santos

2005-01-01

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Nutritive Value of Dried Rumen Digesta as Replacement for Soybean in Diets of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings  

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Full Text Available An eight (8) weeks experiment was carried out to determine the nutritive potential of dried rumen digesta as replacement for soybean meal in diets of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. One hundred and fifty Nile Tilapia fingerlings were assigned to five different diets such that Dried Rumen Digesta (DRD) replaced soybean meal at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% represented by T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively in a completely randomized design. Result showed that all fish fed DRD based diets performed better than the control group. There was significant difference (pOreochromis niloticus fingerlings without compromising growth. The trial lasted for eight (8) weeks.

L.A. Agbabiaka; K.U. Anukam; V.N. Nwachukwu

2011-01-01

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Effect of dietary protein source and time on alkaline proteolytic activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 4 x 3 factorial study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four experimental diets (a control diet and a 0, 50, and 100% fish meal replacement diet) and the period of time Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were fed those diets (0, 20, and 40 days) on the alkaline proteolytic activity of the animals' digestive tract, as well as their potential interaction. Significant differences (at P < 0.05) and a significant interaction were observed among dietary treatments for the alkaline proteolytic activity of tilapia after 40 days of feeding. This study confirmed that, under these experimental conditions, a 50% fish meal replacement formulation elicited the highest alkaline proteolytic activity in the digestive tract of tilapia, which resulted in the highest final weight and specific growth rate (SGR), but further research is needed to establish the relative contribution of the alkaline proteases to the overall proteolytic activity of this omnivorous fish species.

González-Félix ML; Castillo-Yañez FJ; Ocaño-Higuera VM; Perez-Velazquez M; Cota-Moreno V; Lozano-Taylor J

2010-09-01

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In vivo acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the tissues of spinosad exposed Oreochromis niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an organic insecticide, spinosad on acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) specific activities in the brain and the liver tissues of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus, and also identify the indicator tissues in the fish. The fish were exposed to three sublethal spinosad concentrations (25, 50, 75mg/L) for 24-48-72h. Acetylcholinesterase activities were determined by spectrophotometrical methods. Acetylcholinesterase was significantly inhibited in both tissues tested. The inhibition percentages of AChE ranged for liver and brain tissues between 32-63% and 21-35%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that in vivo spinosad exposure caused AChE inhibition in the brain and the liver. The liver tissue might be suggested as an indicator tissue for spinosad exposure in the fish. Additional studies are needed to understand inhibition mechanisms of AChE by spinosad. PMID:22797324

Piner, Petek; Uner, Nevin

2012-07-01

72

Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus) na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência), características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático) e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo) dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05) nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival), characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fillet, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index) and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract) of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05) for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P<0.05) among the treatments. The inclusion of 16% in fish by-product wastes from the filleting industry in diets formulated with ingredients certificated from organic origin improves livestock performance, does not impair body yield, but it alters the parameters of mineral matter and ethereal extract of tilapia in the phase of growth.

Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Arcangelo Augusto Signor; Anderson Coldebella; Guilherme Wolff Bueno; Aldi Feiden

2010-01-01

73

Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water  

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Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group) was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h. Adicionalmente, alguns dos resultados obtidos pela análise em microscopia de luz foram confirmados com o recurso da microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

António Fontaínhas-Fernandes; Ana Luzio; Sofia Garcia-Santos; João Carrola; Sandra Monteiro

2008-01-01

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Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the (more) Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Malaguttii, Mirtis Irene Ariza; Dias, Ana Lúcia; Fonseca, Inês Cristina; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

2006-01-01

75

Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips  

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Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

Silvia Tamie Matsumoto; Mário Sérgio Mantovani; Mirtis Irene Ariza Malaguttii; Ana Lúcia Dias; Inês Cristina Fonseca; Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales

2006-01-01

76

Respostas da Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) à atratividade e palatabilidade de ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes/ Response of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to the attraction and palatability of the used ingredients in the feeding of fishes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as respostas da tilápia do Nilo à atratividade e palatabilidade de 14 ingredientes. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado à uma ração controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros) contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registrados tempo decorrido entre colocação do ingrediente e chegada dos animais aos comedouros, freqüência de visita (more) s aos comedouros, número de grânulos ingeridos e freqüência de ejeções. Os tratamentos foram comparados pela prova não-paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e a comparação dos ingredientes para o conjunto de variáveis, por intermédio da "Análise de Agrupamento" e "Análise de Componentes Principais". Os ingredientes foram assim classificados: a) baixa atrato-palatabilidade = farelos de trigo, soja e algodão, farinha e raspa de mandioca, farinha de girassol e fubá de milho, b) média atrato-palatabilidade = levedura de cana-de-açúcar e glúten de milho e c) alta atrato-palatabilidade = ovo integral liofilizado, farinhas de crisálidas, peixes, carne e camarão. Ingestão de grânulos (manhã e tarde) e freqüência de visitas aos comedouros (tarde) foram consideradas as variáveis mais discriminatórias e freqüência de ejeção de grânulos e tempo gasto para aproximação dos comedouros (manhã e tarde), as menos discriminatórias. As respostas comportamentais dos peixes variaram de acordo com o ingrediente apresentado. A avaliação do grau de atrato-palatabilidade deve ser realizada considerando-se uma combinação de parâmetros. Abstract in english The response of Nile tilapia to the attraction and palatability of 14 ingredients was evaluated. The two-choice method was used, comparing each pelleted ingredient to a control diet. It was utilized Four aquaria (750 liters) containing in each one three fingerlings and two feed containers at the right and left corner, being recorded the elapsed time between the lay of the ingredient and the arrive of the fingerlings to feed containers, visiting frequency to the feed conta (more) iners, amount of ingested pellets and ejections frequency. The treatments were compared by non-parametric method of Kruskal-Wallis and the comparison of the ingredients for the variable set using "Grouping Analysis" and "Principal Components Analysis". The numbers of ingested pellets (at morning and at afternoon) and the visiting frequency to feed containers (at afternoon) were considered the most discriminatory variables. The ingredients were classified as it follows: a) low attraction and palatability = wheat meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, cassava meal, cassava scrapings, sunflower meal and corn meal), b) medium attraction and palatability = sugar-cane yeast and corn gluten meal and c) high attraction and palatability = integral lyophilized egg, silk worm meal, fish meal, meat meal, shrimp meal. The frequency of ejected pellets and time spent to approach of the feed (at morning and at afternoon) were considered the least discriminatory variables. The behavior response of fishes changes according to the presented ingredient. The attraction and palatability extent must be studied considering combinations of variables.

Pereira-da- Silva, Elyara Maria; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo

2000-10-01

77

Respostas da Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) à atratividade e palatabilidade de ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes Response of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to the attraction and palatability of the used ingredients in the feeding of fishes  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as respostas da tilápia do Nilo à atratividade e palatabilidade de 14 ingredientes. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado à uma ração controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros) contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registrados tempo decorrido entre colocação do ingrediente e chegada dos animais aos comedouros, freqüência de visitas aos comedouros, número de grânulos ingeridos e freqüência de ejeções. Os tratamentos foram comparados pela prova não-paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e a comparação dos ingredientes para o conjunto de variáveis, por intermédio da "Análise de Agrupamento" e "Análise de Componentes Principais". Os ingredientes foram assim classificados: a) baixa atrato-palatabilidade = farelos de trigo, soja e algodão, farinha e raspa de mandioca, farinha de girassol e fubá de milho, b) média atrato-palatabilidade = levedura de cana-de-açúcar e glúten de milho e c) alta atrato-palatabilidade = ovo integral liofilizado, farinhas de crisálidas, peixes, carne e camarão. Ingestão de grânulos (manhã e tarde) e freqüência de visitas aos comedouros (tarde) foram consideradas as variáveis mais discriminatórias e freqüência de ejeção de grânulos e tempo gasto para aproximação dos comedouros (manhã e tarde), as menos discriminatórias. As respostas comportamentais dos peixes variaram de acordo com o ingrediente apresentado. A avaliação do grau de atrato-palatabilidade deve ser realizada considerando-se uma combinação de parâmetros.The response of Nile tilapia to the attraction and palatability of 14 ingredients was evaluated. The two-choice method was used, comparing each pelleted ingredient to a control diet. It was utilized Four aquaria (750 liters) containing in each one three fingerlings and two feed containers at the right and left corner, being recorded the elapsed time between the lay of the ingredient and the arrive of the fingerlings to feed containers, visiting frequency to the feed containers, amount of ingested pellets and ejections frequency. The treatments were compared by non-parametric method of Kruskal-Wallis and the comparison of the ingredients for the variable set using "Grouping Analysis" and "Principal Components Analysis". The numbers of ingested pellets (at morning and at afternoon) and the visiting frequency to feed containers (at afternoon) were considered the most discriminatory variables. The ingredients were classified as it follows: a) low attraction and palatability = wheat meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, cassava meal, cassava scrapings, sunflower meal and corn meal), b) medium attraction and palatability = sugar-cane yeast and corn gluten meal and c) high attraction and palatability = integral lyophilized egg, silk worm meal, fish meal, meat meal, shrimp meal. The frequency of ejected pellets and time spent to approach of the feed (at morning and at afternoon) were considered the least discriminatory variables. The behavior response of fishes changes according to the presented ingredient. The attraction and palatability extent must be studied considering combinations of variables.

Elyara Maria Pereira-da- Silva; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

2000-01-01

78

Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)/ Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus) na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência), características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático) e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria minera (more) l e extrato etéreo) dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05) nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival), characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fillet, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index) and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract) of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ? (more) ? 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P

Boscolo, Wilson Rogério; Signor, Arcangelo Augusto; Coldebella, Anderson; Bueno, Guilherme Wolff; Feiden, Aldi

2010-12-01

79

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

Suanyuk, N.; Kanghear, H.; Khongpradit, R.; Supamattaya, K.

2005-01-01

80

Comparative assessment of bioload of healthy and diseased Oreochromis niloticus as means of food security  

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Full Text Available Thirty-one (31) samples each of diseased and healthy Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from Otamiri River, in Nekede, Owerri West; Imo State Nigeria was examined to detect the presence of bacterial and helminth fauna. The intestine, liver, gill, tissue and skin of the fish were examined. Bacteriological analysis revealed counts of healthy diseased organs to fall between 6.0 x 104 – 3.5 x 107 cfu/g and 5.7 x 106 – 1.9 x 1011 cfu/g respectively. The result however indicated that the bacterial load of the diseased fish samples were higher than those of the apparently healthy fish. Identification tests of the probable bacterial isolates revealed the isolation of Vibrio sp, Renibacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Yersinia sp, Pseudomonas sp, Nocardia sp, Lactobacillus sp, Sporocytophaga, Staphylococcus sp, Mycobacterium sp, Serratia sp Proteus sp and Edwardsiella sp. Twenty-nine (29 ie 46.8%) of the 62 samples studied were found to be infected by helminth fauna identified as Camallanus sp, Procamallanus beviconchus, Capillaria sp, Clinostonium tilapiae, Euclinostonium heterostoma, Cleidodiscus sp and Bothricephalus acheilognathi. Percentage helminth infestation was found to be higher in males than females with sub adults recording the highest infection rate of 56.08%. Hence helminth infestation varies amongst age group. This study therefore reveals the bacterial & helminth load of cultured organs of Oreochromis niloticus with a view to provide information on the state of environmental and personal hygiene in the environment, the level of contamination of water and the security and/or insecurity nature of using fish as food.

Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE; Harriet Chinyelu NWIGWE; Sylvia Onyinyechi ANYADOH

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Enhanced mortality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus following coinfections with ichthyophthiriasis and streptococcosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich) and Streptococcus iniae are 2 major pathogens of cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L). Currently there is no information available for the effect of coinfection by Ich and S. iniae on fish. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of parasite load and Ich development size on fish mortality following S. iniae infection. Low mortality (< or =20%) was observed in tilapia exposed to Ich or S. iniae alone. Mortalities increased from 38% in tilapia exposed to Ich at 10,000 theronts fish(-1) to 88% in fish at 20,000 theronts fish(-1) following S. iniae exposure. The median days to death were significantly fewer (7 d) in fish exposed to Ich at 20,000 theronts fish(-1) than fish exposed to 10,000 theronts fish(-1) (10 d). A positive correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.83) was noted between tilapia mortality and size of Ich trophonts at the time of S. iniae challenge. Fish parasitized with well-developed trophonts (Day 4, 2 x 10(7) microm3 in volume) suffered higher mortality (47.5%) than fish (10.0%) infested by young trophonts (Hour 4, 1.3 x 10(4) microm3 in volume) after S. iniae challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that both parasite load and trophont size increased susceptibility and mortality of tilapia to S. iniae infection. PMID:19750806

Xu, De-Hai; Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H

2009-07-23

82

Enhanced mortality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus following coinfections with ichthyophthiriasis and streptococcosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich) and Streptococcus iniae are 2 major pathogens of cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L). Currently there is no information available for the effect of coinfection by Ich and S. iniae on fish. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of parasite load and Ich development size on fish mortality following S. iniae infection. Low mortality (< or =20%) was observed in tilapia exposed to Ich or S. iniae alone. Mortalities increased from 38% in tilapia exposed to Ich at 10,000 theronts fish(-1) to 88% in fish at 20,000 theronts fish(-1) following S. iniae exposure. The median days to death were significantly fewer (7 d) in fish exposed to Ich at 20,000 theronts fish(-1) than fish exposed to 10,000 theronts fish(-1) (10 d). A positive correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.83) was noted between tilapia mortality and size of Ich trophonts at the time of S. iniae challenge. Fish parasitized with well-developed trophonts (Day 4, 2 x 10(7) microm3 in volume) suffered higher mortality (47.5%) than fish (10.0%) infested by young trophonts (Hour 4, 1.3 x 10(4) microm3 in volume) after S. iniae challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that both parasite load and trophont size increased susceptibility and mortality of tilapia to S. iniae infection.

Xu DH; Shoemaker CA; Klesius PH

2009-07-01

83

Effect of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) on some blood constituents of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is an urban drinking water purification substance that was introduced recently in Sudan and used to substitute polymer poly diallyl dimethyl aluminium chloride (DADMAC) and aluminium sulphate in water purification treatments. This study was conducted to determine its effects on fish health, which is is considered a biological indicator and an essential component of fresh water ecosystem. In this experiment, PAC was used in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/1) in experimental tanks to achieve the desirable doses for the study. The tanks were populated by Nile Tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average weight ranging between 70 and 100 grams. Exposure of this fish to PAC resulted in an immediate signification reduction (P

2006-01-01

84

Growth and Body Composition of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fry Fed Organic Diets Containing Yeast Extract and Soybean Meal as Replacements for Fish Meal, with and without Supplemental Lysine and Methionine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantities of fish meal (FM) have remained level for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased because of its inclusion in all animal production as a high?quality protein source. Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely used plant?protein ingredient for replacing various proportions of FM in aquatic animal diets. However, use of SBM as the sole protein source has often resulted in reduced fish growth. There is a growing segment of consumers who desire organically grown seafood, and tilapia is one of the most?cultured fish in the world. As tilapia have herbivorous/omnivorous feeding habits, tilapia fed organic diets may allow producers to enter this rapidly developing market. A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the combination of organic SBM and an organic yeast extract (YE) as complete replacements for FM in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry diets. Nine diets were formulated to contain various percentages of organic YE (0, 15, 30, and 45%) in combination with organic SBM (84–34%) with and without amino acid (methionine and lysine) supplementation. At the conclusion of the study, fry fed a control diet containing 20% FM and fry fed a diet containing 45% YE/36%SBM with amino acid supplementation showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in final weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate (SGR) compared to those fed all other diets. On the basis of these data, an organic diet which replaces FM with a combination of SBM and YE with added methionine and lysine is commercially feasible and further investigation into the increased use of these two ingredients as protein sources in aquaculture diets is warranted.

Trosvik KA; Rawles SD; Thompson KR; Metts LA; Gannam A; Twibell R; Webster CD

2012-10-01

85

Growth performance and use of natural food by Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in polyculture systems with Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker) and Cyprinus carpio (L.) in intensively cultivated rice fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the freshwater area of Vietnam's Mekong Delta, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker) and Cyprinus carpio (L.) are often reared together in rice fields. In this study, we report the results of eight such polyculture experiments, examining variables affecting the specific growth rate and the average daily food energy consumption of individual O. niloticus. The standing biomass of O. niloticus and the wild fish biomass had a negative impact on the specific growth rate, whereas added pig manure, extra feed and inorganic fertilizer had a positive effect. The standing biomass of O. niloticus and C. carpio, and the wild fish biomass had a negative impact on the consumption of natural feed. We inferred that O. niloticus mainly lacks food in rice fields. This results in intraspecific competition. As in rice fields, C. carpio has basically the same feeding niche as O. niloticus; we found interspecific competition between the two species. O. niloticus consumed relatively more food in the vegetative phase of the rice crop, probably because of a higher abundance of phytoplankton. To get higher growth of O. niloticus, we recommend that farmers increase nutrient inputs and stock O. niloticus according to the size of the trench adjoining the rice field and not according to the size of trench plus field as is generally done.

Vromant N; Nam CQ; Ollevier F

2002-10-01

86

Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Estudiamos la tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) en la reserva de Opa, Nigeria, desde octubre 1997 hasta febrero del 2000. Recolectamos 1 430 especímenes con red lanzada y red de arrastre. El diámetro de los huevos varía entre los 2.12 mm y 2.69 mm con un promedio de 2.47±0.02. El índice gonadosomático de las hembras fue de 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637), y en machos fue de 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789). En la reserva este pez se reprodujo durante todo el pe (more) riodo de estudio. Hay cuido materno: la hembra lleva los huevos y alevines en la boca. La proporción machos/hembras fue aproximadamente 1:1. La fecundidad varía entre 73 y 1 810 huevos por hembra con un promedio de 815 huevos. Abstract in english The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) in Opa reservoir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods employed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied between 2.12 mm and 2.69 mm with a mean of 2.47±0.02. Female gonadosomatic ind (more) ex was 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637). The male gonadosomatic index was 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789). In Opa reservoir, O. niloticus bred throughout the study period. The species was a maternal mouth brooder with the female fish carrying eggs and fry in the buccal cavities. The sex ratio of O. niloticus was approximately 1:1 in the reservoir. The fecundity of the species was between 73 eggs and 1 810 eggs per female with a mean fecundity of 815 eggs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2): 595-602. Epub 2007 June, 29.

Komolafe, O.O; Arawomo, G.A.O

2007-06-01

87

Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) in Opa reservoir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods employed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied between 2.12 mm and 2.69 mm with a mean of 2.47±0.02. Female gonadosomatic index was 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637). The male gonadosomatic index was 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789). In Opa reservoir, O. niloticus bred throughout the study period. The species was a maternal mouth brooder with the female fish carrying eggs and fry in the buccal cavities. The sex ratio of O. niloticus was approximately 1:1 in the reservoir. The fecundity of the species was between 73 eggs and 1 810 eggs per female with a mean fecundity of 815 eggs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2): 595-602. Epub 2007 June, 29.Estudiamos la tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) en la reserva de Opa, Nigeria, desde octubre 1997 hasta febrero del 2000. Recolectamos 1 430 especímenes con red lanzada y red de arrastre. El diámetro de los huevos varía entre los 2.12 mm y 2.69 mm con un promedio de 2.47±0.02. El índice gonadosomático de las hembras fue de 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637), y en machos fue de 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789). En la reserva este pez se reprodujo durante todo el periodo de estudio. Hay cuido materno: la hembra lleva los huevos y alevines en la boca. La proporción machos/hembras fue aproximadamente 1:1. La fecundidad varía entre 73 y 1 810 huevos por hembra con un promedio de 815 huevos.

O.O Komolafe; G.A.O Arawomo

2007-01-01

88

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E/ Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin E  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de Vitamina E no desempenho e qualidade de carcaça de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Os experimentos foram conduzidos no ranário experimenta do Departamento de Biologia Animal, UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de 09/01/ 2005 a 25/04/2005, totalizando 106 dias. Foram utilizadas 400 pós larvas revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus)em um experimento com um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (more) (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina E monofosfato) numa ração isoproteíca 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com quatro repetições. Não se observou efeito significativo para peso final, para ganho de peso total, para ganho de peso diário dos animais, para taxa de eficiência protéica e para taxa de sobrevivência. Para o índice viscerossomático houve diferença significativa para o tratamento sem suplementação, com 100 mg e com 150 mg/kg desta vitamina. Para o ácido graxo oléico (C18:1) a utilização do tratamento sem vitamina E foi significamente maior em relação aos outros tratamentos. O ácido graxo eicosapentaenóico EPA (C20:5?3) foi estatisticamente significativo para o tratamento sem suplementação de vitamina E. O ácido graxo linoléico (C18:2?6), ácido graxo ?-linolênico (C18:3?6), ácido graxo ?-linoléico (C18:3?3) e ácido graxo araquidônico (C20:4?6) aumentaram de forma quadrática até o nível estimado de 110 mg, 111 mg, 113 mg e 140 mg de vitamina E por kg de ração, respectivamente. Abstract in english The effect of vitamin E supplementation on performance and carcass quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The research was carried out in the experimental frog raising facilities at the Department of Animal Biology, UFV, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Four hundred post larva reversed (Oreochromis niloticus) were used for studies. The experiments were randomly designed with five treatments (supplying 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of vitamin E mono-phosphate) in an (more) isoproteic ration with 36% CP and isocaloric with 3600 kcal/kg of DE with four repetitions. It was not observed significant effect for final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain, protein efficiency rate and survivor rate. The viscerosomatic index showed significant differences for the treatment without vitamin E supplementation and with 100 and 150 mg of this vitamin. For oleic fatty acid, the treatment without vitamin E was significantly higher. The eicosapen-taenoic fatty acid (C20:5?3) was statistically significant for the treatment without vitamin E. The fatty acids linoleic (C18:2?6), ?-linolenic (C18:3?6), ?-linoleic (C18:3?3), and arachidonic (C20:4?6) increased in a quadratic way up to the estimated levels of 110 mg, 111mg, 113 mg, and 140 mg of vitamin E/kg of ration, respectively.

Navarro, R.D.; Ferreira, W.M.; Ribeiro Filho, O.P.; Veloso, D.P.; Fontes, D.O.; Silva, R.F.

2010-06-01

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Morphological Study of the Liver in the Teleost Oreochromis niloticus/ Estudio Morfológico del Hígado en el Teleósteo Oreochromis niloticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de describir la estructura del parénquima hepático y del páncreas exocrino intrahepático del Oreochromis niloticus, fueron fijados para estudios histológicos y ultraestructurales fragmentos de hígado de peces cultivados en jaulas flotantes. Se evidenciaron sólo 2 lóbubos hepáticos. El análisis histológico demostró que los hepatocitos se encontraban organizados en forma de cordones anastomosados, dispuestos en dos capas celulares y cercados por (more) sinusoides. El tejido pancreático exocrino intrahepático se encontró difuso en el parénquima hepático y se destacó por su organización acinar. El análisis ultraestructural demostró que los hepatocitos presentaban núcleos redondos y el retículo endoplasmático rugoso estaba dispuesto paralelamente a la membrana nuclear. Las células pancreáticas exocrinas presentaban gránulos de secreción localizados en la porción apical y el retículo endoplasmático rugoso estaba organizado de manera concéntrica Abstract in english Liver samples of Oreochromis niloticus cultivated in floating net cages were fixed for histological and ultrastructural studies with the objective of describing the hepatic parenchymal structure and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, the liver showed only two hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocr (more) ine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinar arrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Structural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmic reticulum with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was concentrically distributed

Vicentini, C. A.; Franceschini-Vicentini, I. B.; Bombonato, M. T. S.; Bertolucci, B.; Lima, S. G.; Santos, A. S

2005-01-01

90

Fibra bruta para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L) Crude fiber for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L) fingerlings  

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Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou avaliar diferentes níveis de fibra bruta no desempenho e no tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L). Foram utilizados 125 alevinos (1,39 ± 0,03 g) distribuídos em 25 aquários de 54 L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram formuladas cinco rações isoenergéticas (3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível) e isoprotéicas (30% de proteína bruta), diferindo quanto aos níveis de fibra bruta (3,65; 4,75; 6,00; 7,25 e 8,50%). O período experimental foi de 64 dias a uma temperatura média de 26,5ºC ± 0,8 de manhã e 27,5ºC ± 0,7 à tarde. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desempenho dos alevinos, entretanto houve decréscimo linear para o tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar com o aumento da fibra.This work aimed to evaluate different crude fiber levels on reverted Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L) fingerlings performance and time of retention of food. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings of Thai strain, 1.39 ± 0.03 g of initial weight were allotted to twenty-five 54 L aquarium, at five treatments and five replications on completely randomized design. Five isoenergy (3000 kcal/kg of digestible energy) and isoprotein (30% of crude protein) diets were formulated with five different crude fiber levels (3.65, 4.75, 6.00, 7.25 and 8.50%), for ranging cellulose and inert material addition. The experimental period was 64 days with 26.5ºC ± 0.8 in the morning and 27.5ºC ± 0.7 in the afternoon temperatures. No difference was observed to fingerlings performance (food conversion, final weight, weight gain), but a linear decrease to time of retention of food with crude fiber addition.

Fábio Meurer; Carmino Hayashi; Wilson Rogério Boscolo

2003-01-01

91

Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river  

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Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia) were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST)) showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

Zilma Maria Almeida Cruz; Rodrigo Roque Lesqueves de Castro; Adriana Canal; Romildo Rocha Azevedo Júnior; Ary Gomes da Silva; Alessandro Ramos

2013-01-01

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Ontogenetic diet shifts of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia rendalli of the Barra Bonita reservoir (Tietê river, São Paulo State, Brazil)  

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Full Text Available The Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and the Congo Tilapia, Tilapia rendalli, are important members of the African cichlids, and have been introduced to many Brazilian lakes and reservoirs. These species exhibit a large feeding flexibility and may modify their habits during their growth. In the Barra Bonita reservoir, these species are well adapted, representing more than 80% of fish. This study aimed to analyze ontogenetic variation with regard to the diet of these species in this important reservoir. Samples were taken monthly, from March 2007 to February 2008, in Anhembi, São Paulo State. Both species were analyzed by grouping individuals according to size classes. The coexistence of these species was observed in this environment, to which fish were introduced, as well as discreet differences in diet, being that Oreochromis niloticus was considered as an detritivorous, since the detritus was constant in the diet of almost all size classes, and presents some changes in its diet according to the different size classes. While T. rendalli may was defined as herbivorous, and the contribution of food resources to the diet of T. rendalli seems to be different from that of O. niloticus along the size classes. 

Rosangela Lopes Zaganini; Ana Paula Vidotto-Magnoni; Edmir Daniel Carvalho

2012-01-01

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Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração denominada controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros), contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registradas as respostas dos animais para cada ingrediente, separadamente. Concluiu-se que as respostas comportamentais da tilápia variam de acordo com o ingrediente oferecido e que parece existir uma correlação positiva entre o grau de atrato-palatabilidade de um ingrediente e a ocorrência de confrontos agonísticos entre os indivíduos. Sugere-se que ingredientes classificados como de alta atrato-palatabilidade (farinhas de crisálidas, de peixe, de carne, de camarão e ovo liofilizado integral) sejam adicionados às dietas especiais para peixes, visando ao aumento da ingestão alimentar nos períodos pré-invernais, situações de estresse ou estados patológicos.Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) responses to attractivity and taste of fourteen food ingredients, here classified as animal sources (shrimp, fish, silkworm and meat meal, integral lyophilized egg and sugar-cane-yeast), vegetable protein sources (maize gluten, soybean bran, sunflower meal and cotton bran) and energetics (maize flour, manioc scraping, manioc bran and wheat bran) were investigated. These ingredients were compared to a control diet, using a two-choice method. Four 750 liters aquaria stocked with three fries each and two feeders installed respectively at the right and left corner where used to register the responses of the fries to each ingredient separately. The results showed that behavioral patterns of the fries change according to the type of ingredient and that three seems to be a positive correlation between the attractivity and taste degree and the occurrence of agonistic behavior in the studied species. It may be suggested that the most attractive and tasty ingredients (silkworm, fish, meat and shrimp meal, and integral lyophilized egg) be added to special fish diets, in order to increase food consumption in pre-hibernal periods and under stress and pathological conditions.

Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

1999-01-01

94

Effect of a non steroidal tamoxifen on the gonad and sex differentiation in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of different doses of anti-estrogenic chemical was studied in a cichlid Oreochromis niloticus on mortality, growth, sexual development and sex differentiation. Percent mortality (5, 10 and 10) appeared to be dose-dependent. All groups of tamoxifen (TA) treated fishes exhibited significant growth as compared to the controlled fishes. Immature fishes treated with TA at 200 microg l(-1), showed lower gonado-somatic-index (GSI) (male 0.137; female 0.118) than control group (male 0.138; female 0.122) of fishes. Ovarian and testicular differentiation was adjudged by the appearance of the ovarian cavity (ovary) and the efferent (sperm) duct (testis), respectively. Sex and sexual maturity of individual fishes were determined using standard histological method. Tamoxifen treatment to the fry (yolk sac absorbed stage) of Oreochromis niloticus in the dose of 200 microg l(-1) for 60 days produced 90% males and 1% intersex population. Results suggested masculinizing action of tamoxifen reversing the sex of genetic female tilapia.

Singh R; Singh AK; Tripathi M

2012-07-01

95

EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow) at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05) differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein retention (NPR), apparent net energy retention (ANER) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) values. The diet containing a mixture of all the 4 dietary lipids in equal proportions (3.5g of each lipid per 100g of diet) produced the best results (SGR, I. 73%; condition factor, 2.95; FCR, 1.27; PER, 2.06; NPR, 29.30% and ANER, 20.21%) whereas the diet containing beef tallow showed the poorest performance (SGR, 1.50%; condition factor, 2.76; FCR, 1.53; PER, 1.73; NPR, 26.26% and ANER, 18.53%). The growth performance of fish fed on diet containing beef tallow was however, significantly (P< 0.05) better than that of lipid free diet. The diets containing corn oil, olive oil, and cod liver oil did not show any significant difference in the growth performance of fish. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) value increased in fish fed diets containing lipids (maximum 1.55% in case of corn oil) as compared to those fed lipid free diet ( 1.31 %). No significant differences were observed in the feed consumption of fish fed different diets. The type of dietary lipid significantly affected the body composition of fish. The data on the body composition of fish is very much correlated with the growth performance data. The fish fed on diets containing lipids showed higher body fat and crude protein but lower moisture and gross energy contents as compared to those fed lipid free diet. The fish fed on diet containing beef tallow however showed similar body protein and ash contents as those fed lipid free diet. The results of the present study suggest that diet supplemented with a mixture of different types of lipids will produce the best growth response in Oreochromis niloticus.

Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

2000-01-01

96

Eficácia do mentol como anestésico para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)/ Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em três experimentos, testou-se a eficiência do mentol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), por meio da avaliação de eventos comportamentais, da verificação da margem de segurança do anestésico e das respostas de estresse. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas seis diferentes concentrações de mentol para avaliar o tempo de indução à anestesia. No segundo, foram realizados dois testes com o objetivo de verificar a margem de segur (more) ança do anestésico. No terceiro, avaliou-se o efeito estressante do anestésico. A concentração 250mg L-1 de mentol foi a mais adequada para indução de anestesia cirúrgica. Para anestesia voltada para biometria e breve inspeção visual do animal, a concentração mais adequada foi 150-200mg L-1. O dobro da concentração ideal (500mg L-1) não acarretou a morte nos indivíduos, indicando boa margem de segurança para o uso desse anestésico. O mentol, mesmo em sua concentração adequada, induziu ao aumento na glicose sanguínea, caracterizando estresse no peixe. Conclui-se que o mentol não é um anestésico eficaz para juvenis de tilápia durante procedimentos de rotina na piscicultura. Abstract in english This work tested the effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic for Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) by the evaluation of behavioral events, the safety margin of the anesthetic, and stress response. On first experiment, six different anesthetic concentrations were tested to evaluate the induction time to anesthesia. On second experiment, two tests were carried out to verify the safety margin of the anesthetic. On third experiment, stress responses were evaluated. The saf (more) e concentration to induce a surgical anesthesia was 250mg L-1. To a brief handling and visual inspection, the appropriated concentration was 150-200mg L-1. There was no mortality after exposure to 500mg L-1, indicating a good safety margin for this anesthetic. Menthol even in its adequate dosage induced a rise in glucose concentrations indicating a stress response of the fish. Thus menthol is an ineffective anesthetic to juveniles tilapia during routine procedures in fish culture.

Simões, L.N.; Gomes, L.C.

2009-06-01

97

Eficácia do mentol como anestésico para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Em três experimentos, testou-se a eficiência do mentol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), por meio da avaliação de eventos comportamentais, da verificação da margem de segurança do anestésico e das respostas de estresse. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas seis diferentes concentrações de mentol para avaliar o tempo de indução à anestesia. No segundo, foram realizados dois testes com o objetivo de verificar a margem de segurança do anestésico. No terceiro, avaliou-se o efeito estressante do anestésico. A concentração 250mg L-1 de mentol foi a mais adequada para indução de anestesia cirúrgica. Para anestesia voltada para biometria e breve inspeção visual do animal, a concentração mais adequada foi 150-200mg L-1. O dobro da concentração ideal (500mg L-1) não acarretou a morte nos indivíduos, indicando boa margem de segurança para o uso desse anestésico. O mentol, mesmo em sua concentração adequada, induziu ao aumento na glicose sanguínea, caracterizando estresse no peixe. Conclui-se que o mentol não é um anestésico eficaz para juvenis de tilápia durante procedimentos de rotina na piscicultura.This work tested the effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic for Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) by the evaluation of behavioral events, the safety margin of the anesthetic, and stress response. On first experiment, six different anesthetic concentrations were tested to evaluate the induction time to anesthesia. On second experiment, two tests were carried out to verify the safety margin of the anesthetic. On third experiment, stress responses were evaluated. The safe concentration to induce a surgical anesthesia was 250mg L-1. To a brief handling and visual inspection, the appropriated concentration was 150-200mg L-1. There was no mortality after exposure to 500mg L-1, indicating a good safety margin for this anesthetic. Menthol even in its adequate dosage induced a rise in glucose concentrations indicating a stress response of the fish. Thus menthol is an ineffective anesthetic to juveniles tilapia during routine procedures in fish culture.

L.N. Simões; L.C. Gomes

2009-01-01

98

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast/ Crescimento das tilápias do Nilo Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes níveis de levedura alcooleira  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), com 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14 g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 330 dias. O desempenho da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de destilaria (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) em rações experimentais balanceadas sobre o desenvolvimento na criação de tilápia do Nilo não mostrou efeito prejudicial até (more) o nível máximo testado de 30%, indicando que a escolha do nível de levedura na ração para estes peixes depende de sua disponibilidade e custo ocasional. A levedura proporcionou aos peixes boa resistência às condições ambientais desfavoráveis, o que foi constatado pela não diferença estatística entre os tratamentos com diferentes níveis de levedura e o controle. O baixo índice de crescimento em comprimento e peso pode ser atribuído ao pouco espaço disponível por exemplar, não obedecendo o limite de densidade populacional, e uma diminuição da ingestão de alimentos coincidindo com o período de inverno, além da ausência de alimentação natural. Abstract in english Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of (more) 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding.

MEDRI, V.; PEREIRA, G. V.; LEONHARDT, J. H.

2000-02-01

99

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast Crescimento das tilápias do Nilo Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes níveis de levedura alcooleira  

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Full Text Available Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding.Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), com 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14 g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 330 dias. O desempenho da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de destilaria (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) em rações experimentais balanceadas sobre o desenvolvimento na criação de tilápia do Nilo não mostrou efeito prejudicial até o nível máximo testado de 30%, indicando que a escolha do nível de levedura na ração para estes peixes depende de sua disponibilidade e custo ocasional. A levedura proporcionou aos peixes boa resistência às condições ambientais desfavoráveis, o que foi constatado pela não diferença estatística entre os tratamentos com diferentes níveis de levedura e o controle. O baixo índice de crescimento em comprimento e peso pode ser atribuído ao pouco espaço disponível por exemplar, não obedecendo o limite de densidade populacional, e uma diminuição da ingestão de alimentos coincidindo com o período de inverno, além da ausência de alimentação natural.

V. MEDRI; G. V. PEREIRA; J. H. LEONHARDT

2000-01-01

100

Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae); Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn) of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

Wanderson Pantoja MF; Ligia Neves R.; Márcia Dias RD.; Renata Marinho GB; Daniel Montagner; Marcos Tavares Dias

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Preliminary assessment of dietary supplementation of Sangrovit® on red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and health  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the effect of graded dietary supplementation of Sangrovit®, a commercial product containing the isoquinoline alkaloid sanguinarine, on red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance, feed utilisation, hepatic function, haematological parameters and gut microbiota. Compared to the control group (1.03 g fish?¹ day?¹), significant elevations in mean daily feed intake (1.19-1.25) were observed in fish fed Sangrovit® diets during the 60-day feeding period. Consequently, the specific growth rate (3.94-4.05% day?¹) and weight gain (66.80-71.85 g fish?¹) were significantly higher in the Sangrovit®-fed groups. With the exception of total leukocyte levels, which were elevated in fish fed Sangrovit®-supplemented diets, haematological and immunological parameters remained unaffected. Hepatic alanine aminotransferase activity and hepatosomatic index also remained unaffected in all fish groups. Compared to the control group, the allochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations were lower in fish fed diets containing Sangrovit® at 75 and 100 mg kg?¹. The present study demonstrates that Sangrovit® had a positive effect on tilapia growth performance with no apparent effects on carcass composition, hepatic function and health status.

Rawling MarkD; Merrifield DanielL; Davies SimonJ

2009-09-01

102

Control of Reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) Using Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Linn.) Leaf Meal as Reproduction Inhibitor  

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Full Text Available Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf (HLM) was added to a basal diet (350g crude protein and 18.5MJ gross energy/kgdiet) at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg diets and fed to mixed-sex Oreochromis niloticus for 60 days to evaluate theeffects on growth, feed conversion ratio, reproduction traits, and histology of gonads. There were no variations(p >0.05) in growth parameters and feed conversion ratio. Indices of reproduction traits decreased withincreasing dietary HLM levels. Fish fed with the basal diet had higher and better indices of reproduction traits(Ptissues, and no lesions were observed. Fish fed 1.0g HLM/kg diet showed slight increase in interstitial cells intestes. Fish fed 2.0g HLM/kg diet showed swollen spermatids nuclei, increased interstitial cells and focalnecrosis in testes; and hydropic degeneration, ruptured follicles, granulomatous inflammation in the insterstitiumand necrosis in ovaries. Fish fed 3.0g HLM/kg diet exhibited atrophy of seminiferous tubules in testes. Fish fed4.0g HLM/kg diet, there was disintegration of spermatids and necrosis in testes and severe atretic follicles inovaries. Reproduction traits and histological observations of gonads in O. niloticus fed high dietary HLM levelsrevealed that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves may be effective as a reproduction inhibitor in O. niloticus.

Temitope JEGEDE

2010-01-01

103

Fibra bruta para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L)/ Crude fiber for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L) fingerlings  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este experimento objetivou avaliar diferentes níveis de fibra bruta no desempenho e no tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L). Foram utilizados 125 alevinos (1,39 ± 0,03 g) distribuídos em 25 aquários de 54 L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram formuladas cinco rações isoenergéticas (3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível) e isoprotéicas (30% de prote (more) ína bruta), diferindo quanto aos níveis de fibra bruta (3,65; 4,75; 6,00; 7,25 e 8,50%). O período experimental foi de 64 dias a uma temperatura média de 26,5ºC ± 0,8 de manhã e 27,5ºC ± 0,7 à tarde. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desempenho dos alevinos, entretanto houve decréscimo linear para o tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar com o aumento da fibra. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate different crude fiber levels on reverted Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L) fingerlings performance and time of retention of food. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings of Thai strain, 1.39 ± 0.03 g of initial weight were allotted to twenty-five 54 L aquarium, at five treatments and five replications on completely randomized design. Five isoenergy (3000 kcal/kg of digestible energy) and isoprotein (30% of crude protein) diets were formu (more) lated with five different crude fiber levels (3.65, 4.75, 6.00, 7.25 and 8.50%), for ranging cellulose and inert material addition. The experimental period was 64 days with 26.5ºC ± 0.8 in the morning and 27.5ºC ± 0.7 in the afternoon temperatures. No difference was observed to fingerlings performance (food conversion, final weight, weight gain), but a linear decrease to time of retention of food with crude fiber addition.

Meurer, Fábio; Hayashi, Carmino; Boscolo, Wilson Rogério

2003-04-01

104

Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina C/ Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin C  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de vitamina C no desempenho produtivo de tilápias revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizadas 400 pós-larvas revertidas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C monofosfato de ácido ascórbico L) numa ração isoprotéica de 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com 4 repetições. Observou-se efeito significativo no peso médio final e ganho de peso com (more) 50, 100 e 200 mg de vitamina C por kg. Não foi observada diferença significativa para o comprimento total. No entanto, para o comprimento padrão foi observada diferença significativa com os tratamentos 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg. Verificou-se efeito significativo na taxa de eficiência protéica com suplemen-tação de 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina C. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou a porcentagem de MS, proteína bruta e porcentagem de proteína no ganho de peso. Não foi observada diferença significativa dos tratamentos para extrato etéreo, porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. A suplementação de vitamina C não influenciou significativamente a concentração de glicogênio no músculo. Não foi observada diferença significativa para glicogênio do fígado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin C in the productive performance of reverted tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus). Four hundred tilapias were used. The experiment was mounted according to a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C monophosphate of ascorbic acid L) in a ration isoproteinic (36% of PB) and isocaloric (3600 kcal of DE/kg) with 4 repetitions. Significant effect was observe (more) d in final weight and weight gain for in treatments of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. It was not observed significant difference for the total length. However, for the standard length was observed significant difference in treatments 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Significant effect was observed for protein efficiency rate with supplementation of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of vitamin C. Vitamin C supply did not influenced MS percentage, crude protein and protein percentage in weight gain. Significant difference was not observed for ether extract and fat percentage in weight gain. Vitamin C supply did not influence significantly the concentration of muscle glycogen. It was not observed significant difference for liver glycogen.

Navarro, R.D.; Ferreira, W.M.; Ribeiro Filho, O.P.; Botion, L.M.; Pereira, F.K.S.; Silva, R.F.; Maciel, T.E.F.

2010-12-01

105

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with different levels of proteins of yeast  

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Full Text Available This experiment was based on observations of 72 juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial mean weight of 37.27 ± 4.92g, distributed in 12 cages of 100 l to evaluate the effects of the yeast inclusion as proteins source in the diet. The fishes were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0; 20; 40; and 60%) of yeast protein in substitution to the protein of traditional sources with three repetitions. Effects of the treatments were not observed (p > 0.05) on the survival and to food conversion. It was observed a quadratic effect on weight gain (Y = 73.39 + 0.173X - 0.0034X²; R²= 0.9986). It was concluded the best level of yeast inclusion as source proteins in the diet for reversed Nile tilapia juvenile was 25.44%.Foram utilizados 72 juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 37.27 ± 4.92g. distribuídos em 12 gaiolas de 100L para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta. Os peixes foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0; 20; 40; e 60%) de proteína de levedura em substituição à proteína de fontes tradicionais com três repetições. Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos (p > 0.05) sobre a sobrevivência e conversão alimentar. Foi observado efeito quadrático sobre o ganho de peso (Y = 73.39 + 0.173X - 0.0034X²; R² = 0.9986). Concluiu-se que o melhor nível de inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta para juvenis revertidos de tilápias do Nilo é de 25.44%.

Vandir Medri; Waldir Medri; Mauro Caetano Filho

2009-01-01

106

Níveis de vitamina C e ferro para tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Levels of vitamin C and iron for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de vitamina C e ferro no desempenho produtivo e parâmetros fisiológicos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) foram avaliados por um período de 73 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três níveis de vitamina C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg) e três níveis de ferro (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg), mais um tratamento adicional (0 mg/kg de suplementação de vitamina C e ferro), com quatro repetições cada tratamento, totalizando 10 grupos experimentais. Utilizaram-se 240 alevinos revertidos com peso médio inicial de 7,46 ± 0,49 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 40 aquários de 250 L, numa lotação de 6 peixes/aquário. Confeccionou-se dieta purificada com 32,0% de proteína bruta e 3300 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A ausência de vitamina C e ferro nas dietas propiciou o aparecimento de anemia microcítica e hipocrômica aos alevinos. A presença dessa vitamina em dosagens elevadas estimulou a liberação de eritrócitos imaturos na corrente sangüínea. Determinou-se, também, que níveis desses acima das exigências nutricionais descritas para a espécie não determinaram efeito detrimental no desempenho produtivo, na produção de proteínas plasmáticas ou nos aspectos morfológicos do fígado.The effects of different levels of vitamin C and iron on growth performance and physiological parameters on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were evaluated for 73 days. A factorial experiment with three levels of vitamin C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg) and three levels of iron (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg), plus an additional treatment (with 0 mg/kg of vitamin C and iron), was considered on a completely randomized design, with four replicates for each experimental group. It was randomly stocked 240 reverted fingerlings, an average weight of 7.46 ± 0.49 g, into 40, 250L, aquaria at a density of 6 fish/aquarium. A albumin-gelatin-diet was formulated to contain 32.0% of crude protein and 3,300 kcal/kg of digestible energy. Fingerlings of Nile tilapia fed diet without supplemental vitamin C and iron developed hypochromic microcytic anemia and the supplemental vitamin C determined the presence of immature erythrocytes on blood. It was also determined that iron serum concentration was influenced by vitamin C and iron supplied on diets, and that levels above to nutritional requirements for the specie did not determined detrimental effect on growth performance, plasmatic protein or morphologic characteristics of liver.

Margarida Maria Barros; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Geisa Karine Kleemann; Hamilton Hisano; Guilherme Jordão de Magalhães Rosa

2002-01-01

107

Níveis de vitamina C e ferro para tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)/ Levels of vitamin C and iron for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de vitamina C e ferro no desempenho produtivo e parâmetros fisiológicos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) foram avaliados por um período de 73 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três níveis de vitamina C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg) e três níveis de ferro (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg), mais um tratamento adicional (0 mg/kg de suplementação de vitamina C e ferro), com qu (more) atro repetições cada tratamento, totalizando 10 grupos experimentais. Utilizaram-se 240 alevinos revertidos com peso médio inicial de 7,46 ± 0,49 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 40 aquários de 250 L, numa lotação de 6 peixes/aquário. Confeccionou-se dieta purificada com 32,0% de proteína bruta e 3300 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A ausência de vitamina C e ferro nas dietas propiciou o aparecimento de anemia microcítica e hipocrômica aos alevinos. A presença dessa vitamina em dosagens elevadas estimulou a liberação de eritrócitos imaturos na corrente sangüínea. Determinou-se, também, que níveis desses acima das exigências nutricionais descritas para a espécie não determinaram efeito detrimental no desempenho produtivo, na produção de proteínas plasmáticas ou nos aspectos morfológicos do fígado. Abstract in english The effects of different levels of vitamin C and iron on growth performance and physiological parameters on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were evaluated for 73 days. A factorial experiment with three levels of vitamin C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg) and three levels of iron (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg), plus an additional treatment (with 0 mg/kg of vitamin C and iron), was considered on a completely randomized design, with four replicates for each experimental group. It was rand (more) omly stocked 240 reverted fingerlings, an average weight of 7.46 ± 0.49 g, into 40, 250L, aquaria at a density of 6 fish/aquarium. A albumin-gelatin-diet was formulated to contain 32.0% of crude protein and 3,300 kcal/kg of digestible energy. Fingerlings of Nile tilapia fed diet without supplemental vitamin C and iron developed hypochromic microcytic anemia and the supplemental vitamin C determined the presence of immature erythrocytes on blood. It was also determined that iron serum concentration was influenced by vitamin C and iron supplied on diets, and that levels above to nutritional requirements for the specie did not determined detrimental effect on growth performance, plasmatic protein or morphologic characteristics of liver.

Barros, Margarida Maria; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo; Kleemann, Geisa Karine; Hisano, Hamilton; Rosa, Guilherme Jordão de Magalhães

2002-11-01

108

TÉCNICA SIMPLES DE MARCAÇÃO EXTERNA DE REPRODUTORES DE TILÁPIA NILÓTICA (Oreochromis niloticus) SIMPLE TECNIQUE FOR EXTERNAL MARKING OF NILE TILAPIA'S BROODSTOCK (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Com a finalidade de organizar um programa de controle da reprodução de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) em laboratório, foi desenvolvida uma técnica na qual foi utilizada pérolas de cerâmica presas à musculatura dorsal do animal por transfixação com um fio sintético flexível. Foram usados 60 peixes com peso médio de 12g e 60 com peso médio de 19g. A marcação foi feita em três posições: frontal (F), mediana (M) e caudal (C). Diferentes combinações de três pérolas coloridas foram fixadas do lado direito (definindo o número), e eram ligadas a uma única pérola do lado esquerdo (definido o sexo), deixando-se cerca de 1,5cm de folga no fio para não causar prejuízo ao crescimento. Os animais foram identificados e pesados individualmente aos 30, 60 e 130 dias após a cirurgia de transfixação. Os resultados indicaram que as posições F e M permitiram crescimento e comportamento reprodutivo normais, e na posição C houve mortalidade e perda do marcador. Recomenda-se como melhor posição a M, ou então a intermediária entre F e M.With the goal of organizing a control program of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reproduction in laboratory, a tecnique with ceramic pearls held on dorsal musculature by transfixion with flexible sintetic string was developed. Sixty fishes with 12g average weight and 60 with 19g average weight were used. Marking was done on three positions: frontal (F), median (M), and caudal (C). Different combinations of three collored pearls were fixed on the right side (defining number), and were linked to only one pearl in the left side (defining sex), with a slack of about 1.5cm to prevent growth damage. The animals were individually identified and weigthed at 30, 60 and 130 days after surgery. Results showed that both F and M positions allowed normal growth and reproductive behavior, whereas the C position induced mortality and loss of marker in some specimens. The M position is recomended as the best, or the intermediate between F and M positions.

Ema Magalhães Leboute; Luis Orlando Bertolla Afonso; Marco Aurélio Rotta

2002-01-01

109

The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets/ Uso de bacterias ácido lácticas aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) como promotores de crecimiento en peces alimentados con dietas bajas en proteína  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto como promotores de crecimiento de cinco cepas de bacterias ácido lácticas (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I y Streptococcus sp. II) aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus). Se formularon ocho dietas isocalóricas: una conteniendo 40% de proteína como control positivo y siete con 27% de proteína. Cinco dietas con 27% de proteína fueron suplementadas con cada una de las bacter (more) ias aislada a una concentración de 2,5x10(6) ufc g-1 de alimento. Un probiótico comercial a base de S. faecium y Lactobacillus acidophilus a la misma concentración de inclusión bacteriana a una dieta con 27% de proteína como dieta comparativa, y la última dieta no fue suplementada con bacterias (control negativo). Juveniles de tilapia (280 mg de peso basal) fueron distribuidos en acuarios de 15 L de capacidad, a una densidad de dos juveniles por litro, alimentados durante 12 semanas con las dietas experimentales. Los resultados mostraron que los organismos alimentados con las dietas suplementadas con bacterias nativas presentaron crecimiento y asimilación del alimento significativamente mayor que las dietas control. El tratamiento con Streptococcus sp. I, aislada del intestino de la tilapia, produjo el mejor crecimiento y la mejor eficiencia alimenticia, sugiriendo que esta bacteria es apropiada como un promotor de crecimiento nativo de tilapia. Abstract in english In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II), isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: one containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a co (more) ncentration of 2.5x10(6) cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control). Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight) stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

Lara-Flores, Maurilio; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A

2013-07-01

110

Infection dynamics of Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and C. sclerosus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalinae) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) from Uganda.  

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The infection dynamics of the gill monogeneans Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and C. sclerosus on Oreochromis niloticus with respect to habitat type (reservoir, stream, ponds and cages), host sex, size and seasons was determined between January and November 2008. During the study period, 45.2% of the 650 fish examined were infected with Cichlidogyrus spp. The infected hosts harboured an average of 8.6 ± 3.4 parasites/fish. Across habitat types, the proportion of infected fish was not statistically different. In contrast, the number of parasites recorded on infected fish from different habitat types differed significantly. The highest parasite number was recorded in reservoir-dwelling fish and lowest in stream-dwelling hosts. Concerning sex, more female O. niloticus were infected and harboured a high number of parasites than male and sexually undifferentiated fish. A weak negative relationship was found between rainfall and monthly parasite infections. However, a higher number of parasites and proportion of infected hosts were found during dry than in wet seasons, except in ponds. Results of this study show that differential exposure due to changes in fish behaviour associated with habitat modification and sex may account for the infection difference across the sampled sites. Meanwhile, rainfall and the associated hydrological events are important factors regulating monogenean infections in tropical aquatic environments. The continuous presence of Cichlidogyrus spp. in fish provides evidence of possible parasite outbreaks, indicating the application of biosecurity measures as crucial for the success of intensive fish farming.

Akoll P; Fioravanti ML; Konecny R; Schiemer F

2012-09-01

111

Infection dynamics of Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and C. sclerosus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalinae) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) from Uganda.  

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The infection dynamics of the gill monogeneans Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and C. sclerosus on Oreochromis niloticus with respect to habitat type (reservoir, stream, ponds and cages), host sex, size and seasons was determined between January and November 2008. During the study period, 45.2% of the 650 fish examined were infected with Cichlidogyrus spp. The infected hosts harboured an average of 8.6 ± 3.4 parasites/fish. Across habitat types, the proportion of infected fish was not statistically different. In contrast, the number of parasites recorded on infected fish from different habitat types differed significantly. The highest parasite number was recorded in reservoir-dwelling fish and lowest in stream-dwelling hosts. Concerning sex, more female O. niloticus were infected and harboured a high number of parasites than male and sexually undifferentiated fish. A weak negative relationship was found between rainfall and monthly parasite infections. However, a higher number of parasites and proportion of infected hosts were found during dry than in wet seasons, except in ponds. Results of this study show that differential exposure due to changes in fish behaviour associated with habitat modification and sex may account for the infection difference across the sampled sites. Meanwhile, rainfall and the associated hydrological events are important factors regulating monogenean infections in tropical aquatic environments. The continuous presence of Cichlidogyrus spp. in fish provides evidence of possible parasite outbreaks, indicating the application of biosecurity measures as crucial for the success of intensive fish farming. PMID:21791155

Akoll, P; Fioravanti, M L; Konecny, R; Schiemer, F

2011-07-27

112

Identification and virulence of Aeromonas dhakensis, Pseudomonas mosselii and Microbacterium paraoxydans isolated from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, cultivated in Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To identify bacterial pathogens of diseased NiIe tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and determine their virulence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen bacterial isolates were recovered from diseased Nile tilapias (O. niloticus) reared in floating cages in Adolfo Lopez Mateos (ALM), Sanalona and Dique IV dams in Sinaloa, Mexico, from February to May 2009. The bacterial isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular (rep-PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing) methods and were mostly isolated from the kidneys and the brain of tilapias. Bacterial cells and extracellular products (ECPs) of strains were characterized and used in experimental infections with sole Solea vulgaris and Mozambican tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. The fish challenged with Aeromonas dhakensis sp. nov. comb nov, Pseudomonas mosselii and Microbacterium paraoxydans (3·1 × 10(6)  CFU g(-) 1) exhibited mortality between 40 and 100% starting at 6 h postinoculation. The ECPs displayed gelatinase, haemolytic and cytotoxic activity, causing the total destruction of the HeLa cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas dhakensis and Ps. mosselii were virulent to O. mossambicus, whereas Mic. paraoxydans displayed virulence to S. vulgaris. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This the first time that Aeromonas dhakensis and Ps. mosselii are reported as pathogens to tilapia and Mic. paraoxydans was isolated from fish; then, these fish pathogens could be a threat to farmed Nile tilapia in Mexico.

Soto-Rodriguez SA; Cabanillas-Ramos J; Alcaraz U; Gomez-Gil B; Romalde JL

2013-09-01

113

EFFECT OF DIETARY BOVINE LACTOFERRIN ON DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)  

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Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth pe...

114

Studies and Observations on the Spawning of Oreochromis Niloticus Species Reared at SCDP Nucet - Dambovita  

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Full Text Available At the Fish Culture Research and Development Station Nucet, in 2011 were achieved studies and observations on the reproduction, sexual organs and seminal products of Oreochromis niloticus tropical species. A batch of 140 breeders of 1 year old Nile tilapia (T1) was stoked both in a pond as in Ewos tanks in two variants of density (VI) – 8 fish/tank, (VII) – 12 fish/tank. In a third variant were used 2 years old Nile tilapia breeders (T2), (VIII) – 4 fish/tank. The male/female ratio in all variants from tanks was 1:3. Independently, into another tank were stoked 20 males. Into the pond, spawning was achieved naturally, and on the tank variants, the eggs were gathered from the mouth of females and incubated in different incubation systems. On both rearing systems, under the climatic conditions from Nucet (south of Romania) were achieved 3 generations of Nile tilapia fry. On the female breeders, were determined: the gonad-somatic ratio, theoretical and adjective prolificacy (no. of eggs/g of ovary), and for males were achieved spermatozoa motility tests and determination of spermatozoa number per unit of volume.

Cecilia Bucur; Mioara Costache; Daniel Oprea; Marica Nino

2012-01-01

115

Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia) Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g) were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3) and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein) and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g) diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet) in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day) decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001). Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day) did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

Rodrigo O. A. Ozório; Leandro Portz; Ricardo Borghesi; José E. P. Cyrino

2012-01-01

116

Bacterial distribution and tissue targets following experimental Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

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Edwardsiella ictaluri, a Gram-negative enteric bacterium, is the known etiological agent of enteric septicemia of catfish. In the last few years, different strains have been implicated as the causative agent of mortality events in cultured fish, including Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. Due to the emergent nature of edwardsiellosis in non-ictalurid fish, little is known about the dynamics of E. ictaluri infection in tilapia. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of edwardsiellosis in tilapia by determining the median lethal and infective doses, tissue targets of infection, rate of bacterial dissemination, and the specific tissue response to E. ictaluri following an immersion challenge with bacterial strains recovered from outbreak events in tilapia. In addition to histopathology assessment, the bacterial burdens in several tissues of infected fish were determined over a 2 wk course of infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The collected data suggest the cutaneous and oral routes as the main ports of entry for the organism, which later spreads hematogenously throughout the body. Even though histopathological assessment of infected fish revealed involvement of a wide range of tissues, the severity of the necrotizing and granulomatous lesions in the spleen and head kidney, with concomitant high levels of bacterial DNA in these organs determined by qPCR, identifies them as the main targets of infection. PMID:23709463

Soto, Esteban; Illanes, Oscar; Revan, Floyd; Griffin, Matt; Riofrio, Andrés

2013-05-27

117

Bacterial distribution and tissue targets following experimental Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Edwardsiella ictaluri, a Gram-negative enteric bacterium, is the known etiological agent of enteric septicemia of catfish. In the last few years, different strains have been implicated as the causative agent of mortality events in cultured fish, including Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. Due to the emergent nature of edwardsiellosis in non-ictalurid fish, little is known about the dynamics of E. ictaluri infection in tilapia. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of edwardsiellosis in tilapia by determining the median lethal and infective doses, tissue targets of infection, rate of bacterial dissemination, and the specific tissue response to E. ictaluri following an immersion challenge with bacterial strains recovered from outbreak events in tilapia. In addition to histopathology assessment, the bacterial burdens in several tissues of infected fish were determined over a 2 wk course of infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The collected data suggest the cutaneous and oral routes as the main ports of entry for the organism, which later spreads hematogenously throughout the body. Even though histopathological assessment of infected fish revealed involvement of a wide range of tissues, the severity of the necrotizing and granulomatous lesions in the spleen and head kidney, with concomitant high levels of bacterial DNA in these organs determined by qPCR, identifies them as the main targets of infection.

Soto E; Illanes O; Revan F; Griffin M; Riofrio A

2013-05-01

118

Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use. PMID:22335051

Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2011-12-15

119

Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.

Abbas HH; Abbas WT

2011-12-01

120

Assessment Study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya Seeds to Control Oreochromis niloticus Breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of pawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.

Hossam H. Abbas; Wafaa T. Abbas

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Trophic interrelationships between the exotic Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and indigenous tilapiine cichlids in a subtropical African river system (Limpopo River, South Africa)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The stable isotope ratio and seasonal changes in diet of two indigenous (Oreochromis mossambicus, Tilapia rendalli) and one exotic (Oreochromis niloticus) tilapiine cichlids in the subtropical Limpopo River, South Africa were investigated to determine patterns of resource partitioning. Stomach conte...

Zengeya, Tsungai Alfred; Booth, Anthony J.; Bastos, Armanda D.S.; Chimimba, Christian Timothy

122

Probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici modulates both localised intestinal- and peripheral-immunity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of probiotics in aquaculture has received concerted research efforts but the localised intestinal immunological response of fish to probiotic bacteria is poorly understood. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic effect of Pediococcus acidilactici on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with specific emphasis on intestinal health and probiotic levels as well as system level responses such as growth performance, feed utilization and haemato-immunological parameters under non-challenged conditions. Fish (9.19 ± 0.04 g) were fed either a control diet or a P. acidilactici supplemented diet (at 2.81 × 10(6) CFU g(-)(1)) for six weeks. At the end of the study the probiotic was observed to populate the intestine, accounting for ca. 3% (1.59 × 10(5) CFU g(-)(1)) of the cultivable intestinal bacterial load. Real-time PCR indicated that the probiotic treatment may potentiate the immune-responsiveness of the intestine as up-regulation of the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? was observed in the probiotic fed fish (P 0.05). PMID:23871840

Standen, B T; Rawling, M D; Davies, S J; Castex, M; Foey, A; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Merrifield, D L

2013-07-18

123

Avaliação de diferentes posições de marcação externa em juvenis de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliados, neste trabalho, o efeito e a eficácia de uma técnica de marcação externa em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae). Com o auxílio de uma agulha nº 9, um fio sintético flexível (0,20mm) contendo 3 miçangas coloridas, foi fixado à musculatura dos peixes em 3 posições: na musculatura de inserção da nadadeira dorsal (D) e na musculatura de inserção da nadadeira caudal nas posições dorsal (C) e ventral (V). Um total de 120 animais, com peso de 11,5g e 8,2cm de comprimento total, foram marcados e distribuídos em 2 tanques-rede na densidade de 30 peixes/m3. Em cada tanque-rede foram estocados 60 indivíduos, classificados em 4 grupos, sendo 3 com marcações do tipo D, C e V e um controle sem marcação (SM), com 15 peixes por tratamento. Após 60 dias, verificou-se melhor eficácia da marcação C, sendo observados 5 animais com perda da marcação D, 2 da C e 3 da V em cada tanque. Os valores médios de desempenho variaram de 40,8g a 55,7g, sendo os maiores valores atingidos pelos peixes marcados em comparação aos não-marcados (pThe effect of marking techniques on the development of tilapia juveniles, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) and their efficiency were evaluated. By means of a n. 9 needle, a flexible synthetic string (0.20mm) containing synthetic colored beads was fixed on the fish muscle in three positions: anterior part of the dorsal fin (D), insertion muscle of the dorsal (C) and ventral (V) fins. One hundred and twenty specimens, weight 11.5g and length 8.2cm, were marked and distributed into two net tanks, with stocking density of 30 fish.m-3. Sixty fish were stocked in each tank (three groups marked D, C and V, and one control group with no mark at all, SM), with 15 specimens per treatment. Results show that after 60 days C position was the most efficient; 5 specimens lost D marking, 2 lost C marking and 3 V marking, in each tank. Mean performance rates ranged from 40.8 to 55.7g; highest rates were those from marked ones (p<0.05). There was no difference in rates within the four groups for SM and D juveniles. Since marking technique did not cause any negative effect on the development of juveniles, it may be recommended for use.

Regina Helena Sant'Ana de Faria; Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza; Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro; Vanice Marli Fülbe

2003-01-01

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Formation of ring marks in stocked tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus) (Perciformes: Cichlidae)  

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Full Text Available Lake Metztitlán was dried up completely in the spring of 1998 and refilled in August of that year. In the period September-November, two cohorts of 1.6 million juveniles of a tilapia hybrid were stocked (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus), and monitored every month for one year. Since the date of birth of these juveniles was known, the analyses focused on whether the ring marks of the scales, sagittae and opercula or the circuli of the scales could be used to age them. The ring marks of the scales and opercula showed great variability, and the sagittae had a significant relationship with length, but it is unclear if at least the first ring mark could be formed at the hatchery and reflect changes in diet and/or tank movements in the fish farm. The circuli had a continuous regular behavior, with a formation rate of 10.38±0.93 and 11.38±0.95 circuli/month for the first and second cohorts, respectively. This proportion was maintained during the study period, and could be of help to calculate an approximate age of juveniles, especially in stocked fish that show multiple ring marks because of manipulation in fish farms and stocking events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4): 1005-1013. Epub 2007 December, 28.El lago de Metztitlán se secó completamente en la primavera de 1998, inundándose nuevamente en agosto del mismo año para ser repoblado entre septiembre y noviembre con 1.6 millones de jóvenes de un híbrido de tilapia (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus) en dos periodos. Ambas cohortes fueron monitoreadas mensualmente durante un año. Debido a que la fecha de nacimiento era conocida, el objetivo del estudio fue evaluar si las marcas anulares de las escamas, las sagittae y los opérculos, o los circuli de las escamas pueden usarse para estimar la edad. Los anillos de las escamas y opérculos mostraron gran variabilidad, mientras que las de las sagittae se relacionaron significativamente con la longitud, sin embargo no quedó claro si al menos el primer anillo podría haber sido formado por cambios en dieta o movimientos en los tanques de la granja de cultivo. Por el contrario los circuli mostraron una formación regular con una tasa de formación de 10.38±0.93 y 11.38±0.95 circuli/mes para la primera y segunda cohortes, respectivamente, proporción que fue mantenida durante el periodo de estudio y que puede ser usada para calcular la edad de los jóvenes, especialmente en organismos que muestran numerosos anillos debido a la manipulación sufrida en las granjas o debido a las "siembras".

Ana L Ibañez; Marco A Romo-Coronel

2007-01-01

125

Energia digestível para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Digestible energy for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Utilizaram-se 125 alevinos com peso e comprimento iniciais de 0,62±0,12 g e 3,25±0,25 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental consistiu de um aquário contendo cinco alevinos. As rações, isoprotéicas (30% de proteína digestível), isofosfóricas e isocalcíticas, foram formuladas para conter 2.900; 3.025; 3.150; 3.275 e 3.400 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A quantidade de ração fornecida (quatro vezes ao dia) correspondeu a 10% da biomassa. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água (oxigênio dissolvido - OD, pH e condutividade elétrica - CE) foram mensurados semanalmente, à tarde, e a temperatura, diariamente, antes da primeira e da última sifonagem, apresentando médias de 8,00±0,05 mg/L; 7,91±0,19; 92,11±2,27 µS/cm e 25,61±0,90ºC, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, foram analisadas as médias de peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento final, conversão alimentar aparente, sobrevivência e fator de condição. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho de alevinos entre os diferentes tratamentos. Recomenda-se a utilização de 2.900 a 3.400 kcal de ED/kg na ração de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo.The different levels of digestible energy on the performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings were evaluated. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings averaging initial length and weight of 0.62±0.12 and 3.25±0.25 cm were allotted to 25 30L-aquariums, as a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates (an aquarium with five fingerlings was considered the experimental unit). The diets, formulated to be isonitrogenous (30% of digestible protein), isophosphorous and isocalcium, contained 3,300, 3,525, 3,750, 3,975, and 4,200 kcal/kg of digestible energy. The amount of diet was fed of 10% of biomass four times a day. The abiotic parameters (pH, dissolved oxigen - DO, and electric condutivity - EC) were weekly measured at afternoon and the temperature was was daily mensured. The following values were observed: pH of 7.91±0.19, DO of 8.00±0.05 mg/L, EC of 92.11±2.27 µS/cm, and temperature of 25.61±0.90ºC. At the end of experiment, means of final weight, weight gain, final length, apparent feeding conversion, survival rate and condition factor were analyzed. No significant differences on fingerling perfomance were found across the treatments. It can be included from 2,900 to 3,400 kcal of ED/kg in the diet of Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Aldi Feiden; Altevir Signor; Arcangelo Augusto Signor; Jandir José Bard; Fabio Akira Ishida

2006-01-01

126

Energia digestível para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)/ Digestible energy for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Utilizaram-se 125 alevinos com peso e comprimento iniciais de 0,62±0,12 g e 3,25±0,25 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental consistiu de um aqu (more) ário contendo cinco alevinos. As rações, isoprotéicas (30% de proteína digestível), isofosfóricas e isocalcíticas, foram formuladas para conter 2.900; 3.025; 3.150; 3.275 e 3.400 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A quantidade de ração fornecida (quatro vezes ao dia) correspondeu a 10% da biomassa. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água (oxigênio dissolvido - OD, pH e condutividade elétrica - CE) foram mensurados semanalmente, à tarde, e a temperatura, diariamente, antes da primeira e da última sifonagem, apresentando médias de 8,00±0,05 mg/L; 7,91±0,19; 92,11±2,27 µS/cm e 25,61±0,90ºC, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, foram analisadas as médias de peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento final, conversão alimentar aparente, sobrevivência e fator de condição. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho de alevinos entre os diferentes tratamentos. Recomenda-se a utilização de 2.900 a 3.400 kcal de ED/kg na ração de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo. Abstract in english The different levels of digestible energy on the performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings were evaluated. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings averaging initial length and weight of 0.62±0.12 and 3.25±0.25 cm were allotted to 25 30L-aquariums, as a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates (an aquarium with five fingerlings was considered the experimental unit). The diets, formulated to be isonitrogenous (more) (30% of digestible protein), isophosphorous and isocalcium, contained 3,300, 3,525, 3,750, 3,975, and 4,200 kcal/kg of digestible energy. The amount of diet was fed of 10% of biomass four times a day. The abiotic parameters (pH, dissolved oxigen - DO, and electric condutivity - EC) were weekly measured at afternoon and the temperature was was daily mensured. The following values were observed: pH of 7.91±0.19, DO of 8.00±0.05 mg/L, EC of 92.11±2.27 µS/cm, and temperature of 25.61±0.90ºC. At the end of experiment, means of final weight, weight gain, final length, apparent feeding conversion, survival rate and condition factor were analyzed. No significant differences on fingerling perfomance were found across the treatments. It can be included from 2,900 to 3,400 kcal of ED/kg in the diet of Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Boscolo, Wilson Rogério; Feiden, Aldi; Signor, Altevir; Signor, Arcangelo Augusto; Bard, Jandir José; Ishida, Fabio Akira

2006-06-01

127

Triguilho na alimentação da tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.): digestibilidade e desempenho Wheat midlings in the nile tilapia feeding (Oreochromis niloticus L.): digestibility and performance  

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Full Text Available No presente experimento objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa) da proteína bruta (PB) e da energia bruta (EB) do triguilho para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e avaliar a inclusão do triguilho sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo. Para a determinação dos CDa, foram utilizadas 40 tilápias com peso e comprimento médios de 80,00g e 15,9cm, respectivamente, submetidas à coleta das fezes por sedimentação. Para a avaliação do desempenho, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, com peso inicial médio de 0,80g, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. As rações experimentais continham níveis de inclusão de 0,00; 7,97; 14,94; 23,91 e 31,88% de triguilho substituindo até 100% do milho. Os CDas da PB e EB do triguilho foram de 91,03 e 78,72%, respectivamente, apresentando 11,92% de proteína digestível e 3134Kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Não foi observada diferença (P>0,05) no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com as rações contendo os diferentes níveis de inclusão do triguilho. O triguilho é um alimento com bons CDa da PB e EB e pode ser incluído em até 31,88% em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo sem causar prejuízo no desempenho.This experiment was aimed at determining the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of the raw protein (RP) and of raw energy (RE) of the wheat middling given to the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and evaluating the inclusion of wheat middling on the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. In order to determine the ADC, 40 tilapias with the average weight and length of 80g and 15.9cm, respectively, were used and submitted to the collection of the excrements by sedimentation. To the evaluation of the performance 125 fingerlings of Nile tilapia were used, with an initial average weight of 0.80g, distributed into 25 aquariums with a 30L capacity at a random design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The experimental fish feed had inclusion levels of 0.00; 7.97; 14.94; 23.91 and 31.88% of wheat middling, substituting corn up to 100%. The ADCs of RP and RE of the wheat middling were 91.03% and 78.72, respectively, presenting 11.92% of digestible protein and 3134kcal kg-1 of digestible energy. No difference was observed (P>0.05) in the performance of the fish fed with the fish feed having the different levels of inclusion of the wheat middling. The wheat middling is a feed with good ADC of RP and RE and can be included in up to 31.88% in fish food for Nile tilapia fingerlings without causing damage in its performance.

Arcangelo Augusto Signor; Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Aldi Feiden; Altevir Signor; Adilson Reidel

2007-01-01

128

Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Wastes Produced by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) Fed Azolla-Diets in Earthen Ponds  

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Full Text Available Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) wastes produced by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla, an aquatic atmospheric nitrogen fixing fern, was evaluated for 90 days in pond experiment. Six isonitrogenous (29.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (16.9 Kj·g–1) diets A0, A10, A20, A30, A40 and A50, containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of Azolla meal (AM) respectively, as partial fishmeal (FM) substitutes, was provided to experimental fish. The Azolla-free diet A0 served as a control. Fish specific growth rate (SGR) was higher with the control diet, the lower values being obtained in A50-fed fish (P Azolla could be used in diet to sustain Nile tilapia growth and as “environmentally-friendly” ingredient to limit P loss, while providing N to the field, beneficially in tropical marshland pond where this nutrient is already limiting.

Youssouf Abou; Aliou Saidou; Daouda Mama; Emile D. Fiogbé; Jean-Claude Micha

2012-01-01

129

Daily growth of young-of-the-year of the Baringo tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis (Trewavas, 1983)  

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Full Text Available Otolith microstructure analysis was used to validate microincrement deposition rate and to determine  daily growth rates of young-of-the-year (YOY) Baringo tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis. Microincrement  formation was validated as daily by correlating the number of circuli on otoliths with the known  age of cultured fish. For wild young-of-the-year fish collected from Lake Baringo, Kenya, in August and October 2007 length was positively correlated with  the age of fish (total length (mm) = 0.1187 age (/day) + 1.1344 (r2 = 0.97); standard length (mm) =0.0964 age (/day) + 0.7082(r2 = 0.97)) and growth rate was subsequently estimated at 0.12 cm/day.

Chrisphine S. Nyamweya; Chrisestom M. Mlewa; Charles C. Ngugi; Boaz Kaunda-Arara

2011-01-01

130

Responses of the Mullet, Liza auratus and the Cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzala (Egypt) to Heterophyd Infection  

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Full Text Available In this study, the occurrence of heterophyid infection in two well-known hosts of heterophyd in Egyptian lake (Manzala); the mullet, Liza auratus and the cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. Furthermore, the potential factors that possibly affect the occurrence of the infection including host sex, length, weight and seasonal variation were considered. The pathological response of the two fish host to the infection was studied. Results showed that the prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection in the two fish host greatly affected by the factor considered in contradictory way. The responses to infection and the possible effect of the interaction between all the considered factors are discussed in details. In addition, metacercarial infection caused alterations in the histological architecture of the infected tissues and in the composition of the muscle proteins as well which was more pronounced in O. niloticus and L. auratus, respectively. In conclusion, many biological and environmental factors do affect the occurrence of heterophyid infection in addition to the anthropogenic activity. L. auratus was more susceptible to the infection as compared to O. niloticus from the same habitat.

M.A. Ghobashy; M.F.M. Soliman; E.A. Hassan

2010-01-01

131

Qualidade do sêmen em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de vitamina C = Semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), fed with diets containing different vitamin C levels  

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Full Text Available A vitamina C atua na proteção de danos celulares provocados pelos radicais livres, sendo a suplementação considerada essencial para a maioria das espécies de peixes, uma vez que não a sintetizam em função da ausência da enzima L-gulonolactona oxidase. Assim, avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de 0, 75, 150 e 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração na qualidade do sêmen em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Os parâmetros quali-quantitativos do sêmen não foram influenciados pela suplementação de vitamina C, exceto a motilidade progressiva que aumentou linearmente com adição de vitamina C. Conclui-se que os reprodutores de tilápias do Nilo devem ser suplementados com 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração.Vitamin C acts as cellular protection from damage by free radicals, and vitamin C supplementation is considered essential for most fish species, as they do not synthesize it due to the absence of enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase. Thus, the effect of supplementation with 0, 75, 150 and 225 mg of vitamin C kg-1 of ration was evaluated in the semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Seminal parameters were not influenced by vitamin C supplementation except progressive motility, which increased linearly with the addition of vitamin C. It was concluded that Nile tilapia reproducers should be supplemented with 225 mg vitamin C kg-1 ration.

Marcela Mataveli; Gentil Vanini de Moraes; Danilo Pedro Streit Junior; Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro; Eliane Gasparino

2010-01-01

132

Efeito da suplementação da dieta com NaCl no crescimento de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus cultivada em diferentes salinidades/ Effect of supplemental dietary sodium chloride on growth rate of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reared in variable salinities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado com o objectivo de testar o efeito de uma dieta suplementada com cloreto de sódio no crescimento de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus cultivada em água doce e em água salobra a 10 e 20?. Foi fornecida uma dieta suplementada com 8% de NaCl durante o período de aclimatação de três semanas. Após esse período, os peixes foram diretamente transferidos para tanques com água doce e água salobra a 10 e 20?, para o estudo do crescimento de 180 d (more) ias. A suplementação com NaCl aumentou o crescimento dos peixes cultivados em água doce nos primeiros 30 dias (P Abstract in english This trial was conducted to test the effect of supplemental dietary sodium chloride on growth of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reared in freshwater or 10 and 20? brackish water (BW). High salt diets supplemented with 8% of NaCl were fed to tilapia for a period of three weeks. After this acclimatization period they were transferred to salinities and the growth rate was recorded over a 180-day-period. Dietary supplementation with NaCl improved the growth rate of fish kept (more) in freshwater at 30 days (P

Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A.; Gomes, E.; Reis-Henriques, M.A.; Coimbra, J.

2002-04-01

133

Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding.

MEDRI V.; PEREIRA G. V.; LEONHARDT J. H.

2000-01-01

134

Establishment of a model of Streptococcus iniae meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus iniae is an invasive pathogen causing meningitis and other lesions in various fish species. Furthermore, S. iniae is an emerging zoonotic agent that causes cellulitis in man. The aims of this study were to establish an intraperitoneal infection model for S. iniae in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to develop a new histopathological scoring system to reflect the degree and extent of inflammation as well as the presence of necrosis in the brain and eye. Intraperitoneal administration of 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) led to 80% mortality and numerous fish developing clinical signs of central nervous system dysfunction. Microscopical examination of four regions of the brain (olfactory bulb, cerebellum, cerebrum and optical lobe) and the eye revealed the presence of lymphohistiocytic leptomeningitis, meningoencephalitis and endophthalmitis. Lesions were dominated by macrophages that often contained intracellular bacteria. Necrosis was recorded in some cases. Bacteriological screening revealed that multiple organs, including brain and eye, were infected with S. iniae and S. iniae colonized the scales and gills in high number. S. iniae was detected in tank water during the first week post infection, suggesting that infected tilapia might shed up to 3 × 10(7) CFU of S. iniae within 24 h. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction allowed confirmation of the challenge strain by detection of the virulence factors simA, scpI, cpsD, pgi, pgm and sagA. PMID:23218409

Baums, C G; Hermeyer, K; Leimbach, S; Adamek, M; Czerny, C-P; Hörstgen-Schwark, G; Valentin-Weigand, P; Baumgärtner, W; Steinhagen, D

2012-12-04

135

Establishment of a model of Streptococcus iniae meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus iniae is an invasive pathogen causing meningitis and other lesions in various fish species. Furthermore, S. iniae is an emerging zoonotic agent that causes cellulitis in man. The aims of this study were to establish an intraperitoneal infection model for S. iniae in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to develop a new histopathological scoring system to reflect the degree and extent of inflammation as well as the presence of necrosis in the brain and eye. Intraperitoneal administration of 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) led to 80% mortality and numerous fish developing clinical signs of central nervous system dysfunction. Microscopical examination of four regions of the brain (olfactory bulb, cerebellum, cerebrum and optical lobe) and the eye revealed the presence of lymphohistiocytic leptomeningitis, meningoencephalitis and endophthalmitis. Lesions were dominated by macrophages that often contained intracellular bacteria. Necrosis was recorded in some cases. Bacteriological screening revealed that multiple organs, including brain and eye, were infected with S. iniae and S. iniae colonized the scales and gills in high number. S. iniae was detected in tank water during the first week post infection, suggesting that infected tilapia might shed up to 3 × 10(7) CFU of S. iniae within 24 h. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction allowed confirmation of the challenge strain by detection of the virulence factors simA, scpI, cpsD, pgi, pgm and sagA.

Baums CG; Hermeyer K; Leimbach S; Adamek M; Czerny CP; Hörstgen-Schwark G; Valentin-Weigand P; Baumgärtner W; Steinhagen D

2013-07-01

136

Cyanobacterium producing cylindrospermopsin cause histopathological changes at environmentally relevant concentrations in subchronically exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acute toxicity of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has been established in rodents, based on diverse intraperitoneal an oral exposure studies and more recently in fish. But no data have been reported in fish after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells containing this cyanotoxin, so far. In this work, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed by immersion to lyophilized Aphanizomenon ovalisporum cells added to the aquaria using two concentration levels of CYN (10 or 100 ?g CYN L(-1) ) and deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (deoxy-CYN) (0.46 or 4.6 ?g deoxy-CYN L(-1) ), during two different exposure times: 7 or 14 d. This is the first study showing damage in the liver, kidney, hearth, intestines, and gills of tilapia after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells at environmental relevant concentrations. The major histological changes observed were degenerative processes and steatosis in the liver, membranous glomerulopathy in the kidney, myofibrolysis and edema in the heart, necrotic enteritis in the gastrointestinal tract, and hyperemic processes in gill lamellae and microhemorrhages. Moreover, these histopathological findings confirm that the extent of damage is related to the CYN concentration and length of exposure. Results from the morphometric study indicated that the average of nuclear diameter of hepatocytes and cross-sections of proximal and distal convoluted tubules are useful to evaluate the damage induced by CYN in the main targets of toxicity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.

Guzmán-Guillén R; Prieto AI; Moreno I; Vasconcelos VM; Moyano R; Blanco A; Cameán Fernandez AM

2013-09-01

137

Qualidade do sêmen em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de vitamina C  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A vitamina C atua na proteção de danos celulares provocados pelos radicais livres, sendo a suplementação considerada essencial para a maioria das espécies de peixes, uma vez que não a sintetizam em função da ausência da enzima L-gulonolactona oxidase. Assim, avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de 0, 75, 150 e 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração na qualidade do sêmen em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Os parâmetros quali-quantitativos do sêmen não foram influenciados pela suplementação de vitamina C, exceto a motilidade progressiva que aumentou linearmente com adição de vitamina C. Conclui-se que os reprodutores de tilápias do Nilo devem ser suplementados com 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração.Vitamin C acts as cellular protection from damage by free radicals, and vitamin C supplementation is considered essential for most fish species, as they do not synthesize it due to the absence of enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase. Thus, the effect of supplementation with 0, 75, 150 and 225 mg of vitamin C kg-1 of ration was evaluated in the semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Seminal parameters were not influenced by vitamin C supplementation except progressive motility, which increased linearly with the addition of vitamin C. It was concluded that Nile tilapia reproducers should be supplemented with 225 mg vitamin C kg-1 ration.

Marcela Mataveli; Gentil Vanini de Moraes; Danilo Pedro Streit Junior; Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro; Eliane Gasparino

2010-01-01

138

The Effects of Some Phytobiotics on Biochemical Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Meat Reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment is the evaluation of biochemical composition of Nile tilapia meat by administrating  several phytobiotics in feed. Oreochromis niloticus, with an initial average weight of 125.41±34.33 g/exemplar, were reared, during six weeks in a recirculating aquaculture system. The phytobiotics from this experiment were administered in feed in a concentration of 1%/kg feed and consist in: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), fenugreek (Trigonela foenum graecum), neem (Azadirachta indica). Thus, the experimental variants were: V1-control, V2-thyme, V3-fenugreek and V4-neem. Fish were fed with SOPROFISH pelleted feed with 38% crude protein and 7% crude fat. During the experiment, the physico-chemical parameters of technological water were situated in normal range for optimal growth. At the end of the experiment, significant differences (p0.05; p=0.68). The highest value of moisture (87.25%) was registered in V2; the lowest value of fat content (0.05%) was recorded in V4 and the lowest protein content (10.79%) in V2. In conclusion, thyme, fenugreek and neem administration, in concentration of 1%/kg feed, influenced significantly the biochemical composition of Oreochromis niloticus.

Alina Antache; Cristea Victor; Grecu Iulia; Dediu Lorena; Mocanu (Cretu) Mirela; Ion (Placinta) Sandita; Petrea Stefan Mihai

2013-01-01

139

Morpho-functional response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to a homeopathic complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the performance, prevalence of ectoparasites and morpho-functional response of the liver and the branchiae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised on fish meal with added of the homeopathic complex Homeopatila 100(®) at different concentrations. METHODS: Post-reversed juvenile Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) of the GIFT (Genetic Improvement of Farmed Tilapia) strain were used in this study. The performance, ectoparasite prevalence and parasite load in the branchiae and skin as well as the liver and branchial histology. Fish were randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments: control, 20 mL hydroalcoholic solution (alcohol 30° GL); 20 mL Homeopatila 100(®) per kg of meal; 40 mL Homeopatila 100(®) per kg of meal; or 60 mL of Homeopatila 100(®) per kg of meal, compared to control with out the addition of the complex. There were four replications per treatment type (16 experimental units total) at a density of 40 fish per m(3) over a period of 57 days. The Kruskal-Wallis H test (p < 0.05) was employed to analyse the physical and chemical parameters of water as well as for parasite prevalence; whereas analysis of variance was used for liver performance. If the values were significant (p < 0.05), they were compared by Tukey's test. Multiple comparisons of averages were performed using Student's t test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There were no significant between the physical and chemical parameters of the water between the different groups at the end of the experiment. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the mixed parasite conditions were found within the different Homeopatila 100(®) treatments. The hepatosomatic ratio of fish treated with Homeopatila 100(®) was significantly lower than that of fish from the control group. The best results in the liver and branchiae occurred in fish receiving Homeopatila 100(®) at 40 mL/kg in terms of the number of hepatocytes/mm(2), the intercellular glycogenic behaviour, the rates of histological changes (hyperplasia, lamella fusion and telangiectasia) and the percentage of neutral and acidic mucin-producing cells. CONCLUSION: The addition of Homeopatila 100(®) at a concentration 40 mL per kg/meal to the diet of juvenile Nile tilapias resulted in improved hepatocytes and intracellular glycogen levels as well as the lowest mean rate of branchial histological changes with an increase in acidic mucin-producing cells compared to neutral mucin-producing cells, compared to control.

Braccini GL; Natali MR; Ribeiro RP; Mori RH; Riggo R; Oliveira CA; Hildebrandt JF; Vargas L

2013-10-01

140

Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses  

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Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa) sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

Andréia B. Poletto; Adriane P. Wasko; Claudio Oliveira; Alexandre Azevedo; Robson F. Carvalho; Maeli Dal Pai Silva; Fausto Foresti; Cesar Martins

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa) sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed betw (more) een O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

Poletto, Andréia B.; Wasko, Adriane P.; Oliveira, Claudio; Azevedo, Alexandre; Carvalho, Robson F.; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai; Foresti, Fausto; Martins, Cesar

2008-01-01

142

Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii (Gervais) (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in the Lake Turkana, Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. is described from the fin surface of cichlid fishes Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Tilapia zillii (Gervais) caught in Lake Turkana (Kenya). The new species morphologically resembles Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973, but can be readily distinguished by the shape of the marginal hook sickles and the size of its hamuli. The sequence data of rDNA spanning partial 18S, internal transcribe spacer 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene is unique within GenBank. Genetically, as most similar Gyrodactylus ergensi P?ikrylová, Mat?jusová, Musilová et Gelnar, 2009 was found (97.5%). Moreover, a specimen of G. cichlidarum from O. niloticus, and a specimen G. ergensi from Sarotherodon galilaeus (L.) were collected during sampling in Kenya. Likewise, additional sampling of O. niloticus from the Blue Nile in Sudan revealed the presence of the newly described species. These findings represent the first records of gyrodactylids in both African countries.

P?ikrylová I; Radim B; Gelnar M

2012-06-01

143

Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo State, Brazil/ Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses), compreendendo a á (more) gua de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos. Abstract in english Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) rearing. Sampling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months), taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mi (more) xed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.

Pereira, Jeniffer Sati; Mercante, Cacilda Thais Janson; Lombardi, Julio Vicente; Vaz-dos-Santos, André Martins; Carmo, Clóvis Ferreira do; Osti, João Alexandre Saviolo

2013-01-01

144

Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo State, Brazil/ Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses), compreendendo a á (more) gua de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos. Abstract in english Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) rearing. Sampling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months), taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mi (more) xed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.

Pereira, Jeniffer Sati; Mercante, Cacilda Thais Janson; Lombardi, Julio Vicente; Vaz-dos-Santos, André Martins; Carmo, Clóvis Ferreira do; Osti, João Alexandre Saviolo

2012-12-01

145

Optimum harvest time in Aquaculture: an application of economic principles to a Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), growth model  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple method is presented for determining the optimum time to harvest fish and the effect of fertilization type on optimum harvest time for Aquaculture. Optimum harvest time was similar for either maximizing fish yield or maximizing profit of fish harvested (price of fish times fish yield minus fish production cost), because the daily change in fish production cost was low for the low-input Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), production system in Thailand. At a harvest time of 150 days for an organic fertilization treatment compared to an inorganic fertilization treatment fish yield increased from l-505 t/ha to 2-295 t/ha, and profit of fish harvested increased from 15657·1 baht/ha (US$ 590-8/ha) to 25127·5 baht/ha (US$ 948-2/ha). For the organic treatment, optimum harvest time occurred at 191 days, with a fish yield of 2·328 t/ha and a profit of 25520·5baht/ha (US$ 963·0/ha), compared to the inorganic treatment where optimum harvest time occurred at 105 days with a fish yield of 1·536 t/ha and a profit of 16035·4baht/ha (US$ 605·1/ha).

SPRINGBORN RR; JENSEN AL; CHANG WYB; ENGLE C

1992-11-01

146

The Effects of Different Oils Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 600 juvenile fish with average initial weight of 2.540.07 g were enrolled to this study to investigate the effects of different oil sources (fish oil, soybean oil, linseed oil and beef tallow) on the growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) during 14 weeks. Experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous (30.76% CP) and isocaloric (13.09 MJ DE kg-1). At the end of the study, it was observed that there were no significant differences among the groups for average live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, Condition Factor (CF), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and survival rate (p>0.05) but carcass composition (p<0.05).

Sezai A. Bozaoglu; Murat Bilguven

2012-01-01

147

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological (more) analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

FIUZA, TATIANA S; SILVA, PAULO C; PAULA, JOSÉ R DE; TRESVENZOL, LEONICE M F; SABÓIA-MORAIS, SIMONE M T

2009-01-01

148

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

2010-01-29

149

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

Fiuza TS; Silva PC; De Paula JR; Tresvenzol LM; Sabóia-Morais SM

150

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

TATIANA S FIUZA; PAULO C SILVA; JOSÉ R DE PAULA; LEONICE M F TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T SABÓIA-MORAIS

2009-01-01

151

Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) in mixed raising systems  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Phase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada) were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising), final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising); but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realizada em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada) e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo); peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo) e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada.

Patrícia Ribeiro Neves; Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro; Lauro Vargas; Maria Raquel Marçal Natali; Káttia Regina Maehana; Nilton Garcia Marengoni

2008-01-01

152

Técnicas de controle de qualidade utilizadas na criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), de 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14g, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 180 dias. Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de destilaria alcooleira. Os resultados médios obtidos para os parâmetros limnológicos no controle da qualidade da água através de análises físico-químicas e gráficos de controle foram normais durante todo o período experimental. Os valores da temperatura média mensal revelaram estar “fora de controle estatístico”, e mostraram, através da aplicação dos índices de capacidade (Cp e Cpk), que 35,20% estão abaixo do limite inferior de especificação (LIE). A análise dos resultados obtidos, através da aplicação das técnicas de Pareto e Problema da Mochila, evidenciou a solução ótima para resolver os problemas de predadores, biometrias e doenças com a função objetivo Z* maximizada. A utilização das técnicas de controle de qualidade permite um aumento da taxa de estocagem nos tanques sem redução da taxa de crescimento individual e com obtenção de altas produções de peixes de boa qualidade.Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus), 45 days old, sexually reverted, with initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14g, distributed in a totally randomized design during 180 days, were used in this experiment. Effects of substitutions of 10%, 20% and 30% of the rations by yeast obtained from alcohol distillery were evaluated. Average results obtained for the limnological parameters in water quality control by means of chemical analyses and control graphs were considered normal during the entire experimental period. Values of monthly average temperature were statistically out of control and by the application of the capacity rates (Cp and Cpk) showed that 35.20% were below the lowest specification limit (LSL). By means of Pareto’s techniques and knapsack problem used, results presented the best solution for problems of predators, biometry and diseases with the maximized function Z* objective. Quality control techniques have made possible an increase of stocking rate in the tanks without a reduction of the individual growth rate and with high productions of good quality fish.

Vandir Medri; Geni Varéa Pereira; Júlio Hermann Leonhardt

1998-01-01

153

Effects of low dietary levels of saponins on two common culture fish - common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.))  

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Saponins are a group of compounds present in many wild plants and cultivated crops and are commonly found in traditional medicinal preparations. Feeding experiments using saponin-supplemented (commercial Quillaja saponin) feeds were conducted in two commonly cultured fish species, namely common car...

Francis, George

154

Effects of malachite green on the mRNA expression of detoxification-related genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and other major Chinese freshwater fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of malachite green (MG) in fish farming is prohibited in China due to its potentially toxicological and carcinogenic nature, but it is still illegally used in some places. The aim of this study was to investigate the time and concentration-dependent responses of xenobiotic metabolizing and detoxification-related genes in diverse fishes exposed to MG both in vivo and in vitro. Experimental fish were administered to two exposure groups of malachite green (MG) (0.10 and 0.50 mg L?¹) for 8 h. The hepatocytes isolated from Nile tilapia were incubated with MG (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg L?¹) for 8 and 24 h, respectively. In vivo, exposure to 0.10 and 0.50 mg L?¹ MG for 8 h caused significant changes of the detoxification-related genes on the mRNA expression levels. Low-concentration (0.10 mg L?¹) level of MG induced significant increase on the mRNA expression level of GSTR gene in Nile tilapia and other fishes. The mRNA expression of grass carp UCP2 was significantly induced when exposed to 0.5 mg L?¹ MG. However, the mRNA expression levels of GSTA, CYP1A, and GPX were inhibited significantly by 0.5 mg L?¹ MG in Nile tilapia, grass carp, and Taiwan snakehead. In vitro, the significant increase of mRNA expression of these genes was detected after exposure to 0.5 mg L?¹ MG (UCP2), and 1.0 mg L?¹ MG (CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2). The induction of hepatic CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2 in response to MG suggested a potential role of fish CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2 in MG metabolism. PMID:22052600

Li, Guangyu; Shen, Dan; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Yan; He, Shan

2011-11-03

155

Effects of malachite green on the mRNA expression of detoxification-related genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and other major Chinese freshwater fishes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of malachite green (MG) in fish farming is prohibited in China due to its potentially toxicological and carcinogenic nature, but it is still illegally used in some places. The aim of this study was to investigate the time and concentration-dependent responses of xenobiotic metabolizing and detoxification-related genes in diverse fishes exposed to MG both in vivo and in vitro. Experimental fish were administered to two exposure groups of malachite green (MG) (0.10 and 0.50 mg L?¹) for 8 h. The hepatocytes isolated from Nile tilapia were incubated with MG (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg L?¹) for 8 and 24 h, respectively. In vivo, exposure to 0.10 and 0.50 mg L?¹ MG for 8 h caused significant changes of the detoxification-related genes on the mRNA expression levels. Low-concentration (0.10 mg L?¹) level of MG induced significant increase on the mRNA expression level of GSTR gene in Nile tilapia and other fishes. The mRNA expression of grass carp UCP2 was significantly induced when exposed to 0.5 mg L?¹ MG. However, the mRNA expression levels of GSTA, CYP1A, and GPX were inhibited significantly by 0.5 mg L?¹ MG in Nile tilapia, grass carp, and Taiwan snakehead. In vitro, the significant increase of mRNA expression of these genes was detected after exposure to 0.5 mg L?¹ MG (UCP2), and 1.0 mg L?¹ MG (CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2). The induction of hepatic CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2 in response to MG suggested a potential role of fish CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2 in MG metabolism.

Li G; Shen D; Liang XF; He Y; He S

2013-03-01

156

Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper Alterações histopatológicas no epitélio hepático e branquial da Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, exposta a diferentes concentrações de cobre  

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Full Text Available Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were reared in freshwater and exposed to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 of waterborne copper for a period of 21 days. Liver and gill samples were collected after 21 days of exposure to copper and lesions were analyzed by light microscopy. The main histopathological changes observed in gills exposed to the highest concentration were edema, lifting of lamellar epithelia and an intense vasodilatation of the lamellar vascular axis. Although less frequent, lamellar fusion caused by the filamentar epithelium proliferation and some lamellar aneurisms were also found. The liver of control group exhibited a quite normal architecture, while the fish exposed to copper showed vacuolation and necrosis. These hepatic alterations were more evident in fish exposed to 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 copper concentrations. The number of hepatocytes nucleus per mm² of hepatic tissue decreased with the increase of copper concentration. In contrast, the hepatic somatic index was high in fish exposed at 2.5mg L-1 of copper. In short, this work advance new knowledge as influence of copper in the gill and liver histology of O. niloticus and demonstrated that their effects could be observed at different concentrations.Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram mantidas em água doce e expostas a concentrações de 0.5, 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1 de sulfato de cobre durante um período de 21 dias. Amostras de fígado e de brânquia foram coletadas após o tempo de exposição e as lesões foram analisadas por microscopia óptica. As principais alterações histopatológicas observadas nas brânquias foram edema, "lifting" do epitélio lamelar e uma intensa vasodilatação do eixo lamelar. Embora menos freqüentes, a fusão lamelar causada pela proliferação do epitélio filamentar e alguns aneurismas lamelares também foram observadas. O fígado do grupo controle exibiu uma arquitetura normal, enquanto os dos peixes expostos ao cobre apresentaram vacuolização e necrose. Estas lesões hepáticas foram mais evidentes nos peixes expostos a concentrações de cobre de 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1. O número dos núcleos dos hepatócitos / mm² de tecido hepático decresceu com o aumento da concentração de cobre. Em contraste, o índice hepatossomático foi mais elevado nos peixes expostos a 2.5mg L-1 de cobre. Em resumo, este trabalho acrescenta nova informação sobre a influência do cobre ao nível da histologia da brânquia e do fígado de O. niloticus e demonstra que os seus efeitos podem ser observados em diferentes concentrações.

António Figueiredo-Fernandes; Jorge V. Ferreira-Cardoso; Sofia Garcia-Santos; Sandra M. Monteiro; João Carrola; Pedro Matos; António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

2007-01-01

157

The protective role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress in Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ability of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to attenuate oxidative damage was evaluated in liver and brain tissues of Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) experimentally exposed to sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF). O. niloticus was exposed to sublethal concentrations of CPF at 12 ?g/L (CPF1) and 24 ?g/L (CPF2) for 96 h. The fish of vitamin C (Vit C) and CPF2 + Vit C groups were fed with Vit C supplemented diet (200 mg Vit C/100 g feed). A significant increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level (P < 0.05) was observed in brain of CPF-exposed fish although liver TBARS level was not changed compared to control group. This result showed that lipid peroxidation (LPO) was elevated in brain of fish exposed to CPF. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in liver and brain tissues was significantly elevated (P < 0.05) by exposure to CPF1 and CPF2. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in liver but decreased in brain of treated fish by CPF2 concentration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased in liver, but increased in brain by exposure to CPF1 and CPF2 concentrations. Levels of TBARS were increased in brain of CPF-treated animals, but tended to decrease by the effect of Vit C. Vit C treatment for CPF-intoxicated animals normalized the otherwise raised activities of GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD within normal limits. The results clearly indicate that exposure to CPF caused a dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress brain and to a lesser extend in liver of fish and the ability of Vit C to attenuate CPF-induced oxidative damage.

Ozkan F; Gündüz SG; Berköz M; Hunt AO; Yal?n S

2012-06-01

158

Neurotoxic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin modulated by piperonyl butoxide in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this research was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of pyrethroid pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin by the modulation of cytochrome P450 with piperonyl butoxide in the brain of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were exposed to 0.48 ?g L(-1) (1/6 of the 96-h LC50 ) lambda-cyhalothrin and 10 ?g L(-1) piperonyl butoxide for 96 h and 15 days. tGSH, GSSG, TBARS contents, GPx, GR, GST, and AChE enzymes activities were determined by spectrophotometrical methods and Hsp70 content was analyzed by ELISA technique. Lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on the components of GSH redox system, lipid peroxidation and Hsp70 levels but inhibited AChE activity. In the presence of piperonyl butoxide, lambda-cyhalothrin caused increases in tGSH, GSSG, TBARS and Hsp70 contents, GST activity, and decrease in AChE activity. Present results showed that in the presence of piperonyl butoxide, lambda-cyhalothrin caused neurotoxic effects by increasing oxidative stress. Adaptation to its oxidative stress effects may be supplied by GSH-related antioxidant system. Piperonyl butoxide revealed neurotoxic effect of lambda-cyhalothrin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.

Piner P; Uner N

2013-03-01

159

Impact of Introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on Non-native Aquatic Ecosystems  

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Full Text Available The global invasion of non-native aquatic ecosystems by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is well documented and coincides with their increased use as an aquaculture species. Aquaculture can be defined as the farming of fish or other aquatic organisms and it varies considerably in terms of production practices. Generally, freshwater finfish, such as Nile tilapia, are reared in inland ponds (closed systems). However, in several countries, floating cages are increasingly used to rear Nile tilapia in open water bodies. In such systems, escape is inevitable. The Nile tilapia is considered an omnivorous species and it ingests zooplankton, phytoplankton, or debris present in rivers. As a consequence, the release of Nile tilapia into non-native aquatic ecosystems may result in competition for food and space, thereby damaging native species. The wide environmental tolerance and high reproductive rate of Nile tilapia facilitate its use for aquaculture, but also render the species highly invasive. Here, we review the high frequency of Nile tilapia in non-native biodiversity and indicate the existence of the species under feral conditions in every country in which it has been introduced through farming systems.

I.S.T. Vicente; C.E. Fonseca-Alves

2013-01-01

160

Determination of selenium toxicity to Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters  

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Full Text Available Selenium (Se) is described as an essential micronutrient and participates in different biological functions, as the antioxidant defense systems maintenance and regulation. However, when in high concentrations, Se may cause toxic effects as well as hematological changes in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of selenium in the form of sodium selenate (Na2Se6+O4) in Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters, after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.14 and 1.4 mg Se6+ L-1). The erythrocytic and leukocytic series were examined over 14 days at intervals of 0, 3, 5, 7,10 and 14 days. The erythrocytic series showed significant alterations in the first 7 days, including the control group. Neutrophils and monocytes showed variations in the first 3 days at a concentration of 1.40 mgSe6+ L-1 characterizing an acute response. The total number of leukocytes was different in relation to time zero on all Se concentrations. The thrombocyte count also differed statistically from time zero and control in the first 3 days at 0.14 mgSe6+ L-1. These results indicate that different concentrations induce an acute response with diminution of total leukocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis and thrombocytosis. 

Robson Seriani; Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva; Adriano Gonçalves; Silmara Regina Siqueira; Julio Vicente Lombardi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Monogenean community structure of Oreochromis niloticus in relation to heavy metal pollution and host reproductive cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The community structure of monogenean parasites of Oreochromis niloticus and its relation to the variations of heavy metal concentrations in water and the host reproductive cycle (gonadosomatic index, GSI) was studied. Fish were collected from Fishermen Lake, Ismailia. Monogenea community consisted of seven species, Cichlidogyrus halli typicus (57.8%), C. thurstonae (35.3%), C. ergensi (13.8 %), C. tiberianus (16.4%), C. arthracanthus (13.8%), Scutogyrus longicornis (22.4%) and Gyrodadtylus cicchlidarum (18.9 %). The overall mean species richness per host was 4.45 +/- 0.34. Responses of monogenea regarding their prevalence, abundance and intensity to the host sex and seasonal variations varied according to the species. Monogenean community showed different responses to the heavy metal concentrations and GSI. Positive correlations were found between species richness and both gonadosomatic index (rs = 0.2, P = 0.03) and Cd concentrations (rs = 0.89, P=0.04). Prevalence of C. halli typicus and C. thurstonae showed significant negative and positive correlations, respectively with the levels of Cu and Pb. G. cicchlidarus showed significant positive correlation with Cd level. The abundance and intensity of those species showed also correlations with the metal concentrations. Other monogenean species did not show any response to the metal levels such as C. tiberianus. Zn did not show any effect on the infection parameters of any species of monogenean community. The possibility of using some monogenean species to act as indicators for environmental pollution was discussed. PMID:22662591

Soliman, Maha F M; Ibrahim, Mohamed M

2012-04-01

162

Monogenean community structure of Oreochromis niloticus in relation to heavy metal pollution and host reproductive cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The community structure of monogenean parasites of Oreochromis niloticus and its relation to the variations of heavy metal concentrations in water and the host reproductive cycle (gonadosomatic index, GSI) was studied. Fish were collected from Fishermen Lake, Ismailia. Monogenea community consisted of seven species, Cichlidogyrus halli typicus (57.8%), C. thurstonae (35.3%), C. ergensi (13.8 %), C. tiberianus (16.4%), C. arthracanthus (13.8%), Scutogyrus longicornis (22.4%) and Gyrodadtylus cicchlidarum (18.9 %). The overall mean species richness per host was 4.45 +/- 0.34. Responses of monogenea regarding their prevalence, abundance and intensity to the host sex and seasonal variations varied according to the species. Monogenean community showed different responses to the heavy metal concentrations and GSI. Positive correlations were found between species richness and both gonadosomatic index (rs = 0.2, P = 0.03) and Cd concentrations (rs = 0.89, P=0.04). Prevalence of C. halli typicus and C. thurstonae showed significant negative and positive correlations, respectively with the levels of Cu and Pb. G. cicchlidarus showed significant positive correlation with Cd level. The abundance and intensity of those species showed also correlations with the metal concentrations. Other monogenean species did not show any response to the metal levels such as C. tiberianus. Zn did not show any effect on the infection parameters of any species of monogenean community. The possibility of using some monogenean species to act as indicators for environmental pollution was discussed.

Soliman MF; Ibrahim MM

2012-04-01

163

ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) WASTE  

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Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis niloticus was the first Tilapia species to be taken up for large Scaleaquaculture. It is consumed widely due to its deliciousness and rich source of protein. During its processing, the scales, Fins, Skins etc are expelled out as waste Acid solubilized collagen (ASC) and Pepsin Solubilizedcollagen (PSC) were extracted from these processing wastes. Initial extraction by acid yielded 22% of collagen and subsequent digestion with pepsin yielded 56% on dry weight basis. The total protein of ASC and PSC was determined by Bradford method which contains 68.34mg/ml,23.24 mg/ml respectively. The FT-IR Spectrumshowed that ASC and PSC are helpful in prediction and confirmation of Secondary structure of proteins. The denaturation temperature of ASC was 32?C while for PSC it is 29?C.SEM micrograph showed the fibrousnature of Collagen. This report indicates that Tilapia waste might be useful as a new source of collagen apart from usual bovine and pig skin.

S.Sujithra; N.Kiruthiga; M.J. Prabhu; R.Kumeresan

2013-01-01

164

Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

2001-01-01

165

Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g), estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L), alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5). O ganho de peso (GDP) e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA) de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%). Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g) stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L), kept under controlled environmental conditions inside 1000-L plastic pools, were fed to satiation, for 42 days, with purified diets supplemented with 0, 375, 750, 1125, 1500 or 1875 mg of choline chloride per kg of feed. Trial was set up in an incomplete, totally randomized block design (n=5). There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and survival rate (S%); there were significant differences for weight gain (WG) and food conversion ratio (FCR) between the control and all the other treatments, but not between supplementation levels. A second trial (52 days) evaluated the effects of higher rates of choline -- 1250 or 2500 mg per kg of feed, and the substitution of choline by betaine in the diets -- 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg of betaine per kg of feed. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and S%, but the FCR and WG of fish fed betaine-supplemented and control diets were significantly worse. There were no differences on the performance among groups fed the choline-supplemented diets. Supplementation of 375 mg of choline per kg of feed met nutritional requirements of Nile tilapia, and betaine did not substitute choline effectively in diets for the species.

Ivan Vieira; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

2001-01-01

166

Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)/ Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g), estocados em gaiolas de PVC (more) atóxico (volume = 60 L), alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5). O ganho de peso (GDP) e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA) de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%). Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie. Abstract in english Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g) stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L), kept under controlled environmental conditions inside 1000-L plastic pools, were fed to satiation, for 42 days, with purified diets supplemented (more) with 0, 375, 750, 1125, 1500 or 1875 mg of choline chloride per kg of feed. Trial was set up in an incomplete, totally randomized block design (n=5). There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and survival rate (S%); there were significant differences for weight gain (WG) and food conversion ratio (FCR) between the control and all the other treatments, but not between supplementation levels. A second trial (52 days) evaluated the effects of higher rates of choline -- 1250 or 2500 mg per kg of feed, and the substitution of choline by betaine in the diets -- 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg of betaine per kg of feed. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and S%, but the FCR and WG of fish fed betaine-supplemented and control diets were significantly worse. There were no differences on the performance among groups fed the choline-supplemented diets. Supplementation of 375 mg of choline per kg of feed met nutritional requirements of Nile tilapia, and betaine did not substitute choline effectively in diets for the species.

Vieira, Ivan; Cyrino, José Eurico Possebon; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo

2001-12-01

167

Determination of some heavy metals in oreochromis niloticus, clarias gariepinus and synodontis spp from the coastal water of Ondo State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Mn, and Cr) were determined in Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias graiepinus and Synodontis spp obtained from the coastal water of Ondo State. All metals examined and detected in all fish samples. Iron, manganese and cadmium were found to be the most abundant metals in the fish samples with an average values of 35.8, 31.3, and 12.5 mg kg-1 respectively. Except for manganese, iron and cadmium, Syndrontis spp has the highest concentration for virtually all the metals under examination. (author)

2002-01-01

168

Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 ?g/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 ?g/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 ?g/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 ?g/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (p<0.05). The number of predator attacks necessary to capture larvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 ?g/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers. PMID:21794226

Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

2011-06-29

169

Coeficientes de digestibilidade e valores de aminoácidos digestíveis de alguns ingredientes para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Digestibility coefficients and digestible amino acids values of some ingredients for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja e da farinha de peixe. Empregaram-se juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) (25,24 ± 3,88 g) alimentados com ração referência peletizada contendo 0,10% de óxido de crômio (indicador) e 33,78% de proteína bruta. O CDA médio dos aminoácidos foi de: 88,31; 77,40; 91,78 e 82,58% para o milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja e farinha de peixe, respectivamente. Ainda que os resultados sugiram que o CDA da proteína possa ser indicativo do CDA dos aminoácidos, seus valores individuais variaram dentre e entre os ingredientes avaliados. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis devem ser usados na formulação de rações completas (precisas) e econômicas.This study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of amino acids for corn, wheat bran, soybean meal and fish meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), juveniles (25.24 ± 3.88 g), fed purified pelletized reference diet containing 33.78% crude protein and 0.10% of chromic oxide (indicator). The average ADC of amino acids were: 88.31; 77.40; 91.78 and 82.58% for corn, wheat meal, soybean meal and fish meal, respectively. Althought results suggest that the protein ADC value is indicative of amino acids ADC, there was variability in individual amino acid digestibility within and among the tested feeds. The results suggest that use of digestible values of amino acids should be use for more accurate and economical feed formulation.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Antônio Celso Pezzato; Margarida Maria Barros; Edma Carvalho de Miranda

2001-01-01

170

Productive performance of the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in tanks with different water exchanges and stocking density in raceway Desempenho produtivo da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) em diferentes densidades e trocas de água em “raceway”  

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Full Text Available Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes Cichlidae) fingerlings were stocked at 90, 120 and 150 fishes in 24 circular tanks (0,5 m³), submitted to two full water exchanges, in a 30 and 60 minutes, in raceway system, to evaluate productive performance. The performance results were analyzed through a completely randomized design, in a 3x2 factorial scheme. After 128 days, the final weight and the weight gain were higher in larger water exchange and lower stocking density. The feed conversion ratio with non-significant statistical differences. The total biomass increased with the water exchange and stocking density increasing for 120 and 150 fishes/m³; the specific growth ratio increased with water exchange increasing; the fillet yield and the carcass yield decreased significantly with lower water exchange and bigger stocking density. In this research, it was concluded that the best performance parameters were obtained with full water exchange in 30 minutes, at bigger stocking densities.Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo dos alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, (Oreochromis niloticus L.) (Perciformes Cichlidae) estocados nas densidades de 90, 120 e 150 peixes/tanque, em 24 tanques circulares com 0,5 m³, em duas trocas totais de água (30 e 60 minutos), no sistema “raceway”. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2, para análise dos dados. Após 128 dias, o peso final e o ganho de peso foram superiores na maior troca de água e menor densidade; a conversão alimentar não alterou significativamente; a biomassa total aumentou com o aumento da renovação de água e densidade de estocagem de 120 e 150 peixes/m³; a taxa de crescimento específico aumentou na maior renovação da água; os rendimentos de filé e de carcaça diminuíram com a menor troca de água nas maiores densidades de estocagem. Os melhores resultados ocorreram com troca total de água em 30 minutos, nas densidades de estocagem de 120 e 150 peixes/m³.

Paulo César Silva; Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka; Lúcia Helena Sipaúba Tavares; Valéria Leão Souza

2002-01-01

171

Coeficientes de digestibilidade e valores de aminoácidos digestíveis de alguns ingredientes para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)/ Digestibility coefficients and digestible amino acids values of some ingredients for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja e da farinha de peixe. Empregaram-se juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) (25,24 ± 3,88 g) alimentados com ração referência peletizada contendo 0,10% de óxido de crômio (indicador) e 33,78% de proteína bruta. O CDA médio dos aminoácidos foi de: 88,31; 77,40; 91,78 e 82,58% para o milho, farelo de trigo, f (more) arelo de soja e farinha de peixe, respectivamente. Ainda que os resultados sugiram que o CDA da proteína possa ser indicativo do CDA dos aminoácidos, seus valores individuais variaram dentre e entre os ingredientes avaliados. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis devem ser usados na formulação de rações completas (precisas) e econômicas. Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of amino acids for corn, wheat bran, soybean meal and fish meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), juveniles (25.24 ± 3.88 g), fed purified pelletized reference diet containing 33.78% crude protein and 0.10% of chromic oxide (indicator). The average ADC of amino acids were: 88.31; 77.40; 91.78 and 82.58% for corn, wheat meal, soybean meal and fish meal, respectively. Althought res (more) ults suggest that the protein ADC value is indicative of amino acids ADC, there was variability in individual amino acid digestibility within and among the tested feeds. The results suggest that use of digestible values of amino acids should be use for more accurate and economical feed formulation.

Furuya, Wilson Massamitu; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo; Pezzato, Antônio Celso; Barros, Margarida Maria; Miranda, Edma Carvalho de

2001-07-01

172

Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab

1991-01-01

173

Dynamics of Population of Five Parasitic Monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus Linne, 1757 in the Dam of Loumbila and Possible Interest in Intensive Pisciculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of the gill fishes of 176 Oreochromis niloticus (L.) was undertaken in the dam of Loumbila (Burkina Faso), in order to obtain the first information on the dynamics of population of the Monogeneans parasites in a population of wild hosts. These data are essential in the search for means to avoid the enormous losses that often occur in intensive pisciculture. This analysis revealed the presence of five species of Monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus tilapiae, Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus rognoni and Scutogyrus longicornis). On the levels of the recorded infestations, these species taken individually probably do not control the population of Oreochromis niloticus. In the dam of Loumbila, the fluctuations of parasitic abundances are neither seasonal nor cyclic. The size either does not have an influence on parasitism. However, the sex effect was noted with C. halli, the females thus were more infested than the males. O. niloticus is parasitized all the year, because the recruitment of these organisms, although relatively weak, is continuous; this logically results in their accumulation in this fish.

M. Boungou; G.B. Kabre; A. Marques; L. Sawadogo

2008-01-01

174

Dynamics of population of five parasitic Monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus Linne, 1757 in the dam of Loumbila and possible interest in intensive pisciculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study of the gill fishes of 176 Oreochromis niloticus (L.) was undertaken in the dam of Loumbila (Burkina Faso), in order to obtain the first information on the dynamics of population of the Monogeneans parasites in a population of wild hosts. These data are essential in the search for means to avoid the enormous losses that often occur in intensive pisciculture. This analysis revealed the presence of five species of Monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus tilapiae, Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus rognoni and Scutogyrus longicornis). On the levels of the recorded infestations, these species taken individually probably do not control the population of Oreochromis niloticus. In the dam of Loumbila, the fluctuations of parasitic abundances are neither seasonal nor cyclic. The size either does not have an influence on parasitism. However, the sex effect was noted with C. halli, the females thus were more infested than the males. O. niloticus is parasitized all the year, because the recruitment of these organisms, although relatively weak, is continuous; this logically results in their accumulation in this fish.

Boungou M; Kabre GB; Marques A; Sawadogo L

2008-05-01

175

Dynamics of population of five parasitic Monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus Linné, 1757 in the dam of Loumbila and possible interest in intensive pisciculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the gill fishes of 176 Oreochromis niloticus (L.) was undertaken in the dam of Loumbila (Burkina Faso), in order to obtain the first information on the dynamics of population of the Monogeneans parasites in a population of wild hosts. These data are essential in the search for means to avoid the enormous losses that often occur in intensive pisciculture. This analysis revealed the presence of five species of Monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus tilapiae, Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus rognoni and Scutogyrus longicornis). On the levels of the recorded infestations, these species taken individually probably do not control the population of Oreochromis niloticus. In the dam of Loumbila, the fluctuations of parasitic abundances are neither seasonal nor cyclic. The size either does not have an influence on parasitism. However, the sex effect was noted with C. halli, the females thus were more infested than the males. O. niloticus is parasitized all the year, because the recruitment of these organisms, although relatively weak, is continuous; this logically results in their accumulation in this fish. PMID:18817262

Boungou, M; Kabre, G B; Marques, A; Sawadogo, L

2008-05-15

176

Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P

1995-06-06

177

Use of a duckweed, Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Schleiden, as a protein feedstuff in practical diets for tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of solar-dried duckweed, Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Schleiden, as a dietary protein component for tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., reared in glass tanks was evaluated. Six isonitrogenous diets (30% crude protein) were fed to all-male tilapia fingerlings for 56 days. The fish meal protein in the diets was substituted at a rate of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% with duckweed. A diet without the duckweed served as a control. Growth performance and nutrient utilization of fish were based on daily weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in growth performance and nutrient utilization of fish fed on diets containing up to 20% duckweed inclusion and the control. However, increases in dietary duckweed inclusion resulted in progressively reduced growth performance and nutrient utilization of fish. Diet without fish meal (100% duckweed) gave the poorest result. The most cost-effective diet in terms of cost per unit gain in weight of fish was obtained with 30% duckweed dietary inclusion. The result showed that solar-dried up to 30% duckweed dietary inclusion as a replacement for fishmeal in practical diets supported fish growth and was cost-effective.

Fasakin EA; Balogun AM; Fasuru BE

1999-05-01

178

The biofloc technology (BFT) in indoor tanks: Water quality, biofloc composition, and growth and welfare of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study evaluates the biofloc technology (BFT) in light-limited tank culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two biofloc treatments and one control were managed in 250 l indoor tanks: BFT fed a diet of 35% crude protein (CP), BFT fed a diet of 24% CP, and clean water control without biofloc with 35% CP. BFT tanks were aerated and agitated using a dome diffuser. Three kg of Nile tilapia were stocked in each tank. Feed was applied at 1.5% of the total fish biomass daily in each tank. Wheat flour was added in BFT tanks to maintain an optimum C:N ratio for heterotrophic production. The total suspended solid (TSS) level was maintained at around 500 mg l?¹ in BFT tanks. The nutritional quality of biofloc was appropriate for tilapias. Fish survival was 100%. Net fish production was 45% higher in the BFT tanks than in the control tanks confirming the utilization of biofloc by fish as food. There was no difference in fish growth/production between 35% and 24% CP fed tanks under BFT. Welfare indicators in terms of fin condition, gill histology, proximate composition, blood haematocrit and plasma cortisol levels were compared and no significant differences between BFT and control tanks were recorded indicating no increased fish stress due to the presence of biofloc. However, overall fish growth and production was poor in terms of commercial feasibility. A modified system design that would allow enhanced feed and biofloc utilization is proposed.

Azim ME; Little DC

2008-10-01

179

The diet of hybrid red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) reared in the freshwater ponds of north-eastern Brazil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess potential competition for food with indigenous species prior to their release into reservoirs in north-eastern Brazil, the diet of hybrid red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus O. mossambicus, maintained without supplementary feed in monocultures in freshwater ponds, was studied. The stomach contents of 160 fish (140-220 mm total length), collected monthly from February to September 1993, were analysed. Fish of all size categories were found to be phytoplanktivores. A total of 40 microalgal species were observed in the stomach contents (17 species of Chlorophyceae, 11 species of Bacillariophyceae, eight species of Cyanophyceae, three species of Chrysophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae), together with a few rotifers and some organic material. In terms of cell numbers, the overall composition of the diet was 70% Chlorophyceae, 21% Bacillariophyceae, 3% Chrysophyceae, 2% Cyanophyceae, 1% Euglenophyceae and 3% organic matter. Neither diet composition nor stomach fullness varied with fish size. However, fish had relatively fuller stomachs, with higher proportions of Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae, during the rainy season. Hybrid red tilapia appear unlikely to compete for food with a native species and so may have a role in aquaculture or for deliberate release into reservoirs in north-eastern Brazil.

Chellappa S; Chellappa NT; Silva EA; Huntingford FA; Beveridge MCM

1996-12-01

180

Prey/Predation Relationship of Clarias gariepinus on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Populations  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the suitability of Clarias gariepinus as a predator on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations. In order to (a) recommend a stocking ratio for Tilapia-clarias prey-predation relationship, (b) determine the size/level at which the prey is most vulnerable to predation and (c) to determine whether sudden cohabitation with or without feeding/sparing feeding will trigger predation. Four different treatments of (1) 10 Clarias juveniles/100 Tilapia fingerlings fed to satiation (2) 10 Clarias juveniles/100 Tilapia fingerlings fed sparingly (3) 50 Clarias fingerlings/50 Tilapia fingerlings fed sparingly (4) 15 Clarias fingerlings/90 Tilapia fingerlings fed to satiation and (5) 15 Clarias fingerlings/90 Tilapia fingerlings fed sparingly were monitored over a period of 12 weeks. Predation occurred only in Treatments 1 and 2 where the predator was bigger than the prey and the highest level of predation of 71% Tilapia fingerlings occurred in Treatment 2 compared to 26% in Treatment 1. The predation level was highest during the first 6 weeks of the study due to increasing size of the prey. Hence growth performance from 7th-12th week depended solely on the feed fed for Treatments 1 and 2. However, since virtually no predation was recorded for Treatments 3 (0%), 4 (0%) and 5 (2.22%) growth performance for these 3 treatments from weeks 1-12 was dependent solely on the feed fed whether fed to satiation or not. The Analysis of Variance test (ANOVA) to test significance in the predation level showed significant differences (p1(26b)>3(0c)>4 (0cd) and > 5 (0cde), but there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among 3, 4 and 5 where the prey and predator were of similar sizes. Treatment 1 recorded the best growth performance in both species of fish with respect to mean weight gain, food conversion ratio and increase in total length. The order of growth performance is Treatment 1>2>4>3>5. The food conversion ratio among treatments 2 and 1 (where predation occurred) showed that it is higher in Treatment 1 where the level of predation was lowest. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) shows growth rate of prey and predator were significant at (pClarias gariepinus and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with or without feeding did not trigger predation because the initial number stocked in Treatments 4 and 5 (each specie of fish raised separately and the two brought together at the end of 2 weeks) were recovered at the end of the 12 weeks experiment. The best level of growth performance and fairly balanced survival/predation level is achievable with Treatment 1 which gave the highest overall weekly mean weight gain and 90/74% Clarias/tilapia survival rate closely followed by Treatment 2 with 100/29% Clarias/tilapia survival rate. However if the intention of Clarias/tilapia polyculture is not to embrace predation, but to maintain at least about 100% survival of both species solely dependent on the feed fed Treatments 4>3>5 is recommended in that order.

O.A. Oyelese

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Níveis de cobre em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de cobre no desempenho produtivo e nos parâmetros fisiológicos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) foram avaliados por um período de 120 dias. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 níveis de suplementação de cobre (0,0; 4,0; 80,0; 160,0 e 320,0mg/kg como sulfato de cobre heptaidratado, 24,05% cobre) e seis repetições por tratamento. Foram utilizados 180 peixes com peso de 2,0 ± 0,05g distribuídos aleatoriamente em 30 aquários de 60L cada, em uma lotação de 6 peixes/aquário. Os aquários foram dotados de sistema de filtragem individual de água e de sistema de aquecimento controlado por termostato (25,0o ± 1,0oC). Confeccionou-se 5 rações purificadas, à base de albumina e gelatina, isoprotéicas (32,0% PB) e isoenergéticas (3200 kcal/kg de energia digestível), diferenciando do controle pela adição de sulfato de cobre. As concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e de pH foram determinadas semanalmente. Determinou-se o ganho médio de peso, a conversão alimentar aparente e a porcentagem de sobrevivência. Como parâmetros hematológicos, avaliou-se o número de eritrócitos, concentração de hemoglobina, porcentagem de hematócrito e o volume globular médio e a concentração de hemoglobina globular média. Determinou-se a concentração de cobre no fígado, ossos, carcaça e filé e avaliou-se a morfologia e coloração dos fígados. Conclui-se que: para a tilápia do Nilo, a ausência e a utilização de superdosagem de cobre na ração não determinam alterações no desempenho produtivo e na hematologia; a concentração de cobre no fígado é responsiva à quantidade suplementada desse mineral na ração; a concentração elevada do cobre na ração determina alterações hepáticas e, o tempo é fator determinante da ação detrimental do cobre para respostas fisiológicas do peixe.The effects of different levels of dietary copper on growth performance and physiological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were analyzed for 120 days. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments (0.0; 4.0; 80.0; 160.0 and 320.0mg cooper/kg diet as cooper sulfate hepahydrate, 24.05% copper) and six replicates. One hundred and eighty fish, with 2.0 ± 0.05g average initial weight, were kept into 30 aquaria (60L) with individual filter and aeration; water temperature was kept at 25.0 ± 1.0oC. An albumin-gelatin diet was formulated to contain 32.0% crude protein and 3,200 kcal of digestible energy/kg. The oxygen concentrations and pH were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, the weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were determined. Erythrocytes number, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were analyzed as hematological parameters. Liver, bones, carcass and muscle copper concentrations were also determined and the liver morphology and coloration were evaluated. Based on the results, it was concluded that either absence or high levels of dietary copper did not determine alterations in Nile tilapia growth performance and hematology; the liver copper concentration is responsive to dietary copper supplementation; high levels of dietary copper determine hepatic alterations and the experimental period is a determinant damage action factor for copper in fish physiological responses.

Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari; Margarida Maria Barros; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves; Hamilton Hisano; Geisa Karine Kleemann

2004-01-01

182

Characterization and evaluation of the impact of feed management on the effluents of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed management on the quality of effluent water generated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture ponds. Feed was supplied as follows: natural food, and pelleted, extruded or minced ration. The study was conducted during 19 weeks in 12 continuous water exchange ponds of 300 m² each, with a population of male Nile tilapia juveniles, in a density equal to 1.7 fish m-2. Feeds contained 30% crude protein, 3,000 kcal digestible energy, and were supplied twice a day. Natural food consisted of chicken manure. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll a and suspended solids were monitored weekly in the supplying and effluent water. Water residence time was also determined for the ponds. In general, effluent water quality decreased in all treatments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes manejos alimentares: alimento natural, ração peletizada, extrusada ou farelada, sobre a qualidade da água dos efluentes gerados em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). O experimento foi desenvolvido durante 19 semanas em doze viveiros de 300 m², com renovação contínua de água, povoados com juvenis machos de tilápia do Nilo na densidade de 1,7 peixes m-2. As rações isoproteícas (30% de proteína bruta) e isoenergéticas (3.000kcal de energia digestível) foram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia. Quanto ao tratamento alimento natural, foi utilizado esterco de galinha poedeira. Semanalmente, foram aferidos na água de abastecimento e nos efluentes, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, fósforo total, nitrogênio total, clorofila a e material em suspensão. De maneira geral, houve piora na qualidade da água dos efluentes de todos os tratamentos estudados, em comparação a água de abastecimento, evidenciando o impacto ambiental desta atividade produtiva, podendo levar a eutrofização dos corpos d'água receptores.

Ana Eliza Baccarin; Antonio Fernando Monteiro Camargo

2005-01-01

183

Oxidative stress and apoptosis was induced by bio-insecticide spinosad in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to investigate acute toxic effects of spinosad on Glutathione-related oxidative stress markers, lipid peroxidation, heat shock proteins, apoptosis in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus selected as a model organism. The fish were exposed to sublethal spinosad concentrations (25, 50, 75mg/L) for 24-48-72h. tGSH, GSH, GSSG, and TBARS contents, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GPx, GR, GST and caspase enzyme activities were measured using spectrophotometrical methods, and Hsp70 content was measured by ELISA technique. The results demonstrated that spinosad exposure caused significant alterations in the GSH-related oxidative stress markers, and also caused increases in lipid peroxidation and stress proteins with inducing ROS generation in the liver. Apoptosis initiated with the induction of caspase-3 and Hsp70 could not protect the liver cells. Our results indicated that GSH-related antioxidant system tried to protect the liver cells from spinosad-induced hepatotoxicity however, the oxidative stress resulting from induction of ROS generation induced apoptosis in the liver of O. niloticus.

Piner P; Uner N

2013-08-01

184

First evidence for family-specific QTL for temperature-dependent sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study for the first time screens microsatellite markers for associations with the temperature-dependent sex of Oreochromis niloticus. Previous studies revealed markers on linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, and 23 to be linked to the phenotypic sex of Oreochromis spp. at normal rearing temperatures. Moreover, candidate genes for sex determination and differentiation have been mapped to these linkage groups. Here, 6 families of a temperature-treated genetically all-female (XX) F(1)-population were genotyped for 21 microsatellites on the 3 LGs. No population-wide QTL (quantitative trait loci) or marker trait associations could be detected. However, family-specific QTL were found on LG 1 flanked by UNH995 and UNH104, on LG 3 at the position of GM213, and on LG 23 next to GM283. Moreover, family-specific single marker associations for UNH995 and UNH104 on LG 1, GM213 on LG 3, as well as for UNH898 and GM283 on LG 23 were detected. Yet, marker trait associations could not explain the temperature-dependent sex of all fish in the respective families. The molecular cue for the temperature-dependent sex in Nile tilapia might partially coincide with allelic variants at major and minor genetic sex determining factors. Moreover, additional QTL contributing to variable liabilities towards temperature might persist on other LGs.

Lühmann LM; Knorr C; Hörstgen-Schwark G; Wessels S

2012-01-01

185

Probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici modulates both localised intestinal- and peripheral-immunity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application of probiotics in aquaculture has received concerted research efforts but the localised intestinal immunological response of fish to probiotic bacteria is poorly understood. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic effect of Pediococcus acidilactici on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with specific emphasis on intestinal health and probiotic levels as well as system level responses such as growth performance, feed utilization and haemato-immunological parameters under non-challenged conditions. Fish (9.19 ± 0.04 g) were fed either a control diet or a P. acidilactici supplemented diet (at 2.81 × 10(6) CFU g(-)(1)) for six weeks. At the end of the study the probiotic was observed to populate the intestine, accounting for ca. 3% (1.59 × 10(5) CFU g(-)(1)) of the cultivable intestinal bacterial load. Real-time PCR indicated that the probiotic treatment may potentiate the immune-responsiveness of the intestine as up-regulation of the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? was observed in the probiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Light microscopy observations revealed elevated intraepithelial leucocyte (IEL) levels in the intestine of P. acidilactici fed tilapia after six weeks (P < 0.05) of feeding and a trend towards elevated goblet cells was also observed after six weeks feeding (P = 0.08). Concomitantly at week six, along with elevated IELs and elevated TNF? mRNA levels in the intestine, an increased abundance of circulating neutrophils and monocytes were observed in fish fed the probiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). This haemopoietic expansion of innate immune cells could be reflective of an elevated state of immuno-readiness. Together these results suggest that the probiotic has a protective action on the intestinal mucosal cells, stimulating the innate immune response after feeding for a period of six weeks. These immunological modulations did not impair growth performance or the remaining haematological and zootechnical parameters compared to the control group (P > 0.05).

Standen BT; Rawling MD; Davies SJ; Castex M; Foey A; Gioacchini G; Carnevali O; Merrifield DL

2013-10-01

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QUALITÉ NUTRITIVE DE L’ALIMENTATION NATURELLE DU TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS EN ÉLEVAGE EXTENSIF DANS DES ÉTANGS DE BARRAGE (CÔTE D’IVOIRE) NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NATURAL FOOD OF TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS IN EXTENSIVE AQUACULTURE RESERVOIRS (IVORY COAST)  

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Full Text Available La composition chimique des sources alimentaires (périphyton, matières en suspension et sédiment) et celle des contenus stomacaux d’Oreochromis niloticus en élevage extensif dans deux barrages situés en zone rurale (Gueyo, Sud-Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire) ont été déterminées afin d’apprécier la qualité de la nourriture naturelle ingérée par ces poissons. Les proportions des différents constituants chimiques mesurés dans ces trois sources alimentaires laissent apparaître la part importante que représentent les matières organiques hydrolysables dans le périphyton (65 et 67 % aux barrages 1 et 2, respectivement), alors que les matières minérales constituent plus de la moitié du poids sec total des matières en suspension (59 et 63 %) et de la ressource sédimentaire (76 et 63 %). Sur les deux sites, les fibres représentent moins de 15 % de ces trois ressources. Les teneurs en protéines (19 %) et le ratio Protéines/Énergie (17 mg.kJ-1) observés dans la ressource périphytique sont respectivement 2 et 3 fois supérieurs aux valeurs mesurées dans les deux autres ressources. L’analyse biochimique des contenus stomacaux montre que les protéines sont présentes en très faibles proportions dans la nourriture ingérée par O. niloticus (7 et 11 % dans les deux barrages). Par contre, les proportions en fibres (12 et 16 %) et lipides (11 et 8 %) de même que les ratios Protéines/Énergie (6 et 12 mg.kJ-1) caractérisant l’alimentation semblent répondre aux exigences de croissance chez cette espèce de tilapia. Les poids moyens des poissons en fin de cycle d’élevage traduisent la capacité d’O. niloticus à présenter une croissance correcte à partir d’une alimentation pauvre en matières azotées pourvu qu’une faible densité soit appliquée dans les sites d’élevage. The chemical composition of natural food sources (periphyton, suspended solids and sediment) and gut content of Oreochromis niloticus in two extensive aquaculture reservoirs from a rural area (Gueyo, southwest of Ivory Coast) were determined in order to assess the quality of the natural food ingested. The percentage of the chemical components in the three food sources in the two sites show an important part of hydrolysable organic matter in the periphyton (65 and 67%), even though the mineral matter represents more than half of the total dry weight of suspended solids (59 and 63%) and sediment (76 and 63%). In the two sites, fibers represent less than 15% of these three resources. Protein contents (19%) and Proteins/ Energy ratio (17 mg.kJ-1) in periphyton are respectively 2 and 3 times above the values measured for the two other resources. The biochemical analysis of the gut contents shows that proteins are in low percentage in the food ingested by O. niloticus (7 and 11% in the two sites). On the other hand, the percentages of fibers (12 and 16%) and lipids (11 and 8%) as well as the Proteins/Energy ratios (6 and 12 mg.kJ-1) seem to meet the growth requirements of the studied species. The average weights of the fishes at the end of the farming cycle are indicative of the ability of O. niloticus to grow on a poor food context characterized by low nitrogen compounds, as long as a low density is applied in the aquaculture sites.

BLE M. C.; ARFI R.; YEBOUA A. F.; DIOPOH K. J.

2008-01-01

187

Toxicidade aguda e efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat na brânquia e no fígado da tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) = Acute toxicity and histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on the gill and liver of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available A concentração letal 50% e os efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat para a tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) foram avaliados em três experimentos. Os peixes foram expostos às concentrações de 0; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; e 60 mg de diquat L-1 e a histologia da brânquia e do fígado foi avaliada nos peixes sobreviventes. A CL (I) 50-96h do diquat estimada foi de 37,28 mg L-1, com limite inferior de 33,12 mg L-1 e superior de 41,44mg L-1. No tratamento com 30, 35 e 40 mg L-1, ocorreram início de fusão apical das lamelas secundárias; com 45 e 50 mg L-1 ocorreram congestão nas lamelas primárias e no tratamento com 55 mg L-1, ocorreu congestão sangüínea nas lamelas secundárias. O fígado dos peixes dos tratamentos controle, 30 e 35 mg L-1 estavam com organização cordonal dos hepatócitos. Nos tratamentos com 40 e 45 mg L-1, ocorreram hipertrofia dos hepatócitos; com 50 e 55 mg L-1 ocorreram fusão celular e presença de vacúolos. O diquat apresentoubaixo risco de intoxicação à tilápia nilótica e as alterações histopatológicas mais severas ocorreram somente nas concentrações mais elevadas.The lethal concentration of 50% (LC (I) 50-96h) and the histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish were evaluated in three experiments. The fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 mg diquat L-1, and gill and liver histology were evaluated in the surviving fishes. The estimated LC (I) (50-96h) of diquat was37.28 mg L-1, with lower limits of 33.12 mg L-1 and upper limits of 41.44 mg L-1. In the treatment with 30, 35 and 40 mg L-1, signs of apical fusion of the secondary lamellae were observed; with 45 and 50 mg L-1, congestion of the primary lamellae was observed; in thetreatment with 55 mg L-1, congestion of blood vessels on secondary lamellae took place. The livers of fishes in treatments with 0, 25, 30 and 35 mg L-1 showed cordonal organization of hepatocytes. In the treatments with 40 and 45 mg L-1, hypertrophy of hepatocytes took place; with 50 and 55 mg L-1, cell fusion and the presence of vacuolesinside hepatocytes were observed. Diquat presented low risk of toxicity for nile tilapia, as the more severe histopathologic alterations occurred only in higher concentrations.

Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares; Claudinei da Cruz; Gabriela Roncada Gomes; Robinson Antonio Pitelli; Marcia Rita Fernandes Machado

2008-01-01

188

GROWTH, IMMUNE FUNCTION, AND DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF JUVENILE NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED GRADED LEVELS OF BOVINE LACTOFERRIN  

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Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth performanc...

189

Effects of replacing fishmeal with wastes derived from local fisheries on the growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially and totally replacing fishmeal with by-product derived from local fisheries on growth performances of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Tilapia fingerlings (average initialweight 0.38±0.05 g) were fed with 5 different diet formulas composing of fish meal protein replacement levels of 0%, 25%,50%, 75, and 100%. Tilapia were raised in 80 x 80 x 80 cm3 hapa in an earthen pond for 8 weeks. Each treatment contained3 replications. No feeding trial was applied as negative control. The result showed that fish by-product powder could substitute for fishmeal on a crude protein basis at a level of not more than 25%. As a result, feed cost can only be cut down approximately 3 US cents/kg. Specific growth rate, weight gain, survival rate and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different between the fish fed with the 75% and 100% fishmeal containing diets (P>0.05). The outcome would beapplied to reduce the solid wastes from fish processing and partially replace the imported fishmeal. This can also be used as guideline for farmers in small communities to produce their own tilapia feed.

Chanagun Chitmanat; Anon Tipin; Prachuab Chaibu; Siripen Traichaiyaporn

2009-01-01

190

Morphometry of white muscle fibers and performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings treated with methyltestosterone or a homeopathic complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), are widely used in fish farming, hormonal treatments are used to increase productivity. Studies of the characteristics of the fiber types are important in species that have well developed muscle mass, such as Nile tilapia. METHODS: A total of 4800 post-larval fish were randomly assigned by tank to receive one of three treatments: Control (30°GL alcohol), Homeopathic complex (Homeopatila RS) or Hormone (17-?-methyltestosterone) supplemented in the feed for 28 days. Survival and morphological parameters were measured at day 45. RESULTS: At day 45, the survival rates were 54.1% (Control), 87.8% (Homeopathy), 50.3% (Hormone). The mean final weight for Homeopathy was statistically significantly lower (1.07 g) than the other two groups: Control (1.81 g) and Hormone (2.04 g). Mean total lengths were Control (4.75 cm), Hormone (4.49 cm), statistically significantly different from Homeopathy (3.83 cm). Average partial length, trunk length, height and body width were significantly lower for Homeopathy than Control or Hormone (p<0.05) Homeopathy treated fish had significantly greater muscle fiber diameter than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Fish treated with the homeopathic complex had improved survival and muscle fiber hypertrophy, but were smaller (probably related to increased survival and overcrowding) compared to fingerlings treated with synthetic hormone or control.

Piau R Jr; Vargas L; Valentim-Zabott M; Ribeiro RP; da Silva AV; Otutumi LK

2012-07-01

191

Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)/ Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar (more) Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas substâncias antimicrobianas e também contra a rifampicina; o isolado bacteriano de pacu foi a única linhagem resistente a tetraciclina. Isolados de pacu e tilápia apresentaram resistência intermediária frente a eritromicina. O uso de medicamentos em pisciculturas comerciais no Brasil pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de linhagens bacterianas resistentes em espécies de peixes nativos, como já observado em espécies exóticas comercialmente produzidas há mais tempo. Abstract in english One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After (more) regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.

Belém-Costa, Andréa; Cyrino, José Eurico Possebon

2006-06-01

192

Reproductive aspects of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Coatetelco lake, Morelos, Mexico  

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Full Text Available Sex ratio, size at maturity, maturity stages, fecundity and egg diameter of Oreochromis niloticus from Coatetelco Lake, Morelos State, Mexico, were studied from January to December 1993. Sex ratio (male:female) was approximately 1:1.02. Length at maturity was 117 mm (males) and 120 mm (females). The fecundity ranged between 104 and 709 eggs, with egg diameter from 1 000 to 3 000 µm. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic index indicate that the species breeds during summer and winter.En este estudio se analizaron algunos aspectos reproductivos de la mojarra-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. en el lago de Coatetelco, Morelos. La información esta basada en los datos biológicos de 319 organismos obtenidos de enero a diciembre de 1993 de la captura comercial. Las hembras (161) representaron el 51% y los machos (158) el 49 % del total de la población. La proporción de sexo fue de 1:1.02 ?_ = 0.02; p=0.05). Los peces alcanzan la primera madurez sexual a los 117 mm y 120 mm de longitud total (hembras y machos respectivamente). El número de óvulos presentes en las gónadas osciló entre 104 y 709 con diámetro de 1 000 a 3 000 µm, lo cual hace que esta especie tenga baja fecundidad pero alta fertilidad por los hábitos de reproducción que presenta la especie. Se aplicó el indice gonadosomático y hepatosomático con los cuales se detectaron dos períodos (verano e invierno) de máxima actividad reproductiva.

J.L. Gómez-Márquez; B. Peña-Mendoza; I.H. Salgado-Ugarte; M. Guzmán-Arroyo

2003-01-01

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Ontogenetic diet shifts of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia rendalli of the Barra Bonita reservoir (Tietê river, São Paulo State, Brazil)=Mudanças ontogenéticas na dieta de Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia rendalli da represa de Barra Bonita (rio Tietê, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil)  

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Full Text Available The Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and the Congo Tilapia, Tilapia rendalli, are important members of the African cichlids, and have been introduced to many Brazilian lakes and reservoirs. These species exhibit a large feeding flexibility and may modify their habits during their growth. In the Barra Bonita reservoir, these species are well adapted, representing more than 80% of fish. This study aimed to analyze ontogenetic variation with regard to the diet of these species in this important reservoir. Samples were taken monthly, from March 2007 to February 2008, in Anhembi, São Paulo State. Both species were analyzed by grouping individuals according to size classes. The coexistence of these species was observed in this environment, to which fish were introduced, as well as discreet differences in diet, being that Oreochromis niloticus was considered as an detritivorous, since the detritus was constant in the diet of almost all size classes, and presents some changes in its diet according to the different size classes. While T. rendalli may was defined as herbivorous, and the contribution of food resources to the diet of T. rendalli seems to be different from that of O. niloticus along the size classes.A Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, e a Tilapia do Congo, Tilapia rendalli, são importantes membros do grupo dos ciclídeos africanos, e têm sido introduzidas em diversos lagos e reservatórios brasileiros. Estas espécies exibem uma grande flexibilidade em suas dietas e podem modificar seus hábitos alimentares durante o crescimento. No reservatório de Barra Bonita, estas espécies estão bem adaptadas, representando mais de 80% da pesca. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a variação ontogenética na dieta destas duas espécies neste importante reservatório. Foram realizadas amostras mensais, de Março de 2007 a Fevereiro de 2008, no município de Anhembi, Estado de São Paulo. Ambas as espécies foram analisadas agrupando os indivíduos de acordo com a classe de tamanho. Foi possível observar a coexistência e uma discreta diferença na dieta das duas espécies neste ambiente, sendo que Oreochromis niloticus foi considerada como detritívora, pois o detrito foi constante na dieta na maioria das classes de tamanho e apresentou algumas mudanças na dieta nas diferentes classes de tamanho. Já T. rendalli foi considerada herbívora, e houve diferença quanto à contribuição dos recursos alimentares na dieta ao longo das classes de tamanho comparando as duas espécies.

Rosângela Lopes Zaganini; Ana Paula Vidotto-Magnoni; Edmir Daniel Carvalho

2012-01-01

194

Improving estimates of trophic shift in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), using measurements of lipogenic enzyme activities in the liver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To test whether the measurement of selected enzyme activities could be used to estimate more precisely the trophic shift of C isotopes, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed semi-synthetic diets differing in their lipid contents (1.7%, 5.0%, 10.8% and 20.0%). The diets were formulated to contain the same amount of nitrogen and metabolizable energy and were made from casein, wheat starch, corn germ oil supplemented with vitamins, minerals and L-arginine. The influence of the different diets on the activity of two lipogenic enzymes, ATP-citrate lyase and malic enzyme, on delta13C values in the whole fish, the liver and their correlation was investigated. There was a strong positive correlation between delta13C values in the lipids of whole fish and those of their livers. The activities of lipogenic enzymes increased significantly with increasing trophic shift of C isotopes (Deltadelta13Cdiet-fish values) in the lipids. If the relationship between trophic shift and enzyme activity can be confirmed in situations where feed quantity and quality are not known, the determination of enzyme activities would enable better estimates of the trophic shift to be made thus significantly improving back-calculation of diets from stable isotope data.

Gaye-Siessegger J; Focken U; Abel HJ; Becker K

2005-01-01

195

Improving estimates of trophic shift in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), using measurements of lipogenic enzyme activities in the liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

To test whether the measurement of selected enzyme activities could be used to estimate more precisely the trophic shift of C isotopes, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed semi-synthetic diets differing in their lipid contents (1.7%, 5.0%, 10.8% and 20.0%). The diets were formulated to contain the same amount of nitrogen and metabolizable energy and were made from casein, wheat starch, corn germ oil supplemented with vitamins, minerals and L-arginine. The influence of the different diets on the activity of two lipogenic enzymes, ATP-citrate lyase and malic enzyme, on delta13C values in the whole fish, the liver and their correlation was investigated. There was a strong positive correlation between delta13C values in the lipids of whole fish and those of their livers. The activities of lipogenic enzymes increased significantly with increasing trophic shift of C isotopes (Deltadelta13Cdiet-fish values) in the lipids. If the relationship between trophic shift and enzyme activity can be confirmed in situations where feed quantity and quality are not known, the determination of enzyme activities would enable better estimates of the trophic shift to be made thus significantly improving back-calculation of diets from stable isotope data. PMID:15664320

Gaye-Siessegger, J; Focken, U; Abel, H-J; Becker, K

2005-01-01

196

The effect of mistletoe, Viscum album coloratum, extract on innate immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary mistletoe extracts on non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Tilapia fingerlings were fed with a diet containing 0 mg as a control, 10 mg, 50 mg, and 200 mg mistletoe powder kg(-1) dry diet for 80 days. The immunological parameters, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, alternative complement haemolysis activity (ACH(50)), and phagocytic activity of fish were investigated following 20, 40 and 80 days of feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila on 80 days after feeding and mortalities were checked over 10 days post-infection. The results show that fish fed with mistletoe extract exhibited an increase in activity in all immunological parameters (P < 0.05) compared to the control group depending on feeding periods and doses of mistletoe. Following challenge with A. hydrophila, 42% less survivability was observed in the control group than in other experimental diet groups. The highest survival rate (83%) was shown in the group fed with a 50 mg mistletoe kg(-1) diet. The results suggest that mistletoe enables tilapia to promote immunity and be more resistant to A. hydrophila infection.

Park KH; Choi SH

2012-06-01

197

The effect of mistletoe, Viscum album coloratum, extract on innate immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary mistletoe extracts on non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Tilapia fingerlings were fed with a diet containing 0 mg as a control, 10 mg, 50 mg, and 200 mg mistletoe powder kg(-1) dry diet for 80 days. The immunological parameters, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, alternative complement haemolysis activity (ACH(50)), and phagocytic activity of fish were investigated following 20, 40 and 80 days of feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila on 80 days after feeding and mortalities were checked over 10 days post-infection. The results show that fish fed with mistletoe extract exhibited an increase in activity in all immunological parameters (P < 0.05) compared to the control group depending on feeding periods and doses of mistletoe. Following challenge with A. hydrophila, 42% less survivability was observed in the control group than in other experimental diet groups. The highest survival rate (83%) was shown in the group fed with a 50 mg mistletoe kg(-1) diet. The results suggest that mistletoe enables tilapia to promote immunity and be more resistant to A. hydrophila infection. PMID:22554573

Park, Kwan-Ha; Choi, Sang-Hoon

2012-03-03

198

Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) juveniles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluated exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L-1). The most appropriate clove oil concentration to induce surgical anaesthesia was 90 mg.L-1. To biometry or other brief handling, the recommended concentration is 50-60 mg.L-1 as it provides fast recovery. Maximum anaesthesia time should be 10 min. The mortality rate of fish transported using 18 mg.L-1 of anaesthetic was significantly higher than that of the control group at 24 h of transportation and at 96 h after transportation. The fish transported using clove oil as anaesthetic presented more significant Na+ and K+ disorders as compared to the control group. As an anaesthetic, clove oil is efficient in the handling of Nile tilapia in routine fish hatchery procedures, although it should be avoided in the transportation.

Larissa N. Simões; Danielle C. Lombardi; Andrea T. M. Gomide; Levy C. Gomes

2011-01-01

199

Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluated exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L- (more) 1). The most appropriate clove oil concentration to induce surgical anaesthesia was 90 mg.L-1. To biometry or other brief handling, the recommended concentration is 50-60 mg.L-1 as it provides fast recovery. Maximum anaesthesia time should be 10 min. The mortality rate of fish transported using 18 mg.L-1 of anaesthetic was significantly higher than that of the control group at 24 h of transportation and at 96 h after transportation. The fish transported using clove oil as anaesthetic presented more significant Na+ and K+ disorders as compared to the control group. As an anaesthetic, clove oil is efficient in the handling of Nile tilapia in routine fish hatchery procedures, although it should be avoided in the transportation.

Simões, Larissa N.; Lombardi, Danielle C.; Gomide, Andrea T. M.; Gomes, Levy C.

2011-06-01

200

EFEKTIVITAS IKAN NILA MERAH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) SEBAGAI PEMAKAN JENTIK NYAMUK  

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Full Text Available Ikan nila merah (Oreachromis niloticus) merupakan ikan yang berasal dari luar negeri yang sudah dibudidayakan secara meluas di Indonesia. Ikan tersebut mempunyai arti ekonomis penting karena harganya mahal. Dalam percobaan laboratorium, ikan nila merah memakan jentik nyamuk dan ganggang Enteromorpha, yaitu ganggang yang dipakai untuk bertelur nyamuk Anopheles sundaicus. Dalam suatu percobaan, efektivitas ikan nila merah sebagai agen biologi untuk mengendalikan jentik nyamuk vektor malaria, telah dilakukan dengan membuat kolam-kolam percobaan sebanyak 12 kolam yang diisi dengan, ikan nila merah, ikan nila merah, dan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas, serta kolam kosong sebagai kontrol. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa dalam kolam yang diisi dengan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas jentik nyamuknya lebih sedikit. Hal ini berbeda nyata dengan kolam yang diisi ikan mas saja dan kolam kontrol.

M. Sudomo; Ima Nurisa; Sushanti Idris Idram; Sujitno Sujitno

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect of cortisol on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus L., after transference from freshwater to seawater Efeito do cortisol sobre parâmetros de osmorregulação do teleósteo, Oreochromis niloticus L., após a transferência de água doce para água salgada  

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Full Text Available This trial was conducted in order to determine the effects of cortisol on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Tilapia (n=42) were injected intraperitoneally with cortisol and then were directly transferred from freshwater (FW) to 15‰ salt water (SW). Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-), plasma level of cortisol and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity were measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after transference to 15‰ SW. Plasma osmolality and Cl- increased immediately after transference until 12-24 h. The fish injected with cortisol (F) showed higher plasma levels of cortisol than those from control group (C) that maintained the initial levels during the experiment. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of C fish began to increase at first hours after transference and peak at 48h. The differences between gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of F and C groups were significant (PEste estudo foi realizado com o objectivo de testar os efeitos do cortisol na aclimatação da tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) à água salgada. As tilápias (n=42) foram injectadas intraperitonealmente com cortisol e directamente transferidas de água doce para água salobra (15‰). As alterações da osmolaridade, concentração em cloretos (Cl-), os níveis plasmáticos de cortisol e a actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase foram medidas (6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 168 horas) após a transferência para água salobra. A osmolaridade e a concentração em Cl- aumentou imediatamente após a transferência até às 12-24h. O grupo injectado com cortisol (F) mostrou níveis plasmáticos de cortisol mais elevados do que o grupo controlo (C) que manteve os níveis iniciais durante a experiência. A actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase dos peixes do grupo C começou às primeiras horas após a transferência e teve um pico às 48h. As diferenças entre a actividade enzimática da Na+, K+-ATPase dos grupos F e C foram significativas (P<0,05) em água doce, o que confirma o efeito exógeno do cortisol.

A. Fontaínhas-Fernandes; E.F. Gomes; Mª.A. Reis-Henriques; J. Coimbra

2003-01-01

202

Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con el fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR), electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y de barrido (MEB); como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca). Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos.The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminating pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca) were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

G. A Torres R; S González P; E Peña S

2010-01-01

203

Effect of cortisol on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus L., after transference from freshwater to seawater/ Efeito do cortisol sobre parâmetros de osmorregulação do teleósteo, Oreochromis niloticus L., após a transferência de água doce para água salgada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi realizado com o objectivo de testar os efeitos do cortisol na aclimatação da tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) à água salgada. As tilápias (n=42) foram injectadas intraperitonealmente com cortisol e directamente transferidas de água doce para água salobra (15‰). As alterações da osmolaridade, concentração em cloretos (Cl-), os níveis plasmáticos de cortisol e a actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase foram medidas (6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 1 (more) 68 horas) após a transferência para água salobra. A osmolaridade e a concentração em Cl- aumentou imediatamente após a transferência até às 12-24h. O grupo injectado com cortisol (F) mostrou níveis plasmáticos de cortisol mais elevados do que o grupo controlo (C) que manteve os níveis iniciais durante a experiência. A actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase dos peixes do grupo C começou às primeiras horas após a transferência e teve um pico às 48h. As diferenças entre a actividade enzimática da Na+, K+-ATPase dos grupos F e C foram significativas (P Abstract in english This trial was conducted in order to determine the effects of cortisol on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Tilapia (n=42) were injected intraperitoneally with cortisol and then were directly transferred from freshwater (FW) to 15‰ salt water (SW). Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-), plasma level of cortisol and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity were measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after transference to (more) 15‰ SW. Plasma osmolality and Cl- increased immediately after transference until 12-24 h. The fish injected with cortisol (F) showed higher plasma levels of cortisol than those from control group (C) that maintained the initial levels during the experiment. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of C fish began to increase at first hours after transference and peak at 48h. The differences between gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of F and C groups were significant (P

Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A.; Gomes, E.F.; Reis-Henriques, Mª.A.; Coimbra, J.

2003-10-01

204

Energia digestível para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) na fase de reversão sexual/ Digestible energy for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) larvae in the sexual reversion phase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na ração sobre o desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), durante a fase de reversão sexual. Foram utilizadas 375 larvas com peso e comprimento inicial de 21,0 ± 4,0 mg e 11,9 ± 7,2 mm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, composto (more) por cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental foi considerada como um aquário contendo 15 larvas. As rações foram formuladas de modo a conterem 3.300; 3.525; 3.750; 3.975 e 4.200 kcal/kg de energia digestível e serem isoprotéicas (38,6% de proteína digestível). Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum cinco vezes ao dia. Ao final do experimento, foram analisadas as médias de peso final (PF), sobrevivência (SO), fator de condição (FC) e comprimento final (CF). O aumento de ED nas rações proporcionou redução linear no PF e CF dos peixes. Não foram observadas diferenças na SO e FC dos peixes nos diferentes tratamentos. Conclui-se que o aumento nos níveis de energia digestível em rações para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo durante a reversão sexual proporciona redução no desempenho. Abstract in english This experiment was conducted to evaluate different levels of digestible energy on the performance of Nile tilapia larvae (Oreochromis niloticus) during the sexual reversion phase. Three hundred and seventy-five larvae with initial average length and weight of 21.0±4.0 mg and 1.19±0.72 cm, respectively, were allotted to 25 30L-aquarium. A completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates was used. The aquarium with 15 larvae was the exper (more) imental unit. The diets were formulated to contain levels of 3,300, 3,525, 3,750, 3,975, and 4,200 kcal/kg of digestible energy and to be isoprotein (38.6% digestible protein). The animals were fed ad libitum five times a day. At the end of the experiment, the averages of weight (PF), survival rate (SO), condition factor (FC) and length (CF) were analyzed. Linear reduction of fishes PF and CF, as the dietary digestible energy levels increased, was observed. No differences on fish SO and FC of different treatments were observed. Deleterious effects on performance due to the increasing dietary digestible energy levels were noticed for Nile tilapia larvae during the sexual reversion.

Boscolo, Wilson Rogério; Signor, Altevir; Feiden, Aldi; Bombardelli, Robie Allan; Signor, Arcangelo Augusto; Reidel, Adilson

2005-12-01

205

Effects of dietary beta--glucan on growth performance and disease resistance of juvenile hybrid tilapia ?Oreochromis aureus?×Oreochromis niloticus??  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One thousand hybridization tilapia?Oreochromis aureus?×Oreochromis niloticus?? were fed with the basal diet for 7 days. On day 8, five hundreds forty fish[ initial weight?1.84±0.02?g] were selected and randomly divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates of 30 fish each for the feeding test. beta-?1,3?-glucan was administered to the hybridization tilapia through the diets at six levels?0, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 4.0%, respectively? as measured the weight gain rate?WGR?, special growth rate?SGR?, survival rate?SR? and nutrients of muscle. The feed test period was 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding test,the fish were selected, 10 in each replicate randomly for infection test for 7 days. Effects of beta-?1,3?-glucan administration on survival and immune modulations were studied in the fish against the bacterial pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila by injection. SR was determined at different times after injection?1h?24h?48h?96h. 168h, respectively?. On day 7, test animals injected bacterial pathogen were collected to measure the acid phosphates?ACP? activity and lysozyme?LSZ? activity of head kidney. The results showed that after 56 days of feeding, survival rate ranged from 96.67%--100% and WGR, SGR and SR were not significantly different?P?0.05? among dietary treatments. The condition factor of the animals fed on 1.5% beta-glucan was significantly higher than the others?P?0.05?. The muscle protein contents of the fish fed on 2.0% beta-glucan were 3.76% and 3.02% higher than the control and 0.5% group, respectively?P?0.05?. On day 7 after injection of Aeromonas hydrophila, SR of the control was only 25%, and that of ?-glucan supplementation groups were between 60% and 70%. The acid phosphates activity and lysozyme activity of head kidney were significantly higher in the hybridization tilapias fed on 1.5% beta-glucan. Conclusion, in this test, 1.0 beta-1.5% beta-glucan supplementation in the dietary of hybridization tilapia was recommended considering the performance and disease resistance.

Chi Shuyan; Zhou Qicun; Zhou Jianbin; Yang Qihui; Dong Xiaohui

2006-01-01

206

Growth and gonad maturation responses of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on diets containing different levels of Rumalato additive  

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Full Text Available Tests were done to evaluate the effects of dietary supplements of Rumalato on performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L). Five diets were tested containing isonitrogenous (332 g kg-1) and isocaloric (18.4 kJ g-1) formulated as supplements to 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 Rumalato. Fish were reared in fifteen glass aquaria for 60 days, and there were three replicates per treatment. Ten fingerlings of Nile tilapia with an average weight of 4.4± 0.3 g were placed in each aquarium. Fish were fed twice daily (six days a week) at the rate of 4% of body weight based on dry matter. Results showed that fish fed on diet (2) supplemented with 20 mg kg-1 Rumalato had significantly (P?0.05) higher growth rates (10.7±0.4) than those fish fed on other diets and the control diet (1) in terms of its effect on fish weight and growth and feed utilization performances. However, performance of fish fed diets (3 & 4) was not significantly different (P<0.05). Fingerlings reached different maturity stages according to levels Rumalato, maximum maturity at stage III (developing stage) was achieved when fish were fed on diet 2, supplemented with 20 mg kg-1 Rumalato. Results showed that Rumalato supplement at the level of (20 mg kg-1) increased fat content and protein contents. It was concluded that Rumalato supplemented in diets could improve performance, growth rate and gonad maturity of Nile tilapia without any adverse effects.

Gaber et al.

2012-01-01

207

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

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Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3). However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW) as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05) decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

H. Hamli; M.H. Idris; S.K. Wong

2013-01-01

208

Effect of cortisol on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus L., after transference from freshwater to seawater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This trial was conducted in order to determine the effects of cortisol on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Tilapia (n=42) were injected intraperitoneally with cortisol and then were directly transferred from freshwater (FW) to 15‰ salt water (SW). Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-), plasma level of cortisol and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity were measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after transference to 15‰ SW. Plasma osmolality and Cl- increased immediately after transference until 12-24 h. The fish injected with cortisol (F) showed higher plasma levels of cortisol than those from control group (C) that maintained the initial levels during the experiment. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of C fish began to increase at first hours after transference and peak at 48h. The differences between gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of F and C groups were significant (P<0.05) in FW, which confirm the effect of exogenous cortisol.

Fontaínhas-Fernandes A.; Gomes E.F.; Reis-Henriques Mª.A.; Coimbra J.

2003-01-01

209

Lamproglena monodi capart, 1944, attachment scheme and associatedpathology on the gills of oreochromis niloticus, with a special reference tothoracic appendages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This work comprises a parasitological and histopathological examinationof the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, naturally infected withLamproglena monody (Crustacea: Lernaeidae). Fish specimens were collectedweekly from El-Minia Nile basin, Egypt Between April 2006 to March 2008).From a total of 420 fish examined, 96 (22.86%) were found infected.Attachment of L monodi was mainly enhanced by the armed maxillae that wereseen deeply introduced into the underlying tissues reaching the axialcartilage the gill filament. The maxillipeds were not involved in theattachment to the gill epithelium. Histological changes were restricted onlyto the free ends of gill filament, where copepods were found attached; thecentral and basal parts appeared normal and their gill lamellae remainedintact. Deep and shallow lesions associated sometimes with compressed orexfoliated hyperplastic epithelium were encountered in front of cephalothoraxand around oral apparatus of the parasite. In slight and moderate infectionsgill lamellae showed partial fusion. In many cases of heavy infection, theattacked area of gill filaments was eroded through. The cephalothorax wassometimes found in a deep cavity of the proliferated epithelium that wasinfiltrated by granular cells and lymphocytes. (author)

2006-04-00

210

Branchial O(2) chemoreceptors in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: Control of cardiorespiratory function in response to hypoxia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the distribution and orientation of gill O(2) chemoreceptors in Oreochromis niloticus and their role in cardiorespiratory responses to graded hypoxia. Intact fish, and a group with the first gill arch excised (operated), were submitted to graded hypoxia and their cardiorespiratory responses (oxygen uptake - V?O(2) , breathing frequency - fR, ventilatory stroke volume - VT, gill ventilation - V?G, O(2) extraction from the ventilatory current - EO(2) , and heart rate - fH) were compared. Their responses to bolus injections of NaCN into the bloodstream (internal) or ventilatory water stream (external) were also determined. The V?O(2) of operated fish was significantly lower at the deepest levels of hypoxia. Neither reflex bradycardia nor ventilatory responses were completely abolished by bilateral excision of the first gill arch. EO(2) of the operated group was consistently lower than the intact group. The responses to internal and external NaCN included transient decreases in fH and increases in fR and Vamp (ventilation amplitude). These cardiorespiratory responses were attenuated but not abolished in the operated group, indicating that chemoreceptors are not restricted to the first gill arch, and are sensitive to oxygen levels in both blood and water.

Zeraik VM; Belão TC; Florindo LH; Kalinin AL; Rantin FT

2013-09-01

211

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in length) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T0) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T15, T30 and T45), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T15 and T30 (p<0.05). High values of K were found in the R and RGH treatments during the initial days of the experiment, which may have been a consequence of the better nutritional status affecting both weight gain and growth in body length, as a result of the additive effects of 17-MT and GH. The fish in groups not treated with 17-MT and treated with 17-MT and added GH showed greater increases in WG per day, higher K values and lower FCRs than fish in the other groups, which suggests that greater feed efficiency occurred in the hormone-treated fish. Fish in the RGH treatment showed the most growth, suggesting a possible interaction between 17-MT and injected GH. PMID:23894974

Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Robles-Basto, Cindy M; Mena-herrera, Alfredo

2013-03-01

212

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in length) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T0) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T15, T30 and T45), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T15 and T30 (p<0.05). High values of K were found in the R and RGH treatments during the initial days of the experiment, which may have been a consequence of the better nutritional status affecting both weight gain and growth in body length, as a result of the additive effects of 17-MT and GH. The fish in groups not treated with 17-MT and treated with 17-MT and added GH showed greater increases in WG per day, higher K values and lower FCRs than fish in the other groups, which suggests that greater feed efficiency occurred in the hormone-treated fish. Fish in the RGH treatment showed the most growth, suggesting a possible interaction between 17-MT and injected GH.

Liñán-Cabello MA; Robles-Basto CM; Mena-herrera A

2013-03-01

213

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

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Full Text Available Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758) was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days) exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg). Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr). There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758) através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g) e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2) correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (Ht), volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), trombócitos totais (Tr), contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc). Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus.

Nilton Massuo Ishikawa; Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva; Julio Vicente Lombardi; Cláudia Maris Ferreira

2007-01-01

214

Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758) através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g) e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidad (more) e de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2) correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (Ht), volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), trombócitos totais (Tr), contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc). Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus. Abstract in english Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758) was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days) exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg). Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blo (more) od cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr). There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.

Ishikawa, Nilton Massuo; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José Tavares; Lombardi, Julio Vicente; Ferreira, Cláudia Maris

2007-07-01

215

Heterogeneous growth fingerlings of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: effects of density and initial size variability Crescimento heterogêneo em juvenis de Tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus: efeito da heterogeneidade inicial de peso e da densidade  

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Full Text Available In this study, the effect of initial heterogeneity of weight and density on heterogeneous growth (HetG) evaluated by the coefficient of the variation of weight in the young Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus of the territorial species was tested. Fish were maintained in a glass aquarium (8 and 2 L of water) with two levels of initial heterogeneity of weight: low and high, under two density conditions: low and high, thus constituting four conditions (six replications for each). Initially, the weights of the animals were taken after 8, 16, 22 and 30 days (end of experiment). The results, evaluated by the non-parametric test of Kruskal- Wallis, demonstrated that in the groups where the animals were stored under high initial HetG, there was a reduction of the same and that in the groups where the animals were stored under high density, there was exacerbation or maintained high values of HetG. High density in association with high initial heterogeneity caused more exacerbation of HetG in such a way that the density appeared to be a determining factor for exacerbation or the maintenance of high values of HetG, whereas the initial heterogeneity of the weight could be a secondary factor.Neste trabalho, testou-se o efeito da heterogeneidade inicial de peso e da densidade sobre o crescimento heterogêneo (CHet, avaliado pelo coeficiente de variação do peso) em juvenis de tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus, espécie territorial. Os peixes foram mantidos em aquários de vidro (8 e 2 L d’água) com dois níveis de heterogeneidade inicial de peso: baixo e alto, sob duas densidades: baixa e alta, configurando-se quatro condições (6 réplicas cada uma). Os pesos dos animais foram tomados no início, aos 8, 16, 22 e 30 dias (final do experimento). Os resultados, avaliados pelo teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, demonstraram que nos grupos em que os animais foram estocados com alto CHet inicial houve redução e que nos grupos em que os animais foram estocados em alta densidade houve exacerbação ou manutenção dos altos valores de CHet. A alta densidade quando associada à alta heterogeneidade inicial provocou maior exacerbação do CHet de forma que a densidade parece ser um fator determinante da exacerbação ou da manutenção de altos valores de CHet, enquanto a heterogeneidade inicial de peso pode ser um fator secundário.

J. M. Barbosa; S. S. S. Brugiolo; J. Carolsfeld; S. S. Leitão

2006-01-01

216

Digestibilidade aparente pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) de rações contendo sorgo (alto e baixo tanino) e metionina Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) apparent digestibility of diets containing (high and low) tannin sorghum and methionine  

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Full Text Available Esse estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de duas variedades de sorgo (alto e baixo tanino) e da metionina em rações para tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes, Cichlidae). Foi avaliada a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta. Empregaram-se 100 peixes distribuídos em 10 grupos, os quais receberam rações contendo sorgo alto e baixo tanino e 0,0%; 0,60% e 0,90% de metionina. Após um período de aclimação de três dias, foram colhidas amostras representativas das fezes produzidas diariamente até completar seis repetições de cada tratamento. A partir das análises químicas das rações e das fezes e utilizando-se o óxido de crômio como marcador inerte, foram calculados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente. Pode-se concluir que para tilápia do Nilo, o sorgo variedade baixo tanino apresenta coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente que podem ser considerados semelhantes aos do milho; que a variedade alto tanino apresenta coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente significativamente inferiores aos do milho e da variedade baixo tanino e; que a suplementação de metionina não é suficiente para controlar a ação antinutricional do tanino.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of two sorghum varieties (high and low tannin) and levels of methionine (0.0%, 0.60% and 0.90%) in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes, Cichlidae), diets on apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy. 100 fish were distributed in ten aquarium (250L). After a climatization period of three days, representative samples of feces were obtained daily until reach six replicates each treatment. The apparent digestibility coefficient was calculated based in chemical analysis of diets and feces to determine chemical composition and chromic oxide. It was concluded that for Nile tilapia the low tannin sorghum has similar apparent digestibility to corn and that the high tannin variety has significant lower apparent digestibility than corn and low tannin. The supplementation of methionine it is not enough to control the anti-nutritional effect of tannin.

Edson de Souza Freire; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Margarida Maria Barros; Hamilton Hisano; Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves; Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

2002-01-01

217

Concentrado protéico de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus): caracterização físico-química e aceitação sensorial Protein concentrate from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): physical-chemical characterization and sensory acceptance  

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Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou o aproveitamento da carne mecanicamente separada (CMS) de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) na obtenção de um concentrado protéico de tilápia (CPT) para o consumo humano, caracterizando-o quanto aos parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais. O CPT foi caracterizado quanto aos seguintes aspectos: rendimento, umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, atividade de água (Aw) e aceitação sensorial. O CPT apresentou rendimento de 18,34%, baixos níveis de umidade e cinza e alto conteúdo protéico e lipídico, quando comparado à matéria-prima original (CMS) e baixa Aw. Na avaliação sensorial do CPT, a freqüência de aceitação dos provadores foi de 60,4% para a cor, 51,1% para o aspecto geral e 41,7% para o aroma. A descrição do aroma com termos como característico de pescado foi relatada por 44,2% dos provadores, sugerindo a necessidade de uma desodorização parcial do material, e indicando um equilíbrio em relação ao grupo dos provadores que não perceberam o odor característico. Esta pesquisa mostra agregação de valor a um material de descarte, gerando possibilidades de oferta de uma fonte proteica alternativa, de custo relativamente baixo.This study aimed to use mechanically separated mince (MSM) from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) to obtain a protein concentrate for human consumption and to assess its proximal composition and sensory characteristics. Yield, proximal composition, water activity and sensory evaluation were analyzed on the dry TPC. The TPC has a yield of 18.34%, and contained 1.38% moisture, 62.39% protein, 32.63% fat, 2.26% ash and had 0.16 Aw. Sensory evaluation of dry FPC powder expressed as frequency of acceptance by panelists was 60.4% for color, 51.1% for general appearance and 41.7% for aroma. Description of flavor using terms like "typical of fish" was reported by only 44.2% of the panelists, suggesting the need for a more efficient deodorizing process and showing a balance in relation to the group of panelists that did not notice the characteristic smell. The study shows the possibility of adding value to a residual food material offering an alternative source of protein at a relatively low cost.

Juliana Maria Aderaldo Vidal; Maria do Carmo Passos Rodrigues; Jorge Fernando Fuentes Zapata; Janaína Maria Martins Vieira

2011-01-01

218

Custos de produção de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) em um modelo de propriedade da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produção da piscicultura praticada na região oeste do Paraná. Os custos são apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se à exploração comercial de uma área de 24.000m², em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produção de 14,4t de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) por ciclo de produção, com o peso unitário médio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantação, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao mês) e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o último representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo variável representou 70,18% do custo total de produção e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que são bastante sensíveis às variações nos preços das matérias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsável pela governança da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivência.The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m² area, in eight tanks, which enable the production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month) and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of raw material prices. The necessity of the establishment of a responsible agent for the leadership of the food chain was exposed to guarantee its survival.

Rafael Luiz Barboza de Andrade; Ricardo Luiz Wagner; Ilson Mahl; Ricardo Silveira Martins

2005-01-01

219

Heterogeneous growth fingerlings of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: effects of density and initial size variability/ Crescimento heterogêneo em juvenis de Tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus: efeito da heterogeneidade inicial de peso e da densidade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, testou-se o efeito da heterogeneidade inicial de peso e da densidade sobre o crescimento heterogêneo (CHet, avaliado pelo coeficiente de variação do peso) em juvenis de tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus, espécie territorial. Os peixes foram mantidos em aquários de vidro (8 e 2 L d?água) com dois níveis de heterogeneidade inicial de peso: baixo e alto, sob duas densidades: baixa e alta, configurando-se quatro condições (6 réplicas cada uma). (more) Os pesos dos animais foram tomados no início, aos 8, 16, 22 e 30 dias (final do experimento). Os resultados, avaliados pelo teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, demonstraram que nos grupos em que os animais foram estocados com alto CHet inicial houve redução e que nos grupos em que os animais foram estocados em alta densidade houve exacerbação ou manutenção dos altos valores de CHet. A alta densidade quando associada à alta heterogeneidade inicial provocou maior exacerbação do CHet de forma que a densidade parece ser um fator determinante da exacerbação ou da manutenção de altos valores de CHet, enquanto a heterogeneidade inicial de peso pode ser um fator secundário. Abstract in english In this study, the effect of initial heterogeneity of weight and density on heterogeneous growth (HetG) evaluated by the coefficient of the variation of weight in the young Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus of the territorial species was tested. Fish were maintained in a glass aquarium (8 and 2 L of water) with two levels of initial heterogeneity of weight: low and high, under two density conditions: low and high, thus constituting four conditions (six replications for e (more) ach). Initially, the weights of the animals were taken after 8, 16, 22 and 30 days (end of experiment). The results, evaluated by the non-parametric test of Kruskal- Wallis, demonstrated that in the groups where the animals were stored under high initial HetG, there was a reduction of the same and that in the groups where the animals were stored under high density, there was exacerbation or maintained high values of HetG. High density in association with high initial heterogeneity caused more exacerbation of HetG in such a way that the density appeared to be a determining factor for exacerbation or the maintenance of high values of HetG, whereas the initial heterogeneity of the weight could be a secondary factor.

Barbosa, J. M.; Brugiolo, S. S. S.; Carolsfeld, J.; Leitão, S. S.

2006-05-01

220

Cytochemical aspects of the peripheral blood cells of Oreochromis (Tilapia) niloticus. (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cichlidae, Teleostei): part II/ Aspectos citoquímicos das células do sangue periférico de Oreochromis (Tilapia) niloticus. (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cichlidae, Teleostei): parte II  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Morfologicamente foram identificados no sangue de Oreochromis niloticus sete tipos de células: eritrócitos, trombócitos, neutrófilos, eosinófilos, basófilos, linfócitos e monócitos. Em relação aos resultados citoquímicos foi contastada a presença de glicogênio em neutrófilos, trombócitos e em alguns linfócitos e monócitos. Os grânulos citoplasmáticos de neutrófilos e eosinófilos mostraram positividade para mieloperoxidade e Sudan black. O azul de bromofenol foi totalmente positivo em eritrócitos e eosinófilos. Abstract in english Morphologicaly, seven types of cells were identified in the blood of Oreochromis niloticus: erythrocytes, thrombocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Glycogen was present not only in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and thrombocytes but also in some lymphocytes and monocytes. The positive reaction for myeloperoxidase and Sudan black was observed in neutrophils and eosinophils. The bromphenol blue method was strongly positive for erythrocytes and eosinophils.

UEDA, Ivete Kotomi; EGAMI, Mizue Imoto; SASSO, Wilson da Silva; MATUSHIMA, Eliana Reiko

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)=Purification, physical and chemical characterization, and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs) constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP) nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0) contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM), seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA), usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1). O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II), eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS) padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I) e 23,80 (F II) UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP) in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM), followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1). The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II) eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS), suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I) and 23.80 (F II) IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues; Ana Luíza Gomes Quinderé; Ismael Nilo Lino de Queiroz; Chistiane Oliveira Coura; Glácio Souza Araújo; Norma Maria Barros Benevides

2011-01-01

222

Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaflor®, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15mg/kg BW/d for 12days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27°C under a 15h light:9h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12d because one tank did not consume >75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at

Gaikowski MarkP; Mushtaq Mohammad; Cassidy Phillip; Meinertz JefferyR; Schleis SusanM; Sweeney Diane; Endris RichardG

2010-03-01

223

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A. [Food Engineering Department, ZEA/FZEA/USP, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, 13635 900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

2007-11-15

224

Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction

2007-01-01

225

Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces): a methodological comparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13) and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis test, our results revealed that pH 12.1 is more effective, although both pHs can be used. Our findings also suggest that silver staining can substitute ethidium bromide, an expensive and highly toxic stain that requires specific equipment for examination.

Cintya A. Christofoletti; José Augusto O. David; Carmem S. Fontanetti

2009-01-01

226

Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces): a methodological comparison  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13) and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis (more) test, our results revealed that pH 12.1 is more effective, although both pHs can be used. Our findings also suggest that silver staining can substitute ethidium bromide, an expensive and highly toxic stain that requires specific equipment for examination.

Christofoletti, Cintya A.; David, José Augusto O.; Fontanetti, Carmem S.

2009-01-01

227

Fibra bruta para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou avaliar diferentes níveis de fibra bruta no desempenho e no tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L). Foram utilizados 125 alevinos (1,39 ± 0,03 g) distribuídos em 25 aquários de 54 L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram formuladas cinco rações isoenergéticas (3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível) e isoprotéicas (30% de proteína bruta), diferindo quanto aos níveis de fibra bruta (3,65; 4,75; 6,00; 7,25 e 8,50%). O período experimental foi de 64 dias a uma temperatura média de 26,5ºC ± 0,8 de manhã e 27,5ºC ± 0,7 à tarde. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desempenho dos alevinos, entretanto houve decréscimo linear para o tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar com o aumento da fibra.

Meurer Fábio; Hayashi Carmino; Boscolo Wilson Rogério

2003-01-01

228

Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus);Efeitos da irradiacao e refrigeracao na qualidade e no valor nutritivo da tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

2001-07-01

229

Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

2007-01-01

230

Extruded leftover food as animal feed: I. Effect of extruded feed on growth and feed utilization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75 +/- 1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia. PMID:19090139

Al-Ruqaie, Ibrahim M

2007-10-01

231

Extruded leftover food as animal feed: I. Effect of extruded feed on growth and feed utilization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75 +/- 1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

Al-Ruqaie IM

2007-10-01

232

Fitase na alimentação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), durante o período de reversão de sexo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a influência de níveis de fitase sobre o desempenho da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) no período de reversão de sexo. Foram utilizadas 1000 larvas de tilápia do Nilo com peso inicial 0,02 ± 0,002g, alimentadas com rações contendo 0; 500; 1000; 2000 e 4000 unidades de fitase (UF)/kg, durante 31 dias. A ração referência continha 3143 kcal de energia digestível/kg, 30% de proteína bruta e 0,85 e 0,35% de fósforo (P) total e disponível, respectivamente. Não foram observados efeitos (P>0,05) dos valores de inclusão de fitase sobre o ganho de peso e taxa de sobrevivência. O aumento nos níveis de fitase nas rações elevou linearmente (PThis work was carried out to examine the influence of dietary levels of phytase on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) performance during the sex reversion period. Were used 1,000 fries of Nile tilápia with initial weight 0.02 ± 0.002g, fed with diets containing 0; 500; 1000; 2000 and 4000 phytase units (PU)/kg of diet 31 days. The reference diet provided 3,143 kcal of digestible energy/kg, 30% of crude protein and 0,85 and 0,35% of total and disponible phosphorus (P), respectively. No effects (P>0.05) were observed of phytase inclusion on weight gain and survival rate. Dietary phytase levels increase linearly (P<0.05) the calcium retention in the carcass. There was observed quadratic effect (P<0.05) of dietary phytase supplementation on P retention in the carcass, estimated the values of 1,990 PU/kg for the highest value for this variable. The results of this work indicate that a dietary level of 1,990 of PU provide maximal P retention in the carcass of Nile tilapia, during sex reversal period.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Patrícia Ribeiro Neves; Lilian Carolina Rosa Silva; Daniele Botaro; Carmino Hayashi; Eduardo Shigueto Sakaguti

2004-01-01

233

Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs) constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP) nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0) contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM), seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA), usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1). O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II), eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS) padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I) e 23,80 (F II) UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP) in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM), followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1). The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II) eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS), suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I) and 23.80 (F II) IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues; Ana Luíza Gomes Quinderé; Ismael Nilo Lino de Queiroz; Chistiane Oliveira Coura; Glácio Souza Araújo; Norma Maria Barros Benevides

2011-01-01

234

The protective role of l-carnitine against cylindrospermopsin-induced oxidative stress in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is one of the most important cyanotoxins in terms of both human health and environmental quality and is produced by several different species of cyanobacteria, including Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. The principal mechanisms of action of CYN involve inhibition of protein and glutathione synthesis. In addition, CYN-mediated genotoxicity results from DNA fragmentation. The results of both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that oxidative stress also plays a significant role in CYN pathogenesis in fish. We investigated the protective effects of l-carnitine (LC) pre-treatment on A. ovalisporum-induced oxidative stress in cells containing CYN and deoxy-CYN, or pure standard CYN, in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that had been acutely exposed via oral administration. Various oxidative stress markers, including lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation, DNA oxidation, and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (?-GCS), were evaluated in the livers and kidneys of fish in the absence and presence of 400 or 880mgLC/kgfish/day during a 21 day period prior to CYN-intoxication. The results of our study demonstrated for the first time the beneficial antioxidant effects of LC dietary supplementation on oxidative stress status in fish. No pro-oxidant effects were detected at any of the LC doses assayed, suggesting that LC is a chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress and may be effective when used for the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxication in fish. PMID:23501490

Guzmán-Guillén, R; Prieto, A I; Vázquez, C M; Vasconcelos, V; Cameán, A M

2013-02-27

235

Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena/ Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de controle respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I) e com succinato (complexo II) foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivam (more) ente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1) na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte. Abstract in english A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3.3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I) or succinate (complex II), respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for (more) malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1) in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

Peixoto, F.P.; Santos, D.L.; Vilela, S.; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A.

2009-04-01

236

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)/ Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observaç (more) ões comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus. Abstract in english The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural ob (more) servations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

Medeiros, APT; Chellappa, S; Yamamoto, ME

2007-11-01

237

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus.

APT Medeiros; S Chellappa; ME Yamamoto

2007-01-01

238

An immunohistochemical study of gill epithelium cells in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the first complete mapping of the gill epithelium in a tilapia species. Different gill epithelial cell types of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. have been identified and located using different antisera against mammalian proteins and various histochemical techniques: Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), Alcian Blue pH 1.0, 2.5, 3.5, Giemsa and Grimelius. The results show that the stratified filament epithelium of O. niloticus gill can be divided into two distinct regions, a superficial layer, where pavement, mucous and mitochondria rich cells can be found, and a deep layer, constituted by undifferentiated, myoepithelial-like, granular and neuroendocrine cells. V-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase presence allowed the identification of pavement and mitochondria-rich cells, respectively, suggesting that, in O. niloticus, pavement cells are implicated in Na+ uptake, whereas mitochondria-rich cells have a role in Cl- uptake. The use of PAS and Alcian Blue allowed the recognition of different sub-populations of mucous cells that differentiate from a common deeper precursor. Neuroendocrine markers were detected in different cell populations, stating evidence for a neuroendocrine role of mitochondria- rich cells, and suggesting the existence of distinct neural pathways, a putative O2-chemosensory and an ion regulatory pathway. A defence role was attributed to the deep filament epithelium, suggested by the presence of resident giemsa positive- eosinophil granular cells. The antibody raised against proliferating cell nuclear antigen identified two different cell types, the undifferentiated cells and myoepithelial-like cells. In the superficial layer, it is here stated for the first time the existence of vimentin positive support cells.

Sandra Mariza Monteiro; António Fontainhas-Fernandes; M??rio Sousa

2010-01-01

239

Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual aquaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30) as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15) and subordinate (N = 15) fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl), glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl), triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl) or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl). However, when isolated (N = 30) and paired (N = 30) tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

Corrêa S.A.; Fernandes M.O.; Iseki K.K.; Negrão J.A.

2003-01-01

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Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e farinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L) de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L) de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue.Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g) fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L) at a density of 20 fish/aquarium for feeding, between 8a.m. and 5:30 p.m. After this period, they were transferred for aquaria (300 L) appropriate for fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined by assessing the difference between the feed and fecal concentrations of the marker. Results of this study indicate that among energetic ingredients, corn, extruded corn, wheat middlings and rice meal had the highest apparent digestibility coefficient and gluten 60, corn gluten meal, canola meal for proteic ingredients. Among animal sources, poultry by-product and fish meal showed high apparent coefficients and, poultry feathers hydrolyzed and blood meal low apparent coefficients for Nile tilapia.

Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Edma Carvalho de Miranda; Margarida Maria Barros; Luis Gabriel Quintero Pinto; Wilson Massumitu Furuya; Antonio Celso Pezzato

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Quantification of fatty acids in tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with different sources of vegetable oilsQuantificação de ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentados com diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais  

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Full Text Available The present work aimed to quantify the fatty acids in total lipids of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with different sources of vegetable oils mechanically extracted. Were used 320 tilapias (O. niloticus) with average initial weight and average total initial length of 2.55±0.57 g and 5.59±0.43 cm, respectively, fed for a period of 60 days, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replications. The diets were prepared with 320 g/kg crude protein and 3.500 kcal of digestible energy per kg of feed enriched with eight different oils: sunflower, canola, sesame, linseed, peanut, Para’s nut soy and macadamia, with an addition of 4%. Among the major fatty acids the oleic, palmitic, linolenic and linoleic were obtained in higher concentration (mg/g of LT) in fish from all treatments. The sums of polyunsaturated fatty acids after 60 days of cultivation had increased in all treatments compared to the 30 days of the experiment. This is due to the addition of oils with high contents of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The fatty acids in the carcass are a reflection of the energy source of oil used. As a conclusion it is recommended the use of linseed oil in the diet of tilapia fingerlings due to great improvement in the relationship between n-6/n-3. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar os ácidos graxos nos alevinos de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentadas com diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais extraídos mecanicamente. Foram utilizadas 320 tilápias com peso inicial médio e comprimento total inicial médio de 2,55±0,57 g e 5,59±0,43 cm, respectivamente, alimentados por um período de 60 dias, num delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram elaboradas com 320 g/ kg proteína bruta (PB) e 3.500 kcal de energia digestível (ED) por kg de ração, enriquecidas com oito diferentes óleos: girassol, canola, gergelim, linhaça, amendoim, castanha do Pará, soja e macadâmia, com uma inclusão de 4%. Dentre os ácidos graxos majoritários o oléico, palmítico, linolênico e linoléico foram os obtidos em maior concentração (mg/g de LT) nos peixes em todos os tratamentos. As somatórias dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados aos 60 dias de cultivo apresentaram aumento em todos os tratamentos em comparação aos 30 dias de experimento. Isto se deve a adição dos óleos com alto conteúdo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 nas rações. Os ácidos graxos na carcaça são o reflexo da fonte energética de óleo utilizada. Como conclusão recomenda-se o uso do óleo de linhaça na alimentação de alevinos de tilápias, devido à grande melhoria na razão entre n-6/n-3.

Leticia Hayashi Higuchi; Aldi Feiden; Makoto Matsushita; Mayara Santarosa; Ana Beatriz Zanqui; Fabio Bittencourt; Wilson Rogério Boscolo

2013-01-01

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Growth performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings reared in Na2CO3 limed waters = Desempenho produtivo de alevinos de tilápia nilótica, Oreochromis niloticus, em aquários submetidos à calagem com Na2CO3  

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Full Text Available Current experiment was undertaken during 6 weeks with Nile tilapia,Oreochomis niloticus, fingerlings (1.28 . 0.03 g) to assess the effects of moderate Na2CO3 liming on water quality and fish growth performance. Twenty-four 25 L-aquaria, with 15 fish per aquarium, were used, of which twelve aquaria were placed in the lab’s indoor room and twelve in the outdoor area. Two types of water (clear or green) and three different water-quality managements (none, HCl acidification and Na2CO3 liming) were simultaneously evaluated in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Total ammonia, calcium hardness, pH and total alkalinity in the green water aquaria were significantly higher than rates in the clear water aquaria. Slight liming acid water with Na2CO3 did not produce any significant effect on its water calcium hardness. No significant differences between controls and theexperimental group were observed for any growth variables. Lime rearing water with Na2CO3 has no significant effect on tilapia growth performance if the initial total alkalinity of water is higher than 20 mg CaCO3 L-1.O presente estudo foi realizado por seis semanas com alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (1,28 . 0,03 g), para avaliar os efeitos da calagem moderada da água de cultivo com Na2CO3 naqualidade da água e no desempenho produtivo dos peixes cultivados. Vinte e quatro aquários de polietileno de 25 L foram utilizados para manter os peixes experimentais (15 peixes por aquário). Doze aquários foram instalados na sala interna do laboratório e 12 aquários na área externa. Dois tipos de águas (claras, sem fitoplâncton ou verdes,ricas em fitoplâncton) e três diferentes manejos de qualidade de água (nenhum, acidificação com HCl ou calagem com Na2CO3) foram avaliados simultaneamente em delineamento fatorial 3 x 2. A concentração de amônia total, dureza cálcica, pH e alcalinidade total das águas verdes foram significativamente maiores que para as águas claras. A calagem das águas fracamente ácidas com Na2CO3 não produziu nenhumefeito significativo na dureza cálcica da água. Não se observaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos-controle e o grupo experimental para nenhuma das variáveis de desempenho produtivo observadas. Concluiu-se que fazer a calagem da água de cultivo de tilápias com Na2CO3 não trará nenhum benefício ao desempenho zootécnico dos peixes se a alcalinidade inicial da água exceder 20 mg L-1 de CaCO3.

Davi de Holanda Cavalcante; Renan Loiola Barros; Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

2010-01-01

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Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm), total weight (g), reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation), and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full). We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads), reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females), and feeding habits (by stomach contents). The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I) package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F). Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5°C), and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18°C). The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: L?=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phytoplanktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2): 721-734. Epub 2012 June 01.La exótica tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) es la especie mayormente capturada en la pesquería artesanal del embalse de Barra Bonita, sudeste de Brasil, de gran importancia socioeconómica para la región y para una población de unos 500 pescadores. El estudio analizo: la reproducción, la dinámica alimentaria y la explotación de O. niloticus, la cual fue capturada en la pesquería del embalse de Barra Bonita. Asimismo, se tomaron muestras mensuales y se analizo un total de 1 715 animales desde julio-2004 a junio-2005. De cada espécimen, se obtuvieron los siguientes datos biológicos y biométricos: longitud estándar (cm), peso total (g), datos reproductivos (sexo y estadio de maduración), contenido estomacal (vacio, parcialmente lleno y lleno). Estos datos fueron utilizados para estimar la proporción de sexo (a través de la observación macroscópica de las gónadas), el periodo reproductivo (a través de la distribución de la frecuencia de los estadios macroscópicos del desarrollo de los ovarios), y la media de la proporción del índice gonadosomático IGS de hembras, así como los hábitos alimentarios (a través de la observación del contenido estoma

José Luis Costa Novaes; Edmir Daniel Carvalho

2012-01-01

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Karyotypical characterization from stock of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, at Londrina State University, PR, Brazil, through several techniques of chromosomes band/ Caracterização cariotípica de um estoque de tilápia do Nilo,Oreochromis niloticus, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, mediante diversas técnicas de bandamento cromossômico  

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Full Text Available 14 specimens of Nile’s tilapia were analyzed cytogenetically, Oreochromis niloticus, that belong to the stock of fish breeding from the Freshwater Aquaculture Station of the Londrina State University in the Paraná, Brazil. All specimens presented the same disploid number of 44 chromosomes. The NORs were observed in four chromosomes with marks in terminal position of the short arm and the hybridization “in situ” (FISH) with probe of 18 S also evidenced the presence of two pairs of chromosomes containing ribbosomic cistrons. The treatment with the fluochromes CMA3 and DAPI, respectively, didn’t show shinning bands in any chromosome of the complement. The band C (CBG) evidenced regions of heterochromatin distributed on several chromosomes in the centromeric regions, being observed some marks in telomeric regions, mainly on the biggest pair of chromosomes of the complement, a pair presented itself almost totally heterochromatic. The obtained results are in accordance with the data found in literature, nevertheless when the C bands and NORs were analyzed, were evidenced some differences that apparently characterized the local fish population of the Londrina State University. Key words: Cytogenetics, Oreochromis niloticus, NORs, CMA3, DAPI, fish, heterochromatin.Foram analisados citogeneticamente 14 indivíduos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus que fazem parte do estoque de reposição de reprodutores da Estação de Piscicultura da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Todos os indivíduos apresentaram o mesmo número diplóide de 44 cromossomos. As NORs foram observadas em quatro cromossomos com marcações em posição terminal do braço curto e a hibridação “in situ” (FISH) com sonda de 18S também evidenciou a presença de dois pares de cromossomos contendo cístrons ribossômicos. O tratamento com os fluorocromos CMA3 e DAPI, respectivamente, não mostrou bandas brilhantes em nenhum cromossomo do complemento. A Banda C (CBG) evidenciou, regiões de heterocromatina distribuídas em vários cromossomos nas regiões centroméricas, sendo observadas algumas marcações em regiões teloméricas, principalmente no maior par de cromossomos do complemento, um par apresentou-se quase totalmente heterocromático. Os resultados obtidos estão de acordo com os dados disponíveis na literatura, porém, quando analisadas as bandas C e as NORs, foram evidenciadas algumas diferenças que aparentemente caracterizam a população local de peixes da Universidade Estadual de Londrina.

Creusa Maria Rodrigues Leonhardt; Lucia Giuliano Caetano; Alberto Fenocchio; Mauro Caetano Filho; Julio Hermann Leonhardt

2006-01-01

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APPORTS RELATIFS EN NOURRITURES NATURELLE ET ARTIFICIELLE DANS L’ALIMENTATION DU TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS EN CAPTIVITE RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF NATURAL AND SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD IN NILE TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FEEDING IN CAPTIVITY  

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Full Text Available Des études sur le rythme alimentaire, la ration alimentaire journalière et la quantité des nourritures naturelles et artificielles consommées ont été réalisées chez des populations d’alevins (6 g), de juvéniles (30 g) et d’adultes (250 g) d’Oreochromis niloticus. L’échantillonnage a été effectué toutes les 3 heures, sur deux cycles de 24h dans 4 bassins bétonnés (alevins) et dans 8 étangs (juvéniles et adultes). Le contenu des estomacs a été analysé. Les poids frais du contenu des estomacs ont été traités par le logiciel MAXIMS pour déterminer les taux d’ingestion, d’évacuation et la ration alimentaire journalière. Les courbes de la prise de nourritures présentent deux pics montrant une activité alimentaire périodique et diurne. En dehors des périodes de nourrissage (9h et 15h), le contenu des estomacs est composé majoritairement d’aliments naturels chez les alevins et juvéniles. En revanche, chez les adultes, les nourritures apportées sont plus abondantes entre 9 h et 24 h. En dehors de cette période, le bol alimentaire est constitué presque uniquement de nourritures naturelles chez toutes les populations des poissons prélevés. Les rations alimentaires distribuées quotidiennement estimées sont de 10 % ; 6,7 % et 3,7 % du poids corporel respectivement chez les alevins, les juvéniles et les adultes. Dans ce même ordre des populations indiquées, les nourritures naturelles consommées ont été approximativement de 4 %, 2,31 % et 1 % contre 6, 4,45 et 2,7 % pour l’aliment artificiel. Studies on feeding periods, daily ration and relative artificial and natural food consumption in populations of juveniles (6 g), sub-adult (30 g) and adults (250 g) of Oreochromis niloticus were realized. Sampling took place over two 24-hour cycles in four concrete basins (juvenile) and eight ponds (sub-adult and adult). Fish were caught at three hourly intervals. Stomach contents of different populations were microscopically analysed. The gut content weights were submitted to the feeding model MAXIMS to determine the ingestion, evacuation rates and daily ration. Two peak feeding periods were evident. The fish showed diurnal diel feeding periodicity. Outside the food distribution periods (9 h and 15 h), the gut contents were mostly composed of natural food in juvenile and sub-adult populations. In addition, in adult population, artificial food was more important from 9 h to 24 h. outside this period, the gut content in each fish population was only constituted of natural food. The daily rations were about 10 %, 6.7 % and 3.7 % respectively for the juvenile, sub-adult and the adult. In that order, the consumed natural food represented 4 % 2.3 % and 1 %. Respective values of the artificial food estimated were 6 %, 4.45 % and 2.7 % for the juvenile, sub-adult and the adults.

BAMBA Y.; OUATTARA A.; MOREAU J.; GOURENE G.

2009-01-01

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Rendimento de carcaça, filé e subprodutos da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L), em função do peso corporal Carcass, fillet and byproducts yield of filleting of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in relation to body weight  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na indústria de processamento de pescado Frigopeixe, em Toledo, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar os rendimentos de carcaça, filé e subprodutos de filetagem (rendimento dos músculos abdominais, porcentagens de pele bruta e resíduos) da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae) em duas categorias de peso vivo. Os resíduos foram definidos como as porcentagens de cabeça, vísceras e nadadeiras. Foram utilizados 100 exemplares, alimentados com ração peletizada com 22%PB, cultivados por um período de 5 meses e previamente depurados em tanques de alvenaria, por 24 horas antes do abate. A seguir, foram submetidos a choques térmicos, eviscerados e filetados. O processo de filetagem foi realizado em série, por mais de uma pessoa, conforme metodologia empregada pela indústria. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (categorias de peso P1 = 300-400 g e P2 = 401-500 g), com 50 repetições, sendo considerado o peixe a unidade experimental. A categoria de peso P2 proporcionou o maior rendimento de carcaça sem cabeça (78,18%), músculos abdominais (3,51%) e pele bruta (6,56%), enquanto o P1 foi significativamente superior para porcentagens de cabeça (14,29%) e vísceras (10,09%). Não houve diferença significativa para rendimento de filé (P1 = 36,50% e P2 = 36,84%) e porcentagens de nadadeiras (P1 = 8,14% e P2 = 8,00%) entre as duas categorias de peso da tilápia do Nilo.The experiment was undertaken at the fish processing industry Frigopeixe in Toledo, state of Paraná, Brazil. Its aim was to analyze carcass, fillet and other byproducts yields (ventral abdominal muscles yield, percentage of skin and residues) of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae) for two live weight categories. Residues consisted of head, viscera and fin percentages. One hundred specimens were fed with pellet rations with 22% of crude protein during 5 months. Fish were placed in tanks for 24 hours before put down, underwent thermal shock, eviscerated and filleted. Filleting process was done in series by more than one person using industry methodology. Completely randomized design with two treatments (weight categories W1=300-400 g e W2=401-500 g), with 50 replications. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. The W2 category produced high yield in carcass without head (78.18%), ventral abdominal muscles (3.51%) and crude skin (6.56%). The W1 was significantly higher for head (14.29%) and viscera (10.09%) percentages. There was no significant difference for fillet yields (W1=36.50% and W2=36.84%) and fin percentages (W1=8.14% and W2=8.00%), between the two weight categories of Nile tilapia.

Marta Luzia de Souza; Taciano Cesar Freire Maranhão

2001-01-01

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Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.): growth, nutrient utilization and blood parameters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jatropha platyphylla is a multipurpose and drought-resistant shrub, available in Mexico, locally known as 'sangregrado' and belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein and do not contain the main toxin, phorbol esters present in other Jatropha species. Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal (JPKM) obtained after oil extraction contained 70-75% crude protein (CP); however, it contained phytate, lectin and trypsin-inhibitor. The levels of essential amino acids (except lysine) were higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings a 12-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of the heated JPKM and compare with that of SBM and fishmeal. Fingerlings (15 fish; average weight 13.7 ± 0.21g) were randomly distributed in three treatment groups with five replicates. Fish were fed three isonitrogenous diets (CP 36%): control diet containing fishmeal-based protein and two other diets replacing 62.5% fishmeal protein with JPKM (Jatropha group) and SBM (Soybean group). The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. A lower apparent lipid conversion was observed in the plant protein-fed group than in the control group. RBC count, haematocrit and blood glucose contents were higher in plant-protein fed groups than control group. Other haematological parameters (WBC count, haemoglobin, mean cell volume: calcium and sodium ions, total bilirubin and urea-nitrogen in the blood) and metabolic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase) activities in blood did not differ significantly among the three groups. The results from the present study established that JPKM is a promising and good quality protein source for Nile tilapia feed.

Akinleye AO; Kumar V; Makkar HP; Angulo-Escalante MA; Becker K

2012-02-01

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Rapid decreases in salinity, but not increases, lead to immune dysregulation in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid changes in salinity, as with other environmental stressors, can have detrimental effects on fish and may trigger increased susceptibility to disease. However, the precise mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. We examined the effects of sudden increases or decreases in salinity on teleost immune function using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), as the fish model in a battery of bioassays of increasing immune system specificity. Two different salinity experiments were performed: one of increasing salinity (0 to 5, 10 and 20 g L(-1) ) and one of decreasing salinity (20 to 15, 10 and 5 g L(-1) ). Histopathology of anterior kidney, gills, gonads, intestines and liver of exposed fish was performed, but no remarkable lesions were found that were attributable to the salinity treatment regimes. The spleen was removed from each fish for analysis of cytokine expression, and peripheral blood was used for haematology, cortisol and phagocytosis assays. In the increasing salinity experiments, no significant changes were observed in any immune system assays. However, in the decreasing salinity experiments, lymphopenia, neutrophilia and monocytosis were observed in the peripheral blood without modification of the packed cell volume, plasma protein or plasma cortisol levels. Phagocytosis was increased in response to decreases in salinity from 20 g L(-1) to 15 g L(-1) , 10 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1) , whereas phagocytic index was not significantly altered. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) transcription increased during the same decreases in salinity. However, the TGF-? value at 5 g L(-1) was less than those in the 15 and 10 g L(-1) salinity treatments. Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) transcription did not significantly respond to either salinity regime. In total, acute salinity changes appeared to trigger reactive dysregulation of the immune response in tilapia, a situation which, when combined with additional co-occurring stressors such as sudden changes in temperature and/or dissolved oxygen, could make fish more susceptible to infectious diseases. Accordingly, these findings may help to explain how sudden environmental changes may initiate disease outbreaks and lead to critical declines in cultured or wild fish populations.

Choi K; Cope WG; Harms CA; Law JM

2013-04-01

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Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing  

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Full Text Available Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40%) da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF), consumo de ração total (CRT), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA) e acréscimo em comprimento (AC). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA), 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica.The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect was made during seven subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent digestible energy were determined by indirect method, using 1.0% of Cr(2)0(3) as an indicator. In the performance assay 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used, with average weight of 0.45g, kept in 1m² hapas, in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG), total feed intake (TFI), apparent feed conversion (AFC) and length increase (LI). The randomized outline was used with five treatments and four repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility were: apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, 95.49%; apparent digestibility coefficient of gross protein, 96.66%; apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract, 97.18%; apparent digestibility coeficient of gross energy, 95.44%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) for total feed intake (TFI). One observed a quadratic effect (P<0.01) in the final weight (FWG), apparent feed conversion (AFC) and length increase. One concluded that the acid silage of filetage residues should be efficiently used by the Nile tilapia.

Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes Pimenta; Marinez Moraes de Oliveira; Priscila Vieira Rosa Logato; Carlos José Pimenta; Thiago Archangelo Freato

2008-01-01

250

Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum), used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish (7±1g/fish) were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol (more) (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet) added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP) and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.

Shalaby, A. M.; Khattab, Y. A.; Abdel Rahman, A. M.

2006-04-01

251

Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum), used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish (7±1g/fish) were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet) added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP) and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.

A. M. Shalaby; Y. A. Khattab; A. M. Abdel Rahman

2006-01-01

252

Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Reared in Fertilized Tanks  

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Full Text Available Juvenile monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed four dietary protein levels (17%, 25%, 30% and 35%) to investigate their effects on growth performance, carcass composition and survival rate. The experiment was carried out in concrete tanks (2.9m x 1.4m x 1m), stocking each tank with 160 fish (50 fish/m3). The diets were offered to the fish (2.5±0.1g average initial weight ) at a level of 3% of body weight, six days a week for 180 days. In addition to the experimental diet, inorganic fertilizer was added to each tank at a rate of 6.8 mg/l of premix superphosphate and urea. The results showed that a significant effects of dietary protein on growth performance of the reared fish. Weight gain and specific growth rate increased significantly with increasing dietary protein levels between 17% and 30%. but, 35% crude protein showed insignificant increase in growth parameters. The protein efficiency ratio was inversely correlated with dietary protein levels. The protein content of the fish muscle increased with increasing dietary protein level while the lipid content decreased. The diet had no significant effect on survival rate of the fish. From the present results, diet containing 30% crude protein is considered optimal for growth of monosex Nile tilapia, under the present experimental conditions and it is recommended for feeding monosex tilapia juveniles.

Mohamed H. Bahnasawy

2009-01-01

253

Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), São Paulo, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water) as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compounds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO) and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC): carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006) every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM) the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de dióxido de carbono (CO2), dependendo das características físico-químicas do sistema (difusão e reações desse gás na água), como também do pH, e da produção primária dos microorganismos através do consumo desse compostos. Evidências apontam que as concentrações de CO2 nos lagos são principalmente reguladas pelo metabolismo aquático, ou seja, pelo balanço entre a respiração e a fotossíntese; OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever aspectos do metabolismo do cultivo de tilápias do Nilo, a partir da dinâmica e do equilíbrio das concentrações de oxigênio (OD) e das formas de carbono inorgânico dissolvido (CID): dióxido de carbono (CO2) e bicarbonato (HCO3-). As demais variáveis analisadas foram: fósforo total, transparência da água, alcalinidade total, temperatura da água, pH, radiação subaquática e análise quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica; MÉTODOS: As amostragens ocorreram durante 5 dias consecutivos das 6:00 às 20:00 h (dezembro/2006) em intervalos de 2 h; RESULTADOS: Durante o ensaio foi observada periodicidade nas flutuações das concentrações de CID, sendo CO2 e HCO3-, as frações predominantes. Os valores de CID foram fortemente influenciados pela fração CO2 e no período da tarde ocorreu predominância da fração HCO3-. As concentrações de CO2 variaram de 0.48 µM a 138.94 µM, com concentração média diária de 18,04 µM. Os fluxos de CO2 na interface água atmosfera mostraram variações ao longo do dia. No período da tarde (12:00 h às 18:00 h) ocorreram no sentido atmosfera/viveiro, entretanto, o balanço foi de 576.7 µmol.m-2.h-1 no sentido viveiro/atmosfera; CONCLUSÕES: A dinâmica observada indicou que nas condições deste estudo, o metabolismo dos organismos aquáticos foi a principal função de força desse sistema, fato corroborado pelo intenso processo de eutrofização do viveiro.

Claudinei José Rodrigues; Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante; Clovis Ferreira do Carmo; Andréa Tucci; João Alexandre Savilo Osti; Ariane Carolina Di Genaro

2010-01-01

254

Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vísceras e crisálida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilização de 5% de inclusão das farinhas de peixe (FP), vísceras (FV), carne e ossos (FO), crisálida (FC) e controle (farelo de soja e milho) como atractantes sobre o consumo de ração e desempenho de alevinos tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 168 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa) revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial médio de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário de 50 L com sete animais. As rações foram formuladas com 32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas, isofíbricas e isoaminoacídicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores médios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com ração contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porém não diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final médio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, não diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que não seria necessária a utilização dos alimentos testados, a 5% de inclusão, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP), poultry by-products meal (FV), meat and bones meal (FO) and silkworm meal (FC) and a control (soybean meal and corn) as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nile tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain) sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 ± 0.18 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and five replications, where the experimental unit was constituted of a 50 L aquarium with seven animals. The diets were formulated with 32% of crude protein and 3000 kcal of digestible energy/kg, and were isoprotein, isoenergy, isofiber and isoaminoacid for lysine and methionine + cystine. Average values of weight gain in the control or FV and FP treatments as atractant were higher than the FC or FO treatments. Feed:gain ratio of the animals fed ration with FV was better than FC or FO treatment, however they did not differ significantly from the control and the FP treatments. Average animal final size fed the control treatment was higher than the FC treatment and did not differ from the others. Feed intake and survival rate did not differ among the treatments. It was concluded that it's not necessary to include the evaluated feeds, at a level of 5%, to estimulate feed intake or to promote Nile tilapia fingerlings growth.

Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Carmino Hayashi; Fábio Meurer; Claudemir Martins Soares

2001-01-01

255

Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vísceras e crisálida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)/ Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilização de 5% de inclusão das farinhas de peixe (FP), vísceras (FV), carne e ossos (FO), crisálida (FC) e controle (farelo de soja e milho) como atractantes sobre o consumo de ração e desempenho de alevinos tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 168 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa) revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial médio de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental (more) inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário de 50 L com sete animais. As rações foram formuladas com 32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas, isofíbricas e isoaminoacídicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores médios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com ração contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porém não diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final médio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, não diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que não seria necessária a utilização dos alimentos testados, a 5% de inclusão, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo. Abstract in english The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP), poultry by-products meal (FV), meat and bones meal (FO) and silkworm meal (FC) and a control (soybean meal and corn) as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nile tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain) sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 ± 0.18 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with five tre (more) atments and five replications, where the experimental unit was constituted of a 50 L aquarium with seven animals. The diets were formulated with 32% of crude protein and 3000 kcal of digestible energy/kg, and were isoprotein, isoenergy, isofiber and isoaminoacid for lysine and methionine + cystine. Average values of weight gain in the control or FV and FP treatments as atractant were higher than the FC or FO treatments. Feed:gain ratio of the animals fed ration with FV was better than FC or FO treatment, however they did not differ significantly from the control and the FP treatments. Average animal final size fed the control treatment was higher than the FC treatment and did not differ from the others. Feed intake and survival rate did not differ among the treatments. It was concluded that it's not necessary to include the evaluated feeds, at a level of 5%, to estimulate feed intake or to promote Nile tilapia fingerlings growth.

Boscolo, Wilson Rogério; Hayashi, Carmino; Meurer, Fábio; Soares, Claudemir Martins

2001-10-01

256

The effects of COX2-inhibitors (etoricoxib and etodolac) on growth rate and mortality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available The non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs represent one of the most commonly detectedcompounds in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent and surface water with scarce informationconcerning possible ecotoxicological risks. As in mammals, COX has been shown to play a role inreproduction in fish. Since studies on human breast cancer cells showed that COXs-inhibitors decreasedaromatase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression at the transcriptional level we tested theeffects of supplementation of COX2-inhibitors (etodolac and etoricoxib) in the diet of fry tilapia on growthrate and mortality during the crucial period of sexual differentiation. Highlight on etoricoxibpharmacokinetics was carried out by determination of etoricoxib in fish feces using reversed-phase HighPerformance Liquid Chromatography (RF-HPLC) with Evaporative Light Scattering and Photo Diode arraydetector (ELSD-PDA system). At an age of 8 days post-hatched, 30 genetically mixed population ofOreochromis niloticus larvae were stocked in duplicate, into 45 L aquariums in a closed system for sixmonths. Treatments included 5 different experimental diets including, respectively, 0.5% etodolac, 1%etodolac, 2% etodolac, 0.5% etoricoxib, and 1% etoricoxib concentrations and one standard diet servingas control with two repeats for each group from 0.5% groups of diets. Fish were fed experimental dietsfor 8 weeks and were changed to control diet after. Another experiment was conducted using 10 adultsmixed population stocked in triplicate in a closed system and treated as above. Growth rates (GR) weresignificantly affected with the highest growth rate obtained with the 0.5% etodolac. However, noincrease or decrease in growth was observed in mixed adults population. GR increased with increasingconcentrations with the highest GR in the aquarium treated with 2% etodolac, followed by 1% etodolac,but 1% etoricoxib showed a decreased GR compared to standard which could indicates a toxic potentialtoward fish at this concentration. No etoricoxib peak was detected on HPLC in feces samples whichreflected, that, it was well absorbed by tilapias, extensively metabolized with no unchanged fractionexcreted, or may undergo enter hepatic circulation, increasing further its toxic potential. No mortalitywas observed in adults mixed population. Mortality rates were 3.7% with 0.5% etodolac, 10% with 0.5%etoricoxib, 30% with 1% etodolac, 37%with 1%etoricoxib, and 50% with 2% etodolac treatments,respectively. It is clear evident that even administration of high concentrations of these drugs was welltolerated by fish.

Mutaz A. Al-Qutob; Iman Al-Hirsh; Tharwat S. Nashashibi

2011-01-01

257

Desempenho de tilápias nilóticas (Oreochromis niloticus L.) alimentadas com diferentes níveis de proteínas de levedura de destilaria em tanques-rede  

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Full Text Available Foram utilizados 120 juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.), sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 116,65 ± 0,85 g, distribuídos em 12 tanques-rede de 1.000 L para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta. Os peixes foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0%; 20%; 40%; e 60%) de proteína de levedura em substituição à proteína de fontes tradicionais com três repetições. Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos (p > 0,05) sobre o comprimento e a conversão alimentar. Com relação à sobrevivência, notou-se que os tratamentos (20%; 40% e 60%) foram estatisticamente superiores (p The experiment was based on observations of 120 juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.), sexually reverted with an initial mean weight of 116.65 ± 0.85 g, distributed in 12 tank-net of 1000-liter to evaluate the effects of the yeast inclusion as source proteins in the diet. The fish were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0; 20; 40; and 60%) of yeast protein in substitution to the protein of traditional sources with three repetitions. Effects of the treatments were not observed (p > 0.05) on the length and to food conversion. With relationship to the survival was noticed that the treatments (20; 40 and 60%) it was superior estatisticamente (p < 0.01) to the treatment 0%. A quadratic effect over weight gain (Y = 183.581 + 0.971X – 0.0172X2). It was concluded the best level of yeast inclusion as source proteins in the diet for reverted Nile tilapia juvenile is 28,23%

Vandir Medri; Waldir Medri; Mauro Caetano Filho

2005-01-01

258

Influência das dietas contendo diferentes óleos vegetais na performance e perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Foram examinados o perfil de ácidos graxos nas carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes óleos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho). Os resultados indicaram que o ácido palmítico (16:0), esteárico (18:0), oléico (18:1n 9), linoleico (18;2n 6) e linolênico (18:3n 3) foram os ácidos predominantes em todas as frações analisadas (no óleo vegetal, dietas e carcaças dos peixes). O óleo de linhaça apresentou o maior valor de ácido linolênico (45,63%), quanto aos outros óleos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os óleos vegetais não afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relação a qualidade nutricional o uso do óleo de linhaça é recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilápiaThe fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1 n 9), linoleic (18:2 n 6), and linolenic (18:3 n 3) acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%), while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended

Makoto Matsushita; Karin Cristiane Justi; Roseli das Graças Padre; Maria Cristina Milinsk; Carmino Hayashi; Sandra Terezinha Marques Gomes; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer; Nilson Evelázio de Souza

2006-01-01

259

Lactobacillus planarum subsp. plantarum JCM 1149 vs. Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 in the anterior intestine and posterior intestine of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?: an ex vivo study.  

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To investigate the ex vivo interactions of probiotic-pathogen-host in warm-water fish, hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus? × Oreochromis aureus?) were sacrificed to isolate anterior and posterior intestine for incubation with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) as the control, Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1149 at 1.0 × 10(9) CFU/ml, Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 at 1.0 × 10(8) CFU/ml, or the both combination. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint and consequent sequence analysis confirmed anterior intestine sac was more prone to the colonization of L. plantarum JCM 1149 and A. hydrophila NJ-1 than the posterior part. L. plantarum JCM 1149 and A. hydrophila NJ-1 inhibited the population each other in anterior or posterior sac, indicating their competition for the colonization. The induced expression of HSP70, IL-1? and TNF-? in the anterior sac by the addition of L. plantarum JCM 1149 or A. hydrophila NJ-1 demonstrated the activity and a local immune response of ex vivo anterior sac. Compared with posterior intestine, higher population colonization and more sensitive immune response of anterior sac indicated differential patterns for the probiotic-pathogen-host interactions. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observation showed that pathogen A. hydrophila NJ-1 damaged the anterior intestine, which was alleviated by the pretreatment of L. plantarum JCM 1149, showing its probiotic effect. PMID:23664914

Ren, Pengfei; Xu, Li; Yang, Yaling; He, Suxu; Liu, Wenshu; Ringø, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang

2013-05-09

260

Lactobacillus planarum subsp. plantarum JCM 1149 vs. Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 in the anterior intestine and posterior intestine of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?: an ex vivo study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the ex vivo interactions of probiotic-pathogen-host in warm-water fish, hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus? × Oreochromis aureus?) were sacrificed to isolate anterior and posterior intestine for incubation with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) as the control, Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1149 at 1.0 × 10(9) CFU/ml, Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 at 1.0 × 10(8) CFU/ml, or the both combination. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint and consequent sequence analysis confirmed anterior intestine sac was more prone to the colonization of L. plantarum JCM 1149 and A. hydrophila NJ-1 than the posterior part. L. plantarum JCM 1149 and A. hydrophila NJ-1 inhibited the population each other in anterior or posterior sac, indicating their competition for the colonization. The induced expression of HSP70, IL-1? and TNF-? in the anterior sac by the addition of L. plantarum JCM 1149 or A. hydrophila NJ-1 demonstrated the activity and a local immune response of ex vivo anterior sac. Compared with posterior intestine, higher population colonization and more sensitive immune response of anterior sac indicated differential patterns for the probiotic-pathogen-host interactions. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observation showed that pathogen A. hydrophila NJ-1 damaged the anterior intestine, which was alleviated by the pretreatment of L. plantarum JCM 1149, showing its probiotic effect.

Ren P; Xu L; Yang Y; He S; Liu W; Ringø E; Zhou Z

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Differential expression patterns of growth-related microRNAs in the skeletal muscle of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNA that regulate mRNA expression at the post-transcriptional level and play important roles in many fundamental biological processes. There is emerging evidence that miRNA are critical regulators of widespread cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. At present, little is known about miRNA expression profiles related to skeletal muscle growth in aquatic organisms. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic variation in the body growth of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to identify and quantify the differential expression levels of selected growth-related transcriptomic miRNA in the skeletal muscle of this fish. To this end, we performed next-generation sequencing to define the full miRNA transcriptome in muscle tissue from Nile tilapia and to detect differentially expressed miRNA between 2 strains of Nile tilapia. These tilapia strains exhibited significant (P miR-193a, miR-30b, and miR-34, associated with body growth in tilapia. These results were further validated using real-time qRT-PCR and microarray profiling. In summary, the up- and down-regulation of miRNA involved in the GH/IGF-1 axis signaling pathway suggests that the differential expression levels of growth-related miRNA may serve as molecular markers that are predictive of specific functional and diagnostic implications. The obtained data on genetic polymorphisms in miRNA-target interactions are particularly useful for Nile tilapia breeding programs. PMID:22745188

Huang, C W; Li, Y H; Hu, S Y; Chi, J R; Lin, G H; Lin, C C; Gong, H Y; Chen, J Y; Chen, R H; Chang, S J; Liu, F G; Wu, J L

2012-06-28

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The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

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Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

TATIANA S FIUZA; PAULO C SILVA; JOSÉ R PAULA; LEONICE M F TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T SABÓIA-MORAIS

2009-01-01

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The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed (more) in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

FIUZA, TATIANA S; SILVA, PAULO C; PAULA, JOSÉ R; TRESVENZOL, LEONICE M F; SABÓIA-MORAIS, SIMONE M T

2009-01-01

264

Effect of Feeding Different Grain Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings Fed in Outdoor Hapas  

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Full Text Available The study investigated the growth performance and body composition of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L) fingerlings (4.70g ? 0.09) fed Isonitrogenous and Isoenergetic diet of 25% crude protein containing different grain sources (maize, wheat, rice, sorghum and millet) designated DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 respectively. The study lasted for 56 days. Fish fed a diet containing maize gave the highest mean weight gain (MWG) of 6.05g; highest specific growth rate (SGR) of 1.47; best food conversion ratio (FCR) of 3.31 and the best Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of 0.93. Fish fed diet containing rice gave the poorest MWG of 4.70g and the poorest SGR, FCR and PER values. However, there is no significant difference in the values of SGR, FCR, PER and ANPU recorded for the five diets (P > 0.05). There was a difference in MWG of Fish Fed Diet 1 (Maize compared to the fish fed Rice and Millet (P0.05). It can be concluded that cereal grains inclusion in the diet of Tilapia up to 57.90% can be effectively utilized by the fish with maize being the best followed closely by sorghum while rice remain the poorest in terms of growth response and nutrient utilization.

S.G. Solomon; L.O. Tiamiyu; U.J. Agaba

2007-01-01

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Masculinización de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) por inmersión en Fluoximesterona y Testostesterona enantato/ Masculinization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) by immersion in fluoximesterone and testosterone enanthate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la fluoximesterona (F) y testosterona enantato (T) en el crecimiento, supervivencia y proporción sexual de la progenie de Oreochromis niloticus. En estanques de 50 l se colocaron 38 larvas por unidad experimental. Los tratamientos por triplicado fueron F4 400 ?g?l-1; F12 1.200 ?g?l-1;F20 2.000 ?g?l-1; y T4 400 ?g?l-1; T12 1.200 ?g?l-1; T20 2.000 ?g?l-1; así c (more) omo los controles agua (A) y agua más alcohol (AE). Se determinó la tasa específica de crecimiento en longitud total (TEC-L) y en peso húmedo (TEC-P), el experimento finalizó cuando los peces tenían una edad de 138 días después de la fecundación (DPF). La proporción sexual se evaluó mediante la observación directa de la gónada en un estereoscopio y microscopio compuesto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en TEC-P, TEC-L y en la supervivencia entre los tratamientos. Sin embargo, en la proporción sexual se encontraron diferencias significativas, indicando que F20 (93 %) valor superior a los controles A (58 %) y AE (62 %), y a los tratamientos F12 (72 %), T4 (69 %), T20 (65 %) y semejante estadísticamente a F4 (79 %), y T12 (73 %). Los tratamientos F4, F12, T4, T12 y T20, no presentaron diferencias significativas con respecto a los controles A y AE. La masculinización obtenida con el tratamiento por inmersión en F (2000 ?g?1-1) permite considerar este procedimiento como eficiente para la producción de progenie masculina de tilapia Abstract in english The effect of the hormone fluoximesterone (F) and testosterone enanthate (T) were evaluated in the growth, survival and the sex ratio of offspring of Oreochromis niloticus. In 50 liter tanks, 38 larvae were placed in each experimental unit. Treatments were triplicated: F4 400 ?g?l-1; F12 1.200 ?g?l-1;F20 2.000 ?g?l-1; y T4 400 ?g?l-1; T12 1.200 ?g?l-1; T20 2.000 ?g?l-1, as well as controls for water (A) and (more) water plus alcohol (EA). The rate of growth was measured in length (TEC-L) and in weight (TEC-P). The experiment ended when the fish had reached an age of 138 days after fertilization (DPF). The sex ratio was determined by the direct observation of the gonad using a stereoscope and a compound microscope. After the experiment concluded, there were no significant differences in TEC-P, TEC-L, nor in survival in the treatments and controls. In the sex ratio, there were significant differences between treatments, indicating that F20 (93%) was significantly higher than controls A (58%) and AE (62%) and treatments F12 (72%), T4 (69% ), T20 (65%). F20 was statistically similar to F4 (79%) and T12 (73%). Treatments F4, F12, T4, T12 and T20, showed no significant differences compared to controls A and AE. The masculinization obtained with treatment by fluoxymesterone immersion (2000 ?g?1-1) allows us to consider this procedure as efficient for the production of male progeny of tilapia

Torres-Hernández, Pablo; Nucamendi-Rodríguez, Graciela Beatriz; Pintos-Terán, Pablo; Montoya-Márquez, José Alberto

2010-09-01

266

Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757)  

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Full Text Available Um total de 90 espécimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da água em cada propriedade. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possível observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porém cada propriedade apresenta uma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlação negativa significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o copépode Lamproglena sp. apresentaram correlação positiva significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão nas pisciculturas de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, respectivamente. Em relação ao fator de condição relativo, somente a espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a abundância de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a relação hepatossomática (RHS) das tilápias em Palmital, e o ergasilídeo apresentou correlação significativa negativa da abundância de parasitismo e a relação esplenossomática (RES) dos hospedeiros em Cândido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in São Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farm featured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp.1 presented a significant negative correlation of abundance to standard host length only at the Palmital fish farm. The Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 species and the Lamproglena sp. copepod displayed a significant positive correlation of abundance to standard length at the Tarumã and Cândido Mota fish farms, respectively. With regard to the relative condition factor, only the species Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 presented a significant negative correlation to the prevalence of parasitism. Lamproglena sp. presented a significant positive correlation with respect to the hepatosomatic index (HI) of the tilapias at the Palmital fish farm, and the Ergasilidae presented a significant negative correlation of abundance with respect to splenosomatic index (SI) of the host at Cândido Mota.

Maria de Los Angeles Perez Lizama; Ricardo Massato Takemoto; Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva; Luis Marques da Silva Ayroza; Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli

2007-01-01

267

Live Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) as a growth and immunity promoter for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), challenged with pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of antibiotics to control fish disease is one of the constraints in tilapia farming. Hence, the use of probiotic and live organisms as alternative strategies has received much more attention. This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of Spirulina (Arthrospir platensis) as a growth and immunity promoter for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fish (1.88 g) were randomly distributed at 20 fish per 100 L aquarium and fed a diet containing either 0.0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 g Spirulina kg?¹ diet for 12 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish of each treatment were challenged by pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila, which was given by an interperitoneal injection, and they were kept under observation for 10 days to record any abnormal clinical signs and the daily mortality rate. The growth-promoting influence of Spirulina was observed with fish, and the optimum growth and feed utilization were obtained at 5.0 g Spirulina kg?¹ diet. No significant changes were observed in fish survival among the different treatments. Spirulina supplementation improved the protein and lipid contents in fish bodies without significant differences among them, especially when fed 2.5-10.0 g kg?¹ diet, but no significant differences in the moisture and ash contents were observed among different treatments. The physiological parameters were improved when fish were fed a Spirulina-enriched diet. However, the highest red blood cells, white blood cells and nitro blue tetrazolium values were obtained at 5.0-10.0 g Spirulina kg?¹ diet; meanwhile, the lowest value was obtained in the control. Total fish mortality due to A. hydrophila infection decreased with an increase in the Spirulina level in fish diets. These results indicate that Spirulina supplement is promising as an alternative method to antibiotics for disease prevention in tilapia aquaculture, and the optimum level of Spirulina in the fish diet should be 5.0-10.0 g kg?¹ diet.

Abdel-Tawwab Mohsen; Ahmad MohammadH

2009-06-01

268

Quantification of essential fatty acids in the heads of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with linseed oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do óleo de linhaça sobre as concentrações dos teores de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-6 e n-3 (AGPI) em cabeças de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), um resíduo do pescado normalmente descartado durante o processo de filetagem. A quantificação dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados foi realizada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa (CG), sendo a concentração dos ácidos graxos expressa em termos de mas (more) sa absoluta através da utilização do éster metílico (23:0) como padrão interno e do TCFx (fator de correção teórica do FID). As tilápias receberam dietas com níveis crescentes de óleo de linhaça (0,00, 1,25, 2,50, 3,75 e 5,00%) em substituição ao óleo de girassol (controle) durante um período de cinco meses. A ingestão de LNA causa a dessaturação sequencial e alongamento das cadeias carbônicas de ácidos graxos presentes nas cabeças de peixes, levando a um aumento em todos os AGPIs n-3. Este experimento demonstrou claramente que a adição de óleo de linhaça na ração de tilápia do Nilo aumenta significativamente as concentrações (em 100 g-1 de cabeça) de LNA (100,8 para 973,6 mg), EPA (4,8 para 82,1 mg) e DHA (24,0 para 125,4 mg). Estas alterações contribuem acentuadamente para melhorar a razão AGPI n-6/n-3 e, desta forma, pode ser utilizada em suplementos alimentícios, transformando as cabeças de tilápia em valiosa alternativa como fonte de alimento para dieta humana. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to examine the effects of linseed oil on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid content in the heads of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), these are normally discarded during the filleting process. The quantification of PUFA was carried out in absolute weights through the use of methyl ester (23:0), as an internal standard, and TCFx (theoretical FID correction factor) by GC gas chromatography. Tilapias were given diets with increa (more) sing levels (0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00%) of linseed oil as a replacement for sunflower oil (control) for a period of five months. The ingestion of LNA causes sequential desaturation and elongation in fish heads, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFAs. This experiment demonstrated clearly that adding linseed oil to the feed of Nile tilapia can markedly increase the amounts (per 100 g-1 of head) of LNA (100.8 to 973.6 mg), EPA (4.8 to 82.1 mg), and DHA (24.0 to 125.4 mg) in their heads, and thus, may be used to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in dietary supplements, and creating a valuable alternative food source in the human diet.

Aguiar, Ana C.; Cottica, Solange M.; Boroski, Marcela; Oliveira, Cláudio C.; Bonafé, Elton G.; França, Polyana B.; Souza, Nilson E.; Visentainer, Jesui V.

2011-01-01

269

Substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo teor de tanino em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo como fonte de energia para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae). Foram formuladas 3 dietas práticas isocalóricas (3000kcal de energia digestível) e isoprotéica (28% de proteína bruta). O farelo de milho foi substituído pela silagem de sorgo de baixo (0,44%) (SSBT) e alto (1,14%) (SSAT) teor de tanino. Os peixes (55,09 ± 0,94g) foram distribuídos em tanques de fibro-cimento (1000L) e alimentados com dietas experimentais até à saciedade 3 vezes ao dia, durante 67 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a conversão alimentar, eficiência protéica, índice hepato-somático, gordura visceral e taxa de sobrevivência. O ganho de peso dos peixes alimentados com SSBT foi significativamente maior que os alimentados com dietas contendo milho e SSAT. Os peixes alimentados com dietas contendo SSBT consumiram mais ração do que os peixes alimentados com a dieta com SSAT. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de 44% de silagem de sorgo nas dietas podem suportar normal crescimento nos juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, com potencial para substituir o milho.This work was carried out to evaluate the replacement of corn by sorghum silage as an energy source for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae). Three isocaloric (3000kcal of digestible energy) and isoproteic (28% of crude protein) practical diets were formulated. Corn meal was totally substituted by low (0.44%) (LTSS) and high (1.14%) (HTSS) tannin contents silage sorghum. Fish (55.09 ± 0.94g) were reared in fiberglass tanks (1000L) and hand-fed with experimental diets until reach they satiation, three times a day during 67 days. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat and survival ratio of fish fed with the diets were not significantly different. Weight gain of fish fed with LTSS diet was significantly higher than those fed with corn and HTSS diets. Fish fed with LTSS diet had significantly higher feed intake than fish fed with corn and HTSS diets. Results indicate that a 44% inclusion of silage sorghum in the diet can support normal growth of the juvenile Nile tilapia with the potential for substituting corn.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Lilian Carolina Rosa Silva; Carmino Hayashi; Antonio Claudio Furlan; Patrícia Ribeiro Neves; Daniele Botaro; Vivian Gomes dos Santos

2003-01-01

270

Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae)  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in length) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (pActualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC) con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT). En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (5.0cm de longitud), fueron asignados al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque), en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a) peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH), b) peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R), c) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH), y d) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N). La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra), se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T) y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T), Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K), porcentaje de supervivencia (S), la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR), porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP) y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH), y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p<0.05) para ambas comparaciones. De manera similar, los altos valores de K se presentaron en los tratamientos R y RGH durante los primeros días de cultivo. Esto puede haber sido asociado con un mejor estado nutricional que afectó tanto el desarrollo de peso y la longitud del cuerpo del pez, como resultado del efecto aditivo de 17-MT y GH. Los tratamientos no andrógenos y los grupos tratados con andrógenos y con HC mostraron un mayor incremento en la ganancia de peso por día, los mayores valores de K y menores tasas de conversión del alimento, lo que sugiere una mayor eficiencia de la alimentación en los peces tratados con hormonas. Peces en el tratamiento RGH mostraron el mayor crecimiento, lo que sugiere una posible interacción entre el 17 de ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT) y hormona de

Marco A. Liñán-Cabello; Cindy M. Robles-Basto; †Alfredo Mena-Herrera

2013-01-01

271

HYPOXIC CONDITIONS INDUCE HSP70 PRODUCTION IN THE BLOOD, BRAIN AND HEAD KIDNEY OF JUVENILE NILE TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS(L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The levels of constitutive and inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was measured in blood, brain, liver, muscle and head kidney tissues of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), subjected to increasingly severe hypoxic stress (dissolved oxygen ~ 4.9 - 0.1 mg L-1) for 48 h. A highly sig...

272

Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus  

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Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM) was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05). The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05). The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05). Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05) in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

Chimsung, N.; Chealoh, N.; Pimolrat, P.; Tantikitti, C.

2006-01-01

273

Growth and fatty acid composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla-diets, in tanks and in earthen ponds: A comparative study  

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Full Text Available Two 90-day experiments were conducted in the same period in tanks and in earthen ponds to study the effects of culture systems on growth and fatty acid (FA) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (mean weight: 16.3 g) fed Azolla, as partial replacement for fish meal (FM). Diets were isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ?g?1) containing 0% (A0), 10% (A10), 20% (A20), 30% (A30), 40% (A40) and 50% (A50) of Azolla meal (AM) respectively. Diet A0, without AM, acted as a control. In both experiments, fish growth decreased as AM level increased in diets (P P 30-A50). Interestingly, those fish were rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Consequently, the n-3/n-6 values decreased in tanks, whereas an increasing trend was found in ponds, and values were significantly higher in ponds than in tanks (0.35 - 0.53 vs. 0.08 - 0.17). The results suggest raising Nile tilapia with Azolladiets in ponds to improve growth and produce fish with a better FA composition, for the wellbeing of consumers.

Youssouf Abou; Martin P. Aina; Emile D. Fiogbé; Jean-Claude Micha

2013-01-01

274

Genotoxicity of two pathogenic strains of zoosporic fungi (Achlya klebsiana and Aphanomyces laevis) on erythrocytes of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work we have described the genotoxic potential of two pathogenic strains of zoosporic fungi (Achlya klebsiana and Aphanomyces laevis) on erythrocytes of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus for the first time by three complementary tests: micronucleus test (MN), nuclear lesions (NL) and comet assay (CA). The groups exposed to the zoosporic fungi subjected to the MN and NL test showed statistically significant differences in MN and NL frequencies with respect to the control one. Also, a significant increase (p<0.001) in micronuclei and nuclear lesions frequencies were recorded with the increase in exposure time. A correlation was observed between the frequencies of MN and NL, suggesting the importance for recording this anomaly in order to improve the information obtained with the MN test. Therefore, our results suggest that the nuclear lesions found here should be considered indicators of genotoxicity, in addition to the typical micronuclei forms. The result of the comet assay showed a significant difference in the percentages of the damaged DNA in the comet tail (%TDNA) of the treated groups comparing to the control. A significant (p<0.001) increase in the DNA damage of the treated groups with the increase in exposure time was recorded, confirming the results of the MN and the NL tests. The results of the current study will be useful for future work involving the biomonitoring of regions where Nile tilapia survive. These data allow us to consider O. niloticus niloticus as a good bioindicator of the effects of genotoxic agents that might be present in the aquatic habitat.

Osman A; Ali E; Hashem M; Mostafa M; Mekkawy I

2010-01-01

275

Genotoxicity of two pathogenic strains of zoosporic fungi (Achlya klebsiana and Aphanomyces laevis) on erythrocytes of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work we have described the genotoxic potential of two pathogenic strains of zoosporic fungi (Achlya klebsiana and Aphanomyces laevis) on erythrocytes of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus for the first time by three complementary tests: micronucleus test (MN), nuclear lesions (NL) and comet assay (CA). The groups exposed to the zoosporic fungi subjected to the MN and NL test showed statistically significant differences in MN and NL frequencies with respect to the control one. Also, a significant increase (p<0.001) in micronuclei and nuclear lesions frequencies were recorded with the increase in exposure time. A correlation was observed between the frequencies of MN and NL, suggesting the importance for recording this anomaly in order to improve the information obtained with the MN test. Therefore, our results suggest that the nuclear lesions found here should be considered indicators of genotoxicity, in addition to the typical micronuclei forms. The result of the comet assay showed a significant difference in the percentages of the damaged DNA in the comet tail (%TDNA) of the treated groups comparing to the control. A significant (p<0.001) increase in the DNA damage of the treated groups with the increase in exposure time was recorded, confirming the results of the MN and the NL tests. The results of the current study will be useful for future work involving the biomonitoring of regions where Nile tilapia survive. These data allow us to consider O. niloticus niloticus as a good bioindicator of the effects of genotoxic agents that might be present in the aquatic habitat. PMID:19811832

Osman, A; Ali, E; Hashem, M; Mostafa, M; Mekkawy, I

2009-10-06

276

Técnica simples para identificação de fêmeas de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) realizando incubação oral dos ovos A simple technique to identify nile tilapia females (Oreochromis niloticus) incubating eggs orally  

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Full Text Available Em laboratórios de aquacultura que trabalham com reprodução de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) utilizando água cristalina, é freqüentemente necessário verificar se as fêmeas estão realizando incubação oral dos ovos. Quando não se tem prática a olho nu, essa constatação torna-se difícil e demorada. Nos casos em que não se consegue identificar visualmente a incubação, é necessário o uso de técnicas que estressam as fêmeas e que, freqüentemente, danificam os ovos. O presente trabalho descreve uma técnica simples para a identificação de fêmeas de tilápia nilótica que estão realizando incubação oral, em água cristalina, através do uso de espelho. Os resultados demonstram que é possível identificar as fêmeas realizando incubação oral com 100% de eficiência.In aquaculture laboratories which work with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reproduction and use crystalline water, is frequently necessary to verify whether the females are incubating orally the eggs. The identification of the females when there is not know-how is difficult and slow, and in most cases is stressful and damage the eggs. This study describes a simple technique, using a mirror, to identify Nile tilapia incubating eggs orally in crystalline water. The results showed that is possible to identify the females which are incubating orally with 100% efficiency.

Marco Aurélio Rotta; Luís Orlando Bertolla Afonso

2001-01-01

277

Ação do tanino na digestibilidade de dietas pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Effect of tannin on digestibility of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) diets  

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Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do tanino de barbatimão (Stryphnodendron obovatum) adicionado a rações completas para peixes. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente das frações matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo em juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Usaram-se 80 peixes distribuídos em cinco grupos (16 peixes/aquário), os quais receberam rações contendo 0,00%; 0,21%; 0,42%; 0,63% e 0,84% de taninos totais, a partir do extrato de barbatimão (Stryphnodendron obovatum). Após um período de aclimação de três dias, foram colhidas amostras representativas das fezes produzidas diariamente até completar cinco repetições por cada grupo. A partir das análises químicas dos alimentos e das fezes, e utilizando óxido de crômio como marcador inerte, foram calculados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Através dos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que, para tilápia-do-nilo na fase juvenil, a presença de até 0,42% de tanino não prejudica significativamente a digestibilidade da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo, e que níveis iguais ou superiores a 0,63% de tanino têm efeito deletério altamente significativo sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes analisados.This experiment was undertaken to determine the effect of tannin from Stryphnodendron obovatum added to fish diets. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and lipid was evaluated. Eighty Nile tilapia juveniles were arranged in five groups (16/aquarium) and fed diets containing 0.00%; 0.21%; 0.42%; 0.63% and 0.84% of total tannin from barbatimão (Stryphnodendron obovatum). After three days of acclimatation, feces were collected during 5 days up to reach five replicates/group. The apparent digestibility coefficient was determined based on chemical analyses of feedstuffs and feces using chromic acid as an inert marker. The results of this study indicate that 0.42% of tannin had no effect on dry matter, crude protein and lipid digestibility but 0.63% or higher levels had significant harmful effect on the digestibility of nutrients.

Luis Gabriel Quinteiro Pinto; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Edma Carvalho de Miranda; Margarida Maria Barros; Wilson Massamito Furuya

2000-01-01

278

On-farm and on-station comparison of wild and domesticated Cameroonian populations of Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild (Sanaga River) and domesticated populations of Oreochromis niloticus were compared on-farm and on-station in the Central Province of Cameroon to determine the degree to which genetic deterioration of stocks may have occurred during the process of domestication and subsequent breeding. On-station, average weight at harvest was 284.3 +/- 16.2 and 178.1 +/- 9.9 g for Sanaga and domesticated populations, respectively. On-station specific growth rate was 0.0660 +/- 0.0022 and 0.0555 +/- 0.0016 g/day for Sanaga and domesticated populations, respectively. On-station standing stock at harvest was 5747.3 +/- 624.4 and 4170.3 +/- 233.4 kg/ha for Sanaga and domesticated populations, respectively. Differences in average weight at harvest and specific growth rate on-station are significant at P < 0.003. Differences in standing stock at harvest on-station are significant at P < 0.015. On-farm, average weight at harvest was 121.1 +/- 26.5 and 87.5 +/- 17.2 g for Sanaga and domesticated populations, respectively. On-farm specific growth rate was 0.0442 +/- 0.0057 and 0.0358 +/- 0.0047 g/day for Sanaga and domesticated populations, respectively. On-farm standing stock at harvest was 2454.2 +/- 445.6 and 1667.8 +/- 352.2 kg/ha for Sanaga and domesticated populations, respectively. Differences in average weight at harvest on-farm are significant at P < 0.05. Differences in specific growth rate on-farm are significant at P < 0.04. Differences in standing stock at harvest on-farm are significant at P < 0.015. The Sanaga River population consistently out-performed the domesticated population. Final individual weight of domesticated fish averaged 39% less than wild fish on-station and 42% less than wild fish on-farm.

Brummett RE; Angoni DE; Pouomogne V

2004-12-01

279

Flora bacteriana de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada em sistema semi-intensivo  

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Full Text Available A flora bacteriana de diferentes partes do trato gastrintestinal de tilápia Oreochomis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) foi determinada. O número médio de bactérias foi maior no intestino anterior e posterior quando comparado ao estômago. A porcentagem total de espécies bacterianas isoladas e a porcentagem de espécies isoladas em uma espécie particular variaram significativamente entre as regiões do trato gastrintestinal. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Flavimonas oryzihabitans e Plesiomonas shigelloides foram os bacilos Gram-negativos encontrados com maior freqüência. Destas espécies, somente Plesiomonas shigelloides esteve presente em cada região do trato gastrintestinal, apresentando maior número no intestino posterior (76%), quando comparado com o intestino anterior (4.8%) e o estômago (0.6%). Aeromonas hydrophila (0.6%), Escherichia coli (7.4%), e Flavimonas oryzihabitans foram isoladas somente do estômago, e Citrobacter freundii e Burkholderia cepacia foram encontradas somente no intestino posterior. Chromobacterium violaceum foi a espécie dominante isolada do estômago e do intestino anterior com 90% e 55%, respectivamente. Organismos não identificados compreendem 0 – 39.3% da microbiota gastrintestinalThis experiment measured total bacterial numbers in the gastrointestinal regions of semi-intensively cultured tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae). Mean bacterial numbers were higher in both anterior and posterior gut than in stomach. The percentage of isolated species and the percentage of isolates from any particular species varied significantly among gastrointestinal tract regions. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Plesiomonas shigelloides were the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli. From these samples, only Plesiomonas shigelloides was present in both gastrointestinal regions, with higher number in the posterior gut (76%), when compared to anterior gut (4.8%) and stomach (0.6%). Aeromonas hydrophila (0.6%), Escherichia coli (7.4%), and Flavimonas oryzihabitans were isolated only in the stomach, and Citrobacter freundii and Burkholderia cepacia were found only in the posterior gut. Chromobacterium violaceum was the dominant bacteria isolated from stomach and anterior gut, with 90% and 55%, respectively. Unidentified organisms comprised 0 - 39.3% of the gastrointestinal microflora

Ligia Maria Molinari; Denise de Oliveira Scoaris; Raissa Bocchi Pedroso; Nilza de Lucas Rodrigues Bittencourt; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Tania Ueda Nakamura; Benicio Alves de Abreu Filho; Benetido Prado Dias Filho

2003-01-01

280

Effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Effects of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex- reversed red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied using seven isocaloric diets (3400 kCal/ kg) containing different levels of protein and PKC. Diet 1, 2 and 3 contained 20% protein with the supplementation of 15, 30 and 45% PKC, respectively. Diets 4, 5 and 6 contained 24% protein in combinationwith the same PKC supplemention levels mentioned above, and diet 7 was commercial feed containing 20% protein as a control diet. Experimental diets were fed to experimental fish of 48.65 g initial average body weight cultured in floating cages (3 cages/diet) for 10 weeks. Fish fed diets containing higher protein (24%; diets 4, 5 and 6) had significantly better growth performance (p<0.05) than those fed lower protein (20%; diets 1, 2 and 3). Considering the effect of PKC, fish fed diet 5 (Prot. 24%, PKC 30%) gave the greatest growth performance (p<0.05) and all the PKC-fed groups had significantly higher growth than fish fed control diet. There was evidence that supplementation of PKC in fish feed ranging from 15 to 45% had no effect to the survival rate, blood components, or hepatocytic cells of tilapia. However, liver tissue showed higher numbers of lipid droplets in fish fed diet contained 45% PKC (diets 3 and 6). For the production cost, all test diets with PKC supplementation had significantly higher price (p<0.05) than commercial feed. However, when considering the feeding cost per unit of fish production, fish reared with PKC supplemented diets had significantly lower cost (p<0.05) than fish fed commercial feed.

Sukasem, N.; Ruangsri, J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange/ Rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en un sistema híperintensivo de recirculación acuícola con mínimo recambio de agua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus sembrados en densidades hiperintensivas en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA) con mínimo remplazo de agua. El sistema experimental consistió en un sistema de precría de cosecha única para obtener peces de 50 g en 60 días. Los peces (2,07 ± 0,14 g) se sembraron por triplicado a densidades de 400 (T1), 500 (T2) y 600 (T3) peces m-3 (0,84; 1,05; 1,22 (more) kg m-3). El SRA funcionó con 12.000 L de agua recirculante y un remplazo diario de 252 L (2,1% por día). La densidad de siembra no afectó significativamente la supervivencia (89,5-93,6%). El biofiltro removió el amonio nitrogenado total con una eficiencia del 46,9 ± 7,0%. La tasa de crecimiento de T1 (0,96 g día-1; 5,01% día-1) y T2 (0,92 g día-1; 4,95% día-1) fue significativamente mayor que T3 (0,83 g día-1; 4,80% día-1). La temperatura influyó 41% en la tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE) de T1. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto (DO) influyó en la variación de peso en T2 (47%) y T3 (44%). La TCE de T3 también se vio afectada por la concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (31%). El aumento de la densidad de siembra afectó el tamaño y la homogeneidad de tallas de los peces, pero no afectó la relación longitud-peso (L-P). Los datos respaldan la conclusión que los juveniles sembrados a densidades de 400 y 500 peces m-3 tienen alto rendimiento durante nueve semanas consecutivas, siempre y cuando la biomasa no se exceda de 37 kg m-3. En este tiempo los peces alcanzan el peso final esperado de precría (50 g) y pueden ser transferidos hacia las instalaciones de engorde. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L (more) of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily). The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%). The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1) and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1) was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1). The specific growth rate (SGR) of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%). The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W). Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g) for transfer to grow-out facilities.

Gullian-Klanian, M; Arámburu-Adame, C

2013-03-01

282

Valor nutricional do farelo de algodão para a tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Determinou-se a composição química dos farelos de algodão 28,0; 38,0 e 46,0% de proteína bruta e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) pela tilápia do Nilo da matéria seca, proteína, aminoácidos, energia, lipídeo e minerais. Os CDA foram determinados, usando-se dieta-referência purificada, contendo 0,1% do indicador óxido de crômio-III. As rações-teste continham 60,0% da dieta-referência e 40,0% dos alimentos em estudo. Os resultados mostraram diferença (p (Oreochromis niloticus). Cottonseed meals (CSM) with different protein levels (35, 39 and 40%) were evaluated to determine their chemical composition and measure apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, protein, amino acids, energy, lipid and minerals for Nile tilapia. Apparent digestibility coefficients were determined using a reference purified diet containing 0.1% of chromic oxide indicator, and test diets contained 60% of reference diet and 40% of test ingredients. Results showed that apparent digestibility coefficients of cottonseed meals were different (p < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients were: dry matter, 53.45-54.32%; crude protein, 71.56-74.81%; energy, 53.80-58.60%; lipid, 85.37-89.11%; phosphorus, 33.75-34.50%; calcium, 41.21-43.75%; iron, 62.02-79.85%; zinc, 0-67.41%; copper, 13.37-14.27%; essential amino acids, 71.39-79.17%; and non-essential amino acids, 77.08-82.58%. The ADC of protein did not reflect the majority of amino acids ADC showing variation in individual digestibility of amino acids and among cottonseed meals. Cottonseed meal can be used as protein succedaneum in Nile tilapia diets.

Geisa Karine Kleemann; Margarida Maria Barros; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

2009-01-01

283

High Potential Probiotic Bacillus Species from Gastro-intestinal Tract of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available In study to obtain a safe Bacillus probiotic for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation, hemolytic activity on blood agar medium was used in isolation of Bacillus probiotic species from gastro-intestinal tract of Nile tilapia. One hundred and three isolates of Bacillus sp. which showed no hemolytic activity were obtained from 2 sampling sites of the Nile Tilapia net-cage culture farms. Among these 103 isolates, however, there was only 1 isolate, named as Bacillus UBRU4 which showed the inhibitory effect on Aeromonas hydrophila growth. The results of physiological and biochemical test and molecular identification (99.90% identity) showed that Bacillus UBRU4 was similar to Bacillus brevis. This was possibly the first report of isolation of Bacillus brevis in aquaculture. The optimum pH and temperature for Bacillus UBRU4 growth on Tryptic soy broth were 6.5 and 37C, respectively. The maximum cell numbers of Bacillus UBRU4 in modified broth culture medium was obtained when using the medium contained 30 g L-1 of Nile tilapia commercial feed and 20 g L-1 of molasses. The bioactive compound production of Bacillus UBRU4 showed the growth associated characteristic. Partial purified bioactive compounds by 80% saturated ammonium sulfate could increase the activity to 6,400 AU mL-1. The specific activity of the bioactive compound was increased from 1,298 to 5,807 AU mg-1. These results suggested that the Bacillus UBRU4, thus, could possibly be used as high potential probiotic in Nile tilapia feed.

K. Chantharasophon; T. Warong; P. Mapatsa; V. Leelavatcharamas

2011-01-01

284

Gene transfer and mutagenesis mediated by Sleeping Beauty transposon in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The success of gene transfer has been demonstrated in many of vertebrate species, whereas the efficiency of producing transgenic animals remains pretty low due to the random integration of foreign genes into a recipient genome. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is able to improve the efficiency of gene transfer in zebrafish and mouse, but its activity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has yet to be characterized. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of using the SB transposon system as an effective tool for gene transfer and insertional mutagenesis in tilapia. A transgenic construct pT2/tiHsp70-SB11 was generated by subcloning the promoter of tilapia heat shock protein 70 (tiHsp70) gene, the SB11 transposase gene and the carp ?-actin gene polyadenylation signal into the second generation of SB transposon. Transgenic tilapia was produced by microinjection of this construct with in vitro synthesized capped SB11 mRNA. SB11 transposon was detected in 28.89 % of founders, 12.9 % of F1 and 43.75 % of F2. Analysis of genomic sequences flanking integrated transposons indicates that this transgenic tilapia line carries two copies of SB transposon, which landed into two different endogenous genes. Induced expression of SB11 gene after heat shock was detected using reverse transcription PCR in F2 transgenic individuals. In addition, the Cre/loxP system was introduced to delete the SB11 cassette for stabilization of gene interruption and bio-safety. These findings suggest that the SB transposon system is active and can be used for efficient gene transfer and insertional mutagenesis in tilapia.

He X; Li J; Long Y; Song G; Zhou P; Liu Q; Zhu Z; Cui Z

2013-10-01

285

Determination of the optimal dose of benzocaine hydrochloride in anesthesia of tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus)Determinação da dose ótima de cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Fish anesthesia is indicated for several management procedures such as capturing, biometry, tagging, transporting, physical examination, reproductive management and surgical procedures. In this study the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride necessary for tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) anesthesia was determined through six phases with 240 fish. In each phase 40 fish were evaluated. The interval between phases was two months. Mean values for weight and (allometric condition factor), in each phase, were 25.64 (2.56), 167.58 (2.88), 286.12 (2.57), 388.24 (2.50), 518.19 (2.89), 592.71 (2.67), respectively. The values for allometric condition factors showed that the animals included in the experiments were in good body conditions (P > 0.05). In each phase, fishes were captured and kept in four containers with five liters of water and benzocaine hydrochloride diluted in 20 mL of ethanol, in concentrations of 100, 140, 180, and 220 mg/liter of water. The time of induction in seconds (TI) was registered for each fish, and after the anesthetic induction the biometric analysis was conducted at fixed time of 10 minutes. After, the fishes were transferred to containers with 20 liters of water under constant flow, in order to evaluate the recovering time in seconds (TR). At each phase the minimum dose of benzocaine hydrochloride concentration was calculated using LRP (Linear Response Plateau). The model included the dose of benzocaine (mg/L) and the time of induction in seconds. The values of LRP were, respectively, 146.60 and 67.45, 155.95 and 76.33, 160.45 and 87.42, 167.00 and 108.14, 165.87 and 174.03, 164.00 and 139.80. The optimum dose was related to the mean weight in each phase, resulting in the equation: Dose = 149.65 + 0.03183 x weigh (r2 = 0.73). This equation showed that an increase of 1g in the body weight corresponded to an increase of 0.032 mg/L in the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride.A anestesia em peixes é indicada para auxiliar a realização de diversos procedimentos como: captura, biometria, marcação, transporte, exame físico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e manejo reprodutivo. Neste experimento, determinou-se a dose de cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus), com a realização de seis etapas com 240 peixes, sendo 40 peixes em cada etapa, em intervalo de dois meses. O peso médio e o (fator de condição alométrico) das tilápias em cada etapa foram de: 25,64 (2,5635); 167,58 (2,8776); 286,12 (2,5719); 388,24 (2,4955); 518,19 (2,8933); 592,71 (2,6750), respectivamente. O fator de condição alométrico mostrou que os animais utilizados no experimento estavam em boas condições (P > 0,05). Em cada etapa, os peixes foram capturados e colocados em quatro recipientes contendo 5 litros de água com benzocaína diluída em 20 ml de etanol, nas concentrações de 100, 140, 180 e 220 mg/litro de água. O tempo de indução em segundos (TI) foi registrado para cada peixe, e após a indução anestésica foi realizada a biometria no tempo fixo de 10 minutos. Após, os peixes foram transferidos para recipientes contendo 20 litros de água com renovação constante para avaliar o tempo de recuperação em segundos (TR). Em cada etapa, foi calculada a dose mínima de benzocaína através do LRP (Linear Response Plateu) em um modelo que incluiu a dose de benzocaína (mg/l) e tempo de indução em segundos. Os valores do LRP foram respectivamente: 146,60 e 67,45; 155,95 e 76,33; 160,45 e 87,42; 167,00 e 108,14; 165,87 e 174,03; 164,00 e 139,80. A dose ótima foi relacionada com o peso médio em cada fase resultando na equação: Dose = 149,65 + 0,03183 x peso, (r² = 0,73). Esta equação mostra que um aumento em 1g no peso corporal corresponde a 0,032 mg/l na dose de benzocaína.

Marco Antonio da Rocha; Carmen Esther Santos Grumadas; Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro; Ivone Yurika Mizubuti; Agostinho Ludovico; Universidade Norte do Paraná; Camila Constatino

2012-01-01

286

Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus spp. group B in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in hapas nets and earth nurseries in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Streptococcus spp. in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in net-pens and earth nurseries. Eight intensive tilapia-rearing farms were investigated in north Paraná, Brazil from April 1st 2001 to April 30th 2002. The fish were reared in a system of hapas nets on four farms and in earth nurseries on other four farms. A total of 370 samples were analyzed of material collected from 120 fish (brain, liver, kidney, skin scrapes, ascites liquid and eye) that were sown on BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion) supplemented with 1% yeast extract and sheep blood. Streptococcus spp. was isolated in 36 of the samples (18 brain, eight liver, eight kidney and two ascites liquid) from 25 fish. Streptococci were isolated in both systems, almost in the same proportion. First the streptococci were characterized by the catalase and esculin test, growth in methylene blue and sodium chloride at 6.5%. They were classified in groups by the Slidex Strepto-Kit (BioMerieux, France). The phenotypic characteristics were determined by the Api 20 Strep microtest system (BioMerieux, France). The 36 Streptococcus spp. samples did not present hemolysis and were classified as Lancefield group B. Further 16 samples were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae and 20 were not identified by the Api 20 Strep, but presented the same biochemical profile described for the reference strain of Streptococcus difficile (ND-2-22).

Salvador Rogério; Muller Ernst Eckehardt; Freitas Julio César de; Leonhadt Julio Hermann; Pretto-Giordano Lucienne Garcia; Dias Juliana Alves

2005-01-01

287

Effect of using okara meal, a by-product from soymilk production as a dietary protein source for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) mono-sex males  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main objectives of this study was to evaluate the effect of partial and total replacement of fishmeal protein by okara meal (OM) protein in practical diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) mono-sex males. Fish of an average initial weight of 2.67 ± 0.01 g were stocked in 15 glass aquariums (80 L each) at a rate of 15 fish per aquarium. Fishmeal protein (18% of the diet) was used as the sole source of animal protein in the control diet. Percent replacement of fish meal (FM) by OM on the basis of crude protein was as follows: 0% (control diet A), 25% (diet B), 50% (diet C), 75% (diet D) and 100% (diet E). Diets were fed to fish at a rate of 5%, and then gradually reduced to 4% of the total fish biomass daily, for a period of 12 weeks. The results revealed that the fish fed diets A (100% FM control), B (25% OM), C (50% OM) and D (75% OM) had significantly the best average body weight, weight gain g, specific growth rate (SGR % day?¹), weight gain % and feed intake g fish?¹ compared with diet E (100% OM) which had the lowest values. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among all experimental diets and control in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and survival rate %. Whole body protein contents for fish fed diets B, C and D were superior to the control diet. Incorporation of OM in the diets increased significantly whole body fat content. Incorporation of OM in the diets significantly increased apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein crude fat and energy. Therefore, these findings suggest that up to 75% of FM protein can be replaced by OM protein in Nile tilapia, mono-sex male diets.

EL-SAIDY DMSD

2011-08-01

288

Tissue-specific effects of fenthion on glutathione metabolism modulated by NAC and BSO in Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The present study was designed to understand the effects of organophosphate (OP) insecticide and avicide fenthion on cellular redox status and the role of reduced glutathione (GSH) on fenthion toxicity in the liver and kidney of Oreochromis niloticus as a model organism. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) were injected intraperitoneally to fenthion-exposed fish as modulators of GSH metabolism. GSH redox status, GSH-related enzyme activities, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents were then measured spectrophotometrically at 24, 48, and 96 hours. To assess recovery from fenthion exposure, similar analyses were performed on fish transferred to non-treated water for 24, 48, and 96 hours. RESULTS: Fenthion increased glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) activity and caused changes in total GSH (tGSH), GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) specific activity in the liver tissue over time. Increases observed in tGSH and GSSG contents at 24 hours were decreased by fenthion treatment at 96 hours. BSO caused a sharp decline in liver tGSH, GSH, and GSSG contents and an elevation in GST and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT; EC 2.3.2.2) enzyme activities. A significant decrease was observed in tGSH and GSH contents and, also, GST enzyme activities in the kidney at 48-hour fenthion treatment. On the contrary to the liver, a significant increase was observed in tGSH and GSH contents in the kidney by BSO injection. NAC application eliminated the decreasing effects of fenthion on GST activity in this tissue. NAC injection caused decreases in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. Decline in tGSH and GSH contents were maintained in the liver during the recovery period, and elevations in LPO levels in the kidney were observed during the same period. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, tissue-specific and time-dependent GSH redox status disturbance of fenthion were observed. BSO revealed the significance of GST-mediated GSH conjugation on the detoxification process of fenthion. NAC seemed useful to avoid the fenthion-related oxidative toxicity.

Sevgiler Y; Uner N

2010-10-01

289

In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the river Nile: II. Detection of DNA strand-breakage and apoptosis in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work is part of a wider eco-toxicological study proposed to evaluate the biological impact of contaminants along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. Here we present data on the presence of DNA strand-breaks and apoptotic cells assessed by use of comet and diffusion assays in erythrocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The results showed high degrees of DNA damage and increased frequencies of apoptotic nuclei in blood of fish collected from downstream compared with those sampled from upstream river Nile. Qualitative analysis revealed a shift in the frequency of DNA-damage classes towards higher damage levels correlating with the increasing pollution gradient. The degree of DNA damage measured by use of comet assay and diffusion assay exhibited seasonal variations. Both fish species showed significant increases in DNA damage during the summer. The results of our study indicated that the alkaline comet assay seems to be a useful technique for in situ genotoxic monitoring. At the same time the diffusion assay is sensitive enough to detect low frequencies of apoptotic nuclei. The results reveal species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared with the African catfish. Based on the outcome of the comet and diffusion assays, it can be concluded that the water quality of the river Nile with respect to the presence of genotoxic compounds needs to be improved, especially in its estuaries. As far as we know this is the first time that the comet and diffusion assays are used for genotoxic monitoring of the river Nile.

Osman AG; Abuel-Fadl KY; Kloas W

2012-08-01

290

Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia e proteína da silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo tanino pela tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Apparent digestibility coefficients of energy and protein of low and high tannin silage sorghum for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da energia bruta e proteína bruta da silagem de sorgo de baixo tanino (SSBT) e da silagem de sorgo de alto tanino (SSAT) para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração referência foi misturada aos ingredientes-teste na proporção de 60:40. Os peixes (53,26 ± 12,94g) foram alimentados até a saciedade aparente e as fezes foram coletadas após sedimentação. A fibra em detergente neutro foi utilizada como indicador endógeno. Os CDA da energia bruta e proteína bruta da SSBT e SSAT variaram entre 70,17 e 68,37% e 84,94 e 82,40%, respectivamente. Os valores de energia digestível foram de 3049,81 e 2954,74kcal kg-1 para SSBT e SSAT, respectivamente. A SSBT apresentou valores significa-tivamente (PThis study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of gross energy and crude protein of low tannin silage sorghum (LTSS) and high tannin silage sorghum (HTSS) for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 60:40 ratio. Fish (53.26 ± 12.94g) were fed to apparent satiation and faeces were collected other sedimentation The neutral detergent fiber was used as an endogenous indicator. ADC for gross energy and crude protein of LTSS and HTSS varied between 70.17 and 68.37% and 84.94 and 82.40%, respectively. Digestible energy values were 3,049.81 and 2,954.74kcal kg-1 for LTSS and HTSS, respectively. LTSS produced significantly (P<0.05) higher energy and protein digestibilities than HTSS. Results indicated that Nile tilapia can utilize the gross energy and crude protein of sorghum silage efficiently.

Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Lilian Carolina Rosa Silva; Patrícia Ribeiro Neves; Daniele Botaro; Carmino Hayashi; Antônio Cláudio Furlan; Vivian Gomes dos Santos

2004-01-01

291

Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the performance and fatty acid profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings = Influência das dietas contendo diferentes óleos vegetais na performance e perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Full Text Available The fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1n-9), linoleic (18:2 n-6), and linolenic (18:3 n-3) acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%), while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended. Foram examinados o perfil de ácidos graxos nas carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes óleos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho). Os resultados indicaram que o ácido palmítico (16:0), esteárico (18:0), oléico (18:1n-9), linoleico (18;2n-6) e linolênico (18:3n-3) foram os ácidos predominantes em todas as frações analisadas (no óleo vegetal, dietas e carcaças dos peixes). O óleo de linhaça apresentou o maior valor de ácido linolênico (45,63%), quanto aos outros óleos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os óleos vegetais não afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relação a qualidade nutricional o uso do óleo de linhaça é recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilápia.

Makoto Matsushita; Karin Cristiane Justi; Roseli das Graças Padre; Maria Cristina Milinsk; Carmino Hayashi; Sandra Terezinha Marques Gomes; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer; Nilson Evelázio de Souza

2006-01-01

292

Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%), fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

Donald Arguedas Cortés; Gaby Dolz; Juan J Romero Zúñiga; Ana E Jiménez Rocha; Dennis León Alán

2010-01-01

293

Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de molusco (more) s en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%), fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica. Abstract in english Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapi (more) a cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis

2010-12-01

294

Effect of Sophora flavescens on non-specific immune response of tilapia (GIFT Oreochromis niloticus) and disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes the effect of a diet supplemented with the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Sophora flavescens on the immunity and disease resistance of an Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain. Experimental diets containing 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.100%, 0.200%, and 0.400% S. flavescens, as well as a control group without S. flavescens were used. We tested the non-specific humoral immune responses (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement) and cellular immune responses (reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species production and myeloperoxidase), as well as disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae. S. flavescens supplementation at all dose significantly enhanced serum lysozyme, antiprotease, and natural hemolytic complement activity. Similarly, all S. flavescens doses enhanced cellular myeloperoxidase activity. The increased production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen intermediates by peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in most of the treatment groups throughout the test period. The fish fed 0.100% S. flavescens had a percent mortality of 21.1% and a relative percent survival of 73.3% compared with the group fed the basal diet during the S. agalactiae challenge. The results suggest that S. flavescens can be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish immunity and disease resistance against S. agalactiae. PMID:23092731

Wu, Ying-rui; Gong, Qing-fang; Fang, Hong; Liang, Wan-wen; Chen, Ming; He, Rui-jie

2012-10-22

295

[Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica].  

Science.gov (United States)

Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. PMID:21250483

Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis

2010-12-01

296

[Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined.

Arguedas Cortés D; Dolz G; Romero Zúñiga JJ; Jiménez Rocha AE; León Alán D

2010-12-01

297

Cloning and molecular characterization of complement component 1 inhibitor (C1INH) and complement component 8? (C8?) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the most important groups of food fishes in the world, has frequently suffered from serious challenge from pathogens in recent years. Immune responses of Nile tilapia should be understood to protect the aquaculture industry of this fish. The complement system has an important function in recognizing bacteria, opsonizing these pathogens by phagocytes, or killing them by direct lysis. In this study, two Nile tilapia complement component genes, complement component 1 inhibitor (C1INH) and complement component 8? subunit (C8?), were cloned and their expression characteristics were analyzed. C1INH cDNA was found containing a 1791 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein with 597 amino acids, a 101 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 236 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted protein structure for this gene consisted of two Ig-like domains and glycosyl hydrolase family-9 active site signature 2. The C8? cDNA consisted of a 1761 bp ORF encoding 587 amino acids, a 15 bp 5'-UTR and a 170 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted protein of C8? contained three motifs, thrombospondin type-1 repeat, membrane attack complex/perforin domain, and LDL-receptor class A. Expression analysis revealed that these two complement genes were highly expressed in the liver, however, were weakly expressed in the gill, heart, brain, kidney, intestine, spleen and dorsal muscle tissues. The present study provided insights into the complement system and immune functions of Nile tilapia. PMID:23876999

He, Anyuan; Yang, Jie; Tang, Shoujie; Wang, Chenghui

2013-07-19

298

The effects of salinity and salinity+metal (chromium and lead) exposure on ATPase activity in the gill and intestine of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Freshwater organisms are highly sensitive to increases in salinity because they causes serious osmoregulation problems. Salinity of inland waters can be increased as a result of anthropogenic activities. In this study, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed individually to increased salinities (0, 2, and 8 ppt) alone and salinity+metal [1 ?g/mL chromium (Cr) or lead (Pb) exposure at 2 and 8 ppt] exposures for different time periods (1, 7, and 14 days) to investigate the response of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in the osmoregulatory tissues (gill and intestine). Results showed that enzyme activity varied depending on salinity, tissue, metal, and exposure duration. Metal levels in controls and salinity-exposed groups were lower than the detection limit, although significant Cr and Pb accumulation occurred in the salinity+metal combination groups. In salinity-exposed groups, there were increasing trends in the enzyme activity, whereas there were decreasing trends in the metal+salinity groups. Gill ATPases were more affected by the exposure conditions compared with intestine ATPases. Results showed that salinity+metal exposure both played significant roles on ATPase activities in the osmoregulatory tissues, although the alterations in the activity were mostly insignificant supporting compensation mechanisms. Results also suggest that the osmoregulation of freshwater fish should be investigated in toxicity- monitoring programs in inland waters.

Baysoy E; Atli G; Canli M

2013-02-01

299

Cloning and molecular characterization of complement component 1 inhibitor (C1INH) and complement component 8? (C8?) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the most important groups of food fishes in the world, has frequently suffered from serious challenge from pathogens in recent years. Immune responses of Nile tilapia should be understood to protect the aquaculture industry of this fish. The complement system has an important function in recognizing bacteria, opsonizing these pathogens by phagocytes, or killing them by direct lysis. In this study, two Nile tilapia complement component genes, complement component 1 inhibitor (C1INH) and complement component 8? subunit (C8?), were cloned and their expression characteristics were analyzed. C1INH cDNA was found containing a 1791 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein with 597 amino acids, a 101 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 236 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted protein structure for this gene consisted of two Ig-like domains and glycosyl hydrolase family-9 active site signature 2. The C8? cDNA consisted of a 1761 bp ORF encoding 587 amino acids, a 15 bp 5'-UTR and a 170 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted protein of C8? contained three motifs, thrombospondin type-1 repeat, membrane attack complex/perforin domain, and LDL-receptor class A. Expression analysis revealed that these two complement genes were highly expressed in the liver, however, were weakly expressed in the gill, heart, brain, kidney, intestine, spleen and dorsal muscle tissues. The present study provided insights into the complement system and immune functions of Nile tilapia.

He A; Yang J; Tang S; Wang C

2013-09-01

300

Enzymatic characterizations and activity regulations of N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase from the spermary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

N-Acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is proved to be correlated with reproduction of male animals. In this study, enzymatic characterizations of NAGase from spermary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated in order to further study its reproductive function in fish. Tilapia NAGase was purified to be PAGE homogeneous by the following techniques: (NH4)2SO4 fractionation (40-55%), DEAE-cellulose (DE-32) ion exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and DEAE-Sephadex (A-50). The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 4100 U/mg. The enzyme molecular weight was estimated as 118.0 kD. Kinetic studies showed that the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminide (pNP-NAG) by the enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vm) were determined to be 0.67 mM and 23.26 ?M/min, respectively. The optimum pH and optimum temperature of the enzyme for hydrolysis of pNP-NAG was to be at pH 5.7 and 55°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable in a pH range from 3.3 to 8.1 at 37°C, and inactive at temperature above 45°C. The enzyme activity was regulated by the following ions in decreasing order: Hg(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Mn(2+). The IC50 of Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) was 1.23, 0.28, and 0.0027 mM, respectively. However, the ions Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) had almost no influence on enzyme activity. In conclusion, the enzymatic characterizations of NAGase from tilapia were special to the other animals, which were correlated with its living habit; besides, CuSO4 and ZnSO4 should used very carefully as insecticides in tilapia cultivation since they both had strong regulations on the enzyme.

Zhang WN; Bai DP; Huang YF; Hu CW; Chen QX; Huang XH

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Distribution of trace elements in muscle and organs of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, from lakes Awassa and Ziway, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samples of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were collected from Lakes Awassa and Ziway during December 2002–March 2003. The moisture content of freeze-dried organs (muscle, bone, gill and liver) collected from six sites ranged between 76.0 and 80.7% (m/m). An optimal procedure required 12 mL of tertiary mixture consisting of HNO3, HClO4, and H2O2 to mineralize powdered samples in open refluxed digestion vessels: 1.0 g bone or muscle, 0.5 g gill or liver. The concentrations of 8 elements in muscle, bone, gill and liver determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer varied, respectively, (mg element/kg dry mass): Cd 0.44–1.43, 4.58–4.93, 2.20–2.85, and 1.08–1.90; Co 2.47–3.59, 17.1–18.9, 8.28–10.1, and 10.2–13.0; Cu 1.68–4.95, 6.65–7.58, 7.08–8.58, and 602–797; Fe 18.7–53.0, 81.9–94.3, 120–196, and 635–7139; Mn 1.03–6.78, 23.1–146, 26.1–107, and 8.80–24.5; Ni 7.80–15.9, 64.1–71.0, 34.8–42.4, and 14.1–21.3; Pb 1.65–2.69, 39.5–42.3, 17.1–23.1, and 2.20–3.37; Zn 34.6–38.6, 61.9–78.8, 82.3–97.1, and 85.6–115.9. Results revealed organ specific distribution of trace metals in Tilapia, which has been discussed in terms of physiological role in fish and/or the likely influence of anthropogenic origin on lakes. Application of the statistical t-test on trace elements data further showed significant difference between the two lakes, which could be attributed to anthropogenic influences.

Aweke Kebede; Taddese Wondimu

2004-01-01

302

Differential expression patterns of growth-related microRNAs in the skeletal muscle of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNA that regulate mRNA expression at the post-transcriptional level and play important roles in many fundamental biological processes. There is emerging evidence that miRNA are critical regulators of widespread cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. At present, little is known about miRNA expression profiles related to skeletal muscle growth in aquatic organisms. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic variation in the body growth of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to identify and quantify the differential expression levels of selected growth-related transcriptomic miRNA in the skeletal muscle of this fish. To this end, we performed next-generation sequencing to define the full miRNA transcriptome in muscle tissue from Nile tilapia and to detect differentially expressed miRNA between 2 strains of Nile tilapia. These tilapia strains exhibited significant (P < 0.05) phenotypic variation with respect to growth-related traits (body length and BW), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity, and the differential expression of selected growth-related genes. The results obtained from the transcriptome analysis and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed significant differences in miRNA expression between fast-growing and control strains of tilapia. Digital gene expression (DGE) profiling was performed based on the obtained read abundance, and we identified down-regulated miRNA, including let-7j, miR-140, miR-192, miR-204, miR-218a, miR-218b, miR-301c, and miR-460, and up-regulated miRNA, including let-7b, let-7c, miR-133, miR-152, miR-15a, miR-193a, miR-30b, and miR-34, associated with body growth in tilapia. These results were further validated using real-time qRT-PCR and microarray profiling. In summary, the up- and down-regulation of miRNA involved in the GH/IGF-1 axis signaling pathway suggests that the differential expression levels of growth-related miRNA may serve as molecular markers that are predictive of specific functional and diagnostic implications. The obtained data on genetic polymorphisms in miRNA-target interactions are particularly useful for Nile tilapia breeding programs.

Huang CW; Li YH; Hu SY; Chi JR; Lin GH; Lin CC; Gong HY; Chen JY; Chen RH; Chang SJ; Liu FG; Wu JL

2012-12-01

303

Biochemical Characterization of an ecotype cichlid from Epe Lagoon ‘Wesafu’ and Oreochromis niloticus using Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The abundance of a yet to be identified cichlid in Epe Lagoon commonly referred toas Wesafu and the large size/weight it attains in the wild elicited interest in the fish fordomestication, culture and possible species identification and naming. Characterization ofWesafu and O. niloticus biochemically using SDS-PAGE was carried out to analyze proteinmixtures in the two species qualitatively and to determine their relative protein molecularmass. After centrifugation for 15min at 1000 rpm, blood sera from the two species wereelectrophoretically run simultaneously on 5.5% SDS polyacrylamide gel following theprocedure of [Avtalion et al., (1976); Betiku and Omitogun, (2006)]. After electrophoreticseparation, the gel was stained, destained, sealed in polythene bags and refrigerated. Gelsproduced were scored visually with presence (1) or absence (0) of band classifications.Frequencies were determined by direct counting while genetic interpretation was based onfrequency and relative banding intensity. Distinct bands (genetic markers) were observedbetween the two species. While Wesafu had between 10 and 11 bands, 9 bands was recordedfor O. niloticus. The 11th band in Wesafu was identified as a post albumin which is absent inO. niloticus. In O. niloticus, bands 1, 3 and 7 were present, but bands 2, 5, 6 and 8 wereabsent in few. Some individuals of Wesafu were found to possess weaker bands 3 and 7.The band frequency between samples studied indicated serum protein polymorphism,which indicated genetic diversity between ‘Wesafu’ and O. niloticus.

Hammed, A.M; Fashina-Bombata, H.A; Omitogun, G

2011-01-01

304

Effects of Starvation on Body Chemical Composition and Energy Density ?in Juvenile Nile tilapia (?Oreochromis niloticus?)  

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Full Text Available 40 specimens of juvenile Nile tilapia (?Oreochromis niloticus?) (initial weight: (3.61±0.13) g) were divided into 5 groups, and were starved for 0, 8, 15, 22 and 45d respectively. Body chemical compositions were measured and energy density was estimated during starvation. The results showed that the contents of protein (?PRO?), lipid (?FAT?) and energy density (?E?) are negatively related to starvation. The relationships between ?PRO?, ?FAT?, or ?E? and starvation time (?t?, unit: d) could be described as: ?PRO?=14.727e??0.006?5?t (?r2?=0.707, ?n?=37, ?p?<0.05)??FAT?=2.295 5e??0.036?6?t??(?r2?=0.552, ?n?=37, ?p?<0.05) and ?E?=4.478 1e??0.011?3t(?r2?=0.694, ?n?=37, ?p?<0.05) The contents of water (?WAT?) and ash (?ASH?) are positively related to starvation. The relationships between ?WAT? or ?ASH? and ?t? could be described as: ?WAT?=76.196 9e??0.001?3??t?(?r2?=0.566, n?=37, ?p?

WANG Wen; WANG Qian-qian; ZHANG Yu-rong; HUANG Qing-da; LUO Yi-ping

2012-01-01