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Sample records for fish oreochromis niloticus

  1. EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)

    OpenAIRE

    M.Hemanth kumar; V.Spandana; Tiwari Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological n...

  2. Cadmium Bioaccumulation and Toxicity in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Elamin, Maha H.; Al-olayan, Ebtesam M.; Daghestani, Maha H.; Dalia Fouad; Elobeid, Mai A.; Omer, Sawsan A.; Promy Virk; Ameera El-Mahassna

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the bioaccumulation of cadmium in livers of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) and to assess the histological alteration of intestine, liver and kidney tissues due to cadmium toxicity. Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to cadmium at different concentrations (5 and 10 mg L-1) for 7 days. Cadmium assayed by using AA220FS atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of cadmium in the liver tissues in the fish exposed to 10 mg L-1 ...

  3. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, J.P.; Van Der Geyten, S.; Kaptein, E; Darras, V.M.; Kuhn, E.R.; Leonard, J L; Visser, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Type III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inner ring deiodination (IRD) of T4 and T3 to the inactive metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), respectively. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of complementary DNA (cDNA) coding for D3 in fish (Oreochromis niloticus, tilapia). This cDNA contains 1478 nucleotides and codes for a protein of 267 amino acids, including a putative seleno...

  4. EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Hemanth kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological niches, mainly pond aquaculture and reservoir fisheries. Tilapia fish scales found to have more percentage of Type I collagen. Fish collagen is complex structural protein that helps to maintain the strength and flexibility of skin, ligaments, bones, joints, muscles, tendons, gums, eyes, blood vessels, nails and hair. Collagen can be obtained from fish scales, fish skins by advanced enzymatic digestion methods in biotechnology. The Protein content of the above is more than 90% and having 18 kinds of amino acids out of which 7 are essential for human consumption. These products are easily absorbable and having high biological value promoting the absorption of vitamins and minerals. The enzymatic digestion technology process releases a lot of peptides in molecular collagen that helps humans in many physiological functions. Collagen has been used in biomedical pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In this paper we have determined the collagen extracted from Tilapia fish scales and also its clinical importance.

  5. Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus) Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis / Diferenciación Morfométrica de Dos Especies de Peces Nigerianos (Oreochromis niloticus y Lates niloticus) Utilizando Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análsis Discriminante

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Yakubu; S. A, Okunsebor.

    1429-14-01

    Full Text Available Las diferencias morfológicas entre dos poblaciones de peces similares se han investigado en Doma Dam, centro-norte de Nigeria utilizando análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. El propósito fue identificar correctamente las dos especies y asignarlas a los distintos grupos genét [...] icos. Para lograr esto, siete medidas morfométricas (peso corporal, longitud estándar, longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, profundidad del cuerpo, longitud de la aleta dorsal y la longitud de la aleta caudal) se realizaron en cada una de las muestras de los 252 peces estudiados (153 Oreochromis niloticus y 99 Lates niloticus) . El análisis de varianza mostró que de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in Doma Dam, north central Nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. The purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. To achieve this, seven morphometr [...] ic measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length) were made on each of the studied 252 fish specimens (153 Oreochromis niloticus and 99 Lates niloticus). The analysis of variance showed that significantly (P

  6. In vivo Acute Toxicity Tests of Some Heavy Metals to Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus

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    M. Shuhaimi-Othman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerlings tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus were exposed in laboratory conditions to a range of Copper (Cu, Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb and Zinc (Zn concentrations separately and the mortality rate were registered after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50s and Median Lethal Times (LT50s values were calculated by static bioassays for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h with the 95% fiducial limits through Probit analysis. LC50 and LT50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure times and concentrations, respectively. The LC50s for 96 h for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 1093, 3751, 16177 and 1494 ?g L-1, respectively and the LT50s for maximum concentration used for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 20.25, 11.48, 20.70 and 24.66 h, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in tilapia fish increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu was the most toxic to tilapia fish, The toxicity ranking of the four heavy metals was Cu>Pb>Cd>Zn. Comparison of LC50 values for studied heavy metals for this species with those for other fishes reveals that tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus is equally or less sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested fishes.

  7. Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis Diferenciación Morfométrica de Dos Especies de Peces Nigerianos (Oreochromis niloticus y Lates niloticus Utilizando Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análsis Discriminante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yakubu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in Doma Dam, north central Nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. The purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. To achieve this, seven morphometric measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length were made on each of the studied 252 fish specimens (153 Oreochromis niloticus and 99 Lates niloticus. The analysis of variance showed that significantly (PLas diferencias morfológicas entre dos poblaciones de peces similares se han investigado en Doma Dam, centro-norte de Nigeria utilizando análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. El propósito fue identificar correctamente las dos especies y asignarlas a los distintos grupos genéticos. Para lograr esto, siete medidas morfométricas (peso corporal, longitud estándar, longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, profundidad del cuerpo, longitud de la aleta dorsal y la longitud de la aleta caudal se realizaron en cada una de las muestras de los 252 peces estudiados (153 Oreochromis niloticus y 99 Lates niloticus . El análisis de varianza mostró que de forma significativa (p<0,05 los valores más altos se registraron en Lates niloticus, en todos los rasgos del cuerpo examinado con excepción de la longitud de la aleta dorsal. A partir del análisis de componentes principales, las diferencias entre las especies se observó principalmente en la longitud de la aleta dorsal, el peso corporal, la longitud de la aleta caudal y longitud de la cabeza. El análisis discriminante reveló que la longitud estándar, longitud aleta dorsal y caudal son las tres variables más discriminatorias de utilidad para distinguir claramente las dos especies en la edad madura. Estas tres variables con fuerte poder de discriminación clasificaron correctamente el 98,0% de los individuos de la muestra de las poblaciones conocidas de peces. La exactitud de la clasificación fue sometida a una validación cruzada utilizando el método de la muestra dividida, la que indicó una tasa de éxito del 97,6% (98,0% de Oreochromis niloticus y 97,0% de Lates niloticus asignados correctamente. Los resultados pueden proporcionar una base científica sólida para el manejo eficaz y la explotación sostenible de los recursos genéticos de las dos especies en condiciones subtropicales.

  8. Biochemical Effects of Short-term Cadmium Exposure on the Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis niloticus

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    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of cadmium, a well known environmental pollutant, on different biochemical parameters in fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sublethal concentration of 9.3 ppm, 0.5 of 96 h LC50, for 1, 4 and 7 days were investigated. Significant increases in the levels of blood glucose and the activities of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed in the fish treated with cadmium during all experimental periods. The levels of blood triglycerides and total protein were statistically elevated at second and last periods. Insignificant alterations in the levels of blood cholesterol were noted. The observed hyperglycaemia induced by cadmium might be explained in part by increasing rate of glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis. The observed hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevations of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and alkaline phosphatase may be due to liver dysfunction. The observed hyperproteinaemia in the fish, Oreochromis niloticus following cadmium administration is possibly attribute to disorder of protein metabolism. However, the significance of the toxic effects of sublethal concentration of cadmium on the various biochemical parameters studied is discussed.

  9. Effect of an Insecticide Abamectin on Some Biochemical Characteristics of Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis Niloticus

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    Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Presence of pesticide in streams and lakes is largely due to the runoff from agricultural fields. Pesticides are not highly selective but are generally toxic to many macrophytes, non-target organisms such as fish. Fish, generally accumulate contaminants from aquatic environments and have been largely used in food safety studies. Approach: The toxic effect of the insecticide abamectin on oxygen consumption and some biochemical characteristics (total protein, carbohydrate and cholesterol in liver, muscle, kidney and gills of the tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus were estimated. Results: The data shows that the rate of oxygen consumption was declined during all the exposure periods. On the other hand, all biochemical?s parameters were found to be decreased in all tissues on comparison with control. Conclusion: The results indicated the toxic nature of the insecticide abamectin.

  10. Antioxidant Responses and Nuclear Deformations in Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis niloticus, Facing Degraded Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Amr Adel

    2015-06-01

    Two sites of collection along river Nile, nearby metal-related factories (site2) and 7 km downstream (site3) were compared to unpolluted reference fish farm (site1). Metals concentration (Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, Mn and Cd) in water and sediment samples showed highly significant (p pollution load index values, overall pollution was ordered as site2 > site3 > site1. Compared with Oreochromis niloticus of site1, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase as well as malondialdehyde formation were significantly (p < 0.01) increased in both liver and gills of fish collected from metal contaminated sites. This increment showed a tissue-specific pattern with higher rate of increment in liver than in gills. While reduced glutathione level was sharply decreased in site2 and site3. Micronucleus test was assessed as an environmental genotoxic endpoint in erythrocytes. Assessment of eight nuclear deformations showed gradient frequencies related to the distance from the industrial discharges. PMID:25726009

  11. A novel cold-adapted imidase from fish Oreochromis niloticus that catalyzes hydrolysis of maleimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Yang; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2003-12-12

    In this paper we report the first comparative study of cold-adapted imidase (EC 3.5.2.2) from the fish (Oreochromis niloticus) liver and its thermophilic counterparts taken from pig liver and Escherichia coli (overexpressed recombinant hydantoinase from Agrobacterium radiobacter NRRL B1). Approximately 6000-fold purification and a 40% yield of fish imidase activity were obtained through ammonium sulfate precipitation, octyl, chelating, DEAE, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. This cold-adapted imidase was characterized by a specific activity 10- to a 100-fold higher than those of its thermophilic counterparts below room temperature (25 degrees C or lower) conditions but less stable at elevated temperatures (40 degrees C or higher). A less organized helical structure (compared to those of pig liver and bacterial imidases) was observed by circular dichroism. Furthermore, maleimide was first identified as a novel substrate of all imidases examined, and confirmed by HPLC and NMR analysis. These results constituted a first study to discover a novel cold-adapted imidase with surprising high activity. These findings might be also helpful for industrial application of imidase. PMID:14637160

  12. Low water conductivity increases the effects of copper on the serum parameters in fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Esin G; Canli, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    The conductivity is largely determined by ion levels in water, predominant ion being Ca(2+) in the freshwaters. For this reason, the effects of copper were evaluated as a matter of conductivity of exposure media in the present study. Thus, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to copper in differing conductivities (77, 163 and 330?S/cm), using acute (0.3?M, 3 d) and chronic (0.03?M, 30 d) exposure protocols. Following the exposure serum parameters of fish were measured. Data showed that there was no significant alteration (P>0.05) in serum parameters of control fish. However, activities of ALP, ALT and AST decreased significantly at the lower conductivities in chronic copper exposure, but not in acute ones. Protein levels did not differ significantly in any of the exposure conditions. However, Cu exposure at the lowest conductivity sharply increased the levels of glucose in the acute exposure, while there was no significant difference in the chronic exposure. Cholesterol levels decreased only at the lower conductivities in chronic exposure, but increased in acute exposure. Similarly, triglyceride levels increased in acute exposures and decreased in chronic exposures at the lowest conductivity. There was no change in Na(+) levels, while there was an increase in K(+) levels and a decrease in Ca(2+) level at the lowest conductivity of acute exposures. However, Cl(-) levels generally decreased at the higher conductivities of chronic exposures. There was a strong negative relationship between significant altered serum parameters and water conductivity. In conclusion, this study showed that copper exposure of fish at lower conductivities caused more toxicities, indicating the protective effect of calcium ions against copper toxicity. Data suggest that conductivity of water may be used in the evaluation of metal data from different waters with different chemical characteristics. PMID:25682007

  13. Echinacea purpurea and Allium sativum as immunostimulants in fish culture using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, S M; Mohamed, M F

    2010-10-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of echinacea (E) and garlic (G) supplemented diets as immunostimulant for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Seven treatments were designed including a control (C). Fish were fed on 35% protein diet at a rate of 3% body weight per day. Echinacea (1.0 ppt) and garlic (3%) were incorporated in the feed, which was administered for periods of 1, 2 and 3 months (summer season), followed by basal diet for 4 more months (winter season). Neutrophil adherence and haematocrit values increased in both supplemented groups with prolonging period of application. The neutrophils adherence was significantly increased in all treatments except group administered echinacea for 1 month. The lymphocytic counts were significantly (p 85%) in all the supplemented groups. The percentage of protection, after challenge infection using pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was the highest in groups supplemented with echinacea and garlic for 3 months after summer and winter seasons. It could be concluded that echinacea and garlic improve the gain in body weight, survival rate and resistance against challenge infection. Both compounds showed extended effects after withdrawal and improved resistance to cold stress during the winter season. However, a full commercial cost benefit analysis is necessary before recommending their application in aquaculture. PMID:20455962

  14. Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 ?g L-1 of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

  15. Fishborne trematodes in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and wild-caught fish from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiriya, Benjamaporn; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    2013-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections affect the health of more than 18 million people around the world, particularly in Asian countries. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a white meat fish that has an increasing national and international market. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of FZT metacercarial infections in Nile tilapia from cage and pond aquaculture systems and in wild-caught fish from Suphan Buri, Nakhon Pathom and Chachoengsao provinces, Thailand. Fish were collected from four cages in Suphan Buri and four ponds in Nakhon Pathom provinces between September-October 2011 and April-May 2012 and wild-caught fish were collected in May 2012. All fish were examined for metacercariae by a pepsin digestion and metacercariae identified using morphological and molecular methods. During the first sampling of tilapia the prevalence of metacercariae in cage culture fish were 2.5% and 10% in pond culture fish. During the second sampling, metacercariae was found in 2.0% of tilapia from cage and none from the ponds. Of the 150 wild-caught fish, a total of 80 (53.3%) were found to be infected with metacercariae, mostly the zoonotic species Stellantchasmus falcatus, Haplorchis pumilio and Procerovum varium. The results revealed a low risk for FZT in Nile tilapia cultured in cage and pond aquaculture systems. However, the high prevalence of FZT in wild-caught fish indicates a high potential for spillover from wild reservoir hosts and underscores the need for vigilance and good management practices by the aquaculture sector. Crown Copyright © 2013.

  16. Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana L., Ibáñez; Antonio, Rodríguez-Canto; Jasmín, Cortés-Martínez; José L., García-Calderón.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El uso de alizarina roja S (ARS) para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamie [...] ntos: 1) Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2) Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tres estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas), sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de cultivo el resto de los ejemplares fueron analizados y se observó la permanencia de las marcas en todos los casos. En vista de lo anterior, para los propósitos de marcaje se recomienda el uso del tratamiento de inmersión por 12h y una concentración de 100mg/l. Abstract in english The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in [...] tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (p

  17. Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958) élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne

    OpenAIRE

    Kone, M.; Cisse, M.; Ouattara, M.; Agathe Fantodji

    2012-01-01

    Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958) Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant d...

  18. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess the potential for FZT transmission in an area with high density of tilapia farms, wild-caught fish from local rivers and canals were bought at local markets. The wild-caught fish species included Hemiculter leucisculus (145), Rhodeus sinensis Gunther (10), Rasborinus lineatus (96), Squaliobarbus curriculus (6), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong Province during August-October 2011. A total of 389 tilapias sized 2.33-1450.00 g were collected from 30 farms, and examined for FZT metacercariae by the pepsin digestion method. Ten percent of the farms surveyed had fish with FZT infections. The overall FZT prevalence in fish was 1.5% and the infection intensity was 0.12 metacercaria/100 g. The infection in nursery farms was higher than that in grow-out farms (3.18 % versus 0.43 %). Our findings show a low prevalence of FZT in the farmed tilapia. Further studies are needed to assess the associated risk factors for FZT infection in particular at the nursery stage of production.

  19. Elaboration of fish bouillon cubes using pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusElaboração de caldo de peixe em cubos compactados utilizando pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii e tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Lumi Fukushima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Broth cubes are packed spices highly prized for their low cost and for the flavor given to dishes, usually carbohydrate-based. The objective of this work was to establish compressed broth cubes, exploiting the nutritional characteristics of pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, seeking a new product to the spice market, and contribute to a proper waste disposal of the fishing industry. A formulation of this pattern was prepared, where 30% was replaced by different forms of processing of the species used, resulting in different fish broth, to which analysis of interest were performed. From the analysis, it was concluded that the fish broth using ground tilapia presented the best characteristics when compared to commercial broth. Chemical composition of fish bouillon cubes with species and tilapia pirambeba showed no major differences, which proves that other waste of fish or the fishing industry may also contribute to the production of broths. The broth commercial was less variety of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low contents of calcium and phosphorus minerals, and more lipids compared to fish broth prepared. Caldos em cubos compactados são temperos muito apreciados por seu baixo custo e por conferir sabor a pratos geralmente à base de carboidratos. Objetivou-se elaborar caldos em cubos compactados, explorando as características nutricionais da pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii e tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, visando um novo produto para o mercado de temperos, além de contribuir para um correto destino de resíduos da indústria pesqueira. Foi elaborada uma formulação padrão onde 30% desta foi substituída pelas diferentes formas de processamento das espécies utilizadas, resultando em diferentes caldos de peixe, para os quais foram realizadas as análises de interesse. A composição centesimal dos temperos contendo espécies tilápia e pirambeba não apresentaram grandes diferenças, o que comprova que outros peixes ou resíduos da indústria pesqueira também podem contribuir para a fabricação de caldos. O caldo comercial apresentou menor variedade de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados, além de baixo teor dos minerais cálcio e fósforo e maior de extrato etéreo quando comparados com os caldos de peixe elaborados.

  20. Digestibilidad aparente de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) / Apparent digestibility of fishing waste silage in red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José E, Llanes; Aliro, Bórquez; José, Toledo; José M, Lazo de la Vega.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado con tres repeticiones, se determinó la digestibilidad in vivo de nutrientes y energía de los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros en tilapias rojas (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). El ensilaje químico se preparo con ácido sulfúrico 98% (20 ml/kg) y á [...] cido fórmico (10 ml/kg) y el ensilaje biológico con miel de caña (150 g/kg) y yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris y streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). Se usó oxido crómico como indicador y las heces se recolectaron por un sifón desde el fondo de los tanques. Se obtuvo que la digestibilidad aparente de algunos nutrientes difirió en función del tipo de ensilaje, entre tanto la proteína digestible fue mayor para el ensilaje químico y la materia seca, calcio y fósforo para el ensilaje biológico. Digestibilidades iguales (P>0,05) se presentó para los lípidos, cenizas y energía. Concluyendoque los ensilajes de residuos pesqueros presentan alto valor nutricional, lo que constituyen una fuente de proteína alternativa en la formulación de raciones para tilapias rojas. Abstract in english By means of a design completely randomized with three repetitions, in vivo digestibility of nutrients and energy in fishing waste silages were determined for red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). Chemical silage prepared with sulphuric acid 98 % (20 ml/kg) and formic acid (10 ml/kg) [...] and the biological with sugar cane molasses (150 g/kg) and of yogurt (Lactobacilus bulgaris and streptococcus acidophilus; 30 g/kg). The chromic oxide was used as inert indicator and fecal sample were recollected by siphon from the bottom of tanks. As a result, the apparent digestibility of some nutrients differed from silage type; meanwhile protein was bigger for the chemical silage and the dry matter, calcium and phosphorus for the biological silage. Similar digestibility (P>0,05) was presented for lipids, ashes and energy. In conclusion, all this showed that the fishing waste silages present high nutritional value, that constitute an alternative- protein source in the formulation of rations for red tilapias.

  1. Caracterización genética de tres líneas de tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Genetic characterization of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Lupchinski Jr.; L., Vargas; N.M., Lopera-Barrero; R.P., Ribeiro; J.A., Povh; E., Gasparino; P.C., Gomes; G.L., Braccini.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la diversidad genética de tres líneas de tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), mediante marcadores RAPDs. Se analizaron 90 individuos adultos (30 de cada línea) de dos piscifactorías ubicadas en las ciudades de Maringá (líneas Bouaké - B y GIFT G) y Guaír [...] a (línea Chitralada - C), en el Estado del Paraná (Brasil). Los 13 oligonucleótidos seleccionados produjeron 72 fragmentos de los cuales 60 (83,3%) fueron polimórficos. Fueron observadas diferencias (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains, through the RAPD markers. Ninety adult individuals (30 of each strain) of two fish farms stations located in the Maringá (Bouaké - B and GIFT - G strains) and Guaíra (Chitralada C strain [...] ) cities, in the Paraná State (Brazil) were analyzed. The 13 selected primers yielded 72 fragments of which 60 (83.3%) were polymorphic. Differences (p

  2. Seasonal effects on the nutritive value of the natural food of three omnivorous fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Citharinus citharus in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Blé

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the stomach contents and the digestibility of organic matter, proteins and energy of three planktivorous fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Citharinus citharus were studied in Batamani Pond (Mali, West Africa during the dry and wet seasons. The diet contents of O. niloticus and S. galilaeus presented high levels of organic matter and proteins during the wet season (ashfree dry weight (AFDW: 753 mg·g?1 dw and 703 mg·g?1 dw, protein contents: 479 mg·g?1 AFDW and 449 mg·g?1 AFDW, respectively. In the dry season, the chemical composition of the food was characterized by high proportions of inorganic material (73% and 68% for O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, respectively. The chemical composition of the food of C. citharus was characterized by low seasonal variation. The levels of AFDW (396–461 mg·g?1 dw and proteins (65–86 mg·g?1 AFDW in its diet were generally low, reflecting a high proportion of mineral content. During the wet season, the digestibility of AFDW (52% and 58%, total amino acids (68% and 76% and energy (63% and 56% increased significantly for O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, respectively. Nutrient and energy digestibility for C. citharus showed no significant seasonal variations (AFDW: 36–45%; total amino acids: 57–64%; energy: 31–39%. The marked seasonal character of the pond, in terms of both hydrology and trophic conditions, had a low impact on the availability and quality of nutritive resources for the two tilapia species O. niloticus and S. galilaeus, while C. citharus appears to have the capacity to adapt its regime to the available food quality, whatever the season.

  3. Effects of Water Pollution in Lake Mariut on Gonadal Free Amino Acid Compositions in Oreochromis niloticus Fish

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    Cecil A. Matta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we have determined the gonadal free amino acid compositions in Oreochromis niloticus collected from three sites in Lake Mariut: SE basin (less polluted, main basin (moderately polluted and SW basin (highly polluted, in an attempt to develop sensitive biomarker to evaluate pollution effects from multiple sources. Variations of free amino acids (FAAs were apparent in the polluted sites; total FAAs in testes and ovaries exhibited significant increases as compared to the less polluted site. This increase was attributed to increases in all individual amino acids including essential and non-essential ones. ANOVA indicated significant changes in all testicular FAAs, excluding phenylalanine. Levels of non-essential amino acids showed obvious alterations in ovaries. However, the increase in most essential amino acids, although insignificant, yet it was quite observable. In addition, the ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids was insignificantly decreased in gonads. This may be indicative of changes in protein metabolism.

  4. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  5. Resistência a antimicrobianos de bactérias oriundas de ambiente de criação e filés de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Antibacterial resistance in bacteria from fish pond and Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rejeana Márcia Santos, Lima; Henrique César Pereira, Figueiredo; Flaviane Castro de, Faria; Roberta Hilsdorf, Picolli; Júlio Silvio de Sousa, Bueno Filho; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de bactérias a antimicrobianos foi determinada em uma piscicultura de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) em tanques de terra, sem utilização de antibióticos para profilaxia ou controle de doenças. Foi selecionado um tanque, capturados peixes e coletadas amostras de conteúdo intestinal e [...] superfície dos peixes, água de abastecimento e do tanque, ração, filés de tilápias frescos e congelados. Colônias representativas foram selecionadas e analisadas pelos testes de Gram, catalase, oxidase e oxidaçãofermentação. Foram selecionadas 89 amostras e submetidas a antibiograma, utilizando vários antimicrobianos. A maioria das bactérias pertenceu às famílias Enterobacteriaceae e Vibrionaceae. Tanto no ambiente de criação como nos filés de tilápias observou-se que os isolados bacterianos apresentaramse resistentes principalmente a ampicilina e eritromicina. O índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR) foi calculado, sendo que do total de 89 isolados analisados 74 (83%), apresentaram MAR ³ 0,2, ou seja apresentaram-se resistentes a dois ou mais antimicrobianos. As freqüências de índice MAR foram altas e maiores na ração. Abstract in english This study was conducted in a freshwater tilapia farm that has not used any antibiotic. It was selected one pond, caught 15 fishes and collected samples of intestinal content and mucus surface, water influent and pond water, ration, fresh tilapia fillets and frozen fillets.. Phenotypical characteris [...] tics, Gram stain, oxidase production, oxidative-fermentative utilization of glucose (O-F) were determined of representative colony. Were selected 89 strains and submitted for antimicrobial sensitivy test using several antibiotics. The major identified bacterial families were belonged Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The most isolates showed resistance to ampicilin and eritromicin. From the 89 isolates evaluated 74 (83%) showed a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) ³ 0.2, that mean resistance to two or more antibiotics. The MAR índice frequency were higher and bigger in the rations.

  6. Resistência a antimicrobianos de bactérias oriundas de ambiente de criação e filés de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Antibacterial resistance in bacteria from fish pond and Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeana Márcia Santos Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de bactérias a antimicrobianos foi determinada em uma piscicultura de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em tanques de terra, sem utilização de antibióticos para profilaxia ou controle de doenças. Foi selecionado um tanque, capturados peixes e coletadas amostras de conteúdo intestinal e superfície dos peixes, água de abastecimento e do tanque, ração, filés de tilápias frescos e congelados. Colônias representativas foram selecionadas e analisadas pelos testes de Gram, catalase, oxidase e oxidaçãofermentação. Foram selecionadas 89 amostras e submetidas a antibiograma, utilizando vários antimicrobianos. A maioria das bactérias pertenceu às famílias Enterobacteriaceae e Vibrionaceae. Tanto no ambiente de criação como nos filés de tilápias observou-se que os isolados bacterianos apresentaramse resistentes principalmente a ampicilina e eritromicina. O índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR foi calculado, sendo que do total de 89 isolados analisados 74 (83%, apresentaram MAR ³ 0,2, ou seja apresentaram-se resistentes a dois ou mais antimicrobianos. As freqüências de índice MAR foram altas e maiores na ração.This study was conducted in a freshwater tilapia farm that has not used any antibiotic. It was selected one pond, caught 15 fishes and collected samples of intestinal content and mucus surface, water influent and pond water, ration, fresh tilapia fillets and frozen fillets.. Phenotypical characteristics, Gram stain, oxidase production, oxidative-fermentative utilization of glucose (O-F were determined of representative colony. Were selected 89 strains and submitted for antimicrobial sensitivy test using several antibiotics. The major identified bacterial families were belonged Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The most isolates showed resistance to ampicilin and eritromicin. From the 89 isolates evaluated 74 (83% showed a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR ³ 0.2, that mean resistance to two or more antibiotics. The MAR índice frequency were higher and bigger in the rations.

  7. Tecnología de producción de alimento semi-húmedo a base de ensilados de residuos pesqueros en la alimentación de tilapia roja (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus - Tecnology of production of semi-moist food on the basic of fishing offals for red tilapias (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Llanes Iglesias

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar una tecnología de alimento semi-húmedo a base de ensilado de desechos pesqueros como sustituto de la harina de pescado en la alimentación de peces, fueron formuladas dos dietas semi-húmedas (30% de húmeda, y un control (Alimento Comercial. Estas fueron empleadas en la alimentación de tilapia roja (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus de 3,50+0.5 g en tanques triplicados por 60 días al 8% del peso corporal/ día en dos raciones. Los resultados mostraron que existen diferencias significativas (P0.05. Se concluye que el ensilado de pescado es una alternativa a la harina de pescado y con esta tecnología es necesario cuantificar el consumo de materia seca que aporte los requerimientos nutricionales (proteína bruta principalmente de la especie para no afectar el crecimiento. AbstractMoist food production on the basic of fishing offals for red tilapias (O. mossambicus x O. niloticus feeding to evaluate. Two moist diets on the basis of fishing offals that were compared with a commercial food (20% of fish meal for red feeding (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus in triplícate tanks during 60 days at 8% of body weight/ days during 60 days were evaluated. The results showed significant differences (P 0,05.

  8. Risk Assessment of Tributyltin Oxide in Aquatic Environment: A. Toxicity and Sublethal Effects on Brain AChE and Gill ATPases Activity of Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman A. Aba. Alkhail; Ahmed I. Askar; Layla K. Younis; Kawthar S. El-Gendy; Mamdouh M. Abbas; Abdul Salam M. Marei

    2004-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity of TBTO and the effects of its sublethal concentration on brain AChE and gill ATPases activity of tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus during acute (3-96 h) and subchronic (7-28 d) exposure periods. The results showed that TBTO is extremely toxic to O. niloticus with 96 h LC50 of 16.3 ?g L-1 using static renewal bioassay test. Sublethal concentration of 4.1 ?g L-1 (25% of 96 h LC50) of TBTO inhibited brain AChE activit...

  9. Tissue-Specific Isoenzyme Variations in Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Salem AL-Harbi; Sayed Amin Mohamed Amer

    2012-01-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used to analyze malate dehydrogenase (MDH), acid phosphatase (Acph) and peroxidase (Px) isoenzymes in different tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and heart) of the tilapia fish, Oreo

  10. Organic matter sedimentation and resuspension in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish ponds during a growing cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-montealegre, R.; Verdegem, M. C. J.; Zamora, J. E.; Verreth, J. A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The rates of sedimentation and resuspension of organic carbon and total nitrogen were measured in earthen fishponds, based on nutrient input, water quality parameters and fish size and biomass. Material collected in sediment traps and soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, total nitrogen, iron and aluminum concentrations. A dilution analysis method was used to differentiate between sedimented and resuspended particles. The rates of sedimentation and resuspension estimated from total s...

  11. Physiological Studies on Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus as Influenced by the Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystin

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    M. A. Al-Kahtani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of microcystin produced by the toxic cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa on bioaccumulation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase of tilapia fish (collected from Al-Khadoud spring, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia were investigated. The results showed that microcystin contained in cyanobacterial blooms induce CAT and SOD activity in a time-dependent manner. The data also shows that microcystin concentration in muscle was much lower than in liver, as the liver is the target organ of these toxins. In addition, microcystin concentration in faeces increased gradually until the end of the treatment period.

  12. Risk Assessment of Tributyltin Oxide in Aquatic Environment: A. Toxicity and Sublethal Effects on Brain AChE and Gill ATPases Activity of Tilapia Fish, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman A. Aba. Alkhail

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity of TBTO and the effects of its sublethal concentration on brain AChE and gill ATPases activity of tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus during acute (3-96 h and subchronic (7-28 d exposure periods. The results showed that TBTO is extremely toxic to O. niloticus with 96 h LC50 of 16.3 ?g L-1 using static renewal bioassay test. Sublethal concentration of 4.1 ?g L-1 (25% of 96 h LC50 of TBTO inhibited brain AChE activity by 24.01 and 24.06% of control at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by 51.8 and 54.5% at 96 h and 7 d, respectively. The activity of gill Mg2+-ATPase was decreased by 26.9 and 24.28% at 96 h and 21 d, respectively. After 7 d of recovery, AChE and Mg2+-ATPase activites were completely recovered. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase was partially recovered but the inhibition was still significant. The inhibition percentages were higher in acute exposure than in subchronic exposure in both AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase, but the opposite result was recorded in Mg2+-ATPase. It can be concluded that there is a need for more evaluation and international regulation to minimize the organotin input to aquatic environment.

  13. A morphometric analysis of chloride cells in the gills of the teleosts Oreochromis alcalicus and Oreochromis niloticus and a description of presumptive urea-excreting cells in O. alcalicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    The gills of Oreochromis alcalicus, a hyperosmotic and low pH adapted teleost, and Oreochromis niloticus, a freshwater closely related fish have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a morphometric analysis of, particularly, the chloride cells and their primary organelles, the mitochondria and the tubulo-vesicular system carried out. Oreochromis alcalicus had a fourfold greater number of chloride cells than O. niloticus and the chloride cells had more mitochondria and a mo...

  14. Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 ?g/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25231739

  15. Metacercarial infection of wild Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Mati, Vitor L T; Melo, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus collected in an artificial urban lake from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated for natural infection with trematodes. Morphological taxonomic identification of four fluke species was performed in O. niloticus examined, and the total prevalence of metacercariae was 60.7% (37/61). Centrocestus formosanus, a heterophyid found in the gills, was the species with the highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection (31.1% and 3.42 (1-42), resp.), followed by the diplostomid Austrodiplostomum compactum (29.5% and 1.27 (1-2)) recovered from the eyes. Metacercariae of Drepanocephalus sp. and Ribeiroia sp., both found in the oral cavity of the fish, were verified at low prevalences (8.2% and 1.6%, resp.) and intensities of infection (only one metacercaria of each of these species per fish). These species of trematodes are reported for the first time in O. niloticus from South America. The potential of occurrence of these parasites in tilapia farming and the control strategies are briefly discussed. PMID:25485302

  16. Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne

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    Kone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

  17. Active biomonitoring of trace heavy metals using fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) as bioindicator species. The case of Nakivubo wetland along Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birungi, Z.; Masola, B.; Zaranyika, M. F.; Naigaga, I.; Marshall, B.

    The Nakivubo wetland in Uganda, which feeds Lake Victoria at Murchison bay, has become severely degraded over recent years and is particularly threatened by the expansion of industry, settlement and cultivation on its fertile fringes. The aim of this study was to actively biomonitor selected trace heavy metals using Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was set in cages at six sampling sites in Murchison bay for a period of six weeks, and sampling was done every 2 weeks for active biomonitoring and weekly for physico-chemical variables. The control (site 7) was at the Aquaculture Research and Development centre, Uganda. Fish tissue was dissected and gills, liver and muscle removed for heavy metal analysis. Water samples and fish tissue from each site were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine metal concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and manganese. Site 4 had the highest average NH 4-N of 14.28 ± 12.73 mg/l which was above effluent standards for Uganda. From the findings, there were significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in fish than in water ( p > 0.01). Fish kills were recorded highest for sites 4 (55%), 5 (77.5%) and 6 (60%) in less than six weeks indicating high levels of pollution. Gills showed the highest accumulation of copper after a period of six weeks as compared to other metals with a mean ± SE of 11.7 ?g/mg wet weight. In general, the order of accumulation of metals in tissue after six weeks was in order; copper > zinc > chromium > manganese and gills > liver > muscle. In conclusion, active biomonitoring was found to be a good tool for monitoring water quality as it integrates responses to combinations of all contaminants thereby indicating overall effects in a water body. To improve the study, there is need to incorporate post mortem studies and biomarker analysis since the later can give early warning of pollution before fish kills are observed.

  18. Some biological and hematological responses of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles exposed to Atrazine herbicide

    OpenAIRE

    Fidelis Bekeh Ada; Ezekiel Olatunji Ayotunde; Bayim Peter-Robins Bayim

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at finding the influence of Atrazine on a most widely farmed fish,Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), in Nigeria. Specific areas of investigation were to find the LC50after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of the chemical administration to the fish. The effects of the chemical onthe behavioral and biological responses of O. niloticus were equally observed. The ten fish each werestocked in six different tanks containing 40 liters of water. These tanks contained graded concen...

  19. The radiosensitivity of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a very popular fish commercially in the Philippines, was studied to determine its radiosensitivity and to see its potential as a biological indicator in aquatic ecosystems. Nile tilapia was seen to be radiosensitive. The fish were exposed to gamma-irradiation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. The various types of aberrations seen were chromatid gaps, chromosome gaps, chromatid fragments, dicentric rings, fusions, despiralizations and translocations. Among the aberrations observed, dicentric rings, fusions and chromosome gaps were strongly correlated with dosage, with only the dicentric rings increasing steadily with increasing dosage. In the course of the study, the lethal dosage50 for nile tilapia with 18 days was determined and it was observed at 2.0 krad. The modal chromosome number was also established at 2n=44 with a karyotype exhibiting 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes with 2 pairs of marker chromosomes present. (Author)

  20. Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.594 Host-parasite relationship in fish from fish farms in the Assis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 90 espécimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da água em cada propriedade. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possível observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porém cada propriedade apresenta uma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlação negativa significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o copépode Lamproglena sp. apresentaram correlação positiva significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão nas pisciculturas de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, respectivamente. Em relação ao fator de condição relativo, somente a espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a abundância de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a relação hepatossomática (RHS das tilápias em Palmital, e o ergasilídeo apresentou correlação significativa negativa da abundância de parasitismo e a relação esplenossomática (RES dos hospedeiros em Cândido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in São Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farm featured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp.1 presented a significant negative correlation of abundance to standard host length only at the Palmital fish farm. The Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 species and the Lamproglena sp. copepod displayed a significant positive correlation of abundance to standard length at the Tarumã and Cândido Mota fish farms, respectively. With regard to the relative condition factor, only the species Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 presented a significant negative correlation to the prevalence of parasitism. Lamproglena sp. presented a significant positive correlation with respect to the hepatosomatic index (HI of the tilapias at the Palmital fish farm, and the Ergasilidae presented a significant negative correlation of abundance with respect to splenosomatic index (SI of the host at Cândido Mota.

  1. Perfil proteico de tilápia nilótica chitralada (Oreochromis niloticus), submetida ao estresse crônico por hipóxia / Proteic electrophoretic profile of chitralada tilapia nilotic (Oreochromis niloticus), exposed to hypoxia chronic stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.C., Melo; D.A.A., Oliveira; M.M., Melo; D.V., Júnior; E.A., Teixeira; S.R., Guimarães.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a variação da resposta secundária ao estresse causado por hipóxia durante 18 dias, em sistema de recirculação, em uma linhagem de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus), chitralada, refletida no perfil proteico eletroforético do peixe e avaliou-se a diferença entre sexos para essa respo [...] sta. Foram utilizados 126 peixes, sendo 60 machos e 66 fêmeas, ambos com média de peso de 800g. O estresse crônico por hipóxia alterou (P Abstract in english This study evaluated the secundary response variation to hypoxia stress in a strain of chitralada nilotic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during 18 days, in a recirculation system. The effects were measured by the proteic electrophoretic profile and the difference between the genders. One hundred tw [...] enty-six fish were used, 60 males and 66 females, both averaging 800g. The chronic hypoxia stress altered (P

  2. Metacercarial Infection of Wild Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Hudson A.; Mati, Vitor L. T.; Alan L. Melo

    2014-01-01

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus collected in an artificial urban lake from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated for natural infection with trematodes. Morphological taxonomic identification of four fluke species was performed in O. niloticus examined, and the total prevalence of metacercariae was 60.7% (37/61). Centrocestus formosanus, a heterophyid found in the gills, was the species with the highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection (31.1% and 3.42 (1–42), resp...

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire)

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Roche; Abiba Tidou; Ana Persic

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use ...

  4. / Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis, Gómez-Márquez.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron estudios de enero a diciembre de 1993 para conocer la edad y crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus obtenida de las capturas comerciales de la laguna de Coatetelco, Morelos, Mexico. Se colectaron escamas de 318 peces. La moda de longitud patrón que se obtuvo en la captura fue de 10.5-11. [...] 5 cm. Se encontró que la formación de los anillos se realiza en Diciembre. Asimismo, no se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las hembras y los machos para las longitudes retrocalculadas para cada edad. En las escamas se registraron cuatro marcas. Se encontró que de acuerdo a los parametros de la ecuación de crecimiento, los peces tienen baja tasa de crecimiento (k=0.07) y alcanzan un tamaño adecuado (L* =29.19 cm). Los resultados obtenidos por medio del análisis de distribución de frecuencias no difieren significativamente (t-student, p Abstract in english Age and growth of Oreochromis niloticus from Lagoon of Coatetelco, Morelos State, Mexico were studied from January through December, 1993. Scales of 318 specimens were collected. Modal length at capture was 10.5-11.5 cm standard length. Scales rings were formed during December. Back-calculated lengt [...] hs-at-age showed no significant differences by sex. Four check marks were recorded. According to the growth curve parameters for population, the fish grow at a low rate (k=0.07) until they achieve a size (L*) of 29.19 cm. Length-frequency analysis (Bhattacharya's Gaussian component determination procedure) do not differ significantly (t-student, p

  5. Growth evaluation of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, Neopterygii) exposed to Trichlorfon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Tereza Bittencourt, Guimarães; Patrícia, Calil.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O atual crescimento da piscicultura nacional tem aumentado a incidência de enfermidades parasitárias que promovem perdas econômicas. Atualmente são utilizados tratamentos com organofosforados para o combate das parasitoses (e.g.: Trichlorfon). Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a influência de [...] Trichlorfon sobre o crescimento de peixes criados em cativeiro. Utilizando como peixe modelo a tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus), foram realizados bioensaios em laboratório e em ambiente de cultivo. Foram feitas biometrias do peso e comprimento total dos animais durante 16 semanas. O tratamento teve início após a sexta semana de biometria, sendo aplicadas cinco doses de 0,25 ppm de Trichlorfon, uma por semana. Os dados foram gerenciados através de análises longitudinais. Em laboratório, os peixes tratados apresentaram uma redução das taxas de crescimento, sendo significativa apenas para a variável peso. Em ambiente de cultivo, o crescimento foi maior nos peixes tratados do que nos controles. Tais resultados indicam que mesmo sendo tóxico, a ação deletéria do Trichlorfon é diretamente proporcional à biomassa relativa (gramas de peixe por litro). Estes resultados sugerem que os tratamentos com produtos que têm como princípio ativo o Trichlorfon devem ser realizados em viveiros/tanques com baixa biomassa relativa/densidade, para evitar o prejuízo da higidez e das características zootécnicas do plantel. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of Trichlorfon on the growth of cultured fishes. Using Oreochromis niloticus as fish model, bioassays were performed in the laboratory and field. Biometry was performed for 16 weeks. The treatment started after the sixth week of biometry, with the a [...] pplication of five weekly doses of 0.25 ppm of Trichlorfon. Growth data were compared by longitudinal analyses. In the laboratory, the treated fishes showed a reduction of growth; however, the statistical significance was only seen in the variable weight. In the field, the growth of treated fish was higher than that of the controls. This suggested that the treatment should be done in tanks with lower relative biomass to maintain the good zootechnic characteristics of fishes.

  6. ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Sujithra, S.; Kiruthiga, N.; Prabhu, M. J.; Kumeresan, R.

    2013-01-01

    Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis niloticus was the first Tilapia species to be taken up for large Scaleaquaculture. It is consumed widely due to its deliciousness and rich source of protein. During its processing, the scales, Fins, Skins etc are expelled out as waste Acid solubilized collagen (ASC) and Pepsin Solubilizedcollagen (PSC) were extracted from these processing wastes. Initial extrac...

  7. Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L.S., Castro; E., Gonçalves-de-Freitas; G.L., Volpato; C., Oliveira.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the ef [...] fect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P

  8. Development of skeletal deformities in a Streptococcus agalactiae-challenged male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodfish and in its offsping

    Science.gov (United States)

    After injection challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae, a male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exhibited an erratic corkscrew swimming pattern and assumed a “C”-shaped body posture. The fish did not die after challenge but developed a grossly-observable “hunchback” at the level of the cervica...

  9. Routine oxygen consumption in different sizes of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas) using the closed chamber respiratory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisia, S M; Hughes, G M

    1993-01-01

    Routine oxygen consumption (Vo2) measurements on 54 specimens (0.055-190.4 g) of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas) were carried out using two different types of closed respirometers: a modified cuvette for fish weighing 0.055-0.91 g and ordinary closed chamber respirometer for fish weighing more than 1 g. Vo2 values over the weight range studied had a scaling value of 0.743 which relates closely to the values for the gill respiratory surface area and morphometric oxygen diffusing capacity of O. niloticus in a previous study /13/. This shows that a close relationship exists between changes in structural parameters involved in oxygen uptake and the routine metabolism of O. niloticus with development. The values for routine Vo2 of 1.38 and 7.65 ml/h for 10 g and 100 g fish, respectively (calculated from the regression equation) show that O. niloticus is a moderately active fish. PMID:7871925

  10. Apparent digestibility coefficient of duckweed (Lemna minor), fresh and dry for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shafai, S.A.A.M.; El-Gohary, F.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Gijzen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Dry matter (DMD), protein (PD), ash (AD), fat (FD), gross energy (ED) and phosphorus (PhD) digestibility coefficients were determined for five different iso-N fish diets fed to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The control diet contained fishmeal (35Œ corn (29Œ wheat (20Œ wheat bran (10Œ fish oil (3Œ diamol (2€and premix (1Ž Partial replacement of dry matter of fishmeal, corn grain, wheat grain, wheat bran and fish oil by 20nd 40?f dry matter of duckweed, in a dry and fresh form...

  11. Salinity Tolerance and Preference of Hatchery Reared Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linneaus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Lawson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in fisheries laboratory of Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Nigeria on salinity tolerance and preference of hatchery reared Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linneaus, 1758. Tilapias are important candidate species for aquaculture and are increasingly cultured in polyculture system with shrimp. Thus creating a demand for Tilapia genotypes well suited to elevated salinities. O. niloticus is a member of the Family Cichlidae and one of most cultured fish species in Nigeria. It is known for its high prolific rate of breeding and multiplication. Six hundred and sixty (660 fingerlings of the fish measuring between 53-140 mm TL and weighing 8.96 to 21.56 g BW were subjected to salinity regimes of 0-10‰ for 28 days. All the fish survived in 0-7‰, and 100% death was recorded in 9 and 10‰. Different levels of behavioural responses to threat and feeding were observed among the fish. Salinities 0-7‰ were tolerated by the fish, however the most preferred salinity was 1‰. The present study as demonstrated in the laboratory therefore, suggests the possibility of culturing Nile tilapia, O. niloticus in both fresh and low brackish water environments and as added data to the existed reviews on this economically valued fish species. The salinity regimes well that were tolerated and preferred for optimal survival, growth and behavioural performances of O. niloticus are therefore investigated.

  12. Shrimp meal in diets for Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus" Farinha de camarão em dietas para tilápia do Nilo ("Oreochromis niloticus"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Pessoa Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of conventional ingredients used in fish diets by non-conventional products has been an economic alternative to reduce the cost of feeding. Therefore, 90-day trial was performed to study the effect of shrimp meal (SM inclusion on diets of Nile tilapia fries. Weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, apparent feed intake (AFI, fillet yield (FY, fillet income (FI values and protein effiency ratio (PER were evaluated. Each experimental unit was an aquaria with five tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus, mean body weight of 7,9g, total of 120 animals. Treatments were four diets with 0, 25, 50 and 100% of SM replacing the soybean meal, which protein (28.0% and energy (3100 kcal/DE/kg content in diet were similar. Animals were fed three times daily. The offered food was adjusted according to fish live weight. The substitution of soybean by SM reduced WG, FC, AFI, FY and PER. SM inclusion did not affect the FI. Shrimp meal inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia affects negatively the growth performance.O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a inclusão da farinha de camarão (FC em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo. O desempenho dos animais foi avaliado através do ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, consumo de ração aparente (CRA, peso de filé (PF, rendimento de filé (RF e taxa de eficiência protéica (TEP. O delineamento utilizado no experimento foi em blocos casulaizados distribuídos em 24 caixas de polietileno com capacidade de 150 L supridas por sistema de recirculação fechada de água (0,2L/min. durante 90 dias. Cada unidade experimental era composta por um aquário com cinco tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 7,9g perfazendo um total de 120 animais. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro rações contendo 0, 25, 50 e 100% de FC em substituição ao farelo de soja, sendo estas isoprotéicas (28,0%PB e isoenergéticas (3100 kcal de EB/kg. Os animais foram alimentados três vezes ao dia com a quantidade de ração fornecida ad libitum. A farinha de camarão pode substituir a proteína do farelo de soja até 50% de inclusão sem comprometer o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e peso do filé.

  13. Daily growth of young-of-the-year of the Baringo tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis (Trewavas, 1983)

    OpenAIRE

    Ngugi, Charles C.; Mlewa, Chrisestom M.; Nyamweya, Chrisphine S.; Boaz Kaunda-Arara

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis was used to validate microincrement deposition rate and to determine  daily growth rates of young-of-the-year (YOY) Baringo tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis. Microincrement  formation was validated as daily by correlating the number of circuli on otoliths with the known  age of cultured fish. For wild young-of-the-year fish collected from Lake Baringo, Kenya, in August and October 2007 length was positively correlated with  the age of fish (total ...

  14. Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garcia-Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é idêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses.The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other teleostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

  15. Optimal feeding rate for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define optimal feeding rates for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding rate on growth performance of larger and juvenile tilapia by means of estimating growth rates, apparent nutrient digestibilities, feed utilization, body compositions, and nutrient and energy retentions. One nutritionally balanced diet (crude protein 342, crude fat 67, ash 47, starch 251 (all values in g (kg dry matter)-1)) was ...

  16. Ingestion and utilization of periphyton grown on artificial substrates by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Azim, M. E.; Verdegem, M. C. J.; Dam, A. A.; Beveridge, M. C. M.

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out to quantify the periphyton biomass developed on glass substrates over time, to investigate the effects of periphyton quantity and fish size on the ingestion rate by fish, and to determine the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of periphyton by tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Periphyton was grown in two fertilised 1000-l tanks on glass slides and monitored as dry matter (g), ash-free dry matter (g) and chlorophyll a concentrations (mg) per unit surface area (m2) over a six we...

  17. Comparative assessment of bioload of healthy and diseased Oreochromis niloticus as means of food security

    OpenAIRE

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE; Harriet Chinyelu NWIGWE; Sylvia Onyinyechi ANYADOH

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-one (31) samples each of diseased and healthy Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from Otamiri River, in Nekede, Owerri West; Imo State Nigeria was examined to detect the presence of bacterial and helminth fauna. The intestine, liver, gill, tissue and skin of the fish were examined. Bacteriological analysis revealed counts of healthy diseased organs to fall between 6.0 x 104 – 3.5 x 107 cfu/g and 5.7 x 106 – 1.9 x 1011 cfu/g respectively. The result however indicated that the bact...

  18. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus from Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Al-Khadoud Spring is one of the largest spring in Al-Hassa governorate (Saudi Arabia. Due to the extended domestic activities and urbanization as well as the continuous industrial and agricultural growth of the region, spring water quality is potentially changing. Approach: This study was conducted to measure toxic heavy metal concentrations in water and fish samples along the spring channel. Filtered spring water and tissues (liver and muscle of captured fish were analyzed for heavy metals in an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer equipped with a Varian Model. Results: The concentrations of metals in water were found in the following order: Fe2+>Zn2+>Cu2+ >Pb2+>Mn2+>Cd2+. The levels of heavy metals recorded in water in this study were generally low, when compared to WHO and USEPA recommended levels in water, except iron which was found to be higher than the recommended levels. In fish samples collected from the polluted spring, metal levels were significantly higher than the levels in water, indicating bioaccumulation. The highest levels of metals were generally reported in fish liver than muscle. Hepatic metal levels were ranked as follow: Zn2+>Cu2+>Pb2+>Cd2+. Conclusion: The present results showed that, the fishes, based on the higher levels of metal bioaccumulation, could be unsafe for human consumption. Consequently, very close monitoring of heavy metal loads in Al-Khadoud spring is recommended in view of the possible risks to health of consumers.

  19. Valores bioquímicos séricos de tilapia del nilo (oreochromis niloticus) en cultivo intensivo / Serum biochemical values for nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) cultured under an intensive system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro, Z. Crivelenti; Sofia, Borín; José Javier, M. Socha; Antonio V, Mundim.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se a avaliação dos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), linhagem tailandesa Chitralada, produzidas em sistema de piscicultura intensiva e capturadas por tarrafeamento. Amostras sanguíneas de 40 exemplares, pesando em média 453 ± 52 g, foram obtidas po [...] r venopunção caudal e posteriormente analisadas quanto às concentrações séricas de proteína total, albumina, globulinas, ácido úrico, creatinina, ureia, cálcio, fósforo inorgânico, relação Ca/P, magnésio e fosfatase alcalina. Em um contexto geral, os resultados evidenciaram parâmetros semelhantes aos estabelecidos para peixes de escama, com exceção do ácido úrico. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar los parámetros bioquímicos séricos de tilapias del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), linaje tailandés chitralada, producidas en un sistema de piscicultura intensiva y capturadas con atarraya. Se tomaron muestras de sangre a 40 ejemplares por punción de la vena caudal. [...] Los peces tenían un peso de 453 ± 52 g. Se determinó proteína total, albúmina, globulinas, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, calcio, fósforo inorgánico, relación Ca/P, magnesio y fosfatasa alcalina. En un contexto general, los resultados mostraron parámetros semejantes a los establecidos para peces de escama, con excepción del ácido úrico. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum biochemical parameters of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Thai Chitralada lineage, raised under an intensive pisciculture system and captured by the cast net technique. Blood samples from 40 individuals were obtained by caudal venopuncture. Me [...] an body weight was 453 ± 52 g. The serum biochemical parameters evaluated were total protein, albumin, globulins, acid uric, creatinine, urea, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, Ca/P ratio, alkaline phosphatase, and magnesium. In general, the data showed similar parameters in comparison to those established for scale fish, exception of the acid uric.

  20. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

    OpenAIRE

    Fiuza, Tatiana S.; Silva, Paulo C.; Paula, Jose? R.; Tresvenzol, Leonice M. F.; Sabo?ia-morais, Simone M. T.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were perform...

  1. Genotoxic responses of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to florfenicol and oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, R G; Christofoletti, C A; Correia, J E; Ansoar, Y; Olinda, R A; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-08-01

    Florfenicol (FLC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) are the two most commonly used antibiotics for bacterial treatment in fish farming in Brazil, and because of their intensive use, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. This study evaluated the effects of environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC on the genetic material of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) erythrocytes by using the comet assay and the occurrence of micronuclei (MN) and other erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) after exposure to 96hour. The comet assay showed that fish erythrocytes exhibited significantly higher DNA damage after exposure to environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC. Although MN was not observed, ENAs were significantly higher after exposure to FLC, indicating that ENAs are a better biomarker for FLC than MN. The results showed that environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC were genotoxic to erythrocytes of O. niloticus; however, future studies on DNA damage recovery are needed. PMID:25898970

  2. Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage / Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lia Ferraz de, Arruda; Ricardo, Borghesi; Aelson, Brum; Marisa Regitano, D' Arce; Marília, Oetterer.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os [...] objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus) após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano. Abstract in english One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of incr [...] easing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.

  3. Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ferraz de Arruda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido fórmico: propiônico, 1:1, adição de antioxidante BHT e manutenção do pH ao redor de 4,0. Foram realizadas análises para determinação da umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinza. Os aminoácidos foram examinados em auto-analisador após hidrólise ácida, à exceção do triptofano determinado por colorimetria. A silagem de tilápia apresentou valores semelhantes ou superiores ao padrão da FAO para todos os aminoácidos essenciais, exceto para o triptofano. Os valores mais elevados encontrados foram para o ácido glutâmico, leucina e lisina. Os resultados indicam a utilização potencial da silagem, preparada a partir do resíduo de processamento da Tilápia-do-Nilo, como fonte protéica na formulação de ração para peixes, uma vez que esta apresentou teores maiores para todos os aminoácidos contidos na farinha de peixe, com exceção do triptofano.

  4. Regulação da ingestão protéica na tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus / Hability of protein intake regulation in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elyara Maria, Pereira-da-Silva; Débora Niero, Orsoli; Lúcio Francelino, Araújo; Osmar Ângelo, Cantelmo; Giovana Krempel Fonseca, Merighe.

    1921-19-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a habilidade de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, em regular a ingestão protéica. Mil exemplares com peso e comprimento de 13,93g ± 0,87g e 8,8cm ± 0,47cm, respectivamente, revertidos sexualmente, foram distríbuídos em oito grupos de 125 peixes, em aquários de 1.000 L com [...] renovação contínua de água e dotados de dois alimentadores de demanda. Duas rações isoenergéticas (2.800 kcal/kg) contendo, respectivamente, 40% e 15% PB foram oferecidas diariamente, ad libitum, em combinações que caracterizaram quatro tratamentos: A: ração de 15% PB de um lado e de 40% PB do outro do aquário; B: idêntico ao tratamento A com inversão dos lados; C: ração de 15% PB fornecida em dois alimentadores; e D: ração de 40% PB fornecida em dois alimentadores. O delineamento em quadrado latino permitiu que os peixes fossem submetidos a cada tratamento durante quatro fases de 15 dias (I, II, III e IV). Entre as fases, houve intervalo de uma semana, quando os peixes receberam dieta contendo 30% PB nos dois alimentadores. O consumo alimentar dos peixes, registrado diariamente, não diferiu significativamente entre os tratamentos A e B. Porém, quando foram apresentadas simultaneamente as dietas contendo mesmo teor de PB (Tratamentos C e D), observou-se consumo significativamente maior da ração contendo 15% de PB (Tratamento C). O ajuste em porcentagem da proteína ingerida pelos peixes revelou média de 24% de PB. Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese de que a tilápia do Nilo apresenta habilidade em regular a ingestão dietética protéica por meio de livre escolha. Abstract in english The free-choice feed and regulation of protein intake were investigated in juveniles reverted males of tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. During the experiment 1000 fish (reverted males) with similar weigth and length were maintained in eight aquariuns supplied with recirculated water (groups o [...] f 125 fish each aquarium). Fish were fed by demand-feeders, containing the two experimental diets, formulated to contain 15% and 40% protein each and distributed in four treatments (A: 15% protein diet on one hand and 40% protein diet on the other hand, B: alike in A, therefore with an inversion on both hands, C: the two feeders supplied with 15% protein diet, D the two feeders supplied with 40% protein diet) The Latin Square was the estatistical method used for the experiment, and the treatments were distributed into four stages (I, II, III and IV). A one week stop after each stage was stipulated and the fish received a 30% protein diet. The results showed that no differences about the intake was detected between fish fed by diets containing 15% and 40% protein in the same aquarium. However, with same diets in the tanks ( Treatment C and D), the animals that were fed with the 15% protein diet showed better feed intake. The percentage of regulated protein during the experiment was about 24% protein. The results confirm the hipoteses of free-choice ability by tilápia-do-Nilo to detect the level of protein in the diet.

  5. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers (? and ?) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels

  6. Perfil proteico de tilápia nilótica chitralada (Oreochromis niloticus, submetida ao estresse crônico por hipóxia Proteic electrophoretic profile of chitralada tilapia nilotic (Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to hypoxia chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Melo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a variação da resposta secundária ao estresse causado por hipóxia durante 18 dias, em sistema de recirculação, em uma linhagem de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus, chitralada, refletida no perfil proteico eletroforético do peixe e avaliou-se a diferença entre sexos para essa resposta. Foram utilizados 126 peixes, sendo 60 machos e 66 fêmeas, ambos com média de peso de 800g. O estresse crônico por hipóxia alterou (PThis study evaluated the secundary response variation to hypoxia stress in a strain of chitralada nilotic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during 18 days, in a recirculation system. The effects were measured by the proteic electrophoretic profile and the difference between the genders. One hundred twenty-six fish were used, 60 males and 66 females, both averaging 800g. The chronic hypoxia stress altered (P<0.05 the relative values of albumin, ?+?-globulins, and ?-globulin; modified (P<0.05 the levels of total protein due to an increase in the male group; significantly decreased of the absolute mean values of albumin due to a decrease in the female group; and decreased the g-globulin values in males. The proteic profile, albumin, and ?-globulin were influenced by gender.

  7. Effect of chlorpyrifos on the immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Resendiz, K.J.G.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, on immune response parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The results indicated that chlorpyrifos (0.051, 0.102 and 0.255 mg L-1 did not provoke significant changes in the proliferation capacity of lymphocytes of tilapia; however, at 0.051 mg L-1, this pesticide induced a diminishment in concentration of lgM in plasma. On the other hand, organisms exposed to high concentration of the pesticide showed an increase in the lysozyme activity compared to control fish.

  8. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T. J.; Dam, A. A.; Beveridge, M. C. M.; Verdegem, M. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicusxOreochromis niloticus) were evaluated in twelve 5x5x1-m3 concrete mud-bottomed tanks with bamboo poles for periphyton production. Submerged tank wall surface was 16 m2. There were three densities of 1.5-m bamboo poles...

  9. Histological Changes in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus I779) Exposed to Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Seeds Powder

    OpenAIRE

    , E.O. Ayotunde; O. A. Fagbenro; O. T. Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    This research determined the pathological effects of Moringa oleifera seed powder, a natural alternative to alum, used as a water purifier in fish culture enclosure in Nigeria. The histological changes in gill, liver, skin and kidney of fingerling and adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seed at different sub-lethal concentration under static bioassay procedure are described. There were pathologic lesions observed which i...

  10. An Important Natural Genetic Resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Threatened by Aquaculture Activities in Loboi Drainage, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-franc?ois

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variatio...

  11. Consistency of individual variation in feeding behaviour and its relationship with performance traits in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, C. I.; Conceic?a?o, L. E. C.; Schrama, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Feed intake is commonly used as one of the most important performance indicators in fish. However, very little is known about the behavioural processes involved in ingesting food such as meal duration, feeding frequency and latency to start eating. This study aims at the characterization of feeding behaviour in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in terms of consistency of individual differences over time and correlation with performance traits. Seventy-two individuals were individually housed...

  12. Is Oreochromis niloticus invading the Samborombón Bay, Río de la Plata, Argentina? / ¿Es Oreochromis niloticus un invasor en la Bahía de Samborombón, Río de la Plata (Argentina)?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mirta L., García; Mariela, Cuello; Agustín, Solari; Andrés C., Milessi; Federico, Cortés; Ignacio M., Bruno; María F., Zapata.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) es una especies cultivada en todo el mundo. En Argentina y Uruguay, la cría de tilapia ha tenido un incremento importante en las últimas décadas. Entre enero y marzo de 2010 fueron capturados cuatro ejemplares de O. niloticus en la Bahía de Samborombón (S [...] 36º 17´- O 56º 46´), en el sector externo del Río de la Plata. Probablemente los ejemplares capturados puedan haber resultado de escapes accidentales de criaderos ubicados en ambientes en comunicación con el Río de la Plata. De los cuatro ejemplares capturados dos fueron hembras, una de ellas en etapa de desove. Este es el primer registro de Tilapia del Nilo en un ambiente natural en Argentina y podría indicar el comienzo de una invasión por una especie no nativa. Los patrones y los mecanismos de dispersión de especies son de gran interés, mientras que las interacciones entre los factores que determinan el éxito de la invasión a menudo, son poco interpretadas. El éxito de la invasión está influenciado por la capacidad de los invasores para resistir a las interacciones con especies nativas y con las características oceanográficas del nuevo hábitat, que en este caso parecerían no ser desfavorables para O. niloticus. Abstract in english The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a species widely cultivated worldwide. In recent decades it was an increasing development of fish farming of this species and the red variety in Argentina and Uruguay. From January to March 2010, four specimens of O. niloticus were captured in the south bo [...] undary of Samborombón Bay (S 36° 17´- W 56° 46´), which is the external sector of the Río de la Plata. Probably the collected specimens were released accidentally from hatcheries placed on the banks of aquatic environments in communication with the Samborombón Bay. The patterns and mechanisms of species dispersal are of significant interest, while the interactions among factors determining invasion success often remain poorly understood. Invasion success is influenced by the ability of invading specie to withstand, interactions with native species and oceanographic characteristics of the new habitat. Of four specimens obtained two were females, one in spawning stage. This is the first record of Nile tilapia from a natural environment in Argentina and could indicate the beginning of a new invasion by a non native species.

  13. PROTECTIVE ANTIBODY RESPONSES FOLLOWING VACCINATION WITH STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE IN NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were conducted to further characterize a highly efficacious Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine containing extracellular products [ECP] and formalin-killed whole cells. One study assessed the efficacy of stored reconstituted S. agalactiae vaccine,...

  14. Parâmetros hematológicos de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentadas com diferentes fontes de óleo / Hematological parameters of Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus") fed different oil sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Vicente da, Costa; Milena Wolff, Ferreira; Rodrigo Diana, Navarro; Priscila Vieira, Rosa; Luis David Solis, Murgas.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência das fontes de óleo da dieta sobre os parâmetros hematológicos de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizados 112 juvenis, com peso médio inicial de 50±12g, distribuídos em 16 caixas com capacidade total de 100L cada, num delineamento inteiramente casu [...] alizado com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, contendo sete peixes por repetição. Os tratamentos eram constituídos por: tratamento um - óleo de soja; tratamento dois - óleo de peixe; tratamento três - óleo de linhaça; tratamento quatro - óleo de oliva. As rações eram semipurificadas, isoproteicas (32% de proteína bruta) e isocalóricas (3200 kcal de energia bruta/kg de ração). Não houve diferença (P>0,05) entre os tratamentos quanto ao número e diferenciação de leucócitos, número de eritrócitos totais e níveis de hemoglobina. Os peixes do tratamento um apresentaram níveis superiores de hematócrito (P Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary lipid sources on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) hematological parameters. 112 juveniles of Nile tilapia with average initial weight of 50 ± 12g were distributed in 16 tanks with total capacity of 100L each in a totally randomized d [...] esign with four treatments and four repetitions with seven fish each replicate. Treatments were composed of: treatment one - soybean oil; treatment two - fish oil; treatment three - linseed oil; treatment four - olive oil. Experimental diets were semi-purified, isonitrogenous (32% crude protein) and isocaloric (3200 kcal gross energy/kg of ration). No difference was found between treatments in hemoglobin rates, number of total erythrocytes and leucocytes differential counting (P>0.05). Fish from treatment one presented higher hematocrit rates compared with treatment two and treatment three (P

  15. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803 and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857, from the Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Roche

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii found in Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire. Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight, endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight, as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83 and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84 and with pp’DDT (R = 0.81. In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91. The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  16. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  17. Some biological and hematological responses of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles exposed to Atrazine herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Bekeh Ada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at finding the influence of Atrazine on a most widely farmed fish,Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, in Nigeria. Specific areas of investigation were to find the LC50after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of the chemical administration to the fish. The effects of the chemical onthe behavioral and biological responses of O. niloticus were equally observed. The ten fish each werestocked in six different tanks containing 40 liters of water. These tanks contained graded concentrationsof the chemical and the treatments were replicated three times. Dissolved oxygen content was reducingwith increasing Atrazine concentration, while temperature and pH increased with increasing Atrazineconcentration. The LC50 of Atrazine in 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were 7.9, 7.6, 7.3 and 7.2 respectively.Behavioral and biological responses included loss of reflex, air gulping, erratic swimming, discoloration,hemorrhage and molting. The blood parameters observed showed that there were increases in packedcell volume (PCV and red blood cell count (RBC and decrease in hemoglobin (Hb, erythrocytesedimentation rate (ESR and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, while there was no significant change inwhite blood cell count (WBC and mean cell volume (MCV values. The chemical was therefore observedto be lethal to juvenile O. niloticus.

  18. Natural mating in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) : implications for reproductive success, inbreeding and cannibalism

    OpenAIRE

    Fessehaye, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Niletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.) is one of the most important species among the commercially farmed tilapias. Both small-scale and commercial production of tilapia is rapidly expanding in many countries of the world because tilapias meet many of the desirable characteristics for an ideal species for aquaculture: fast growth, high acceptability to consumers and tolerance of a wide range of culture conditions. Fry production inNiletilapia, Oreochromis niloticus is typically achieved by m...

  19. Production of YY-male of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from atypical fish / Producción de machos YY de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a partir de peces atípicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Pablo, Alcántar-Vázquez; Raúl, Moreno-de la Torre; Daniel, Calzada-Ruíz; Carolina, Antonio-Estrada.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación exitosa de la tecnología YY depende de la producción de hembras XY. Sin embargo, su identificación es complicada, ya que son indistinguibles de las hembras normales. Los peces atípicos podrían ofrecer una alternativa para una más rápida y precisa identificación. Se evaluó la progenie d [...] e nueve peces atípicos con la finalidad de producir machos YY. Los alevines obtenidos se criaron a 28 ± 1°C en acuarios de 85 L. Los juveniles fueron colocados en jaulas flotantes por 30 días y, finalmente, en estanques de 8 m³ hasta los 120 días de edad. La prueba de progenie se realizó evaluando las diferencias entre sexos en la estructura de la papila genital. Seis de los nueve peces atípicos seleccionados mostraron la proporción de sexos 3:1 (macho-hembra) esperada para hembras revertidas. Se observó una proporción de machos significativamente mayor a la distribución 3:1 esperada en dos peces atípicos. Este aumento en la proporción de machos puede ser atribuido a la interacción del efecto parental con la temperatura del agua durante la etapa de alevín. El uso de peces atípicos podría reducir el tiempo y esfuerzo empleados en la identificación de hembras XY durante la etapa inicial de la tecnología YY. Abstract in english Successful YY technology depends on the production of XY females. However, their identification is complicated because they are indistinguishable from normal females. Atypical fish could offer an alternative for a more rapid and precise identification. Progeny of atypical fish was evaluated in order [...] to produce YY-males. In total, nine atypical fish and 18 normal males were selected. The fish were placed in 8 m³ concrete tanks at a 2:1 sex ratio. The produced fry were collected and reared at 28 ± 1°C in 85 L aquaria. Juveniles were placed in net cages for 30 days and finally in 8 m³ concrete tanks until the age of 120 days. Progeny test was achieved evaluating differences between sexes in the genital papilla structure. Six of the nine atypical fish selected showed the 3:1 sex ratio (male-female) expected for sex-reversed females. A significantly higher proportion of males than the expected 3:1 distribution were observed in two atypical fish. This boost in male proportion could be attributed to a parental effect interacting with the water temperature during the fry stage. Use of atypical fish could help reduce the time and effort spent to identify XY females during the initial stage of YY technology.

  20. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  1. Morphological Study of the Liver in the Teleost Oreochromis niloticus Estudio Morfológico del Hígado en el Teleósteo Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Vicentini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver samples of Oreochromis niloticus cultivated in floating net cages were fixed for histological and ultrastructural studies with the objective of describing the hepatic parenchymal structure and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, the liver showed only two hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinar arrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Structural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmic reticulum with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was concentrically distributedCon el objetivo de describir la estructura del parénquima hepático y del páncreas exocrino intrahepático del Oreochromis niloticus, fueron fijados para estudios histológicos y ultraestructurales fragmentos de hígado de peces cultivados en jaulas flotantes. Se evidenciaron sólo 2 lóbubos hepáticos. El análisis histológico demostró que los hepatocitos se encontraban organizados en forma de cordones anastomosados, dispuestos en dos capas celulares y cercados por sinusoides. El tejido pancreático exocrino intrahepático se encontró difuso en el parénquima hepático y se destacó por su organización acinar. El análisis ultraestructural demostró que los hepatocitos presentaban núcleos redondos y el retículo endoplasmático rugoso estaba dispuesto paralelamente a la membrana nuclear. Las células pancreáticas exocrinas presentaban gránulos de secreción localizados en la porción apical y el retículo endoplasmático rugoso estaba organizado de manera concéntrica

  2. Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência, características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival, characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fillet, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05 for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P<0.05 among the treatments. The inclusion of 16% in fish by-product wastes from the filleting industry in diets formulated with ingredients certificated from organic origin improves livestock performance, does not impair body yield, but it alters the parameters of mineral matter and ethereal extract of tilapia in the phase of growth.

  3. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Tamie, Matsumoto; Mário Sérgio, Mantovani; Mirtis Irene Ariza, Malaguttii; Ana Lúcia, Dias; Inês Cristina, Fonseca; Maria Aparecida, Marin-Morales.

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid [...] exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

  4. Digestibilidad aparente de materia seca, proteína y energía de harina de vísceras de pollo, quinua y harina de pescado en tilapia nilótica, Oreochromis niloticus / Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy regarding fish meal, poultry by-product meal and quinua for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana C., Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Martha I., Yossa-Perdomo; Walter, Vásquez-Torres.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objeto de determinar los coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente (CDA) de la proteína (CDAp) y de la energía (CDAe) de harina de pescado (HP), harina de vísceras de pollo (HVP) y harina de quinua Chenopodium quinoa (HQ), para tilapia nilótica Oreochromis nilotic [...] us. Para estimar los coeficientes se utilizó el método indirecto con marcador (óxido de cromo), colectando las heces por el sistema Guelph modificado. Tilapias con peso promedio de 130 gr se alimentaron con una dieta experimental constituida por dieta referencia (DR) (89.5 %, 79.5 % ó 69.5 %), 0.5 % de marcador inerte y el ingrediente a evaluar en un nivel de inclusión de 10 %, 20 % ó 30 %. Las heces comenzaron a colectarse 10 horas después de suministrar el alimento, cada hora durante 12 horas; las muestras se secaron a una temperatura de 60ºC y se almacenaron a -17°C hasta ser analizadas. Los CDAp para los tres niveles de inclusión (10, 20 y 30 %) fueron respectivamente: 88.1, 89.4 y 90.9 % para HP; 96.8, 94.9 y 94.1 para HVP y 67.7, 73.5 y 77.5 para HQ. No se observaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to determine protein (ADCp) and energy (ADCe) apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa) (QF) used in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The indirect method with a chromium [...] oxide marker was used to estimate the aforementioned ADC; faeces were collected by the modified Guelph system. Tilapias having an average 130 g weight were fed on an experimental diet consisting of reference diet (RD) (89.5 %, 79.5 % or 69.5 %), 0.5 % inert marker (chromium dioxide) and the ingredient to be evaluated to assess 10 %, 20 % or 30 % inclusion level. The fish were fed every hour for 12 hours per day and their faeces were collected 10 hours after the fish had been fed; the samples were dried at 60ºC and stored at -17°C until analysed. Chromium oxide level was determined by the acid digestion method. The ADCp for the three inclusion levels (10 % 20 % and 30 %) were respectively: 88.1 %, 89.4 % and 90.9 % for FM, 96.8 %, 94.9 % and 94.1 % for PBM and 67.7 %, 73.5 % and 77.5 % for QF. There were no significant differences (p 0.05); there were no significant differences between PBM inclusion levels and QF was significantly lower (10 % inclusion level).

  5. Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h. Adicionalmente, alguns dos resultados obtidos pela análise em microscopia de luz foram confirmados com o recurso da microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

  6. Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Anderson, Coldebella; Guilherme Wolff, Bueno; Aldi, Feiden.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus) na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência), características de ca [...] rcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático) e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo) dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05) nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival), characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fil [...] let, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index) and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract) of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by-product meal, with 28% in digestible protein and 3,100 kcal kg-1 in digestible energy. There was a linear increase in the average of weight gain. However, no differences were observed (P 0.05) for the treatments of body yield, humidity and gross protein of fillets. The mineral matter and the ethereal extract, on the other hand, showed differences (P

  7. Respostas da Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) à atratividade e palatabilidade de ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes / Response of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to the attraction and palatability of the used ingredients in the feeding of fishes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elyara Maria, Pereira-da- Silva; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

    1273-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as respostas da tilápia do Nilo à atratividade e palatabilidade de 14 ingredientes. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado à uma ração controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros) contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros i [...] nstalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registrados tempo decorrido entre colocação do ingrediente e chegada dos animais aos comedouros, freqüência de visitas aos comedouros, número de grânulos ingeridos e freqüência de ejeções. Os tratamentos foram comparados pela prova não-paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e a comparação dos ingredientes para o conjunto de variáveis, por intermédio da "Análise de Agrupamento" e "Análise de Componentes Principais". Os ingredientes foram assim classificados: a) baixa atrato-palatabilidade = farelos de trigo, soja e algodão, farinha e raspa de mandioca, farinha de girassol e fubá de milho, b) média atrato-palatabilidade = levedura de cana-de-açúcar e glúten de milho e c) alta atrato-palatabilidade = ovo integral liofilizado, farinhas de crisálidas, peixes, carne e camarão. Ingestão de grânulos (manhã e tarde) e freqüência de visitas aos comedouros (tarde) foram consideradas as variáveis mais discriminatórias e freqüência de ejeção de grânulos e tempo gasto para aproximação dos comedouros (manhã e tarde), as menos discriminatórias. As respostas comportamentais dos peixes variaram de acordo com o ingrediente apresentado. A avaliação do grau de atrato-palatabilidade deve ser realizada considerando-se uma combinação de parâmetros. Abstract in english The response of Nile tilapia to the attraction and palatability of 14 ingredients was evaluated. The two-choice method was used, comparing each pelleted ingredient to a control diet. It was utilized Four aquaria (750 liters) containing in each one three fingerlings and two feed containers at the rig [...] ht and left corner, being recorded the elapsed time between the lay of the ingredient and the arrive of the fingerlings to feed containers, visiting frequency to the feed containers, amount of ingested pellets and ejections frequency. The treatments were compared by non-parametric method of Kruskal-Wallis and the comparison of the ingredients for the variable set using "Grouping Analysis" and "Principal Components Analysis". The numbers of ingested pellets (at morning and at afternoon) and the visiting frequency to feed containers (at afternoon) were considered the most discriminatory variables. The ingredients were classified as it follows: a) low attraction and palatability = wheat meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, cassava meal, cassava scrapings, sunflower meal and corn meal), b) medium attraction and palatability = sugar-cane yeast and corn gluten meal and c) high attraction and palatability = integral lyophilized egg, silk worm meal, fish meal, meat meal, shrimp meal. The frequency of ejected pellets and time spent to approach of the feed (at morning and at afternoon) were considered the least discriminatory variables. The behavior response of fishes changes according to the presented ingredient. The attraction and palatability extent must be studied considering combinations of variables.

  8. Comparative assessment of bioload of healthy and diseased Oreochromis niloticus as means of food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one (31 samples each of diseased and healthy Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus from Otamiri River, in Nekede, Owerri West; Imo State Nigeria was examined to detect the presence of bacterial and helminth fauna. The intestine, liver, gill, tissue and skin of the fish were examined. Bacteriological analysis revealed counts of healthy diseased organs to fall between 6.0 x 104 – 3.5 x 107 cfu/g and 5.7 x 106 – 1.9 x 1011 cfu/g respectively. The result however indicated that the bacterial load of the diseased fish samples were higher than those of the apparently healthy fish. Identification tests of the probable bacterial isolates revealed the isolation of Vibrio sp, Renibacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Yersinia sp, Pseudomonas sp, Nocardia sp, Lactobacillus sp, Sporocytophaga, Staphylococcus sp, Mycobacterium sp, Serratia sp Proteus sp and Edwardsiella sp. Twenty-nine (29 ie 46.8% of the 62 samples studied were found to be infected by helminth fauna identified as Camallanus sp, Procamallanus beviconchus, Capillaria sp, Clinostonium tilapiae, Euclinostonium heterostoma, Cleidodiscus sp and Bothricephalus acheilognathi. Percentage helminth infestation was found to be higher in males than females with sub adults recording the highest infection rate of 56.08%. Hence helminth infestation varies amongst age group. This study therefore reveals the bacterial & helminth load of cultured organs of Oreochromis niloticus with a view to provide information on the state of environmental and personal hygiene in the environment, the level of contamination of water and the security and/or insecurity nature of using fish as food.

  9. The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

    OpenAIRE

    Fiuza, Tatiana S.; Silva, Paulo C.; Paula, Jose? R.; Tresvenzol, Leonice M. F.; Sabo?ia-morais, Simone M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, ...

  10. Assessment of enzymatic efficiency on protein digestion in the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscanga, A; Moyano, F J; Alvarez, C A

    2010-12-01

    The present study develops an experimental procedure aimed to estimate the efficiency of protein digestion in fish by measuring both gut transit rate and total amount of the main intestinal proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin). The selected species was the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Total time for digestion, calculated through the estimation of gut transit rate using differently colored feeds, was 7.15 h. Mean production of trypsin and chymotrypsin was 15.94 and 24.11 mU in the proximal intestine and much lower (2,39, 4.90 mU) in the distal intestine. The enzyme efficiency, calculated from the average enzyme activity and time of residence of the digesta in each intestinal section, points to the major role of proximal intestine in protein digestion for this species. Results are discussed in relation to the main features characterizing digestion in stomachless fish. PMID:20306330

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on Tailpipe (Oreochromis niloticus) protein biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New alternatives to traditional packaging have considered the use of renewable sources as raw material to form films including proteins. In this paper we used myofibrillar protein from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), that in our country, is commercialized at competitive prices comparative to these practiced in developing country. The films were prepared according a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol. The films were irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 1.5 MeV at dose range from 0 kGy to 200 kGy. The samples were kept at 25 deg C and 58% relative moisture until the analysis. The main properties studied were color, opacity, solubility, and mechanical properties. (author)

  12. Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O Komolafe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus in Opa reservoir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods employed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied between 2.12 mm and 2.69 mm with a mean of 2.47±0.02. Female gonadosomatic index was 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637. The male gonadosomatic index was 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789. In Opa reservoir, O. niloticus bred throughout the study period. The species was a maternal mouth brooder with the female fish carrying eggs and fry in the buccal cavities. The sex ratio of O. niloticus was approximately 1:1 in the reservoir. The fecundity of the species was between 73 eggs and 1 810 eggs per female with a mean fecundity of 815 eggs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 595-602. Epub 2007 June, 29.Estudiamos la tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus en la reserva de Opa, Nigeria, desde octubre 1997 hasta febrero del 2000. Recolectamos 1 430 especímenes con red lanzada y red de arrastre. El diámetro de los huevos varía entre los 2.12 mm y 2.69 mm con un promedio de 2.47±0.02. El índice gonadosomático de las hembras fue de 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637, y en machos fue de 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789. En la reserva este pez se reprodujo durante todo el periodo de estudio. Hay cuido materno: la hembra lleva los huevos y alevines en la boca. La proporción machos/hembras fue aproximadamente 1:1. La fecundidad varía entre 73 y 1 810 huevos por hembra con un promedio de 815 huevos.

  13. Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.O, Komolafe; G.A.O, Arawomo.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) en la reserva de Opa, Nigeria, desde octubre 1997 hasta febrero del 2000. Recolectamos 1 430 especímenes con red lanzada y red de arrastre. El diámetro de los huevos varía entre los 2.12 mm y 2.69 mm con un promedio de 2.47±0.02. El índice gona [...] dosomático de las hembras fue de 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637), y en machos fue de 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789). En la reserva este pez se reprodujo durante todo el periodo de estudio. Hay cuido materno: la hembra lleva los huevos y alevines en la boca. La proporción machos/hembras fue aproximadamente 1:1. La fecundidad varía entre 73 y 1 810 huevos por hembra con un promedio de 815 huevos. Abstract in english The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) in Opa reservoir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods em [...] ployed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied between 2.12 mm and 2.69 mm with a mean of 2.47±0.02. Female gonadosomatic index was 1.34±0.01 (0.12-4.06, n= 637). The male gonadosomatic index was 0.39±0.02 (0.03-1.67, n= 789). In Opa reservoir, O. niloticus bred throughout the study period. The species was a maternal mouth brooder with the female fish carrying eggs and fry in the buccal cavities. The sex ratio of O. niloticus was approximately 1:1 in the reservoir. The fecundity of the species was between 73 eggs and 1 810 eggs per female with a mean fecundity of 815 eggs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2): 595-602. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  14. Is growth retardation present in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in low water exchange recirculating aquaculture systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, C. I.; Ochola, D.; Ende, S. S. W.; Eding, E. H.; Verreth, J. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that fish cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) grow less as compared with fish cultured in flow-through systems due to the accumulation of substances. In the Netherlands, the commercial culture of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in 300 and 600 MT's systems is done exclusively in RAS operated at water exchange ratesas low as 30 L/kg feed/day due to nitrate control by single-sludge denitrification reactors. The use of such nearly closed RAS raises the que...

  15. Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração denominada controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros, contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registradas as respostas dos animais para cada ingrediente, separadamente. Concluiu-se que as respostas comportamentais da tilápia variam de acordo com o ingrediente oferecido e que parece existir uma correlação positiva entre o grau de atrato-palatabilidade de um ingrediente e a ocorrência de confrontos agonísticos entre os indivíduos. Sugere-se que ingredientes classificados como de alta atrato-palatabilidade (farinhas de crisálidas, de peixe, de carne, de camarão e ovo liofilizado integral sejam adicionados às dietas especiais para peixes, visando ao aumento da ingestão alimentar nos períodos pré-invernais, situações de estresse ou estados patológicos.Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus responses to attractivity and taste of fourteen food ingredients, here classified as animal sources (shrimp, fish, silkworm and meat meal, integral lyophilized egg and sugar-cane-yeast, vegetable protein sources (maize gluten, soybean bran, sunflower meal and cotton bran and energetics (maize flour, manioc scraping, manioc bran and wheat bran were investigated. These ingredients were compared to a control diet, using a two-choice method. Four 750 liters aquaria stocked with three fries each and two feeders installed respectively at the right and left corner where used to register the responses of the fries to each ingredient separately. The results showed that behavioral patterns of the fries change according to the type of ingredient and that three seems to be a positive correlation between the attractivity and taste degree and the occurrence of agonistic behavior in the studied species. It may be suggested that the most attractive and tasty ingredients (silkworm, fish, meat and shrimp meal, and integral lyophilized egg be added to special fish diets, in order to increase food consumption in pre-hibernal periods and under stress and pathological conditions.

  16. Exigência de lisina pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, na fase de terminação Lysine requirement of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, for grow-out phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de lisina pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Setenta e dois peixes revertidos sexualmente e com peso vivo médio inicial de 117,9 ± 0,67g foram alimentados por 50 dias com quatro rações (25% proteína bruta e 3090kcal de energia digestível kg-1 contendo diferentes teores de inclusão de L-Lisina HCl: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7%, correspondente a rações com 1,13; 1,27; 1,42 e 1,57% de lisina, respectivamente. Os peixes foram distribuídos em 12 tanques com volume de 1000L cada, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e seis peixes por unidade experimental. Não foram observadas diferenças na temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica e transparência da água nos diferentes tratamentos. Não foi observado efeito (P>0,05 dos teores de inclusão de lisina sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar, gordura visceral, índice hepato-somático e rendimento de carcaça. Foi observado efeito quadrático (PThe present study was carried out to determine the lysine requirement for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Seventy two reversed fish with average weight initial of 117.9 ± 0.67g were for by 50 days with four diets (25% of crude protein and 3090kcal kg-1 of digestible energy containing different values of inclusion of L-Lysine HCl: 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7%, corresponding to rations with 1.13; 1.27; 1.42 and 1.57% of lysine, respectively. Fish were distributed in 12 tanks of 1000-L each, in a completely randomized design with four treatments, three replicates and six fish per experimental unit. No differences were observed in the temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity of the water in the different treatments. No effects (P>0.05 of lysine inclusion were observed on survival rate, feed conversion, visceral fat, hepatosomatic index and carcass yield. There was no sign of quadratic effect (P<0.05 on weight gain and protein efficiency ratio, estimating the requirements values of 1.42% (5.7% of crude protein or 4.8mg of lysine kcal-1 of digestible energy in diet and 1.35% of lysine (5.4% of crude protein, respectively. Considering the performance, a requirement value of 1.42% of lysine (5.7% of protein or 4.8 mg of lysine/kcal of digestible energy in diet was obtained for Nile tilapia, in grow-out phase.

  17. Exigência de lisina pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), na fase de terminação / Lysine requirement of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), for grow-out phase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Daniele, Botaro; Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Lilian Carolina Rosa, Silva; Carmino, Hayashi.

    1571-15-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a exigência de lisina pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Setenta e dois peixes revertidos sexualmente e com peso vivo médio inicial de 117,9 ± 0,67g foram alimentados por 50 dias com quatro rações (25% proteína bruta e 3090kcal de energia di [...] gestível kg-1) contendo diferentes teores de inclusão de L-Lisina HCl: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7%, correspondente a rações com 1,13; 1,27; 1,42 e 1,57% de lisina, respectivamente. Os peixes foram distribuídos em 12 tanques com volume de 1000L cada, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e seis peixes por unidade experimental. Não foram observadas diferenças na temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica e transparência da água nos diferentes tratamentos. Não foi observado efeito (P>0,05) dos teores de inclusão de lisina sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar, gordura visceral, índice hepato-somático e rendimento de carcaça. Foi observado efeito quadrático (P Abstract in english The present study was carried out to determine the lysine requirement for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Seventy two reversed fish with average weight initial of 117.9 ± 0.67g were for by 50 days with four diets (25% of crude protein and 3090kcal kg-1 of digestible energy) containing differen [...] t values of inclusion of L-Lysine HCl: 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7%, corresponding to rations with 1.13; 1.27; 1.42 and 1.57% of lysine, respectively. Fish were distributed in 12 tanks of 1000-L each, in a completely randomized design with four treatments, three replicates and six fish per experimental unit. No differences were observed in the temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity of the water in the different treatments. No effects (P>0.05) of lysine inclusion were observed on survival rate, feed conversion, visceral fat, hepatosomatic index and carcass yield. There was no sign of quadratic effect (P

  18. Desempenho de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada com vitamina E / Performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) supplemented with vitamin E

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.D., Navarro; W.M., Ferreira; O.P., Ribeiro Filho; D.P., Veloso; D.O., Fontes; R.F., Silva.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a suplementação de Vitamina E no desempenho e qualidade de carcaça de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Os experimentos foram conduzidos no ranário experimenta do Departamento de Biologia Animal, UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de 09/01/ 2005 a 25/04/2005, t [...] otalizando 106 dias. Foram utilizadas 400 pós larvas revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus)em um experimento com um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg/kg de vitamina E monofosfato) numa ração isoproteíca 36% de PB e isocalórica 3600 kcal de ED/kg com quatro repetições. Não se observou efeito significativo para peso final, para ganho de peso total, para ganho de peso diário dos animais, para taxa de eficiência protéica e para taxa de sobrevivência. Para o índice viscerossomático houve diferença significativa para o tratamento sem suplementação, com 100 mg e com 150 mg/kg desta vitamina. Para o ácido graxo oléico (C18:1) a utilização do tratamento sem vitamina E foi significamente maior em relação aos outros tratamentos. O ácido graxo eicosapentaenóico EPA (C20:5?3) foi estatisticamente significativo para o tratamento sem suplementação de vitamina E. O ácido graxo linoléico (C18:2?6), ácido graxo ?-linolênico (C18:3?6), ácido graxo ?-linoléico (C18:3?3) e ácido graxo araquidônico (C20:4?6) aumentaram de forma quadrática até o nível estimado de 110 mg, 111 mg, 113 mg e 140 mg de vitamina E por kg de ração, respectivamente. Abstract in english The effect of vitamin E supplementation on performance and carcass quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The research was carried out in the experimental frog raising facilities at the Department of Animal Biology, UFV, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Four hundred post larva reversed (Oreochr [...] omis niloticus) were used for studies. The experiments were randomly designed with five treatments (supplying 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of vitamin E mono-phosphate) in an isoproteic ration with 36% CP and isocaloric with 3600 kcal/kg of DE with four repetitions. It was not observed significant effect for final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain, protein efficiency rate and survivor rate. The viscerosomatic index showed significant differences for the treatment without vitamin E supplementation and with 100 and 150 mg of this vitamin. For oleic fatty acid, the treatment without vitamin E was significantly higher. The eicosapen-taenoic fatty acid (C20:5?3) was statistically significant for the treatment without vitamin E. The fatty acids linoleic (C18:2?6), ?-linolenic (C18:3?6), ?-linoleic (C18:3?3), and arachidonic (C20:4?6) increased in a quadratic way up to the estimated levels of 110 mg, 111mg, 113 mg, and 140 mg of vitamin E/kg of ration, respectively.

  19. Requerimientos nutricionales para Tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nutritional requirements / Exigências nutricionais para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Torres-Novoa, Diana M.; Hurtado-Nery, Víctor L..

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estarevisão foi realizada com o objetivo de recolher informação dos recentesavanços sobre as exigências de alguns nutrientes para a tilápia Nilótica (Oreochromisniloticus).Asexigências de proteína bruta estão sendo substituídas pela exigência especificade aminoácidos, como no caso da lisina e da met [...] ionina, aplicando o conceito deproteína ideal. Asexigências nutricionais da tilápia do Nilo recomendadas pelo NRC (1993),diferem em algumas quantidades das exigências nutricionais estimadas paratilápia em condições tropicais. O fornecimento de ração atendendo as exigênciasde nutrientes para as diferentes fases de vida da tilápia permite obter ótimosrendimentos no ganho de peso e na conversão alimentar, garantindo um statussanitário alto na produção desta espécie. Abstract in spanish Estarevisión fue realizada con objetivo de acopiar información de los recientesavances sobre los requerimientos de algunos nutrientes para la tilapianilótica(Oreochromisniloticus). Los requerimientos de proteína bruta, estánsiendo substituidos por el requerimiento específico de aminoácidos, como en [...] elcaso de lisina y metionina, aplicando el concepto de proteína ideal. Losrequerimientos nutricionales de tilapia delNilo sugeridos por NRC (1993),difieren en algunas cantidades a los requerimientos nutricionales estimadospara tilapia en condiciones tropicales. El suministro de raciones atendiendolas exigencias de nutrientes para las diferentes fases de vida de la tilapia,permite obtener óptimos rendimientos en ganancia de peso y conversiónalimenticia, garantizando un status sanitario alto en la producción de estaespecie. Abstract in english The purpose of this review was tocompile information regarding recent advances concerning some Nile tilapia (OreochromisNiloticus) nutrient requirements. The raw protein requirements are beingsubstituted for specific amino acid requirements, such as lysine andmethionine, applying the ideal protein c [...] oncept. Nile tilapia"s nutritionalrequirements suggested by NRC (1993) differ by some amounts from thenutritional requirements estimated for tilapia in tropical conditions. Thesupply of rations attending to the nutrient demand from the different phases oftilapia"s lifecycle lead to optimum yield being obtained regarding weight gainand feed conversion, guaranteeing high sanitary status when producingthis specie.

  20. CARACTERES HEMATOLÓGICOS EN INDIVIDUOS DE TILAPIA NILÓTICA (Oreochromis niloticus, Trewavas 1983) CON PESOS ENTRE 50-150 g y 150-250 g, ESTACIÓN PISCÍCOLA, UNIVERSIDAD DE CALDAS, COLOMBIA / HEMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus, Trewavas 1983) INDIVIDUALS WEIGHING BETWEEN 50 AND 150 g AND 150 AND 250 g, FISH STATION, UNIVERSIDAD DE CALDAS, COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christine M., Hahn-von-Hessberg; Adriana, Quiroz-Bucheli; Alberto, Grajales-Quintero.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon parámetros hematológicos en O. niloticuscon pesos entre 50-150 g y 150-250 g, para obtener referentes de comparación, realizados en la Estación Piscícola, de la Universidad de Caldas, Colombia. Se utilizo un diseño completamente al azar con submuestreos; las pruebas hematológicas se de [...] positaron en tubos de ensayo con EDTA, para su análisis en laboratorio. Se aplicó el software SPSS, la prueba Kolmogorow-Smirnow, la prueba T, de Levene, y de Kruskal Wallis, para las correlaciones entre los parámetros hematológicos evaluados. Al correlacionar los dos rangos de peso en O. niloticus no existen diferencias significativas en los valores hematológicos. Los análisis estadísticos encontrados fueron similares en los dos rangos de peso así: número de eritrocitos de 1,95±0,58 y 2,19±0,64 x10(6)/mm³, hemoglobina 9,32±2,63 y 9,94±2,84 g/dL; hematocrito de 32,44±5,78 y 33,56±6,86%, proteínas plasmáticas 31,86±6,14 y 32,20±6,50 g/dL y una velocidad de segmentación eritrocitaria de 7,56±5,52 y 7,94±5,17 mm/h, un volumen corpuscular medio 183,43±75,44 y 165,76±60,80 u³, hemoglobina corpuscular media 50,56±22,39 y 49,19±21,27 uug y concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media de 28,68±5,39 y 29,61±5,08%, respectivamente. El referente de leucocitos para el primer rango es de 2,11±1,03 y para el segundo rango es de 2,18±0,97 células x10(5) mm³, utilizado para evaluar la línea blanca como son: trombocitos, linfocitos, neutrófilos, monocitos, eosinófilos y basófilos. Para el grado de asociación entre cada una de las variables, existe una correlación positiva entre el peso, longitud y altura, así como entre la longitud y altura. Para el nivel de hemoglobina se obtuvo una correlación positiva con neutrófilos y CHCM, el índice eritrocitarios VCM se relacionó igualmente de manera positiva con HCM y de forma negativa con el número total de eritrocitos, el índice CHCM posee correlación positiva con neutrófilos, los leucocitos totales se correlacionaron con el recuento diferencial de trombocitos, linfocitos y neutrófilos, por último se observó una correlación positiva entre trombocitos y neutrófilos, siendo similares a estudios reportados en otras condiciones ambientales. Abstract in english Hematological parameters were compared in O. niloticus weighing between 50-150 g and 150-250 g, for comparison referents, carried out at the Fishing Station, Universidad de Caldas, Colombia. A completely randomized design was used with sub-sampling; the blood samples were placed in test tubes with E [...] DTA for analysis in the laboratory. SPSS software, the Kolmogorow-Smirnov test, T test, Levene and the Kruskal Wallis tests were applied for correlations between hematologic parameters evaluated. When correlating the two weights ranges in Oreochromis niloticus no meaningful differences were found in the hematologic values. Statistical analyses found were similar in the two weight ranges as follows: erythrocyte count of 1.95±0.58 and 2.19±0.64 x10(6)/mm³, hemoglobin 9.32±2.63 and 9.94±2.84 g/dL, hematocrit of 32.44±5.78 and 33.56 ± 6.86%, plasma protein 31.86±6.14 and 32.20±6.50 g/dL and a speed erythrocyte segmentation of 7.56±5.52 and 7.94±5.17 mm/h, a mean corpuscular volume of 183.43±75.44 and 165.76±60.80 u³, mean corpuscular hemoglobin of 50.56±22.39 and 49.19±21.27 uug and concentration mean corpuscular hemoglobin of 28.68±5.39 and 29.61±5.08%, respectively. The leukocytes referent for the first range is 2.11±1.03 and for the second range it is 2.18±0.97 cells x10(5)mm³, used to evaluate the white line as: thrombocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophil's and basophils. For the degree of association between each of the variables, there is a positive correlation between weight, length and height, as well as between length and height. For the hemoglobin level a positive correlation was obtained with neutrophils and CHCM, VCM erythrocyte index also related with HCM positively and negatively to the total number of erythroc

  1. EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05 differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR, condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein retention (NPR, apparent net energy retention (ANER and hepatosomatic index (HSI values. The diet containing a mixture of all the 4 dietary lipids in equal proportions (3.5g of each lipid per 100g of diet produced the best results (SGR, I. 73%; condition factor, 2.95; FCR, 1.27; PER, 2.06; NPR, 29.30% and ANER, 20.21% whereas the diet containing beef tallow showed the poorest performance (SGR, 1.50%; condition factor, 2.76; FCR, 1.53; PER, 1.73; NPR, 26.26% and ANER, 18.53%. The growth performance of fish fed on diet containing beef tallow was however, significantly (P< 0.05 better than that of lipid free diet. The diets containing corn oil, olive oil, and cod liver oil did not show any significant difference in the growth performance of fish. The hepatosomatic index (HSI value increased in fish fed diets containing lipids (maximum 1.55% in case of corn oil as compared to those fed lipid free diet ( 1.31 %. No significant differences were observed in the feed consumption of fish fed different diets. The type of dietary lipid significantly affected the body composition of fish. The data on the body composition of fish is very much correlated with the growth performance data. The fish fed on diets containing lipids showed higher body fat and crude protein but lower moisture and gross energy contents as compared to those fed lipid free diet. The fish fed on diet containing beef tallow however showed similar body protein and ash contents as those fed lipid free diet. The results of the present study suggest that diet supplemented with a mixture of different types of lipids will produce the best growth response in Oreochromis niloticus.

  2. Control of Reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) Using Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Linn.) Leaf Meal as Reproduction Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Jegede, Temitope

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf (HLM) was added to a basal diet (350g crude protein and 18.5MJ gross energy/kgdiet) at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg diets and fed to mixed-sex Oreochromis niloticus for 60 days to evaluate theeffects on growth, feed conversion ratio, reproduction traits, and histology of gonads. There were no variations(p >0.05) in growth parameters and feed conversion ratio. Indices of reproduction traits decreased withincreasing dietary HLM levels. Fish fed with the basal diet ha...

  3. Effects of dietary starch and energy levels on maximum feed intake, growth and metabolism of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Duy, A.; Smit, B.; Dam, A. A.; Schrama, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into how Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) regulate feed and energy intake in response to diets low and high in starch and cellulose. It was hypothesized that high-starch diets would reduce feed intake due to the effect of high blood glucose level, and that stomach volume may limit feed intake of fish fed diets low in energy. Four experimental diets, low starch¿no cellulose inclusion, high starch¿no cellulose inclusion, low starch¿with cellulose...

  4. Growth and gonad maturation responses of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on diets containing different levels of Rumalato additive

    OpenAIRE

    Gaber et al.

    2012-01-01

    Tests were done to evaluate the effects of dietary supplements of Rumalato on performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L). Five diets were tested containing isonitrogenous (332 g kg-1) and isocaloric (18.4 kJ g-1) formulated as supplements to 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 Rumalato. Fish were reared in fifteen glass aquaria for 60 days, and there were three replicates per treatment. Ten fingerlings of Nile tilapia with an average weight of 4.4± 0.3 g were placed in each aquarium. F...

  5. Characterization and evaluation of the impact of feed management on the effluents of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Eliza Baccarin; Antonio Fernando Monteiro Camargo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed management on the quality of effluent water generated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture ponds. Feed was supplied as follows: natural food, and pelleted, extruded or minced ration. The study was conducted during 19 weeks in 12 continuous water exchange ponds of 300 m² each, with a population of male Nile tilapia juveniles, in a density equal to 1.7 fish m-2. Feeds contained 30% crude protein, 3,000 kcal dig...

  6. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica) SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus) FINGERLINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Olubodun Obasa; Segun Peter Alatise; Isaac Tunde Omoniyi; Wilfred Olusegun Alegbeleye; Francisca Adebukola George

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica) seed meal (FMS) to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g). Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein) and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg) dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet), 25% (FMS25), 50% (FMS50), 75% (FMS75) and 100% (FMS100) levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for...

  7. Control of Reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758 Using Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis (Linn. Leaf Meal as Reproduction Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope JEGEDE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf (HLM was added to a basal diet (350g crude protein and 18.5MJ gross energy/kgdiet at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg diets and fed to mixed-sex Oreochromis niloticus for 60 days to evaluate theeffects on growth, feed conversion ratio, reproduction traits, and histology of gonads. There were no variations(p >0.05 in growth parameters and feed conversion ratio. Indices of reproduction traits decreased withincreasing dietary HLM levels. Fish fed with the basal diet had higher and better indices of reproduction traits(Ptissues, and no lesions were observed. Fish fed 1.0g HLM/kg diet showed slight increase in interstitial cells intestes. Fish fed 2.0g HLM/kg diet showed swollen spermatids nuclei, increased interstitial cells and focalnecrosis in testes; and hydropic degeneration, ruptured follicles, granulomatous inflammation in the insterstitiumand necrosis in ovaries. Fish fed 3.0g HLM/kg diet exhibited atrophy of seminiferous tubules in testes. Fish fed4.0g HLM/kg diet, there was disintegration of spermatids and necrosis in testes and severe atretic follicles inovaries. Reproduction traits and histological observations of gonads in O. niloticus fed high dietary HLM levelsrevealed that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves may be effective as a reproduction inhibitor in O. niloticus.

  8. The protective role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress in Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ferbal; Gündüz, Suna Gül; Berköz, Mehmet; Hunt, Arzu Ozlüer; Yal?n, Serap

    2012-06-01

    Ability of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to attenuate oxidative damage was evaluated in liver and brain tissues of Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) experimentally exposed to sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF). O. niloticus was exposed to sublethal concentrations of CPF at 12 ?g/L (CPF1) and 24 ?g/L (CPF2) for 96 h. The fish of vitamin C (Vit C) and CPF2 + Vit C groups were fed with Vit C supplemented diet (200 mg Vit C/100 g feed). A significant increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level (P fish although liver TBARS level was not changed compared to control group. This result showed that lipid peroxidation (LPO) was elevated in brain of fish exposed to CPF. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in liver and brain tissues was significantly elevated (P fish by CPF2 concentration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased in liver, but increased in brain by exposure to CPF1 and CPF2 concentrations. Levels of TBARS were increased in brain of CPF-treated animals, but tended to decrease by the effect of Vit C. Vit C treatment for CPF-intoxicated animals normalized the otherwise raised activities of GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD within normal limits. The results clearly indicate that exposure to CPF caused a dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress brain and to a lesser extend in liver of fish and the ability of Vit C to attenuate CPF-induced oxidative damage. PMID:21818541

  9. Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with different levels of proteins of yeast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vandir, Medri; Waldir, Medri; Mauro, Caetano Filho.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 72 juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 37.27 ± 4.92g. distribuídos em 12 gaiolas de 100L para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta. Os peixes foram distribuídos em um delineamento inte [...] iramente casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0; 20; 40; e 60%) de proteína de levedura em substituição à proteína de fontes tradicionais com três repetições. Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos (p > 0.05) sobre a sobrevivência e conversão alimentar. Foi observado efeito quadrático sobre o ganho de peso (Y = 73.39 + 0.173X - 0.0034X²; R² = 0.9986). Concluiu-se que o melhor nível de inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta para juvenis revertidos de tilápias do Nilo é de 25.44%. Abstract in english This experiment was based on observations of 72 juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial mean weight of 37.27 ± 4.92g, distributed in 12 cages of 100 l to evaluate the effects of the yeast inclusion as proteins source in the diet. The fishes were distribut [...] ed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0; 20; 40; and 60%) of yeast protein in substitution to the protein of traditional sources with three repetitions. Effects of the treatments were not observed (p > 0.05) on the survival and to food conversion. It was observed a quadratic effect on weight gain (Y = 73.39 + 0.173X - 0.0034X²; R²= 0.9986). It was concluded the best level of yeast inclusion as source proteins in the diet for reversed Nile tilapia juvenile was 25.44%.

  10. Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with different levels of proteins of yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandir Medri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was based on observations of 72 juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, sexually reverted with an initial mean weight of 37.27 ± 4.92g, distributed in 12 cages of 100 l to evaluate the effects of the yeast inclusion as proteins source in the diet. The fishes were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0; 20; 40; and 60% of yeast protein in substitution to the protein of traditional sources with three repetitions. Effects of the treatments were not observed (p > 0.05 on the survival and to food conversion. It was observed a quadratic effect on weight gain (Y = 73.39 + 0.173X - 0.0034X²; R²= 0.9986. It was concluded the best level of yeast inclusion as source proteins in the diet for reversed Nile tilapia juvenile was 25.44%.Foram utilizados 72 juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 37.27 ± 4.92g. distribuídos em 12 gaiolas de 100L para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta. Os peixes foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0; 20; 40; e 60% de proteína de levedura em substituição à proteína de fontes tradicionais com três repetições. Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos (p > 0.05 sobre a sobrevivência e conversão alimentar. Foi observado efeito quadrático sobre o ganho de peso (Y = 73.39 + 0.173X - 0.0034X²; R² = 0.9986. Concluiu-se que o melhor nível de inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta para juvenis revertidos de tilápias do Nilo é de 25.44%.

  11. Fibra bruta para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L) / Crude fiber for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L) fingerlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio, Meurer; Carmino, Hayashi; Wilson Rogério, Boscolo.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou avaliar diferentes níveis de fibra bruta no desempenho e no tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L). Foram utilizados 125 alevinos (1,39 ± 0,03 g) distribuídos em 25 aquários de 54 L, em um delineamento inteiramente cas [...] ualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram formuladas cinco rações isoenergéticas (3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível) e isoprotéicas (30% de proteína bruta), diferindo quanto aos níveis de fibra bruta (3,65; 4,75; 6,00; 7,25 e 8,50%). O período experimental foi de 64 dias a uma temperatura média de 26,5ºC ± 0,8 de manhã e 27,5ºC ± 0,7 à tarde. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desempenho dos alevinos, entretanto houve decréscimo linear para o tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar com o aumento da fibra. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate different crude fiber levels on reverted Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L) fingerlings performance and time of retention of food. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings of Thai strain, 1.39 ± 0.03 g of initial weight were allotted to twenty-five 54 L aquarium, at f [...] ive treatments and five replications on completely randomized design. Five isoenergy (3000 kcal/kg of digestible energy) and isoprotein (30% of crude protein) diets were formulated with five different crude fiber levels (3.65, 4.75, 6.00, 7.25 and 8.50%), for ranging cellulose and inert material addition. The experimental period was 64 days with 26.5ºC ± 0.8 in the morning and 27.5ºC ± 0.7 in the afternoon temperatures. No difference was observed to fingerlings performance (food conversion, final weight, weight gain), but a linear decrease to time of retention of food with crude fiber addition.

  12. Replacing palm kernel cake for fishmeal in sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakachart, D.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Five isonitrogeneous and isocaloric feeds containing various levels of palm kernel cake (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% as a replacement for fishmeal were fed to four replicate groups of sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. fingerlings, mean initial weight 3.02-3.03 g, in 235-l aquaria fitted with a closed recirculation system for 10 weeks. The results showed declines in growth, feed utilization and digestibility coefficient with increases in the levels of supplemented palm kernel cake. The maximum growth was achieved in the fish given the feed with 10% palm kernel cake and was different from that when the basal feed (formula 1 was used. Satisfactory results of feed utilization, (feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent net protein utilization and digestibility coefficient were noted in the fish groups given the feed with a maximum of 20% palm kernel cake in their feeds. The supplementation of palm kernel cake at any levels in the feeds had no effects on fish’s blood parameters or hepatosomatic index. It was concluded that the maximum of 20% palm kernel cake could be supplemented in the feed for sex-reversed red tilapia while maintaining satisfactory growth, feed utilization, digestibility coefficient and normal fish physiology. Besides, the feed cost was kept minimum compared to the supplementation of other levels of palm kernel cake in their feeds.

  13. EFEITO DO Lactobacillus plantarum NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE Oreochromis niloticus / Lactobacillus plantarum EFFECT ON INTESTINAL TRACT OF Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Jatobá; José Luís Pedreira, Mouriño.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações na microbiota do trato intestinal e desempenho zootécnico de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentados com dietas suplementadas com Lactobacillus plantarum. Cento e vinte alevinos revertidos sexualmente foram distribuídos em s [...] eis caixas, divididos em dois tratamentos, em triplicata: alevinos alimentados com dieta suplementa com L. plantarum e alevinos alimentados com dieta controle. Após 42 dias, as tilápias alimentadas com a dieta suplementada com L. plantarum apresentaram maior número de bactérias ácido-lácticas, 3,5x104 UFC e 1,1x102 UFC por g de trato, e menor de bactérias totais, 5,8x106 UFC e 5,2x107 UFC por g de trato intestinal, em relação aos alimentados com dieta controle, além de incrementar em 3,9% o ganho em peso semanal, 15,6% a biomassa final e 15,5% eficiência alimentar. O uso de probiótico na alevinagem de tilápia eleva a produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided i [...] nto two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

  14. The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets / Uso de bacterias ácido lácticas aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) como promotores de crecimiento en peces alimentados con dietas bajas en proteína

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurilio, Lara-Flores; Miguel A, Olvera-Novoa.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto como promotores de crecimiento de cinco cepas de bacterias ácido lácticas (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I y Streptococcus sp. II) aisladas del tracto intestinal de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus). Se formularon ocho dietas isocalóri [...] cas: una conteniendo 40% de proteína como control positivo y siete con 27% de proteína. Cinco dietas con 27% de proteína fueron suplementadas con cada una de las bacterias aislada a una concentración de 2,5x10(6) ufc g-1 de alimento. Un probiótico comercial a base de S. faecium y Lactobacillus acidophilus a la misma concentración de inclusión bacteriana a una dieta con 27% de proteína como dieta comparativa, y la última dieta no fue suplementada con bacterias (control negativo). Juveniles de tilapia (280 mg de peso basal) fueron distribuidos en acuarios de 15 L de capacidad, a una densidad de dos juveniles por litro, alimentados durante 12 semanas con las dietas experimentales. Los resultados mostraron que los organismos alimentados con las dietas suplementadas con bacterias nativas presentaron crecimiento y asimilación del alimento significativamente mayor que las dietas control. El tratamiento con Streptococcus sp. I, aislada del intestino de la tilapia, produjo el mejor crecimiento y la mejor eficiencia alimenticia, sugiriendo que esta bacteria es apropiada como un promotor de crecimiento nativo de tilapia. Abstract in english In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II), isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: on [...] e containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6) cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control). Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight) stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

  15. Níveis de vitamina C e ferro para tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Levels of vitamin C and iron for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Barros

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de vitamina C e ferro no desempenho produtivo e parâmetros fisiológicos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados por um período de 73 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três níveis de vitamina C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg e três níveis de ferro (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg, mais um tratamento adicional (0 mg/kg de suplementação de vitamina C e ferro, com quatro repetições cada tratamento, totalizando 10 grupos experimentais. Utilizaram-se 240 alevinos revertidos com peso médio inicial de 7,46 ± 0,49 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 40 aquários de 250 L, numa lotação de 6 peixes/aquário. Confeccionou-se dieta purificada com 32,0% de proteína bruta e 3300 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A ausência de vitamina C e ferro nas dietas propiciou o aparecimento de anemia microcítica e hipocrômica aos alevinos. A presença dessa vitamina em dosagens elevadas estimulou a liberação de eritrócitos imaturos na corrente sangüínea. Determinou-se, também, que níveis desses acima das exigências nutricionais descritas para a espécie não determinaram efeito detrimental no desempenho produtivo, na produção de proteínas plasmáticas ou nos aspectos morfológicos do fígado.The effects of different levels of vitamin C and iron on growth performance and physiological parameters on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated for 73 days. A factorial experiment with three levels of vitamin C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg and three levels of iron (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg, plus an additional treatment (with 0 mg/kg of vitamin C and iron, was considered on a completely randomized design, with four replicates for each experimental group. It was randomly stocked 240 reverted fingerlings, an average weight of 7.46 ± 0.49 g, into 40, 250L, aquaria at a density of 6 fish/aquarium. A albumin-gelatin-diet was formulated to contain 32.0% of crude protein and 3,300 kcal/kg of digestible energy. Fingerlings of Nile tilapia fed diet without supplemental vitamin C and iron developed hypochromic microcytic anemia and the supplemental vitamin C determined the presence of immature erythrocytes on blood. It was also determined that iron serum concentration was influenced by vitamin C and iron supplied on diets, and that levels above to nutritional requirements for the specie did not determined detrimental effect on growth performance, plasmatic protein or morphologic characteristics of liver.

  16. Determination of selenium toxicity to Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters=Determinação da toxicidade do Selênio por meio de análises hematológicas em Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Regina Siqueira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is described as an essential micronutrient and participates in different biological functions, as the antioxidant defense systems maintenance and regulation. However, when in high concentrations, Se may cause toxic effects as well as hematological changes in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of selenium in the form of sodium selenate (Na2Se6+O4 in Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters, after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.14 and 1.4 mg Se6+ L-1. The erythrocytic and leukocytic series were examined over 14 days at intervals of 0, 3, 5, 7,10 and 14 days. The erythrocytic series showed significant alterations in the first 7 days, including the control group. Neutrophils and monocytes showed variations in the first 3 days at a concentration of 1.40 mgSe6+ L-1 characterizing an acute response. The total number of leukocytes was different in relation to time zero on all Se concentrations. The thrombocyte count also differed statistically from time zero and control in the first 3 days at 0.14 mgSe6+ L-1. These results indicate that different concentrations induce an acute response with diminution of total leukocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis and thrombocytosis.O selênio (Se é descrito como um micronutriente essencial e participa de diversas funções biológicas. No entanto, quando em concentrações elevadas, o Se pode causar efeitos tóxicos, bem como alterações hematológicas em peixes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a toxicidade do selênio na forma de Selenato de sódio (Na2Se6+O4 em Oreochromis niloticus com base em parâmetros hematológicos, após a exposição a diferentes concentrações (0,01, 0,14 e 1,4 mg + Se6+ L-1. A série eritrocitária e leucocitária foram examinadas por 14 dias, em intervalos de 0, 3, 5, 7,10 e 14 dias. A série eritrocítica mostrou alterações significativas nos primeiros 7 dias, incluindo o grupo controle. Neutrófilos e monócitos apresentaram variações nos primeiros 3 dias na concentração de 1,40 mgSe6+ L-1, caracterizando uma resposta aguda. O número total de leucócitos foi diferente em relação ao tempo zero em todas as concentrações de Se. A contagem de trombócitos também diferiram estatisticamente entre o tempo zero e os primeiros 3 dias a 0,14 mgSe6+ L-1. O resultados indicam que diferentes concentrações induzem a resposta aguda com diminuição dos leucócitos totais, neutrofilia, monocitose e trombocitose.

  17. Effects of Ulva rigida and Cystoseira barbata Meals as a Feed Additive on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, and Body Composition of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    GÜROY, Betül KUT; C?R?K, ?ükran; Güroy, Derya; SANVER, Feyza; TEK?NAY*, Ahmet Adem

    2007-01-01

    In a 12-week feeding trial, the effect of 2 algae meals (Ulva rigida or Cystoseira barbata) on feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilization of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated. This was the first attempt to utilize Cystoseira barbata as a feed supplement for Nile tilapia. The fish were fed to apparent satiation with formulated diets supplemented with various levels of Ulva meal (5%, 10%, or 15%) or Cystoseira meal (5%, 10%, or 15%). A diet without algae meal ser...

  18. Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, S. K.; Idris, M. H.; Hamli, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3). However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW) as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Different concentration (0.05...

  19. Perfil proteico de tilápia nilótica chitralada (Oreochromis niloticus), submetida ao estresse crônico por hipóxia Proteic electrophoretic profile of chitralada tilapia nilotic (Oreochromis niloticus), exposed to hypoxia chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Melo; D.A.A Oliveira; M. M. Melo; D.V. Júnior; E.A Teixeira; S.R. Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se a variação da resposta secundária ao estresse causado por hipóxia durante 18 dias, em sistema de recirculação, em uma linhagem de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus), chitralada, refletida no perfil proteico eletroforético do peixe e avaliou-se a diferença entre sexos para essa resposta. Foram utilizados 126 peixes, sendo 60 machos e 66 fêmeas, ambos com média de peso de 800g. O estresse crônico por hipóxia alterou (P

  20. Infection patterns of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) by two helminth species with contrasting life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Schiemer, Fritz

    2012-04-01

    The larval stages of Bolbophorus sp. (digenean) and Amirthalingamia macracantha (cestode) are frequently reported in Oreochromis niloticus in Uganda. Little, however, is known about their infection patterns. This study examined the influence of habitat type, host size, and sex and weather patterns on the parasite populations in Uganda. A total of 650 fish were collected between January and November 2008 from a reservoir, cages, fishponds and a stream. The prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha and the prevalence of Bolbophorus sp. differed across the water bodies reflecting the effect of habitat characteristics on parasite transmission. Host sex did not significantly influence the infection patterns, although female fish were slightly more parasitized than male and sexually undifferentiated individuals. The fish size was positively correlated with helminth infections demonstrating accumulation and prolonged exposure of larger (older) fish to the parasites. The metacercariae population did not vary significantly across months, while monthly A. macracantha infection fluctuated markedly. With regard to rain seasons, higher prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha were recorded in wet season. For Bolbophorus sp., only the prevalence varied with seasons, with higher prevalence recorded in the dry season than in wet season. Generally, Bolbophorus sp. responded weakly to changes in water body, host sex and size and weather patterns. Rainfall appears to be an essential cue for coracidia hatching. PMID:21972071

  1. Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Cyrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3 and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001. Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

  2. Individual protein balance strongly influences ?15N and ?13C values in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

    Although stable isotope ratios in animals have often been used as indicators of the trophic level and for the back-calculation of diets, few experiments have been done under standardized laboratory conditions to investigate factors influencing ?15N and ?13C values. An experiment using Nile tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was therefore carried out to test the effect of different dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%) on ?15N and ?13C values of the whole tilapia. The fish were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-synthetic diets at a relatively low level. ?15N and ?13C values of the lipid-free body did not differ between the fish fed the diets with different protein contents, but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased with increasing protein accretion in the individual fish, for N from 6.5‰ to 4‰ and for C in the lipid-free body from 4‰ to 2.5‰. This is the first study showing the strong influence of the individual protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the individual physiological condition and the feeding rate may lead to erroneous results.

  3. EFFECT OF DIETARY BOVINE LACTOFERRIN ON DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth pe...

  4. Fecal strings Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were experimentally-infected with Streptococcus agalactiae for several infectivity and vaccine studies. Some of the S. agalactiae-infected tilapia produced considerably longer (up to 20 cm in length) fecal waste strings than historically observed from tilapia at...

  5. Influence of Tricaine Methanesulfonate on Streptococcus agalactiae vaccination of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to study the influence of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on blood glucose levels and percent cumulative survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae 30 days post-vaccination with S. agalactiae vaccine or sham-vaccination wit...

  6. Edad y crecimiento del híbrido de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) en la represa “Zimapán” Hidalgo, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. A., Gómez-Ponce; K., Granados-Flores; C., Padilla; M., López-Hernández; G., Núñez-Nogueira.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La edad y crecimiento de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus fueron determinados por medio de la lectura de escamas. Un total de 382 individuos fueron capturados mediante el uso de redes agalleras y atarrayas. Ocho recolectas mensuales se llevaron a cabo entre septiembre 2003-mayo [...] 2004; se registraron los datos de longitud estándar en cm. (Le), el peso total en g (Pt) y se obtuvieron muestras de escamas para registrar el largo de la escama en mm. (Lesc) y el número de anillos de crecimiento formados. Las tallas y pesos de recolecta variaron entre 38 a 232mm (Le) y de 8.7 a 311.9g de peso total (Pt) respectivamente. El recuento de los anillos anuales en escamas, permitió establecer cuatro grupos de edad, siendo el grupo de edad 2 el más representativo, con un 34.3% de la población muestreada. El cálculo de los incrementos marginales del crecimiento mensual de las escamas, sugirió la formación de dos anillos, uno de ellos se forma en los meses de noviembre-enero y otro en los meses de abril-mayo, los cuales coinciden con la época de bajas temperaturas y de madurez gonádica respectivamente. Los parámetros de crecimiento quedaron establecidos en: L?=281.1mm, W?=877.1g, K=0.33 y T0=0.88/año. Las curvas de crecimiento en longitud y peso se describieron mediante las ecuaciones de von Bertalanffy: Le=28.11 [1- e-0.33(t+0.88)] y Pt=877.17 [1-e-0.33(t+0.88)]³. Finalmente, se concluyó que los peces que se explotan en la represa mediante captura comercial presentan entre un año y año y medio de edad. Abstract in english Age and growth of the hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the dam “Zimapan” Mexico. Studies on age and growth in fishes are essential to establish models on population dynamics. The previos issues were determined in this study by scale growth analyse [...] s. Between September 2003 and May 2004, 382 organisms were captured using gill and atarraya nets. Eight samples were developed every month a long this study. Standard length in centimeters (Le), total weight in grams (Pt), scale length in centimeters (Lesc) and growth rings were determined. The size and weight ranged from 38 to 232mm (Le) and 8.7 to 311.9g (Pt), respectively. The growth rings analyses reveal four age groups, being the sec-ond group the most representative with 34.3% of the total sampled. The scale ring analyses showed two growth rings, one develops between November-January and the other between April-May, in good correlation with low temperature and gonad development, respectively. The growth parameters were established as: L?=281.1mm, W?=877.1g, K=0.33 and T0=0.88year -1. The growth curves based on length and weight were described by using the von Bertalanffy model: Le =28.11[1-e-0.33(t+0.88)] and Pt =877.17[1-e-0.33(t+0.88)]³. Finally, it is concluded that commercial catches in this dam are between a year and year and half-old when exploited. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2): 761-770. Epub 2011 June 01.

  7. Edad y crecimiento del híbrido de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae en la represa “Zimapán” Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gómez-Ponce

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La edad y crecimiento de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus fueron determinados por medio de la lectura de escamas. Un total de 382 individuos fueron capturados mediante el uso de redes agalleras y atarrayas. Ocho recolectas mensuales se llevaron a cabo entre septiembre 2003-mayo 2004; se registraron los datos de longitud estándar en cm. (Le, el peso total en g (Pt y se obtuvieron muestras de escamas para registrar el largo de la escama en mm. (Lesc y el número de anillos de crecimiento formados. Las tallas y pesos de recolecta variaron entre 38 a 232mm (Le y de 8.7 a 311.9g de peso total (Pt respectivamente. El recuento de los anillos anuales en escamas, permitió establecer cuatro grupos de edad, siendo el grupo de edad 2 el más representativo, con un 34.3% de la población muestreada. El cálculo de los incrementos marginales del crecimiento mensual de las escamas, sugirió la formación de dos anillos, uno de ellos se forma en los meses de noviembre-enero y otro en los meses de abril-mayo, los cuales coinciden con la época de bajas temperaturas y de madurez gonádica respectivamente. Los parámetros de crecimiento quedaron establecidos en: L?=281.1mm, W?=877.1g, K=0.33 y T0=0.88/año. Las curvas de crecimiento en longitud y peso se describieron mediante las ecuaciones de von Bertalanffy: Le=28.11 [1- e-0.33(t+0.88] y Pt=877.17 [1-e-0.33(t+0.88]³. Finalmente, se concluyó que los peces que se explotan en la represa mediante captura comercial presentan entre un año y año y medio de edad.Age and growth of the hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the dam “Zimapan” Mexico. Studies on age and growth in fishes are essential to establish models on population dynamics. The previos issues were determined in this study by scale growth analyses. Between September 2003 and May 2004, 382 organisms were captured using gill and atarraya nets. Eight samples were developed every month a long this study. Standard length in centimeters (Le, total weight in grams (Pt, scale length in centimeters (Lesc and growth rings were determined. The size and weight ranged from 38 to 232mm (Le and 8.7 to 311.9g (Pt, respectively. The growth rings analyses reveal four age groups, being the sec-ond group the most representative with 34.3% of the total sampled. The scale ring analyses showed two growth rings, one develops between November-January and the other between April-May, in good correlation with low temperature and gonad development, respectively. The growth parameters were established as: L?=281.1mm, W?=877.1g, K=0.33 and T0=0.88year -1. The growth curves based on length and weight were described by using the von Bertalanffy model: Le =28.11[1-e-0.33(t+0.88] and Pt =877.17[1-e-0.33(t+0.88]³. Finally, it is concluded that commercial catches in this dam are between a year and year and half-old when exploited. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 761-770. Epub 2011 June 01.

  8. Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in adult tilapia oreochromis niloticus in Southern part of Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, one of the most important fish species in Philippine aquaculture, is grown abundantly in Laguna de Bay. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the levels of accumulated mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the muscle tissue of this fresh water fish collected from February (wet season) to March (dry season) 2008 in the southern part of Laguna de Bay. Heavy metal analyses using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) showed a higher concentration of Hg and Cd during the wet season than in the dry season. However, analysis of variance revealed significant seasonal variation on only in Cd (P=0.0253). Lead, on the other hand, was not detected in the fish samples. The mean concentration set by FAO but the mean level of Cd (0.161 ppm) was almost equal to the limit given for fish. This could represent a significant health risk to the consuming public. (author)

  9. Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

    2011-12-15

    This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use. PMID:22335051

  10. Assessment Study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya Seeds to Control Oreochromis niloticus Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa T. Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of pawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day and high dose (6 g/kg/day of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs count, hemoglobin (Hb content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.

  11. Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil / Parásitos protozoarios y metazoarios de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus criadas en Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wanderson, Pantoja MF; Ligia Neves R, Fishing Engineer; Márcia Dias RD, Fishing Engineer; Renata Marinho GB, Biologist; Daniel Montagner, Zoo Technician; Marcos, Tavares-Dias.

    2812-28-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la parasitofauna y el factor de condición relativa (Kn) de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) en granjas piscícolas del estado de Amapá. Materiales y métodos. 123 peces, de cuatro granjas piscícolas del Estado del Amapá, Brasil, fueron necropciados para real [...] izarles un análisis parasitólogico y el análisis Kn. Resultados. De los peces examinados, 64.2% estaban con las branquias infectadas por Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 y ParaTrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). La mayor prevalencia fue de Monogenoidea C. tilapiae, mientras que la menor fue de los parásitos Trichodinidae. Sin embargo, I. multifiliis fue el parásito que mostró la mayor intensidad y abundancia. Las diferencias encontradas estuvieron en las tasas de infección parasitaria de diferentes granjas piscícolas debido a las causas aquí discutidas. El parasitismo no influenció el factor de condición relativa (Kn). Este fue el primer registro de P. Africana para el Brasil, en la Amazonía Oriental. Conclusiones. En el Brasil, Lamproglena sp es un parásito emergente en las regiones del Sur y Suroeste, pero este crustáceo no fue encontrado en la tilapia del Nilo del Estado de Amapá. En la tilapia del Nilo criada en el Brasil, las infecciones parasitarías son causadas por especies de protozoarios, monogenoideas, crustáceos y digenéticos; las diferencias regionales en las tasa de prevalencia e intensidad son discutidas aquí. Abstract in english Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae) from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and [...] Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiaePaperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae); Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora), Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Para Trichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae). The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn) of fish. This was the first record of P. Africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

  12. EFECTO DE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN PESQUERA DEL EMBALSE EL GUÁJARO ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA / EFFECT OF TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus OVER THE FISHERIES IN EL GUÁJARO RESERVOIR ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Caraballo G.

    1796-18-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus sobre la producción pesquera en el embalse de El Guájaro, departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El embalse tiene un área aproximada de 14.000 ha y allí pescan diariamente 2.500 pescadores provenientes de ocho municipi [...] os que rodean el ecosistema. Por medio de evaluaciones mensuales del desembarco durante 48 horas en todos los puertos, fue evaluada la composición y abundancia de las capturas en 1988 y 2002. Los resultados de la evaluación hecha en 2002 fueron comparados con los obtenidos en 1988. Resultados. 38 especies de peces, perteneciendo a 14 familias fueron identificadas. Sólo las dos especies que dominan las capturas, presentaron una variación en su participación global. La producción durante 2002 fue de 431 ton/mes, superior a las 84 ton/mes evaluadas en el año 1988. Durante 2002, las capturas fueron dominadas por tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (53%) y arenca Triportheus magdalenae (36%) lo que representa una variación en la composición de las capturas que, durante 1988 fueron respectivamente de 13% y 73%. Esta variación no afectó la proporción de herbívoros y carnívoros que se mantuvo en 90-10%. Conclusiones. La variación en la composición y abundancia de la producción total implica el desplazamiento de una especie nativa (Triportheus magdalenae) por una exótica (Oreochromis niloticus), hecho que viene siendo observado en toda la cuenca del Magdalena en esta década. Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate the effect of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, over the fisheries in the El Guájaro reservoir, located in the Atlantico state, north of Colombia. Materials and methods. The reservoir has approximately 14.000 ha, and support the daily effort of 2.500 fisherman, coming from the e [...] ight Municipalities around. Through landing samplings carried out during 48 hours and a monthly frequency in all the ports, the abundance and composition of the captures were evaluated during 2002 and compared with the production during 1988 in the same ecosystem. Results. 38 fish species, belonging to 14 families, were identified. It was found that the production in 2002 was 431 ton/month, against 84 ton/month in 1988. During 2002, the composition of the captures was dominated by Oreochromis niloticus (53%) and Triportheus magdalenae (36%) this means a variation in the composition of the captures that during 1988 were respectively of 13% and 73%. This data however, did not affect the proportion of herbivores - carnivorous that stayed constant in 90-10 percent in the two periods of study. Conclusions. The changes in composition and abundance of the whole production suggest a displacement of a native species (Triportheus magdalenae) by an exotic (Oreochromis niloticus), which is being observed throughout the Magdalena river basin in this decade.

  13. Probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici modulates both localised intestinal- and peripheral-immunity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, B T; Rawling, M D; Davies, S J; Castex, M; Foey, A; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Merrifield, D L

    2013-10-01

    The application of probiotics in aquaculture has received concerted research efforts but the localised intestinal immunological response of fish to probiotic bacteria is poorly understood. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic effect of Pediococcus acidilactici on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with specific emphasis on intestinal health and probiotic levels as well as system level responses such as growth performance, feed utilization and haemato-immunological parameters under non-challenged conditions. Fish (9.19 ± 0.04 g) were fed either a control diet or a P. acidilactici supplemented diet (at 2.81 × 10(6) CFU g(-)(1)) for six weeks. At the end of the study the probiotic was observed to populate the intestine, accounting for ca. 3% (1.59 × 10(5) CFU g(-)(1)) of the cultivable intestinal bacterial load. Real-time PCR indicated that the probiotic treatment may potentiate the immune-responsiveness of the intestine as up-regulation of the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? was observed in the probiotic fed fish (P acidilactici fed tilapia after six weeks (P 0.05). PMID:23871840

  14. Accumulation and toxic effects of microcystin in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from an eutrophic Brazilian lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lavradas, Raquel Teixeira; Lavandier, Ricardo Cavalcanti; Rojas, Edwin Gonzalo Azero; Guarino, Alcides Wagner Serpa; Ziolli, Roberta Lourenço

    2015-02-01

    Microcystin (MC) accumulation and depuration in environmentally exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at a chronically contaminated eutrophic lagoon was studied. This is one of the scarce reports on microcystin accumulation in bile of environmentally exposed fish, and gonad MC accumulation in the field, in contrast to laboratory exposure experiments. Results show that preferential MC accumulation in the environment occurred in tilapia fish muscle, followed by gonads, liver and, finally, bile. Biliary MC excretion in in situ conditions indicates elimination from the body to a certain degree. High gonad MC bioaccumulation is of concern, since this could indicate potential reproductive problems in this species. This study also demonstrated that tilapia shows similar oxidative stress responses (in the form of reduced glutathione, GSH) in the environment as those observed in laboratory exposed fish. MC dietary intake values for tilapia muscle and liver were above the limits imposed by international legislations, indicating that the local human population should exercise care when ingesting this species as a part of their diet and that human ingestion of MC-contaminated samples should be carefully monitored. PMID:25463863

  15. Prophylactic effect of Andrographis paniculata extracts against Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-05-01

    Six herbs were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, a major fish pathogen causing streptococcosis. Each herb was extracted with 3 solvents: water, 95% ethanol, and methanol. Using swab paper disc assays, aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata and Allium sativum produced the largest (27.5 mm) and smallest (10.3 mm) inhibition zones, respectively. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of herb extracts against S. agalactiae showed that the aqueous extract of A. paniculata had the lowest MIC value (31.25 microg/mL). Aqueous extract of A. sativum was the only herb extract with a MIC > 500 microg/mL. Based on mortalities in 2 weeks after intraperitoneal S. agalactiae injection, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of S. agalactiae for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was 3.79 x 10(5) CFU/mL. In vivo experiments showed that fish feed supplemented with either A. paniculata leaf powder or dried matter of A. paniculata aqueous extract reduced mortality of S. agalactiae infected Nile tilapia. In addition, no mortality was found in fish receiving dried matter of A. paniculata aqueous extract supplemented feeds at ratios (w/w) of 4:36 and 5:35. During 2 weeks of feeding with A. paniculata supplemented feeds, no adverse effects on appearance, behavior, or feeding responses were observed. PMID:19393561

  16. Skeletal Ossification Impairment in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus after Exposure to Lead Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed B. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution represents a serious problem facing many of the aquatic organisms. Lead is one of the most toxic elements found in many industrial effluents which are metabolized inside bodies and can cause skeletal deformities by impairing developmental processes and bone formation. This study was undertaken to determine the LC50 of Pb-acetate and detect the effect of 1/10 LC50 exposure on fingerlings of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Modern and accurate diagnostic methods were used; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM of gills, plain X-ray and Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX of the spinal column to explain the elemental analysis. The results indicated that the 96 h LC50 of lead acetate was 146.8 mg L-1. SEM showed a distinct degeneration in gill filaments and pavement cells with increasing of mucus secretion after lead exposure. X-ray revealed slight dorsal spinal curvature. EDX analysis of the spinal column of treated fish showed decrease in calcium and phosphorus weight percents, on the other hand Pb appeared in treated fish but not in control ones. Finally this study can spot a light on the dangerous effects of lead toxicity in developing of fish and impairment of their skeletal ossification which may lead to skeletal deformities.

  17. Anti-androgenic activities of diuron and its metabolites in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Scremin Boscolo; Boscolo, Camila Nomura Pereira; Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto da; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Schlenk, Daniel; Almeida, Eduardo Alves de

    2015-07-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a widely used herbicide which has been frequently detected in surface waters throughout the world. In vivo bioassay guided fractionation studies indicated that diuron may have estrogenic activity augmented by biotransformation. This study evaluated the effects of diuron and three of its metabolites on plasma hormone concentrations and spermatogenesis of the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Sexually mature male fish were exposed for 25 days to diuron, as well to its metabolites 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU), at concentrations of 200ng/L. Testosterone levels were decreased by diuron, but had limited effects on gonadal histology. Diuron metabolites, however, caused significant decreases in testosterone and in 11-ketotestosterone, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules and in the mean percentages of germ cells (spermatids and spermatozoa). We conclude that these metabolites have antiandrogenic activity to male Nile tilapia, potentially causing reproductive impairment in male fish. PMID:25930013

  18. Formation of ring marks in stocked tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Ibañez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Metztitlán was dried up completely in the spring of 1998 and refilled in August of that year. In the period September-November, two cohorts of 1.6 million juveniles of a tilapia hybrid were stocked (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus, and monitored every month for one year. Since the date of birth of these juveniles was known, the analyses focused on whether the ring marks of the scales, sagittae and opercula or the circuli of the scales could be used to age them. The ring marks of the scales and opercula showed great variability, and the sagittae had a significant relationship with length, but it is unclear if at least the first ring mark could be formed at the hatchery and reflect changes in diet and/or tank movements in the fish farm. The circuli had a continuous regular behavior, with a formation rate of 10.38±0.93 and 11.38±0.95 circuli/month for the first and second cohorts, respectively. This proportion was maintained during the study period, and could be of help to calculate an approximate age of juveniles, especially in stocked fish that show multiple ring marks because of manipulation in fish farms and stocking events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4: 1005-1013. Epub 2007 December, 28.El lago de Metztitlán se secó completamente en la primavera de 1998, inundándose nuevamente en agosto del mismo año para ser repoblado entre septiembre y noviembre con 1.6 millones de jóvenes de un híbrido de tilapia (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus en dos periodos. Ambas cohortes fueron monitoreadas mensualmente durante un año. Debido a que la fecha de nacimiento era conocida, el objetivo del estudio fue evaluar si las marcas anulares de las escamas, las sagittae y los opérculos, o los circuli de las escamas pueden usarse para estimar la edad. Los anillos de las escamas y opérculos mostraron gran variabilidad, mientras que las de las sagittae se relacionaron significativamente con la longitud, sin embargo no quedó claro si al menos el primer anillo podría haber sido formado por cambios en dieta o movimientos en los tanques de la granja de cultivo. Por el contrario los circuli mostraron una formación regular con una tasa de formación de 10.38±0.93 y 11.38±0.95 circuli/mes para la primera y segunda cohortes, respectivamente, proporción que fue mantenida durante el periodo de estudio y que puede ser usada para calcular la edad de los jóvenes, especialmente en organismos que muestran numerosos anillos debido a la manipulación sufrida en las granjas o debido a las "siembras".

  19. Triguilho na alimentação da tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.: digestibilidade e desempenho Wheat midlings in the nile tilapia feeding (Oreochromis niloticus L.: digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente experimento objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa da proteína bruta (PB e da energia bruta (EB do triguilho para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e avaliar a inclusão do triguilho sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo. Para a determinação dos CDa, foram utilizadas 40 tilápias com peso e comprimento médios de 80,00g e 15,9cm, respectivamente, submetidas à coleta das fezes por sedimentação. Para a avaliação do desempenho, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, com peso inicial médio de 0,80g, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. As rações experimentais continham níveis de inclusão de 0,00; 7,97; 14,94; 23,91 e 31,88% de triguilho substituindo até 100% do milho. Os CDas da PB e EB do triguilho foram de 91,03 e 78,72%, respectivamente, apresentando 11,92% de proteína digestível e 3134Kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Não foi observada diferença (P>0,05 no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com as rações contendo os diferentes níveis de inclusão do triguilho. O triguilho é um alimento com bons CDa da PB e EB e pode ser incluído em até 31,88% em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo sem causar prejuízo no desempenho.This experiment was aimed at determining the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of the raw protein (RP and of raw energy (RE of the wheat middling given to the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and evaluating the inclusion of wheat middling on the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. In order to determine the ADC, 40 tilapias with the average weight and length of 80g and 15.9cm, respectively, were used and submitted to the collection of the excrements by sedimentation. To the evaluation of the performance 125 fingerlings of Nile tilapia were used, with an initial average weight of 0.80g, distributed into 25 aquariums with a 30L capacity at a random design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The experimental fish feed had inclusion levels of 0.00; 7.97; 14.94; 23.91 and 31.88% of wheat middling, substituting corn up to 100%. The ADCs of RP and RE of the wheat middling were 91.03% and 78.72, respectively, presenting 11.92% of digestible protein and 3134kcal kg-1 of digestible energy. No difference was observed (P>0.05 in the performance of the fish fed with the fish feed having the different levels of inclusion of the wheat middling. The wheat middling is a feed with good ADC of RP and RE and can be included in up to 31.88% in fish food for Nile tilapia fingerlings without causing damage in its performance.

  20. Triguilho na alimentação da tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.): digestibilidade e desempenho / Wheat midlings in the nile tilapia feeding (Oreochromis niloticus L.): digestibility and performance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Aldi, Feiden; Altevir, Signor; Adilson, Reidel.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente experimento objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa) da proteína bruta (PB) e da energia bruta (EB) do triguilho para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e avaliar a inclusão do triguilho sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo. Para a det [...] erminação dos CDa, foram utilizadas 40 tilápias com peso e comprimento médios de 80,00g e 15,9cm, respectivamente, submetidas à coleta das fezes por sedimentação. Para a avaliação do desempenho, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, com peso inicial médio de 0,80g, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. As rações experimentais continham níveis de inclusão de 0,00; 7,97; 14,94; 23,91 e 31,88% de triguilho substituindo até 100% do milho. Os CDas da PB e EB do triguilho foram de 91,03 e 78,72%, respectivamente, apresentando 11,92% de proteína digestível e 3134Kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Não foi observada diferença (P>0,05) no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com as rações contendo os diferentes níveis de inclusão do triguilho. O triguilho é um alimento com bons CDa da PB e EB e pode ser incluído em até 31,88% em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo sem causar prejuízo no desempenho. Abstract in english This experiment was aimed at determining the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of the raw protein (RP) and of raw energy (RE) of the wheat middling given to the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and evaluating the inclusion of wheat middling on the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. [...] In order to determine the ADC, 40 tilapias with the average weight and length of 80g and 15.9cm, respectively, were used and submitted to the collection of the excrements by sedimentation. To the evaluation of the performance 125 fingerlings of Nile tilapia were used, with an initial average weight of 0.80g, distributed into 25 aquariums with a 30L capacity at a random design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The experimental fish feed had inclusion levels of 0.00; 7.97; 14.94; 23.91 and 31.88% of wheat middling, substituting corn up to 100%. The ADCs of RP and RE of the wheat middling were 91.03% and 78.72, respectively, presenting 11.92% of digestible protein and 3134kcal kg-1 of digestible energy. No difference was observed (P>0.05) in the performance of the fish fed with the fish feed having the different levels of inclusion of the wheat middling. The wheat middling is a feed with good ADC of RP and RE and can be included in up to 31.88% in fish food for Nile tilapia fingerlings without causing damage in its performance.

  1. Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Wastes Produced by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. Fed Azolla-Diets in Earthen Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Micha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P wastes produced by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla, an aquatic atmospheric nitrogen fixing fern, was evaluated for 90 days in pond experiment. Six isonitrogenous (29.2% crude protein and isoenergetic (16.9 Kj·g–1 diets A0, A10, A20, A30, A40 and A50, containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of Azolla meal (AM respectively, as partial fishmeal (FM substitutes, was provided to experimental fish. The Azolla-free diet A0 served as a control. Fish specific growth rate (SGR was higher with the control diet, the lower values being obtained in A50-fed fish (P Azolla could be used in diet to sustain Nile tilapia growth and as “environmentally-friendly” ingredient to limit P loss, while providing N to the field, beneficially in tropical marshland pond where this nutrient is already limiting.

  2. Farinha de peixe em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L., linhagem tailandesa Fishmeal in the diets of Nile tilapia fingerlings Oreochromis niloticus (L., Thai strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse experimento foi determinar o nível adequado de incorporação de farinha de peixe (FP em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae linhagem tailandesa. Foram distribuídos 300 animais com peso inicial médio de 0,42 ± 0,01 g, em 25 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos (0, 4, 8, 16 e 20% de FP na ração e cinco repetições. Foi observado efeito quadrático (p 0,05 dos níveis da FP sobre a sobrevivência e rendimento de carcaça. Conclui-se que o nível adequado de inclusão de farinha de peixe em rações para alevinos de tilapia do Nilo é de 12,15%.The adequate fishmeal (FM inclusion level in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae Thai strain, is provided. Three hundred fishes with initial mean average weight of 0.42 ± 0.01 g were distributed in 25 net ponds in a randomized block design with five treatments (0, 4, 8, 16 e 20% of FM in diet and five repetitions. Quadratic effect (p 0,05 did not affect survival and carcass yield. It may be concluded that the appropriate fishmeal inclusion is 12.15% in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

  3. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan, S.; Geurden, I.; Figueiredo-silva, A. C.; Kaushik, S. J.; Haidar, M. N.; Verreth, J. A. J.; Schrama, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an ‘oxystatic control of FI in fish’). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia...

  4. Figla Favors Ovarian Differentiation by Antagonizing Spermatogenesis in a Teleosts, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Wei, Jing; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Wang, Deshou; Zhou, Linyan

    2015-01-01

    Figla (factor in the germ line, alpha), a female germ cell-specific transcription factor, had been shown to activate genetic hierarchies in oocytes. The ectopic expression of Figla was known to repress spermatogenesis-associated genes in male mice. However, the potential role of Figla in other vertebrates remains elusive. The present work was aimed to identify and characterize the functional relevance of Figla in the ovarian development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Tissue distribution and ontogeny analysis revealed that tilapia Figla gene was dominantly expressed in the ovary from 30 days after hatching. Immunohistochemistry analysis also demonstrated that Figla was expressed in the cytoplasm of early primary oocytes. Intriguingly, over-expression of Figla in XY fish resulted in the disruption of spermatogenesis along with the depletion of meiotic spermatocytes and spermatids in testis. Dramatic decline of sycp3 (synaptonemal complex protein 3) and prm (protamine) expression indicates that meiotic spermatocytes and mature sperm production are impaired. Even though Sertoli cell (dmrt1) and Leydig cell (star and cyp17a1) marker genes remained unaffected, hsd3b1 expression and 11-KT production were enhanced in Figla-transgene testis. Taken together, our data suggest that fish Figla might play an essential role in the ovarian development by antagonizing spermatogenesis. PMID:25894586

  5. Figla Favors Ovarian Differentiation by Antagonizing Spermatogenesis in a Teleosts, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongxiu; Sun, Shaohua; Charkraborty, Tapas; Wu, Limin; Sun, Lina; Wei, Jing; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Wang, Deshou; Zhou, Linyan

    2015-01-01

    Figla (factor in the germ line, alpha), a female germ cell-specific transcription factor, had been shown to activate genetic hierarchies in oocytes. The ectopic expression of Figla was known to repress spermatogenesis-associated genes in male mice. However, the potential role of Figla in other vertebrates remains elusive. The present work was aimed to identify and characterize the functional relevance of Figla in the ovarian development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Tissue distribution and ontogeny analysis revealed that tilapia Figla gene was dominantly expressed in the ovary from 30 days after hatching. Immunohistochemistry analysis also demonstrated that Figla was expressed in the cytoplasm of early primary oocytes. Intriguingly, over-expression of Figla in XY fish resulted in the disruption of spermatogenesis along with the depletion of meiotic spermatocytes and spermatids in testis. Dramatic decline of sycp3 (synaptonemal complex protein 3) and prm (protamine) expression indicates that meiotic spermatocytes and mature sperm production are impaired. Even though Sertoli cell (dmrt1) and Leydig cell (star and cyp17a1) marker genes remained unaffected, hsd3b1 expression and 11-KT production were enhanced in Figla-transgene testis. Taken together, our data suggest that fish Figla might play an essential role in the ovarian development by antagonizing spermatogenesis. PMID:25894586

  6. Environmental effects on the gills and blood of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to rivers of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, André Luis; Prado, Thiago Matos; Maciel, Letícia Aguilar da Silva; Couto, Ricardo David

    2015-01-01

    Through the integration of chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on environmental biomarkers, such as gill histopathological changes and hematological and biochemical parameters, in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to four sites in the Jacuipe and Subaé rivers over seven days. Sediment analyses identified Sapelba as the most contaminated site, followed by Oliveira de Campinhos, Santo Amaro and Jacuípe. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and manganese at all sites. Aluminum and other metal were also detected in the gills of fishes. Fish exposed to the Sapelba site exhibited significant necrosis formation, as well as higher hematological parameters and trend to increase of cortisol levels. However, filament epithelium proliferation was higher at the Oliveira de Campinhos and Santo Amaro sites, at which the lowest levels of the hematological variables were observed. Multivariate analysis grouped some gill histopathological changes together, such as epithelial detachment with edema and lamellar epithelial proliferation with the lamellar fusion of adjacent filaments, revealing relationships among them. Positive associations were identified between sediment contamination and necrosis and cortisol, while water contamination was related with filament epithelium proliferation, aneurism, lamellar fusion and several hematological parameters. Furthermore, relationships between blood parameters and gill histopathological changes demonstrated a joint physiological response that may have resulted from environmental variables such as dissolved oxygen. The results exhibited the direct influence of xenobiotics on these biomarkers but also highlighted the need to consider the complexity of environmental factors to optimize the adoption of these environmental predictive tools. PMID:25450911

  7. Modulation of intestinal morphology and immunity in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirarat, N; Pinpimai, K; Endo, M; Katagiri, T; Ponpornpisit, A; Chansue, N; Maita, M

    2011-12-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria from human origins as a potential probiotic supplementation in aquaculture feed is now widely accepted. Here, we examined some of the properties and mechanisms of the action of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, originating from humans, on growth performance, gut mucosal immunity and humoral and cellular immune response in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The results suggested that supplementation of L. rhamnosus gave an advantage in promoting the intestinal structure and the mucosal immunity of tilapia. Probiotic fish had a greater villous height in all parts of the intestines and, significantly, in the proximal and middle part. The population of intraepithelial lymphocytes was significantly higher in the probiotic group than in the control group in all parts of the intestines. The population of acidophilic granulocyte in the probiotic group was significantly higher at the proximal and distal parts when compared with the control group. The higher serum complement activity as well as the enhanced phagocytosis and killing ability of the head kidney leukocytes in the probiotic supplemented fish corresponded with the higher level of TNF alpha and IL-1 gene expression, suggesting that the induction of IL-1 and TNF alpha cytokines by L. rhamnosus served as an important regulator of gut associated immune systems. PMID:21536310

  8. Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

    2014-11-01

    Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism. PMID:24996943

  9. Desempenho da tilápia nilótica Oreochromis niloticus (L. em gaiolas de pequeno volume Performance of the nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L. raised in small volume cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luiz Naslausky Bozano

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Alevinos de tilápia nilótica Oreochromis niloticus (L. com peso médio de 18,85 g, foram estocados em gaiolas de 1,7 m3 cada, em densidades de 75, 150, 300 e 600 peixes/m3 (T75; T150; T300 e T600, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado (4 tratamentos e 3 repetições, e criados por 196 dias, com ração comercial extrusada, flutuante, contendo 28% de proteína bruta. A cada 30 dias, 20% do lote de peixes de cada gaiola foi medido e pesado para determinar ganho de peso (GDP e conversão alimentar (CA de cada tratamento. Os resultados finais de CA e GDP para cada tratamento foram, respectivamente: para T75, 6,31:1 e 71,52g; para T150, 4,08:1 e 65.14g; para T300, 3,57:1 e 59,60g; e para T600, 2,96:1 e 69,17g. Em relação ao ganho de peso, T600 e T75 foram semelhantes (P > 0,01 sendo que T600 apresentou melhor CA que T75 (P To determine the carrying capacity and overall performance of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L. in small volume cages, 5,850 sexually inverted fingerlings, averaging 18.85 g of live weight, were stocked in 1.3 m3 cages, at densities of 75, 150, 300, and 600 fish/m3 (T75; T150; T300, and T600. The 196-day long trial was set up in a totally randomized design, with 4 treatments and 3 replicates. Cages were set up in a 4-ha, 2 m average depth reservoir. Twenty percent (20% of each cage stock were weighed and measured every 30 d to determine growth rate as weight gain (WG, and feed conversion rate (FCR. Fish were fed twice-a-day (09:00 and 17:00 h an extruded, floating, 28% crude protein commercial diet. Feed consumption, mortality and water temperature were recorded at feeding time, and pH, dissolved oxygen (DO and water transparency were recorded monthly. The first evaluation (30-d showed FCR values between 0.68 and 2.40:1, and WG between 11.19 and 21.52 g. Best FCR values were recorded for T600. However, the stock could not repeat or maintain the initial performance level, and final results showed: FCR = 6.31:1 and WG = 71.52 g for T75; FCR = 4.08:1 and WG = 65.14 g for T150; FCR = 3.57:1 and WG = 59.60 g for T300; and FCR = 2.96:1 and WG = 69.17 g for T600. The best WG result was attained by T600, which was not significantly different of T75 (P<0.01. The FCR was better for T600 than for T75. The performance of both T150 and T300 was inferior to T600 and T75. Compared to literature data, the performance of Nile tilapia in this trial was very poor. Low cage effective depth (0.85 cm, causing thermal and brightness stress, poor quality of commercial feed and low sex reversal rate of fish stock could explain the unsatisfactory results here obtained.

  10. Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil / Ectoparasitas de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) criadas em tanques-rede em um reservatório de usina hidrelétrica no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Cristina, Zago; Lidiane, Franceschini; Fabiana, Garcia; Sérgio Henrique Canello, Schalch; Kátia Suemi, Gozi; Reinaldo José da, Silva.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar análise parasitológica de tilápias-do-Nilo, (Oreochromis niloticus) criadas em tanques-rede no Reservatório de Água Vermelha, Sudeste do Brasil, bem como verificar suas inter-relações com as características limnológicas, sazonalidade e fase de criação. D [...] urante o período de março de 2010 a março de 2011, espécimes de O. niloticus, pertencentes a três fases de criação (inicial, intermediária e final), foram colhidos, totalizando 63 indivíduos. Todos os peixes estavam infestados por pelo menos uma espécie de ectoparasita (prevalência = 100%). Foi observada a ocorrência de cinco espécies de protozoários (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare e Epistylis sp.), assim como cinco espécies de monogenóides (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis e Gyrodactylus sp.). A abundância de Trichodina spp. e prevalência de Epistylis sp. foram maiores no período seco, e a prevalência de C. halli foi maior no período chuvoso. Para a maioria dos ectoparasitas encontrados neste estudo, os peixes pertencentes às fases intermediária e final apresentaram maiores taxas de parasitismo do que aqueles pertencentes à fase inicial. Os dados apresentados neste estudo podem ser de grande importância para piscicultores, de forma a auxiliá-los no conhecimento da dinâmica dos parasitas da espécie de peixe estudada em sistemas de tanques-rede. Abstract in english For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three speci [...] mens of O. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylis sp.) and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp.) were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems.

  11. Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréia B., Poletto; Adriane P., Wasko; Claudio, Oliveira; Alexandre, Azevedo; Robson F., Carvalho; Maeli Dal Pai, Silva; Fausto, Foresti; Cesar, Martins.

    Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa) sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those o [...] f other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

  12. Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. Poletto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

  13. Desempenho da tilápia nilótica Oreochromis niloticus (L.) em gaiolas de pequeno volume / Performance of the nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) raised in small volume cages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Luiz Naslausky, Bozano; Samer Ramos Monteiro, Rodrigues; Alexsandra Carmen, Caseiro; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Alevinos de tilápia nilótica Oreochromis niloticus (L.) com peso médio de 18,85 g, foram estocados em gaiolas de 1,7 m3 cada, em densidades de 75, 150, 300 e 600 peixes/m3 (T75; T150; T300 e T600), num delineamento inteiramente casualizado (4 tratamentos e 3 repetições), e criados por 196 dias, com [...] ração comercial extrusada, flutuante, contendo 28% de proteína bruta. A cada 30 dias, 20% do lote de peixes de cada gaiola foi medido e pesado para determinar ganho de peso (GDP) e conversão alimentar (CA) de cada tratamento. Os resultados finais de CA e GDP para cada tratamento foram, respectivamente: para T75, 6,31:1 e 71,52g; para T150, 4,08:1 e 65.14g; para T300, 3,57:1 e 59,60g; e para T600, 2,96:1 e 69,17g. Em relação ao ganho de peso, T600 e T75 foram semelhantes (P > 0,01) sendo que T600 apresentou melhor CA que T75 (P Abstract in english To determine the carrying capacity and overall performance of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in small volume cages, 5,850 sexually inverted fingerlings, averaging 18.85 g of live weight, were stocked in 1.3 m3 cages, at densities of 75, 150, 300, and 600 fish/m3 (T75; T150; T300, and T6 [...] 00). The 196-day long trial was set up in a totally randomized design, with 4 treatments and 3 replicates. Cages were set up in a 4-ha, 2 m average depth reservoir. Twenty percent (20%) of each cage stock were weighed and measured every 30 d to determine growth rate as weight gain (WG), and feed conversion rate (FCR). Fish were fed twice-a-day (09:00 and 17:00 h) an extruded, floating, 28% crude protein commercial diet. Feed consumption, mortality and water temperature were recorded at feeding time, and pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and water transparency were recorded monthly. The first evaluation (30-d) showed FCR values between 0.68 and 2.40:1, and WG between 11.19 and 21.52 g. Best FCR values were recorded for T600. However, the stock could not repeat or maintain the initial performance level, and final results showed: FCR = 6.31:1 and WG = 71.52 g for T75; FCR = 4.08:1 and WG = 65.14 g for T150; FCR = 3.57:1 and WG = 59.60 g for T300; and FCR = 2.96:1 and WG = 69.17 g for T600. The best WG result was attained by T600, which was not significantly different of T75 (P

  14. Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, São Paulo State, Brazil Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Sati Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus rearing. Sampling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months, taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses, compreendendo a água de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos.

  15. Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo State, Brazil / Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeniffer Sati, Pereira; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; André Martins, Vaz-dos-Santos; Clóvis Ferreira do, Carmo; João Alexandre Saviolo, Osti.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia [...] do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses), compreendendo a água de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos. Abstract in english Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) rearing. Sa [...] mpling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months), taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.

  16. Heavy Metal (Lead, Cadmium and Antibiotic (Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol Residues in Fresh and Frozen Fish Types (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popoola Amirah Folashade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the level of heavy metals (lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd and antibiotics (tetracycline and chloramphenicol residues in frozen and fresh fish types obtained from Eleyele river, Officer’s mess, Alfa farm and a major frozen meat outlet in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC were used to analyze the heavy metals and antibiotics residue levels in fresh and frozen fish, respectively. The results showed mean concentrations of antibiotics was higher (p<0.05 in fresh than in frozen fish samples while there were no significant differences in the mean concentrations of heavy metal residue. The differences of mean residue levels in both antibiotics and heavy metals tested in the cranial and caudal parts of the fish samples were not significant (p<0.05. However, there was a significant difference between species (tilapia and catfish and sources. The highest heavy metals and tetraxycline residues were observed in Alfa’s farm (Pb: 0.039±0.004 ppm; Cd: 0.020±0.006 ppm; tetraxycline: 2.185±0.412. Chloramphenicol was highest in Officers mess (0.837±0.165 ppm. The heavy metals (Pb and Cd concentrations determined were below the maximum permissible limits set by both local and international safety agencies. Tetraxcycline exceeded international limits of 0.2 ppm while Chloramphenicol which has a zero tolerance level was also detected from all sources. This study accentuates the need for control of heavy metals and antibiotics in fish sold for human consumption in Ibadan, Nigeria. The need to ban chloramphenicol in treatment of fish and other animals is emphasised.

  17. The Effects of Different Oils Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai A. Bozaoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 600 juvenile fish with average initial weight of 2.540.07 g were enrolled to this study to investigate the effects of different oil sources (fish oil, soybean oil, linseed oil and beef tallow on the growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L. during 14 weeks. Experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous (30.76% CP and isocaloric (13.09 MJ DE kg-1. At the end of the study, it was observed that there were no significant differences among the groups for average live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, Condition Factor (CF, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Specific Growth Rate (SGR and survival rate (p>0.05 but carcass composition (p<0.05.

  18. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

  19. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TATIANA S, FIUZA; PAULO C, SILVA; JOSÉ R DE, PAULA; LEONICE M F, TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T, SABÓIA-MORAIS.

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish or [...] ally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  20. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA S FIUZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  1. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula A.P., Ribeiro; Kleber C., Miranda-Filho; Daniela C. de, Melo; Ronald K., Luz.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aquicultura, as atividades com anestésicos são normalmente empregadas a fim de assegurar o bem-estar dos peixes cultivados, permitindo a manipulação fora da água diminuindo desta forma o trauma por estresse. Atualmente, não há nenhuma informação sobre a ação anestésica do eugenol em fases iniciai [...] s de vida de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar diferentes concentrações de eugenol para larvas e juvenis de tilápia do Nilo. Sessenta animais foram usados em cada grupo de peso, o grupo I = 0,02 g; grupo II = 0,08 g; grupo III = 0,22 g; grupo IV = 2,62 g; e grupo V = 11,64 g. As concentrações de eugenol testadas foram 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 e 175 mg L-1. Não houve mortes durante os testes com eugenol. Larvas de tilápia com 0,02 g e juvenis em torno de 11,64 g podem ser anestesiados com concentrações de eugenol entre 150 e 175 mg L-1, uma vez que determinam o menor tempo de sedação (23 e 72 segundos, para o grupo de peso menor e maior, respectivamente). Abstract in english In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis [...] niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively).

  2. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2012-10-28

    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P < 0·05), being 11% lower with 'high' than with 'low' DP:DE ratio diets, which was in line with the 11·9% higher oxygen demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P < 0·001). As hypothesised ('oxystatic' theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia. PMID:22221412

  3. Nephroprotective and antioxidant significance of selenium and ?-tocopherol on lead acetate-induced toxicity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Emad A; Elgaml, Shimaa A; El-Murr, Abdelhakeem; Khalil, Ryad

    2015-06-01

    The kidney plays an important physiological function, maintaining the osmoregulation and electrolyte balance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Selenium and ?-tocopherol (?-toc) are potent antioxidants, which improve the aquaculture health. In this study, we tested the potential ability of selenium and ?-toc to alleviate the oxidative stress in the kidney induced by lead toxicity. Two hundred and twenty-five O. niloticus were divided into five groups. The control group received a basal diet. Lead nephrotoxicity was induced by daily application of 73.40 mg lead acetate/liter water for up to 10 weeks. Selenium and ?-tocopherol were given 1 week before lead intoxication. Selenium was administered as sodium selenite, 4 mg/kg dry diet. Alpha-tocopherol acetate was administered as ?-toc, 200 mg/kg dry diet. The last group received a mixture of selenium and ?-toc in diet. Fish treated with selenium and/or ?-toc (groups III-V) showed an amelioration of the adverse effects of lead toxicity and significant improvement in serum electrolytes (calcium, inorganic phosphate, and magnesium) and creatinine level compared with the positive control group (P ? 0.05). Treated groups showed significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activity with significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA; P ? 0.05). It could be concluded that selenium and ?-toc have a potential antioxidant effect and have the ability to improve the kidney function after lead intoxication of O. niloticus. PMID:25682289

  4. A comparative study on growth, composition and sensory quality between farmed and wild Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Mary N. Muchiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Moi University, Kenya, to investigate the effect of fish diets on growth, chemical composition and organoleptic quality of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and compared with wild tilapia from Lake Victoria. Fish were grown for six months in triplicates using three feeds: (i maize bran, (ii formulated diet containing maize bran, freshwater shrimp, soya bean and cotton seed cake and (iii control without supplemental feed. Fish were weighed fortnightly, chemical composition was done monthly and sensory quality was carried out at the end of the experiment. There was significant difference (P < 0.05 in growth between fish fed on different diets. Fish fed on formulated diet recording the highest weight, while control fish had lowest weight. Diet had significant effect (P < 0.05 on the lipid content but no effect on the other constituents. Taste and texture of the cooked meat were significantly affected by diet type (P < 0.05, with wild tilapia being most preferred and maize bran fed fish being least preferred. This study shows that with proper diet formulation, acceptable composition quality, sensory characteristics and growth rate of farmed tilapia can be achieved without using expensive commercial feeds. Cheap, locally available fish feed is likely to increase uptake of fish farming, thus increasing protein sources for rural communities living far from fish sources such as lakes and seas.

  5. Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper Alterações histopatológicas no epitélio hepático e branquial da Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, exposta a diferentes concentrações de cobre

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    António Figueiredo-Fernandes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were reared in freshwater and exposed to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 of waterborne copper for a period of 21 days. Liver and gill samples were collected after 21 days of exposure to copper and lesions were analyzed by light microscopy. The main histopathological changes observed in gills exposed to the highest concentration were edema, lifting of lamellar epithelia and an intense vasodilatation of the lamellar vascular axis. Although less frequent, lamellar fusion caused by the filamentar epithelium proliferation and some lamellar aneurisms were also found. The liver of control group exhibited a quite normal architecture, while the fish exposed to copper showed vacuolation and necrosis. These hepatic alterations were more evident in fish exposed to 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 copper concentrations. The number of hepatocytes nucleus per mm² of hepatic tissue decreased with the increase of copper concentration. In contrast, the hepatic somatic index was high in fish exposed at 2.5mg L-1 of copper. In short, this work advance new knowledge as influence of copper in the gill and liver histology of O. niloticus and demonstrated that their effects could be observed at different concentrations.Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram mantidas em água doce e expostas a concentrações de 0.5, 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1 de sulfato de cobre durante um período de 21 dias. Amostras de fígado e de brânquia foram coletadas após o tempo de exposição e as lesões foram analisadas por microscopia óptica. As principais alterações histopatológicas observadas nas brânquias foram edema, "lifting" do epitélio lamelar e uma intensa vasodilatação do eixo lamelar. Embora menos freqüentes, a fusão lamelar causada pela proliferação do epitélio filamentar e alguns aneurismas lamelares também foram observadas. O fígado do grupo controle exibiu uma arquitetura normal, enquanto os dos peixes expostos ao cobre apresentaram vacuolização e necrose. Estas lesões hepáticas foram mais evidentes nos peixes expostos a concentrações de cobre de 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1. O número dos núcleos dos hepatócitos / mm² de tecido hepático decresceu com o aumento da concentração de cobre. Em contraste, o índice hepatossomático foi mais elevado nos peixes expostos a 2.5mg L-1 de cobre. Em resumo, este trabalho acrescenta nova informação sobre a influência do cobre ao nível da histologia da brânquia e do fígado de O. niloticus e demonstra que os seus efeitos podem ser observados em diferentes concentrações.

  6. Effect of vitamin C dietary supplementation in reducing the alterations induced by fenitrothion in Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Gawad, Eman A; Abdel Hamid, Omnia M

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary effect of vitamin C in amelioration some of studied alterations induced by fenitrothion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was exposed to sub-lethal concentration of fenitrothion 0.04 mg/l (96 h LC50 value was 0.8 mg/l), and basal diet was supplemented with two different dose of vitamin C (500 and 1200 mg/kg B wt/day) for 30 days. Vitamin C supplemented groups showed significant decrease in plasma cortisol and glucose level, enzymes activity of liver and gills (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase) and % of tail DNA damage compared to exposed group. Moreover, fish revealed significant increase in total plasma protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio. High dose of vitamin C dietary supplementation (1200 mg/kg B wt/day) returns these parameters to its normal levels with no significant difference compared to non exposed control group. These results indicated that incorporation of high dose of vitamin C (1200 mg) in aqua feed for 30 days could be potentially less expensive and effective in reducing the alterations induced by fenitrothion in Nile tilapia. PMID:24197701

  7. Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Tabita Kamara; Wenshui Xia; Betty Mabel Foh; Issoufou Amadou; Mohamed Beva Kelfala Foh

    2010-01-01

    Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis...

  8. EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow) at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05) differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein retention (NPR), apparent net energy retention (...

  9. DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO, COMPOSICIÓN Y BIODISPONIBILIDAD RELATIVA DE SELENIO EN TILAPIA NILÓTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPLEMENTADA CON SELENIO ORGÁNICO E INORGÁNICO / PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE SELENIUM BIOAVAILABILITY IN NILE TILAPIA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SELENIUM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. E, Vinchira; G. A, Wills; A. P, Muñoz.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño productivo, la composición corporal y la biodisponibilidad relativa de selenio en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) suplementada con selenio dietario. Una dieta basal fue suplementada con selenio en forma de selenito de sodio o seleno-levadura en niveles crecientes de s [...] uplementación (0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80 y 1.60 mg/kg de dieta). Un total de 336 individuos de tilapia nilótica, con un peso inicial de 13.41±0.12 g, fueron distribuidos de forma aleatoria en 48 acuarios de vidrio (80 l, 4 réplicas, 7 peces por acuario). No se detectó selenio en el agua de abastecimiento. Los peces fueron alimentados hasta saciedad aparente 3 veces al día por un período de 9 semanas. El desempeño productivo de la tilapia nilótica no se vio afectado (P>0.05) por la suplementación con selenio dietario. El selenio corporal se incrementó de forma lineal (P Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance, whole body selenium retention and relative selenium bioavailability in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A practical basal diet was supplemented with either sodium selenite or seleno-yeast at tilapia fish (n=336) with an initial w [...] eight of 13.41±0.12 g were randomly distributed into forty-eight glass aquaria (80 l, 4 replicates, 7 fish per aquarium). There was no detectable selenium in supply water. Fish were fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation three times daily for nine weeks. Selenium supplementation did not affect the productive performance of Nile tilapia (P>0.05). Total whole body selenium increase linearly in response to dietary selenium supplementation (P

  10. Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan, Vieira; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.12 [...] 5; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g), estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L), alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5). O ganho de peso (GDP) e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA) de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%). Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie. Abstract in english Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g) s [...] tocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L), kept under controlled environmental conditions inside 1000-L plastic pools, were fed to satiation, for 42 days, with purified diets supplemented with 0, 375, 750, 1125, 1500 or 1875 mg of choline chloride per kg of feed. Trial was set up in an incomplete, totally randomized block design (n=5). There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and survival rate (S%); there were significant differences for weight gain (WG) and food conversion ratio (FCR) between the control and all the other treatments, but not between supplementation levels. A second trial (52 days) evaluated the effects of higher rates of choline -- 1250 or 2500 mg per kg of feed, and the substitution of choline by betaine in the diets -- 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg of betaine per kg of feed. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and S%, but the FCR and WG of fish fed betaine-supplemented and control diets were significantly worse. There were no differences on the performance among groups fed the choline-supplemented diets. Supplementation of 375 mg of choline per kg of feed met nutritional requirements of Nile tilapia, and betaine did not substitute choline effectively in diets for the species.

  11. Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vieira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g, estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L, alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5. O ganho de peso (GDP e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%. Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L, kept under controlled environmental conditions inside 1000-L plastic pools, were fed to satiation, for 42 days, with purified diets supplemented with 0, 375, 750, 1125, 1500 or 1875 mg of choline chloride per kg of feed. Trial was set up in an incomplete, totally randomized block design (n=5. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and survival rate (S%; there were significant differences for weight gain (WG and food conversion ratio (FCR between the control and all the other treatments, but not between supplementation levels. A second trial (52 days evaluated the effects of higher rates of choline -- 1250 or 2500 mg per kg of feed, and the substitution of choline by betaine in the diets -- 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg of betaine per kg of feed. There were no significant differences among treatments for total body and liver lipid contents, and S%, but the FCR and WG of fish fed betaine-supplemented and control diets were significantly worse. There were no differences on the performance among groups fed the choline-supplemented diets. Supplementation of 375 mg of choline per kg of feed met nutritional requirements of Nile tilapia, and betaine did not substitute choline effectively in diets for the species.

  12. EFECTO DE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN PESQUERA DEL EMBALSE EL GUÁJARO ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caraballo G, M.Sc.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus sobre la producción pesquera en el embalse de El Guájaro, departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El embalse tiene un área aproximada de 14.000 ha y allí pescan diariamente 2.500 pescadores provenientes de ocho municipios que rodean el ecosistema. Por medio de evaluaciones mensuales del desembarco durante 48 horas en todos los puertos, fue evaluada la composición y abundancia de las capturas en 1988 y 2002. Los resultados de la evaluación hecha en 2002 fueron comparados con los obtenidos en 1988. Resultados. 38 especies de peces, perteneciendo a 14 familias fueron identificadas. Sólo las dos especies que dominan las capturas, presentaron una variación en su participación global. La producción durante 2002 fue de 431 ton/mes, superior a las 84 ton/mes evaluadas en el año 1988. Durante 2002, las capturas fueron dominadas por tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (53% y arenca Triportheus magdalenae (36% lo que representa una variación en la composición de las capturas que, durante 1988 fueron respectivamente de 13% y 73%. Esta variación no afectó la proporción de herbívoros y carnívoros que se mantuvo en 90-10%. Conclusiones. La variación en la composición y abundancia de la producción total implica el desplazamiento de una especie nativa (Triportheus magdalenae por una exótica (Oreochromis niloticus, hecho que viene siendo observado en toda la cuenca del Magdalena en esta década.

  13. Effects of aflatoxin B1 on sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn. x O. mossambicus Peters

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    Supamattaya, K.3

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus to assess the effects of diets containing various levels (i.e. 0, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 and 2,500 ppb of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on growth performance, blood parameters and histopathology of fish. Results showed that experimental fish fed AFB1 with 2,500 ppb showed significant reduced weight gain and hepatosomatic index. However, feed supplemented with AFB1 caused no effect on survival rate of the fish in each group. Feeding high level of AFB1 (1,000 and 2,500 ppb also affected some blood parameters i.e. hemoglobin and plasma protein. Some histopathological changes (i.e. cloudy swelling, inflammation and cell necrosis were observed in liver and pancreas of fish fed AFB1 with 1,000 and 2,500 ppb. The severity of symptoms was related with concentration of AFB1. This indicated that AFB1 may impair the functioning of fish hepatocytes. However, no residue of AFB1 was detected in fish tissues at completion of the feeding period. It can be concluded that fish feeds occasionally contaminated with AFB1 directly affected fish health but may have no negative impact on fish consumers.

  14. Determination of some heavy metals in oreochromis niloticus, clarias gariepinus and synodontis spp from the coastal water of Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Mn, and Cr) were determined in Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias graiepinus and Synodontis spp obtained from the coastal water of Ondo State. All metals examined and detected in all fish samples. Iron, manganese and cadmium were found to be the most abundant metals in the fish samples with an average values of 35.8, 31.3, and 12.5 mg kg-1 respectively. Except for manganese, iron and cadmium, Syndrontis spp has the highest concentration for virtually all the metals under examination. (author)

  15. Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P0.05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein proeasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved growth performances, feed and nutrients utilization and whole body composition (dry matter, protein and energy content) in Nile tilapia fry. (author)

  16. Simulation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) culture in ponds, through individual-based modelling, using a population dynamic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, G. J.; Dekker, P. J.; Huisman, E. A.; Verreth, J. A. J.

    2005-01-01

    A simulation model for the production of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) for mixed- or mono-sex culture and for poly-culture with the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) or African snakehead (Parachanna obscura Günther 1861) is presented. The model is based on an exponential decay model used in population dynamics and follows an individual-based approach. The model consists of a tilapia sub-model representing population dynamics, growth and recruitment an...

  17. Contrasting mercury accumulation patterns in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and implications on somatic growth dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-06-15

    Dietary ingestion constitutes a major pathway for mercury (Hg) accumulation in freshwater fish, thus the ingestion rate (IR) may greatly influence the Hg bioaccumulation through its effect on Hg influx and other biokinetic processes. To explore the complex influence of IR, we conducted long-term bioaccumulation experiments by accurately controlling the IRs in the freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The dietary accumulation of both inorganic mercury (Hg[II]) and methylmercury (MeHg) in tilapia under different IRs was monitored over a period of 30 days by feeding the fish with uniformly radiolabeled crustaceans. The biokinetic parameters under various IRs were concurrently determined. With the increase of IR from 0.01 g g?¹ d?¹ to 0.12 g g?¹ d?¹, the dietary assimilation efficiency of Hg(II) in the tilapia decreased by 43% while the elimination rate increased by a factor of 1.8; both biokinetic changes slowed down the overall Hg(II) bioaccumulation at high IRs. In contrast to Hg(II), the biokinetics of MeHg was not significantly influenced, but its bioaccumulation increased disproportionally with increasing IR, showing slower increase at higher IR. We then employed a biokinetic model to simulate the long-term mercury bioaccumulation patterns in tilapia at various IRs. The modeling results indicated that the growth effect could not be ignored in long-term accumulation process. A rapid growth of fish driven by food availability could significantly reduce the MeHg concentrations in the tilapia. Our results demonstrated for the first time the contrasting influences of dietary ingestion on the long-term bioaccumulation of Hg(II) and MeHg. The somatic growth dilution was much more likely to occur for MeHg than for Hg(II). PMID:22417761

  18. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 ?g/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 ?g/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 ?g/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 ?g/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (p<0.05). The number of predator attacks necessary to capture larvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 ?g/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers. PMID:21794226

  19. Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

  20. Desempenho produtivo da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. em diferentes densidades e trocas de água em “raceway” Productive performance of the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. in tanks with different water exchanges and stocking density in raceway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo dos alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, (Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes Cichlidae estocados nas densidades de 90, 120 e 150 peixes/tanque, em 24 tanques circulares com 0,5 m³, em duas trocas totais de água (30 e 60 minutos, no sistema “raceway”. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2, para análise dos dados. Após 128 dias, o peso final e o ganho de peso foram superiores na maior troca de água e menor densidade; a conversão alimentar não alterou significativamente; a biomassa total aumentou com o aumento da renovação de água e densidade de estocagem de 120 e 150 peixes/m³; a taxa de crescimento específico aumentou na maior renovação da água; os rendimentos de filé e de carcaça diminuíram com a menor troca de água nas maiores densidades de estocagem. Os melhores resultados ocorreram com troca total de água em 30 minutos, nas densidades de estocagem de 120 e 150 peixes/m³.Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes Cichlidae fingerlings were stocked at 90, 120 and 150 fishes in 24 circular tanks (0,5 m³, submitted to two full water exchanges, in a 30 and 60 minutes, in raceway system, to evaluate productive performance. The performance results were analyzed through a completely randomized design, in a 3x2 factorial scheme. After 128 days, the final weight and the weight gain were higher in larger water exchange and lower stocking density. The feed conversion ratio with non-significant statistical differences. The total biomass increased with the water exchange and stocking density increasing for 120 and 150 fishes/m³; the specific growth ratio increased with water exchange increasing; the fillet yield and the carcass yield decreased significantly with lower water exchange and bigger stocking density. In this research, it was concluded that the best performance parameters were obtained with full water exchange in 30 minutes, at bigger stocking densities.

  1. Coeficientes de digestibilidade e valores de aminoácidos digestíveis de alguns ingredientes para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Digestibility coefficients and digestible amino acids values of some ingredients for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson Massamitu, Furuya; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Antônio Celso, Pezzato; Margarida Maria, Barros; Edma Carvalho de, Miranda.

    1143-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja e da farinha de peixe. Empregaram-se juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) (25,24 ± 3,88 g) alimentados com ração referência peletizada conten [...] do 0,10% de óxido de crômio (indicador) e 33,78% de proteína bruta. O CDA médio dos aminoácidos foi de: 88,31; 77,40; 91,78 e 82,58% para o milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja e farinha de peixe, respectivamente. Ainda que os resultados sugiram que o CDA da proteína possa ser indicativo do CDA dos aminoácidos, seus valores individuais variaram dentre e entre os ingredientes avaliados. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis devem ser usados na formulação de rações completas (precisas) e econômicas. Abstract in english This study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of amino acids for corn, wheat bran, soybean meal and fish meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), juveniles (25.24 ± 3.88 g), fed purified pelletized reference diet containing 33.78% crude protein and 0.10% [...] of chromic oxide (indicator). The average ADC of amino acids were: 88.31; 77.40; 91.78 and 82.58% for corn, wheat meal, soybean meal and fish meal, respectively. Althought results suggest that the protein ADC value is indicative of amino acids ADC, there was variability in individual amino acid digestibility within and among the tested feeds. The results suggest that use of digestible values of amino acids should be use for more accurate and economical feed formulation.

  2. Qualidade microbiológica de filés de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) durante o armazenamento em gelo / Microbiological quality of the Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets in ice storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva, Soares; Alex Augusto, Gonçalves; Lara Barbosa de, Souza.

    2273-22-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o frescor microbiológico de filés sem pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), cultivada durante o seu armazenamento em gelo. Os filés com peso médio de 120g foram acondicionados em caixas isotérmicas, com gelo em escama, na proporção de 1:1 (filé: [...] gelo). Estas caixas foram armazenadas em uma câmara fria, com temperatura externa e interna de aproximadamente 4°C e 0ºC, respectivamente. Realizaram-se análises microbiológicas a cada 72 horas, a partir do tempo zero, em triplicata. A qualidade microbiológica das amostras de tilápia foi aceitável durante o armazenamento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological freshness of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skinless fillets, during storage in ice. The average weight of 120g fillets were packed in cool boxes with scale ice, 1:1 ratio (fillet: ice). These boxes were stored in a cold room with [...] internal and external temperature of about 4°C and 0°C, respectively. Microbiological analyzes were performed every 72 hours from time zero in triplicate. The microbiological quality of the tilapia samples was acceptable during storage.

  3. Subacute intoxication of a deltamethrin-based preparation (Butox) 5% EC) in monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yasser Said; Saad, Talaat Talaat

    2008-03-01

    The monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., was exposed to subacute concentration (1.46 microg/l) of a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin for 28 consecutive days. Behavioural, clinical, haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological consequences were assayed at a regular interval of 7 days. The abnormal behavioural responses and toxic symptoms were described. Exposure to deltamethrin not only significantly decreased lymphocyte and basophile percentages, total leucocytic and total erythrocytic counts, haemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume value, but also caused serious effects in the form of hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperglycaemia and significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Moreover, the histopathological results indicated that the haemobiotic organs were affected by deltamethrin, primarily liver and gills. Our data suggest that subacute exposure to deltamethrin exerts a serious metabolic distress on the fish corresponding to the exposure period. In addition, the assayed parameters and histopathological findings can be as good biomarkers of pyrethroid ecosystem pollution. PMID:18053029

  4. Volume densities and absolute volumes of mitochondria in body trunk red muscle of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kista, S M

    1993-01-01

    The volume densities /Vv(mt,f)/ and absolute volumes of mitochondria /v(mt)/ were determined in body trunk red muscle of 15 specimens of Oreochromis niloticus weighing 0.65-812.3 g. Vv(mt,f) had a volume of 0.284 +/- 0.012 (S.E.) and V(mt) a value of 0.551 +/- 0.202 (cm3) (S.E.). Both parameters had scaling values of -0.028 and 1.13, respectively, when related to body weight. These results show that there might not be much change in the oxidative metabolism of red muscle with development. The greater than unity value for the scaling value of V(mt) in relation to body weight is due to the high scaling value of body trunk red muscle (1.157) in relation to fish body weight /11/. PMID:8184633

  5. Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.This study was carried out to determine the digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The chromic oxide (0.1% was used as an inert indicador in the semi-purified diet and faeces were collected by Guelph system. Fish were fed to apparent satiation. The apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal were: 77.84, 71.99, 86.92, 88.19, 67.16, and 29.86% for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, respectively, corresponding to 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69.97, 32.6, 1.2, 0.41, and 0.28% of, digestible energy, dry matter, protein and lipids and available calcium and phosphorus, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment evidence that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize canola meal eficiently.

  7. Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Robles-Basto, Cindy M; Mena-herrera, Alfredo

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in length) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T0) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T15, T30 and T45), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T15 and T30 (pfeed efficiency occurred in the hormone-treated fish. Fish in the RGH treatment showed the most growth, suggesting a possible interaction between 17-MT and injected GH. PMID:23894974

  8. Fontes de fibra bruta em dietas de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Fiber sources in diet performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, realizado no Laboratório de Aquicultura DBI/UEM, avaliou o bagaço de cana (BC, bagaço de cana hidrolizado (BH, sabugo de milho (SM e casca de arroz (CA como fontes de fibra bruta em rações para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo, durante 37 dias. Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo, com peso inicial de 0,60 ? 0,01g, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental constituída por um tanque-rede com capacidade para 160L. O peso final dos animais alimentados com a ração contendo SM foi superior (p 0,05 do BH e CA, para o comprimento final o SM foi superior (p 0,05. Para a percentagem de ganho de peso o SM e o BH foram similares (p > 0,05 e superiores (p Fiber sources, namely, sugar cane bagasse (CB, hydrolyzed sugar cane bagasse (HB, corn cob (CC and rice hulls (RH, were evaluated for their performance in diets of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerling. Experiment lasted 37 days and was done at the Aquaculture Lab of the State University of Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil. 240 fingerlings, mean initial weight 0,60?0,01g, were employed. Distributed in completely randomized blocks design, the fish underwent four treatments and six replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 160 L pens. Mean final weight of Nile tilapia fingerlings fed on CC diet was higher than those fed on CB (p < 0.05. HB and RH, however, showed no difference from results with other diets. In final length CC was better (p < 0.05 than CB and RH and there was no difference in HB when compared to other treatments. Concerning weight gain ratio, CC and HB were alike and both were better than RH and CB. With regard to Nile tilapia fingerling performance CC and HB have better fiber sources than CB and RH.

  9. Effect of Feeding Different Grain Sources on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings Fed in Outdoor Hapas

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, S. G.; L.O. Tiamiyu; U.J. Agaba

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the growth performance and body composition of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L) fingerlings (4.70g ? 0.09) fed Isonitrogenous and Isoenergetic diet of 25% crude protein containing different grain sources (maize, wheat, rice, sorghum and millet) designated DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 respectively. The study lasted for 56 days. Fish fed a diet containing maize gave the highest mean weight gain (MWG) of 6.05g; highest specific growth rate (SGR) of 1.47; best food c...

  10. Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas species as probiotics for promoting the growth performance and health of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rhman, Azza M; Khattab, Yassir A E; Shalaby, Adel M E

    2009-08-01

    Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas species were isolated from the gonads and intestine of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. M. luteus and Ps. species antagonized Aeromonas hydrophila with inhibition zone of 4 and 9 cm diameter, respectively. Both microorganisms were added to artificial basal diet with 30% crude protein to evaluate their efficacy on the growth-performance and survival rate, besides some blood-parameters and chemistry. Two hundred and forty O. niloticus with average body-weight of 2.35 +/- 0.1 g/fish were equally divided into four treatments of triplet replicates. T(1) was given basal diet (control), T(2) was given basal diet with M. luteus, T(3) was given basal diet with Ps. species, T(4) was given basal diet with both M. luteus and Ps. Species. Fishes were fed twice daily at the rate of 3% of their live body-weight, for six days a week during the experimental periods (90 day). Fish were challenged by A. hydrophila (0.3 x 10(7) cells ml(-1)) via intra-peritoneal injection and kept for 14 more days. The best growth rate, feed utilization and survival rate were noticed with T(2). The erythrocyte-count was significantly higher with T(2) than T(3) than the control T(1). The hematocrit-values (HCT) and hemoglobin-content (Hb) were significantly decreased with T(3) and T(4). The highest glucose-level was recorded with T(3). The challenged fish of T(2) showed 25% mortality, while T(1), T(3) and T(4) showed 80-90% mortality. M. luteus enhanced the fish growth and health. It is recommended to use M. luteus as a probiotic in vivo, while Pseudomonas species showed probiotic effects in vitro only. PMID:19361560

  11. Characterization and evaluation of the impact of feed management on the effluents of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Eliza, Baccarin; Antonio Fernando Monteiro, Camargo.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes manejos alimentares: alimento natural, ração peletizada, extrusada ou farelada, sobre a qualidade da água dos efluentes gerados em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). O experimento foi desenvolvido durante [...] 19 semanas em doze viveiros de 300 m², com renovação contínua de água, povoados com juvenis machos de tilápia do Nilo na densidade de 1,7 peixes m-2. As rações isoproteícas (30% de proteína bruta) e isoenergéticas (3.000kcal de energia digestível) foram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia. Quanto ao tratamento alimento natural, foi utilizado esterco de galinha poedeira. Semanalmente, foram aferidos na água de abastecimento e nos efluentes, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, fósforo total, nitrogênio total, clorofila a e material em suspensão. De maneira geral, houve piora na qualidade da água dos efluentes de todos os tratamentos estudados, em comparação a água de abastecimento, evidenciando o impacto ambiental desta atividade produtiva, podendo levar a eutrofização dos corpos d'água receptores. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed management on the quality of effluent water generated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture ponds. Feed was supplied as follows: natural food, and pelleted, extruded or minced ration. The study was conducted during 19 [...] weeks in 12 continuous water exchange ponds of 300 m² each, with a population of male Nile tilapia juveniles, in a density equal to 1.7 fish m-2. Feeds contained 30% crude protein, 3,000 kcal digestible energy, and were supplied twice a day. Natural food consisted of chicken manure. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll a and suspended solids were monitored weekly in the supplying and effluent water. Water residence time was also determined for the ponds. In general, effluent water quality decreased in all treatments.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of the impact of feed management on the effluents of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eliza Baccarin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different feed management on the quality of effluent water generated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus culture ponds. Feed was supplied as follows: natural food, and pelleted, extruded or minced ration. The study was conducted during 19 weeks in 12 continuous water exchange ponds of 300 m² each, with a population of male Nile tilapia juveniles, in a density equal to 1.7 fish m-2. Feeds contained 30% crude protein, 3,000 kcal digestible energy, and were supplied twice a day. Natural food consisted of chicken manure. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll a and suspended solids were monitored weekly in the supplying and effluent water. Water residence time was also determined for the ponds. In general, effluent water quality decreased in all treatments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes manejos alimentares: alimento natural, ração peletizada, extrusada ou farelada, sobre a qualidade da água dos efluentes gerados em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O experimento foi desenvolvido durante 19 semanas em doze viveiros de 300 m², com renovação contínua de água, povoados com juvenis machos de tilápia do Nilo na densidade de 1,7 peixes m-2. As rações isoproteícas (30% de proteína bruta e isoenergéticas (3.000kcal de energia digestível foram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia. Quanto ao tratamento alimento natural, foi utilizado esterco de galinha poedeira. Semanalmente, foram aferidos na água de abastecimento e nos efluentes, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, fósforo total, nitrogênio total, clorofila a e material em suspensão. De maneira geral, houve piora na qualidade da água dos efluentes de todos os tratamentos estudados, em comparação a água de abastecimento, evidenciando o impacto ambiental desta atividade produtiva, podendo levar a eutrofização dos corpos d'água receptores.

  13. Oxidative stress responses and recovery patterns in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to chlorpyrifos-ethyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Elif

    2012-05-01

    Chlorpyrifos is the most common insecticide in freshwater ecosystems, and detected in agricultural and fishery product. In this study, Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 ppb sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos in order to determine the oxidative stress response in liver. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly inhibited. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased after 15 days of chlorpyrifos treatments at all concentrations (146.95%, 53.04%, 208.70%, respectively). Malondialdehyde levels were higher than that of the control level after 15 days of 5 ppb (95.65%), 10 ppb (69.56%) and 15 ppb (252.17%) chlorpyrifos treatments. Malondialdehyde levels were also increased ranging from 59.09%, 113.63% to 195.46% after 30 days of 5, 10 and 15 ppb chlorpyrifos exposures. Glutathione S-transferase activity decreased except for 15 days low concentration exposure. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased while there is no significant alteration in glutathione peroxidase activity. After recovery period, the low concentration group of chlorpyrifos provided a protection in AChE activity during recovery, but fish were observed to be unable to overcome the inhibition of AChE activity at high concentration groups. CAT activity remained reduced, SOD activity increased whereas the other biochemical parameters recovered to control levels. Results of this study suggest that chlorpyrifos induces oxidative stress in the liver of O. niloticus and this effect is not related with anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of pesticide. PMID:22310847

  14. Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

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    SatoshiOgawa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2 in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3 and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5µg/g body weight to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24 hr post injection (P < 0.001, while the treatment with an anti-thyroid, MMI (100 ppm for 6 days significantly reduced kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05. gnrh2, gnrh3 and thyrotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect.

  15. Efectos individuales de la ciclidogiriasis y estreptococosis inducidas en la bioquímica sanguínea de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus / Individual effects of cichlidogyriasis and streptococosis induced on the blood biochemistry of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan José, Sandoval-Gío; Miguel, Rosado-Vallado; Rossanna, Rodríguez-Canul.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se propone evaluar la posibilidad de utilizar los datos de la bioquímica sanguínea como diagnóstico presuntivo de un proceso infeccioso en tilapias Oreochromis niloticus, mediante infecciones inducidas por Streptococcus sp. o por la activación de la respuesta inmune inducida por antí [...] genos de Cichlidogyrus spp. Específicamente, se evaluó la variabilidad de algunos metabolitos de la bioquímica sanguínea de tilapias O. niloticus, desafiadas de manera individual con inyecciones intraperitoneales (IP) de cultivos celulares de Streptococcus sp. (Grupo STREP, n = 10) y extractos tisulares de Cichlidogyrus spp. (Grupo C-EXP, n = 10). Adicionalmente, a 10 tilapias, se les inyectó búfer salino de fosfato (PBS) (pH = 7), para ser usados como control de inmunizaciones (Grupo solución salina, SS). Además, 70 tilapias se mantuvieron en condiciones acuaculturales usuales y conformaron el grupo línea base (LB). Diez peces más, libres de infección, sirvieron como control negativo (Grupo CN). La bioquímica sanguínea (metabolitos y iones), se analizó por el método de microplaca. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo diferencias entre los grupos LB y CN (p > 0.05). En los peces STREP y C-EXP se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de glucosa, proteínas totales, albúmina y globulinas al compararlos con los peces LB (p 0.05). Para esta especie y en las condiciones de cultivo establecidas, las variaciones producidas por la infección con Streptococcus sp. y los antígenos de Cichlidogyrus spp., modificaron algunos parámetros de su bioquímica sanguínea, los cuales pueden servir como indicadores de posibles patologías infecciosas. Abstract in english In this study, we propose to evaluate the blood biochemistry as diagnosis technique of a pathologic process in tilapias Oreochromis niloticus by means of infections induced by Streptococcus sp. or by the activation of the immune response induced by antigens of Cichlidogyrus spp. Specifically, variat [...] ions of some metabolites from the blood biochemistry were evaluated in experimentally infected tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The organisms were intraperitoneally challenged (IP) with individual antigenic extracts of Streptococcus sp. (STREP Group, n = 10) and Cichlidogyrus spp. (C-EXP Group, n = 10), respectively, while 10 other tilapia were inoculated with a saline solution buffer (SS Group) and were used as immunization control. Another group of 70 tilapias was maintained in aquaculture conditions included the baseline group (LB). The negative control (CN) included 10 fish free of infection. The blood chemistry (metabolites and ions) were tested in a microplate format. No differences were observed between the LB and the CN groups (p > 0.05). Only fish injected with Streptococcus sp. (STREP) and Cichlidogyrus spp. (C-EXP) were significantly different with the values of glucose, total proteins, albumin, and globulins, when comparing with LB fish (p 0.05). The results from the induced infections with Streptococcus sp. and Cichlidogyrus spp., respectively, modified some parameters of the blood biochemistry of tilapia that could be used for some preliminary diagnosis of infectious diseases.

  16. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Koprucu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, corn (Zea mays gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida, gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. The ADC for protein were; anchovy (90.2%, corn gluten (88.5%, soybean (87.6%, gammarid (76.3% and crayfish exoskeleton (70.9% meals (p<0.05 for each case, except for anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals. The results of the study indicated that O. niloticus may efficiently utilise gammarid and crayfish exoskeleton meals as dietary protein source, like anchovy, corn gluten and soybean meals.

  17. Toxicidade aguda e efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat na brânquia e no fígado da tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus = Acute toxicity and histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on the gill and liver of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentração letal 50% e os efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat para a tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados em três experimentos. Os peixes foram expostos às concentrações de 0; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; e 60 mg de diquat L-1 e a histologia da brânquia e do fígado foi avaliada nos peixes sobreviventes. A CL (I 50-96h do diquat estimada foi de 37,28 mg L-1, com limite inferior de 33,12 mg L-1 e superior de 41,44mg L-1. No tratamento com 30, 35 e 40 mg L-1, ocorreram início de fusão apical das lamelas secundárias; com 45 e 50 mg L-1 ocorreram congestão nas lamelas primárias e no tratamento com 55 mg L-1, ocorreu congestão sangüínea nas lamelas secundárias. O fígado dos peixes dos tratamentos controle, 30 e 35 mg L-1 estavam com organização cordonal dos hepatócitos. Nos tratamentos com 40 e 45 mg L-1, ocorreram hipertrofia dos hepatócitos; com 50 e 55 mg L-1 ocorreram fusão celular e presença de vacúolos. O diquat apresentoubaixo risco de intoxicação à tilápia nilótica e as alterações histopatológicas mais severas ocorreram somente nas concentrações mais elevadas.The lethal concentration of 50% (LC (I 50-96h and the histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fish were evaluated in three experiments. The fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 mg diquat L-1, and gill and liver histology were evaluated in the surviving fishes. The estimated LC (I (50-96h of diquat was37.28 mg L-1, with lower limits of 33.12 mg L-1 and upper limits of 41.44 mg L-1. In the treatment with 30, 35 and 40 mg L-1, signs of apical fusion of the secondary lamellae were observed; with 45 and 50 mg L-1, congestion of the primary lamellae was observed; in thetreatment with 55 mg L-1, congestion of blood vessels on secondary lamellae took place. The livers of fishes in treatments with 0, 25, 30 and 35 mg L-1 showed cordonal organization of hepatocytes. In the treatments with 40 and 45 mg L-1, hypertrophy of hepatocytes took place; with 50 and 55 mg L-1, cell fusion and the presence of vacuolesinside hepatocytes were observed. Diquat presented low risk of toxicity for nile tilapia, as the more severe histopathologic alterations occurred only in higher concentrations.

  18. The effect of increased light intensity on the aggressive behavior of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thaís B., Carvalho; Francine Z., Mendonça; Roselene S., Costa-Ferreira; Eliane, Gonçalves-de-Freitas.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals show behavioral and physiological changes that emerge in response to environmental perturbations (i.e., emergency life-history stages). In this study, we investigate the effects of light intensity on aggressive encounters and social stability in groups of adult male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis [...] niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). The study compared the behavior observed under low (280.75 ± 50.60 lx) and high (1394.14 ± 520.32 lx) light intensities, with 12 replicates for each treatment. Adult fish were isolated in 36-L aquaria for 96 hours, and three males were grouped for 11 days in 140-L aquaria. Agonistic behavior was video-recorded (10 min/day) on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th day to quantify aggressive interactions and social stability. There was an effect of light intensity and day of observation on the total number of agonistic behaviors performed by the fish group. Besides, increased frequency of aggressive interactions (the sum of the four sessions) by the alpha, beta and gamma fish occurred at the higher light intensity. The dominance ranks of the fish remained unchanged across the observation sessions under both the low and high light intensities. We concluded that enhanced light intensity has a cumulative effect that increases the aggressiveness of the Nile tilapia but that this effect is not sufficiently strong to destabilize the social hierarchy.

  19. Effects of replacing fishmeal with wastes derived from local fisheries on the growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

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    Chanagun Chitmanat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially and totally replacing fishmeal with by-product derived from local fisheries on growth performances of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Tilapia fingerlings (average initialweight 0.38±0.05 g were fed with 5 different diet formulas composing of fish meal protein replacement levels of 0%, 25%,50%, 75, and 100%. Tilapia were raised in 80 x 80 x 80 cm3 hapa in an earthen pond for 8 weeks. Each treatment contained3 replications. No feeding trial was applied as negative control. The result showed that fish by-product powder could substitute for fishmeal on a crude protein basis at a level of not more than 25%. As a result, feed cost can only be cut down approximately 3 US cents/kg. Specific growth rate, weight gain, survival rate and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different between the fish fed with the 75% and 100% fishmeal containing diets (P>0.05. The outcome would beapplied to reduce the solid wastes from fish processing and partially replace the imported fishmeal. This can also be used as guideline for farmers in small communities to produce their own tilapia feed.

  20. GROWTH, IMMUNE FUNCTION, AND DISEASE AND STRESS RESISTANCE OF JUVENILE NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED GRADED LEVELS OF BOVINE LACTOFERRIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed nutritionally complete, practical basal diets supplemented with bovine lactoferrin (Lf) at 0, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg diet to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, the effect of dietary Lf on growth performanc...

  1. Production algale et consommation par le Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., au Lac Muhazi (Rwanda. Résumé de thèse de doctorat

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    Mukankomeje, R.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda. The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  2. Modulation of genotoxicity and endocrine disruptive effects of malathion by dietary honeybee pollen and propolis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; El-Asely, Amel M; Radwan, Hasnaa A; Abbass, Amany A

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed at verifying the usefulness of dietary 2.5% bee-pollen (BP) or propolis (PROP) to overcome the genotoxic and endocrine disruptive effects of malathion polluted water in Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). The acute toxicity test was conducted in O. niloticus in various concentrations (0-8 ppm); mortality rate was assessed daily for 96 h. The 96 h-LC50 was 5 ppm and therefore 1/5 of the median lethal concentration (1 ppm) was used for chronic toxicity assessment. In experiment (1), fish (n = 8/group) were kept on a diet (BP/PROP or without additive (control)) and exposed daily to malathion in water at concentration of 5 ppm for 96 h "acute toxicity experiment". Protective efficiency against the malathion was verified through chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronucleus (MN) and DNA-fragmentation assessment. Survival rate in control, BP and PROP groups was 37.5%, 50.0% and 100.0%, respectively. Fish in BP and PROP groups showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the frequency of CA (57.14% and 40.66%), MN (53.13% and 40.63%) and DNA-fragmentation (53.08% and 30.00%). In experiment (2), fish (10 males and 5 females/group) were kept on a diet with/without BP for 21 days before malathion-exposure in water at concentration of 0 ppm (control) or 1 ppm (Exposed) for further 10 days "chronic toxicity experiment". BP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced CA (86.33%), MN (82.22%) and DNA-fragmentation (93.11%), prolonged the sperm motility when exposed to 0.01 ppm of pollutant in vitro and increased the estradiol level in females comparing to control. In conclusion, BP can be used as a feed additive for fish prone to be raised in integrated fish farms or cage culture due to its potency to chemo-protect against genotoxicity and sperm-teratogenicity persuaded by malathion-exposure. PMID:25685536

  3. Reproductive aspects of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Coatetelco lake, Morelos, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.L., Gómez-Márquez; B., Peña-Mendoza; I.H., Salgado-Ugarte; M., Guzmán-Arroyo.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizaron algunos aspectos reproductivos de la mojarra-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. en el lago de Coatetelco, Morelos. La información esta basada en los datos biológicos de 319 organismos obtenidos de enero a diciembre de 1993 de la captura comercial. Las hembras (161) repres [...] entaron el 51% y los machos (158) el 49 % del total de la población. La proporción de sexo fue de 1:1.02 ?_ = 0.02; p=0.05). Los peces alcanzan la primera madurez sexual a los 117 mm y 120 mm de longitud total (hembras y machos respectivamente). El número de óvulos presentes en las gónadas osciló entre 104 y 709 con diámetro de 1 000 a 3 000 µm, lo cual hace que esta especie tenga baja fecundidad pero alta fertilidad por los hábitos de reproducción que presenta la especie. Se aplicó el indice gonadosomático y hepatosomático con los cuales se detectaron dos períodos (verano e invierno) de máxima actividad reproductiva. Abstract in english Sex ratio, size at maturity, maturity stages, fecundity and egg diameter of Oreochromis niloticus from Coatetelco Lake, Morelos State, Mexico, were studied from January to December 1993. Sex ratio (male:female) was approximately 1:1.02. Length at maturity was 117 mm (males) and 120 mm (females). The [...] fecundity ranged between 104 and 709 eggs, with egg diameter from 1 000 to 3 000 µm. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic index indicate that the species breeds during summer and winter.

  4. Reproductive aspects of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae at Coatetelco lake, Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Gómez-Márquez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio, size at maturity, maturity stages, fecundity and egg diameter of Oreochromis niloticus from Coatetelco Lake, Morelos State, Mexico, were studied from January to December 1993. Sex ratio (male:female was approximately 1:1.02. Length at maturity was 117 mm (males and 120 mm (females. The fecundity ranged between 104 and 709 eggs, with egg diameter from 1 000 to 3 000 µm. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic index indicate that the species breeds during summer and winter.En este estudio se analizaron algunos aspectos reproductivos de la mojarra-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. en el lago de Coatetelco, Morelos. La información esta basada en los datos biológicos de 319 organismos obtenidos de enero a diciembre de 1993 de la captura comercial. Las hembras (161 representaron el 51% y los machos (158 el 49 % del total de la población. La proporción de sexo fue de 1:1.02 ?_ = 0.02; p=0.05. Los peces alcanzan la primera madurez sexual a los 117 mm y 120 mm de longitud total (hembras y machos respectivamente. El número de óvulos presentes en las gónadas osciló entre 104 y 709 con diámetro de 1 000 a 3 000 µm, lo cual hace que esta especie tenga baja fecundidad pero alta fertilidad por los hábitos de reproducción que presenta la especie. Se aplicó el indice gonadosomático y hepatosomático con los cuales se detectaron dos períodos (verano e invierno de máxima actividad reproductiva.

  5. Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) juveniles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa N., Simões; Danielle C., Lombardi; Andrea T. M., Gomide; Levy C., Gomes.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the efficiency of clove oil as anaesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the first experiment, safety concentrations of clove oil were assessed by measuring induction times to anaesthesia. The second experiment evaluate [...] d exposure times to anaesthetic. Clove oil efficiency during transportation was evaluated in a 24 h experiment using three concentrations of the anaesthetic (0, 9, and 18 mg.L-1). The most appropriate clove oil concentration to induce surgical anaesthesia was 90 mg.L-1. To biometry or other brief handling, the recommended concentration is 50-60 mg.L-1 as it provides fast recovery. Maximum anaesthesia time should be 10 min. The mortality rate of fish transported using 18 mg.L-1 of anaesthetic was significantly higher than that of the control group at 24 h of transportation and at 96 h after transportation. The fish transported using clove oil as anaesthetic presented more significant Na+ and K+ disorders as compared to the control group. As an anaesthetic, clove oil is efficient in the handling of Nile tilapia in routine fish hatchery procedures, although it should be avoided in the transportation.

  6. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olubodun Obasa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

  7. Physiological and oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., exposed to pendimethalin-based herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yasser S; Samak, Dalia H; Abou-Ghanema, Ismail Y; Soliman, Magdy K

    2015-04-01

    Fish are relatively sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment, including increasing pollution. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of contamination with the pendimethalin-based herbicide; Stomp(®) 50% EC (50% pendimethalin as emulsive concentrate) on adults of the monosex Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. A total of 260 fish with body weights of 90?±?5.0 g were used in the determination of the 96-h LC50 value and of the impacts of acute exposure to pendimethalin on physiological parameters, and oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers. The 96-h median lethal concentration (96-h LC50 ) value of pendimethalin for monosex Nile tilapia was determined as 4.92 mg/L. Abnormal behavioral responses of the fish and the toxic symptoms of pendimethalin exposure are described. Acute exposure to pendimethalin induced leukocytosis, hyperglobulinemia, and hyperglycemia, but resulted in nonsignificant changes in other hemato-biochemical parameters. Moreover, pendimethalin increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased levels of reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase in both liver and gill tissues, in a time-dependent manner, with maximum alterations observed in the gills rather than the liver. We conclude that although pendimethalin is moderately toxic, it does not cause hepatorenal toxicity. However, this herbicide pollutant induces major disturbances to the antioxidant system; induction of oxidative stress and LPO is the proposed toxicodynamic pathway for such stress. PMID:24293324

  8. Honey bee pollen improves growth, immunity and protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Asely, Amel M; Abbass, Amany A; Austin, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The mode of action of honey bee pollen (HBP) was investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Thus, fish with an average weight of 29 ± 3 g were divided into four groups, and fed with HBP-free diet (control), and 1%, 2.5% and 4% (w/v) HBP incorporated into basal diet for 10, 20 and 30 days. Immunological, hematological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured, and sub-groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection. HBP significantly increased the growth performance parameters [body weight, length, average daily gain (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed efficiency ratio (FER)] and immunological (phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and nitroblue tetrazolium assay (NBT)), hematological (hematocrit (Hct), leucocrit (Lct), the numbers of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) and biochemical parameters (serum total protein, albumin and globulin ratios). Furthermore, all treated fish exhibited significant protection against challenge with A. hydrophila, with the highest protection (93%) observed in the group fed with 2.5% (w/v) HBP for 20 and 30 days. PMID:25086230

  9. Immunostimulatory effects of artificial feed supplemented with a Chinese herbal mixture on Oreochromis niloticus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jufen; Cai, Jia; Liu, Ran; Wang, Jiamin; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of a Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) composed of astragalus, angelica, hawthorn, Licorice root and honeysuckle on immune responses and disease resistant of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain) were investigated in present study. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0% CHM (w/w) for 4 weeks. And series of immune parameters including lysozyme, cytokine genes TNF-? and IL-1?, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured during test period. After four weeks of feeding, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that feeding Nile tilapia with CHM-supplementation diet stimulated lysozyme activity, SOD activity and POD activity in serum, induced TNF-? and IL-1? mRNA expression in head kidney and spleen, but decreased serum MDA content. All CHM-supplemental groups showed reduced mortalities following A. hydrophila infection compared with the group fed the control diet. These results suggested that this CHM can be applied as a tilapia feed supplement to elevate fish immunity and disease resistance against A. hydrophila. PMID:24925761

  10. EFEKTIVITAS IKAN NILA MERAH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS SEBAGAI PEMAKAN JENTIK NYAMUK

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    M. Sudomo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikan nila merah (Oreachromis niloticus merupakan ikan yang berasal dari luar negeri yang sudah dibudidayakan secara meluas di Indonesia. Ikan tersebut mempunyai arti ekonomis penting karena harganya mahal. Dalam percobaan laboratorium, ikan nila merah memakan jentik nyamuk dan ganggang Enteromorpha, yaitu ganggang yang dipakai untuk bertelur nyamuk Anopheles sundaicus. Dalam suatu percobaan, efektivitas ikan nila merah sebagai agen biologi untuk mengendalikan jentik nyamuk vektor malaria, telah dilakukan dengan membuat kolam-kolam percobaan sebanyak 12 kolam yang diisi dengan, ikan nila merah, ikan nila merah, dan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas, serta kolam kosong sebagai kontrol. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa dalam kolam yang diisi dengan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas jentik nyamuknya lebih sedikit. Hal ini berbeda nyata dengan kolam yang diisi ikan mas saja dan kolam kontrol.

  11. An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

  12. Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G. A, Torres R; S, González P; E, Peña S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con e [...] l fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR), electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y de barrido (MEB); como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca). Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos. Abstract in english The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminati [...] ng pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca) were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

  13. Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A Torres R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con el fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órganos primarios donde detectar efectos de polución. Este estudio muestra la morfología normal de las branquias e hígado de tilapia, a través de microscopías: de luz, óptica de alta resolución (MOAR, electrónica de transmisión (TEM y de barrido (MEB; como un estudio básico para futuras investigaciones, en las cuales se puedan comparar tejidos sanos y tejidos expuestos a contaminantes ambientales; por lo cual, este análisis podría ser utilizado como referente para la aplicación como biomarcador histopatológico de estrés ambiental. Para esta investigación se recolectaron especímenes en un afluente del Río Patía (Departamento del Cauca. Sacrificado el animal, se disecó el arco branquial izquierdo y el hígado. Las biopsias se fijaron con las técnicas estándares para microscopías de luz y electrónica. En los cortes obtenidos se observa la organización en forma detallada de los diferentes tejidos que componen a las branquias y al hígado de especímenes sanos.The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is a fish that can be found in many of the sweet water ecosystems throughout various regions of Colombia. This species is a high demand food source for the population in general and therefore it is important that its aquaculture habitat remains free of contaminating pollutants, in order that the species develop and grow normally for adequate human consumption. The branchia and the liver of fish are considered the primary organs wherein the effects of pollution can be detected. This study shows the normal morphology of the branquia and the liver of the tilapia through light microscopy, high resolution optical microscopy , electronic transmission microscopy, and electronic scanning microscopy, as basic research for future investigation in which healthy tissue and tissue exposed to environmental pollutants can be compared. This analysis is thus used as reference for the application as a histopathological marker of environmental stress. For purposes of this research specimens of a tributary of the Patia river (Departamento de Cauca were collected. The animal was sacrificed, the left branquial arch and the liver were dissected; the biopsies were set for standard light microscopy as well as electronic microscopy. The organization is shown in detail in the slices obtained in the different tissue which compose the branquia and the liver of healthy specimen.

  14. Effect of cortisol on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus L., after transference from freshwater to seawater Efeito do cortisol sobre parâmetros de osmorregulação do teleósteo, Oreochromis niloticus L., após a transferência de água doce para água salgada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted in order to determine the effects of cortisol on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Tilapia (n=42 were injected intraperitoneally with cortisol and then were directly transferred from freshwater (FW to 15‰ salt water (SW. Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-, plasma level of cortisol and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity were measured at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after transference to 15‰ SW. Plasma osmolality and Cl- increased immediately after transference until 12-24 h. The fish injected with cortisol (F showed higher plasma levels of cortisol than those from control group (C that maintained the initial levels during the experiment. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of C fish began to increase at first hours after transference and peak at 48h. The differences between gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity of F and C groups were significant (PEste estudo foi realizado com o objectivo de testar os efeitos do cortisol na aclimatação da tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (L. à água salgada. As tilápias (n=42 foram injectadas intraperitonealmente com cortisol e directamente transferidas de água doce para água salobra (15‰. As alterações da osmolaridade, concentração em cloretos (Cl-, os níveis plasmáticos de cortisol e a actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase foram medidas (6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 168 horas após a transferência para água salobra. A osmolaridade e a concentração em Cl- aumentou imediatamente após a transferência até às 12-24h. O grupo injectado com cortisol (F mostrou níveis plasmáticos de cortisol mais elevados do que o grupo controlo (C que manteve os níveis iniciais durante a experiência. A actividade branquial da Na+, K+-ATPase dos peixes do grupo C começou às primeiras horas após a transferência e teve um pico às 48h. As diferenças entre a actividade enzimática da Na+, K+-ATPase dos grupos F e C foram significativas (P<0,05 em água doce, o que confirma o efeito exógeno do cortisol.

  15. Acute toxicity, behavioral changes, and histopathological effects of deltamethrin on tissues (gills, liver, brain, spleen, kidney, muscle, skin) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M Ziynet; Benli, A Ca?lan Karasu; Selvi, Mahmut; Ozkul, Ayhan; Erkoç, Figen; Koçak, Oner

    2006-12-01

    Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid contaminating aquatic ecosystems as a potential toxic pollutant, was investigated in the present study for acute toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LC(50) values of deltamethrin on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings and investigate histopathological responses of fish exposed to deltamethrin. The 48 h LC(50) value for Nile tilapia fingerlings was estimated as 4.85 microg/L using static test system. In addition, behavioral changes at each deltamethrin concentration were observed closely. All fish, exposed to 5 microg/L deltamethrin revealed severe morphological alterations in the gills and liver. In the gills hyperemia, fusion of secondary lamellae and telangiectasis were observed; whereas hydropic degenerations in liver were observed in all examined fish. The results are significant for reporting acute deltamethrin toxicity in terms of behavioral and histopathological changes: Deltamethrin is highly toxic to fingerlings. PMID:17091506

  16. Integrated multi-trophic culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Amazon river prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum) in brackish water / Cultivo multi-trófico integrado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e camarão da Amazônia (Macrobrachium amazonicum) em água salobra

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.G., Henry-Silva; C.S.P., Maia; R.S.T., Moura; A.P., Bessa Junior; W.C., Valenti.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a viabilidade do cultivo multitrófico integrado da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e do camarão-da-amazônia (Macrobrachium amazonicum) em água salobra, mediante a avaliação de suas características limnológicas e de seu desempenho econômico. O experimento [...] foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições: tratamento controle somente com tilápia-do-nilo, estocado com duas tilápias/m² (P2C0) e três tratamentos de cultivo multitrófico integrado, estocados com duas tilapias/m² e camarões nas densidades de quatro, oito e 16 camarões/m² (P2C04, P2C08 e P2C16, respectivamente). As variáveis limnológicas temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, turbidez, amônia, ortofosfato e clorofila "a" foram avaliadas e, durante todo o experimento, mantiveram-se dentro dos limites recomendados para o cultivo. O experimento durou 150 dias, com amostragem mensal dos animais. Diferenças significativas não foram observadas para a biomassa total de peixe nem para a taxa de sobrevivência total em peixes e camarões. Entretanto, o peso individual do camarão diminuiu à medida que a densidade de estocagem aumentou. A receita bruta não foi significativamente diferente entre os tratamentos, assim como a rentabilidade. A rentabilidade foi 40,1% (P2C0), 36,7% (P2C04), 41,2% (P2C08) e 50,1% (P2C16). Conclui-se que, apesar de viável do ponto de vista da larvicultura, o cultivo multitrófico integrado de M. amazonicum e O. niloticus não influenciou significativamente a rentabilidade quando comparado com o sistema de monocultura. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of integrated multi-trophic culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Amazon River prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum) in brackish water by evaluating its limnological characteristics and economic performance. The experiment was completely r [...] andomized with four treatments and four repetitions: control treatment with Nile tilapia only, stocked with 2 tilapias/m² (P2C0) and three integrated multi-trophic culture treatments stocked with 2 tilapias/m² and prawns at densities of 4, 8 and 16 prawns/m² (P2C04, P2C08 and P2C16, respectively). The limnological variables of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, ammonia, orthophosphate and chlorophyll "a" were evaluated and throughout the experiment remained within the limits recommended for culture. The experiment lasted 150 days with monthly animal sampling. No significant differences were observed for total fish biomass or for fish and prawn total survival rates. However, prawn individual weight decreased as stocking density increased. Gross revenue was not significantly different between treatments, as well as profitability. The profitability was 40.1% (P2C0), 36.7% (P2C04), 41.2% (P2C08) and 50.1% (P2C16). It is concluded that although feasible from the view point of husbandry, the integrated multi-tropic culture of M. amazonicum and O. niloticus did not influence significantly profitability compared to the monoculture system.

  17. Lamproglena monodi capart, 1944, attachment scheme and associatedpathology on the gills of oreochromis niloticus, with a special reference tothoracic appendages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises a parasitological and histopathological examinationof the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, naturally infected withLamproglena monody (Crustacea: Lernaeidae). Fish specimens were collectedweekly from El-Minia Nile basin, Egypt Between April 2006 to March 2008).From a total of 420 fish examined, 96 (22.86%) were found infected.Attachment of L monodi was mainly enhanced by the armed maxillae that wereseen deeply introduced into the underlying tissues reaching the axialcartilage the gill filament. The maxillipeds were not involved in theattachment to the gill epithelium. Histological changes were restricted onlyto the free ends of gill filament, where copepods were found attached; thecentral and basal parts appeared normal and their gill lamellae remainedintact. Deep and shallow lesions associated sometimes with compressed orexfoliated hyperplastic epithelium were encountered in front of cephalothoraxand around oral apparatus of the parasite. In slight and moderate infectionsgill lamellae showed partial fusion. In many cases of heavy infection, theattacked area of gill filaments was eroded through. The cephalothorax wassometimes found in a deep cavity of the proliferated epithelium that wasinfiltrated by granular cells and lymphocytes. (author)

  18. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, E; Kidd, S; Gaunt, P S; Endris, R

    2013-04-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments or vaccines. The objective of this project was to determine the most efficacious concentration of florfenicol (FFC) [10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1) body weight (bw) per days for 10 days] administered in feed to control experimentally induced infections of Fno in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The cumulative mortality of fish that received 0, 10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per day was 60, 37, 14 and 16%, respectively. Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis genome equivalents were detected in water from all challenged groups with slight reduction in the concentration in the florfenicol-treated groups 4 days after treatment. The mean LOG of CFU Fno mg(-1) spleen was 3-5 and was present in all challenged groups at necropsy 11 days after treatment (21 days after challenge). Results show that florfenicol administered at doses of 15 and 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per days for 10 days significantly reduced mortality associated with francisellosis in Nile tilapia. PMID:23134104

  19. Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3. However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05 decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

  20. Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in ?-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against ?-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to ?-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to ?-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  1. Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A., Liñán-Cabello; Cindy M., Robles-Basto; & #8224; Alfredo, Mena-Herrera.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC) con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT). En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (5.0cm de longitud), fueron asignados [...] al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque), en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a) peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH), b) peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R), c) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH), y d) los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N). La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra), se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T) y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T), Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K), porcentaje de supervivencia (S), la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR), porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP) y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH), y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p Abstract in english Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in len [...] gth) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (p

  2. Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Tabita Kamara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc, Flavourzyme (Flav and Neutrase (Neut, and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 3-(2-pyridyl 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine, radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the samples. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU for humans. Lower molecular weight sizes 8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%. They have ‘U’ shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients.

  3. Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Massuo Ishikawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg. Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, total white blood cell count (WBC and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr. There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758 através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2 correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC, concentração de hemoglobina (Hb, hematócrito (Ht, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, trombócitos totais (Tr, contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc. Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus.

  4. Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nilton Massuo, Ishikawa; Maria José Tavares, Ranzani-Paiva; Julio Vicente, Lombardi; Cláudia Maris, Ferreira.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758) através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, [...] SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g) e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2) correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (Ht), volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), trombócitos totais (Tr), contagem diferencial e total de leucócitos (Lc). Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de Hg testadas, não alteraram significativamente os parâmetros hematológicos, permitindo concluir que a quantidade de Hg na água não foram suficientes para afetar o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus. Abstract in english Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758) was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days) exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg). Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control g [...] roup. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr). There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.

  5. Antagonism of Aeromonas hydrophila by propolis and its effect on the performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Rhman, Azza M M

    2009-09-01

    Propolis, a resinous substance collected by Apis mellifera bees from various plant sources and mixed with secreted beeswax, is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction, maintenance, and protection of their hives. The collected propolis sample, from High Egypt, was dark-green with olive-odor. The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of propolis-ethanolic-extract, against Aeromonas hydrophila, was 80 microg Propolis-ethanolic-extract and crude propolis (1%) were added to artificial basal diet with (30% crude protein) to evaluate their efficacy on the fish growth-performance, immunostimulation and resistance to A. hydrophila. Two hundred and twenty-five Oreochromis niloticus (8 +/- 0.45 g/fish) were divided into three equal treatments (T) of triplet replicates. The fish of T(1) were fed on basal diet (control). The fish of T(2) were given the basal diet, containing propolis-ethanolic-extract. The fish of T(3) were given the basal diet containing crude propolis for 28 day. The fish were intraperitoneally challenged by A. hydrophila (0.2 x 10(7) cells ml(-1)) at the end of the feeding period and kept for 15 more days. The best growth rate and feed conversion ratio were obtained with T(2.) The increase in the average daily gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency ratio were highly significances in T(2) followed by T(3) when compared with the control group. The HCT-level and monocyte-counts were increased (T(2)). No significant change, in the large lymphocytic-count was found among the three treatments (28-27-28%), while the neutrophil-count was significantly decreased (7%) with T(2) and increased (13.11%) with the control. A significant increase in serum lysozyme and serum bactericidal activities was found with T(2). The RLP against A. hydrophila was high with T(2) and T(3). The propolis-ethanolic-extract enhanced the growth, immunity and resistance of O. niloticus against A. hydrophila more than the crude propolis. PMID:19563896

  6. Custos de produção de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) em um modelo de propriedade da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil / Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Luiz Barboza de, Andrade; Ricardo Luiz, Wagner; Ilson, Mahl; Ricardo Silveira, Martins.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produção da piscicultura praticada na região oeste do Paraná. Os custos são apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se à exploração comercial de uma área de 24.000m², em oito tanques, o que proporciona [...] a produção de 14,4t de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus) por ciclo de produção, com o peso unitário médio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantação, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao mês) e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o último representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo variável representou 70,18% do custo total de produção e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que são bastante sensíveis às variações nos preços das matérias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsável pela governança da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivência. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m² area, in eight tanks, which enable th [...] e production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month) and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of raw material prices. The necessity of the establishment of a responsible agent for the leadership of the food chain was exposed to guarantee its survival.

  7. Custos de produção de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em um modelo de propriedade da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luiz Barboza de Andrade

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produção da piscicultura praticada na região oeste do Paraná. Os custos são apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se à exploração comercial de uma área de 24.000m², em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produção de 14,4t de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus por ciclo de produção, com o peso unitário médio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantação, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao mês e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o último representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo variável representou 70,18% do custo total de produção e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que são bastante sensíveis às variações nos preços das matérias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsável pela governança da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivência.The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m² area, in eight tanks, which enable the production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of raw material prices. The necessity of the establishment of a responsible agent for the leadership of the food chain was exposed to guarantee its survival.

  8. Concentrado protéico de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus): caracterização físico-química e aceitação sensorial / Protein concentrate from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): physical-chemical characterization and sensory acceptance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Maria Aderaldo, Vidal; Maria do Carmo Passos, Rodrigues; Jorge Fernando Fuentes, Zapata; Janaína Maria Martins, Vieira.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou o aproveitamento da carne mecanicamente separada (CMS) de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) na obtenção de um concentrado protéico de tilápia (CPT) para o consumo humano, caracterizando-o quanto aos parâmetros físico-químicos e sens [...] oriais. O CPT foi caracterizado quanto aos seguintes aspectos: rendimento, umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, atividade de água (Aw) e aceitação sensorial. O CPT apresentou rendimento de 18,34%, baixos níveis de umidade e cinza e alto conteúdo protéico e lipídico, quando comparado à matéria-prima original (CMS) e baixa Aw. Na avaliação sensorial do CPT, a freqüência de aceitação dos provadores foi de 60,4% para a cor, 51,1% para o aspecto geral e 41,7% para o aroma. A descrição do aroma com termos como característico de pescado foi relatada por 44,2% dos provadores, sugerindo a necessidade de uma desodorização parcial do material, e indicando um equilíbrio em relação ao grupo dos provadores que não perceberam o odor característico. Esta pesquisa mostra agregação de valor a um material de descarte, gerando possibilidades de oferta de uma fonte proteica alternativa, de custo relativamente baixo. Abstract in english This study aimed to use mechanically separated mince (MSM) from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) to obtain a protein concentrate for human consumption and to assess its proximal composition and sensory characteristics. Yield, proximal composition, [...] water activity and sensory evaluation were analyzed on the dry TPC. The TPC has a yield of 18.34%, and contained 1.38% moisture, 62.39% protein, 32.63% fat, 2.26% ash and had 0.16 Aw. Sensory evaluation of dry FPC powder expressed as frequency of acceptance by panelists was 60.4% for color, 51.1% for general appearance and 41.7% for aroma. Description of flavor using terms like "typical of fish" was reported by only 44.2% of the panelists, suggesting the need for a more efficient deodorizing process and showing a balance in relation to the group of panelists that did not notice the characteristic smell. The study shows the possibility of adding value to a residual food material offering an alternative source of protein at a relatively low cost.

  9. Cytochemical aspects of the peripheral blood cells of Oreochromis (Tilapia) niloticus. (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cichlidae, Teleostei): part II / Aspectos citoquímicos das células do sangue periférico de Oreochromis (Tilapia) niloticus. (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cichlidae, Teleostei): parte II

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivete Kotomi, UEDA; Mizue Imoto, EGAMI; Wilson da Silva, SASSO; Eliana Reiko, MATUSHIMA.

    Full Text Available Morfologicamente foram identificados no sangue de Oreochromis niloticus sete tipos de células: eritrócitos, trombócitos, neutrófilos, eosinófilos, basófilos, linfócitos e monócitos. Em relação aos resultados citoquímicos foi contastada a presença de glicogênio em neutrófilos, trombócitos e em alguns [...] linfócitos e monócitos. Os grânulos citoplasmáticos de neutrófilos e eosinófilos mostraram positividade para mieloperoxidade e Sudan black. O azul de bromofenol foi totalmente positivo em eritrócitos e eosinófilos. Abstract in english Morphologicaly, seven types of cells were identified in the blood of Oreochromis niloticus: erythrocytes, thrombocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Glycogen was present not only in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and thrombocytes but also in some lymphocytes and mono [...] cytes. The positive reaction for myeloperoxidase and Sudan black was observed in neutrophils and eosinophils. The bromphenol blue method was strongly positive for erythrocytes and eosinophils.

  10. Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus=Purification, physical and chemical characterization, and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1. O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II, eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I e 23,80 (F II UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS, suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I and 23.80 (F II IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

  11. Extruded Leftover Food as Animal Feed: I. Effect of Extruded Feed on Growth and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Al-Ruqaie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75±1.27 g. Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1 and without (type-2 were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia.

  12. Extruded leftover food as animal feed: I. Effect of extruded feed on growth and feed utilization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruqaie, Ibrahim M

    2007-10-01

    A Laboratory experiment was used to evaluate the effect of extruded leftover food as an alternate source of fish diet to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 76.75 +/- 1.27 g). Three experimental diets were used. Two extruded leftover food types [with minerals and vitamins (type-1) and without (type-2) were used to prepare two experimental treatments in duplicate as compared to a commercial tilapia diet (ARASCO) as a control. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were not affected by different types of leftover feed. Whereas, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were significantly affected by the different feeds. The highest significant values of FCR was shown for fish fed with extruded leftover feed without premix, while Nile tilapia fed with control diet recorded the highest values of PER. The present study showed that the extruded leftover food could be used to prepare least cost diet for Nile tilapia. PMID:19090139

  13. Effect of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunji, J O; Kloas, W; Wirth, M; Neumann, N; Pietsch, C

    2008-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to access the effect of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Seven feeds formulated to contain 36% protein and 20 kJ g(-1) gross energy (dry matter basis), were prepared by replacing fish meal with magmeal. Fifteen fingerlings (initial average weight 2.0 +/- 0.1 g) stocked per experimental tank were fed in triplicates at 5% body weight in two portions per day (a level previously established). Growth and food conversion ratio were adequate and comparable without any significant differences (p feeding groups. Mean values for haematocrit and plasma glucose were not significantly different (p feeding groups. Fish group fed control diet (containing highest inclusion level of fish meal and without magmeal) gave the lowest haemoglobin concentration (5.96 +/- 0.22 g dl(-1)). This value was significantly different from other feeding groups. Stressful conditions in fish and in mammals are associated with decreased growth, haematocrit (packed cell volume) and haemoglobin values, increased whole blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) and plasma cortisol concentrations. No such physiological changes were observed in this study. Results suggest that feeding O. niloticus fingerling with magmeal diets did not cause any form of physiological stress. Magmeal can be used as a good alternative protein source in tilapia diets. PMID:18662361

  14. Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schleis, S.M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at amine is rapidly eliminated from tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance limit, calculated as the 99th percentile of the potential residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 ??g/g maximum residue level by 6.14 d after the dosing period.

  15. Descripción Anatómica, Histológica y Ultraestructural de la Branquia e Hígado de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Anatomical, Histological and Ultraestructural Description of the Gills and Liver of the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    G. A Torres R; S González P; E Peña S

    2010-01-01

    La tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) es un pez presente en muchos ecosistemas de agua dulce, en diversas regiones de Colombia. Esta especie es una fuente de alimentación de alta demanda de la población en general, por lo cual es de gran interés que su hábitat acuícola estélibre de contaminantes, con el fin que el especimen se desarrolle y crezca normalmente y asípueda ser consumido por el ser humano sin ningún perjuicio. Las branquias y el hígado de peces son considerados como los órg...

  16. Evaluación de la calidad bacteriológica de tilapia fresca (Oreochromis niloticus) proveniente de la Zona Norte de Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graciela, Morales; Laura, Blanco; María Laura, Arias; Carolina, Chaves.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evaluó la flora normal y patógena asociada a la tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), ya que no existen estudios previos, a nivel nacional, sobre la calidad microbiológica de este producto. Con este propósito, se determinó el Recuento Total Aerobio (RT), el número de coliformes totale [...] s (CT) y coliformes fecales (CF), Enterococcus sp., Aeromonas sp., bacterias lácticas y la presencia de Listeria sp y Salmonella spp. a partir de la superficie externa de la tilapia. Se recolectaron 50 muestras provenientes de las zonas de San Carlos y Cañas y se transportaron en frío hasta el Laboratorio de Microbiología de Alimentos y Aguas de la Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, donde se efectuaron los análisis señalados según la metodología presentada por la American Publilc Health Association, 1998. Los resultados obtenidos confirman, desde el punto de vista microbiológico, la frescura de las tilapias al momento de su análisis, sin embargo, los niveles de coliformes encontrados fueron inaceptables para el consumo humano. No se logró aislar Listeria sp., pero el aislamiento de Salmonella spp. confirmó la contaminación fecal de las aguas de crianza de la tilapia, aparte de su importancia a nivel de salud pública. También se encontró que la tilapia presenta un número elevado de Aeromonas sp. como parte de su flora normal, por lo que se recomienda incluir este género dentro de las normas de calidad para pescado fresco. Según los datos obtenidos, no existe diferencia significativa (95% de confianza) entre el RT, los niveles de CT y CF, Enterococcus sp y Aeromonas sp. a partir de la tilapia proveniente de los criaderos de las zonas de San Carlos y Cañas. Abstract in english SUMMARY Bacteriological evaluation of fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) coming from the northern region of Costa Rica. The following work presents an evaluation of the normal and pathogenic flora associated to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), since there are no previous national studies referred [...] to the microbiological quality of this product. The total aerobic plate count, lactic bacteria, Enterococcus sp and Aeromonas sp and fecal and total coliform count, and the presence of Listeria sp and Salmonella spp from the external surface of tilapias were evaluated. A total of 50 samples, coming from San Carlos and Cañas zones were transported in ice to the Food and Water Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, where the laboratory analysis were performed, according to the methodology presented by de American Public Health Association, 1998. The results obtained confirm the microbiological freshness of the product when the analysis was performed, although coliform levels were unacceptable. Listeria sp was not found, but the isolation of Salmonella spp. confirms the fecal contamination of water where the tilapia is grown, aside of the Public Health concern. Also, it was found a high number of Aeromonas sp, as part of its normal flora, so we recommend including this genus in the quality standards for fresh fish. According to the data obtained, there was no significant difference (95% confidence) between the total plate count, fecal and total coliforms, Enterococcus sp. and Aeromonas sp. from the samples coming from the zones of San Carlos and Cañas.

  17. Maternal age influences on reproductive rates in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Nogueira, Valentin; Nivaldo Ferreira do, Nascimento; Regiane Cristina da, Silva; Eduardo Akira, Tsuji; Maria do Carmo Faria, Paes; Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Dias, Koberstein; Laura Satiko Okada, Nakaghi.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the effects of the maternal age on the fecundity (absolute and relative), egg production, and fertilization rates of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Females were divided into three groups: Group 1 (6 years old), Group 2 (3 years old), and Group 3 (8 months old). Males [...] of eight months were used in all groups. Twice a week, the femalesâ€(tm) mouths were examined, and if they had eggs, these were removed and transferred to 2-L incubators. No difference was observed in the absolute fecundity between the different maternal age groups. Relative fecundity and egg production was greater in Group 3 (8 months) and fertilization rates were lower in Group 1 (6 years). Younger tilapias are more viable for egg production, because they have better reproductive indexes.

  18. The Role of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in Growth and Immunity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Its Resistance to Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to optimize the dietary levels of Spirulina platensis in Oreochromis niloticus; this was tested via graded levels. Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried spirulina 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to six equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings for 3 months. Growth performance, non-specific immune parameters, tissue reactions and resistance of tilapias post challenge infection with Pseudomonas fluorescens were estimated monthly. There were significant increase in growth performance parameters and survival rates in spirulina-supplemented groups at concentration level of 10 g/kg for 2 months. Significant increases in hematocrit, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme activity were observed in most of the supplemented groups. Bacterial challenge infections resulted in significantly lower mortality rate in all Spirulina groups with remarkable increase in protection of fish received 10 g/kg. In sum, it advisable to incorporate 10 g/kg diet of spirulina for 2 months for maximum growth performance, immunity and disease resistance in O. niloticus.

  19. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  20. Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena / Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.P., Peixoto; D.L., Santos; S., Vilela; A., Fontaínhas-Fernandes.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de contro [...] le respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I) e com succinato (complexo II) foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1) na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte. Abstract in english A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3. [...] 3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I) or succinate (complex II), respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1) in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

  1. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APT Medeiros

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus.

  2. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) / Comportamento agonístico e reprodutivo nos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    APT, Medeiros; S, Chellappa; ME, Yamamoto.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O híbrido vermelho de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) é um híbrido fértil utilizado na piscicultura numa escala semi-intensiva no Nordeste brasileiro. É um ciclídeo territorial e altamente agressivo frente a coespecíficos na época reprodutiva. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi investigar e descrever os comportamentos agressivos exibidos pelos machos deste híbrido em contextos não-reprodutivos e reprodutivos. As observações comportamentais mostraram que as agressões exibidas pelos machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia incluíram ameaça, ondulação, confronto paralelo, lateral e frontal, perseguição, fuga e submissão. A posse do território influenciou a agressividade dos machos, cuja intensidade foi maior no próprio território em relação àquela observada em situação neutra. Os ninhos foram escavados pelos machos independente da presença das fêmeas. Todos os padrões comportamentais descritos estavam de acordo com os padrões previamente descritos para uma das espécies parentais, a Tilápia do Nilo, O. niloticus. Abstract in english The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The pu [...] rpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

  3. Antagonistic activity of dietary allicin against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    Allicin, the main biologically active component of garlic clove extracts, has been evaluated for its' efficacy in preventing deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were fed on 2 different doses of 0.5 g and 1 g of allicin/kg diet for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated. Moreover, the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) was analyzed as a lipid peroxidation marker. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. Results show that deltamethrin subacute intoxication (1.46 µg/L for 28 days) increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA. At the same time, serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue level of GSH, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT were reduced. Allicin supplemented diets enhanced all the altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissues' lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that feeding allicin can ameliorate deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and might have some therapeutic properties to protect Nile tilapia on subacute deltamethrin toxicity. PMID:25450927

  4. Effects of Two Environmental Best Management Practices on Pond Water and Effluent Quality and Growth of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A. Frimpong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory of aquaculture growth in sub-Saharan Africa has necessitated closer attention to the use of environmental best management practices (BMPs. Two BMPs in particular, water reuse and floating feeds, are being promoted for adoption by pond fish farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we investigated: (1 the effect of water source and feed type on water quality; (2 the effect of water source and feed type on tilapia growth; and (3 the quality of potential effluents from ponds using different water source and feed types. The study was conducted in Ghana using on-farm experiments involving monitoring of water quality and growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 160 days. Although considered low-intensity production systems, nutrients and solids in the study ponds exceeded levels expected in intensive culture ponds by wide margins, whereas BOD5 was within the range for semi-intensive ponds. Floating feed was associated with higher water quality, especially dissolved oxygen, and higher growth, but water source did not significantly affect growth. Water reuse appears to be a viable BMP for sustainable aquaculture in the region, but the use of floating feed as BMP will depend on the economic profitability of floating feed use.

  5. Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ruchi; Singh, A. K.; Tripathi, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT) on specific growth rate (SGR% day?1), condition factor (k), gonado-somatic-index (GSI), histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 ?g/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day?1 (0.9±0.04) as compared to control (1.23±0.026). The GSI value was significantly (p

  6. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Protein in Selected Feedstuffs for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenan Koprucu; Pinar Tatli Seven; Gulizar Tuna

    2004-01-01

    Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of protein in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), corn (Zea mays) gluten, soybean (Glycine hispida), gammarid (Gammarus kischineffensis) and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus) exoskeleton meals was determined for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In each of five trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. Chromic oxide was added as a marker to the reference diet. Th...

  7. Effect of salinity and feed sterilization in interactions between gut and water microbial communities in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Catarina Marcelino Costa

    2010-01-01

    Algumas espécies de Tilápia, como Oreochromis niloticus, são consideradas boas candidatas à cultura em água salobra devido à sua tolerância à salinidade e às suas boas performances de crescimento. Neste relatório, foi testado o efeito da salinidade na dominância bacteriana no intestino de peixe, assim como a sua relação com as comunidades microbiológicas presentes na água e no alimento. O efeito de uma dieta livre de bactérias foi comparado ao de uma dieta regular, com objecti...

  8. Response to selection for growth in an interspecific hybrid between Oreochromis mossambicus and O. niloticus in two distinct environments

    OpenAIRE

    Verdal, Hugues; Rosario, Westly; Vandeputte, Marc; Muyalde, Nerafe; Morissens, Pierre; Baroiller, Jean-francois; Chevassus, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The development of a saline tolerant tilapia strain able to grow fast is of importance in the Philippines, where 240 000 ha of brackish water ponds are available. To this end, founder hybridization between Oreochromis niloticus (with favorable growth traits) and O. mossambicus (with favorable salinity tolerance traits) was performed and followed by backcrossing with O. mossambicus to develop a strain highly tolerant to saline environments. Genetic selection for growth performance was subseque...

  9. Crecimiento compensatorio en tilapia Oreochromis niloticus posterior a su alimentación con harina de plátano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Delgado-Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando un organismo acuático en cultivo es sometido a una restricción nutrimental, puede crecer rápidamente una vez que dispone de una dieta apropiada; este fenómeno conocido como crecimientocompensatorio fue el objeto de estudiar en tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (0.59 g. Tres grupos de tilapia fueron alimentados con harina de plátano roatán (HPR verde, durante 1, 2 y 3 semanas; y después alimentados de nueva cuenta con alimento balanceado durante las siguientes cuatro semanas. Para cada tratamiento se valoró semanalmente el peso, tasa específica de crecimiento, consumo de alimento y eficiencia de la conversión alimenticia. Se detectaron descensos en estas variables y diferencias significativas entre grupos durante el suministro de HPR. Despuésde tres semanas de alimentación con HPR y de reincorporar la dieta comercial, se observó compensación total de peso para el grupo alimentado con HPR, durante una semana; y compensación parcial para los otros dos grupos. La composición proximal de tilapia presentó diferencias significativas al terminar la alimentación con HPR y al final del experimento. Se concluye que el crecimiento compensatorio total para juveniles de O. niloticus alimentados con HPR como única dieta, puede presentarse cuando HPR se otorga durante una semana.

  10. Effects crude protein levels on female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reproductive performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marinez Moraes; Ribeiro, Tainá; Orlando, Tamira Maria; de Oliveira, Dênio Garcia Silva; Drumond, Mariana Martins; de Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca; Rosa, Priscila Vieira

    2014-11-10

    The goal of the present work was to study the reproductive performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) female broodstock fed diets containing different levels of crude protein (CP). Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) were used at an average age of 30 months, with 180 females and 60 males. The broodstock were lodged separately in masonry tanks with continuous water flow. The females were stocked in thirty tanks with dimensions of 8 m(3) in a completely randomized design consisting of five treatments and six replications. The treatments consisted of five diets with different levels of CP (32, 34, 36, 38 and 40%) and with digestible energy per gram of protein of 9.5 kg of feed. The crude protein (CP) levels positively influenced (p0.05) observed with regard to spawning weight and female weight. The reproductive parameters studied in the present research indicate that diets formulated with 38% CP with digestible energy per gram of CP of 9.5 were the best diets for tilapia females during the reproductive period. PMID:25201770

  11. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) / Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa, Belém-Costa; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg [...] , 1887) e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas substâncias antimicrobianas e também contra a rifampicina; o isolado bacteriano de pacu foi a única linhagem resistente a tetraciclina. Isolados de pacu e tilápia apresentaram resistência intermediária frente a eritromicina. O uso de medicamentos em pisciculturas comerciais no Brasil pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de linhagens bacterianas resistentes em espécies de peixes nativos, como já observado em espécies exóticas comercialmente produzidas há mais tempo. Abstract in english One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreoc [...] hromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.

  12. Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus

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    Chotipuntu, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

  13. Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Corrêa S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual aquaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30 as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15 and subordinate (N = 15 fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl, glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl, triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl. However, when isolated (N = 30 and paired (N = 30 tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

  14. Shrimp meal in diets for Nile tilapia ("Oreochromis niloticus") Farinha de camarão em dietas para tilápia do Nilo ("Oreochromis niloticus")

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Pessoa Martins; Valéria Louro Ribeiro; Edma Carvalho de Miranda; Igo Gomes Guimarães; Carolina Carvalho de Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Replacement of conventional ingredients used in fish diets by non-conventional products has been an economic alternative to reduce the cost of feeding. Therefore, 90-day trial was performed to study the effect of shrimp meal (SM) inclusion on diets of Nile tilapia fries. Weight gain (WG), feed conversion (FC), apparent feed intake (AFI), fillet yield (FY), fillet income (FI) values and protein effiency ratio (PER) were evaluated. Each experimental unit was an aquaria with five tilapias (Oreoc...

  15. Quantification of fatty acids in tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed with different sources of vegetable oilsQuantificação de ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais

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    Leticia Hayashi Higuchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to quantify the fatty acids in total lipids of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed with different sources of vegetable oils mechanically extracted. Were used 320 tilapias (O. niloticus with average initial weight and average total initial length of 2.55±0.57 g and 5.59±0.43 cm, respectively, fed for a period of 60 days, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replications. The diets were prepared with 320 g/kg crude protein and 3.500 kcal of digestible energy per kg of feed enriched with eight different oils: sunflower, canola, sesame, linseed, peanut, Para’s nut soy and macadamia, with an addition of 4%. Among the major fatty acids the oleic, palmitic, linolenic and linoleic were obtained in higher concentration (mg/g of LT in fish from all treatments. The sums of polyunsaturated fatty acids after 60 days of cultivation had increased in all treatments compared to the 30 days of the experiment. This is due to the addition of oils with high contents of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The fatty acids in the carcass are a reflection of the energy source of oil used. As a conclusion it is recommended the use of linseed oil in the diet of tilapia fingerlings due to great improvement in the relationship between n-6/n-3. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar os ácidos graxos nos alevinos de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais extraídos mecanicamente. Foram utilizadas 320 tilápias com peso inicial médio e comprimento total inicial médio de 2,55±0,57 g e 5,59±0,43 cm, respectivamente, alimentados por um período de 60 dias, num delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram elaboradas com 320 g/ kg proteína bruta (PB e 3.500 kcal de energia digestível (ED por kg de ração, enriquecidas com oito diferentes óleos: girassol, canola, gergelim, linhaça, amendoim, castanha do Pará, soja e macadâmia, com uma inclusão de 4%. Dentre os ácidos graxos majoritários o oléico, palmítico, linolênico e linoléico foram os obtidos em maior concentração (mg/g de LT nos peixes em todos os tratamentos. As somatórias dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados aos 60 dias de cultivo apresentaram aumento em todos os tratamentos em comparação aos 30 dias de experimento. Isto se deve a adição dos óleos com alto conteúdo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 nas rações. Os ácidos graxos na carcaça são o reflexo da fonte energética de óleo utilizada. Como conclusão recomenda-se o uso do óleo de linhaça na alimentação de alevinos de tilápias, devido à grande melhoria na razão entre n-6/n-3.

  16. Growth performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings reared in Na2CO3 limed waters = Desempenho produtivo de alevinos de tilápia nilótica, Oreochromis niloticus, em aquários submetidos à calagem com Na2CO3

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    Davi de Holanda Cavalcante

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment was undertaken during 6 weeks with Nile tilapia,Oreochomis niloticus, fingerlings (1.28 . 0.03 g to assess the effects of moderate Na2CO3 liming on water quality and fish growth performance. Twenty-four 25 L-aquaria, with 15 fish per aquarium, were used, of which twelve aquaria were placed in the lab’s indoor room and twelve in the outdoor area. Two types of water (clear or green and three different water-quality managements (none, HCl acidification and Na2CO3 liming were simultaneously evaluated in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Total ammonia, calcium hardness, pH and total alkalinity in the green water aquaria were significantly higher than rates in the clear water aquaria. Slight liming acid water with Na2CO3 did not produce any significant effect on its water calcium hardness. No significant differences between controls and theexperimental group were observed for any growth variables. Lime rearing water with Na2CO3 has no significant effect on tilapia growth performance if the initial total alkalinity of water is higher than 20 mg CaCO3 L-1.O presente estudo foi realizado por seis semanas com alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (1,28 . 0,03 g, para avaliar os efeitos da calagem moderada da água de cultivo com Na2CO3 naqualidade da água e no desempenho produtivo dos peixes cultivados. Vinte e quatro aquários de polietileno de 25 L foram utilizados para manter os peixes experimentais (15 peixes por aquário. Doze aquários foram instalados na sala interna do laboratório e 12 aquários na área externa. Dois tipos de águas (claras, sem fitoplâncton ou verdes,ricas em fitoplâncton e três diferentes manejos de qualidade de água (nenhum, acidificação com HCl ou calagem com Na2CO3 foram avaliados simultaneamente em delineamento fatorial 3 x 2. A concentração de amônia total, dureza cálcica, pH e alcalinidade total das águas verdes foram significativamente maiores que para as águas claras. A calagem das águas fracamente ácidas com Na2CO3 não produziu nenhumefeito significativo na dureza cálcica da água. Não se observaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos-controle e o grupo experimental para nenhuma das variáveis de desempenho produtivo observadas. Concluiu-se que fazer a calagem da água de cultivo de tilápias com Na2CO3 não trará nenhum benefício ao desempenho zootécnico dos peixes se a alcalinidade inicial da água exceder 20 mg L-1 de CaCO3.

  17. Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e farinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue.Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L at a density of 20 fish/aquarium for feeding, between 8a.m. and 5:30 p.m. After this period, they were transferred for aquaria (300 L appropriate for fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined by assessing the difference between the feed and fecal concentrations of the marker. Results of this study indicate that among energetic ingredients, corn, extruded corn, wheat middlings and rice meal had the highest apparent digestibility coefficient and gluten 60, corn gluten meal, canola meal for proteic ingredients. Among animal sources, poultry by-product and fish meal showed high apparent coefficients and, poultry feathers hydrolyzed and blood meal low apparent coefficients for Nile tilapia.

  18. Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato; Edma Carvalho de, Miranda; Margarida Maria, Barros; Luis Gabriel Quintero, Pinto; Wilson Massumitu, Furuya; Antonio Celso, Pezzato.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e fa [...] rinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L) de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L) de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue. Abstract in english Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined [...] for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g) fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L) at a density of 20 fish/aquarium for feeding, between 8a.m. and 5:30 p.m. After this period, they were transferred for aquaria (300 L) appropriate for fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined by assessing the difference between the feed and fecal concentrations of the marker. Results of this study indicate that among energetic ingredients, corn, extruded corn, wheat middlings and rice meal had the highest apparent digestibility coefficient and gluten 60, corn gluten meal, canola meal for proteic ingredients. Among animal sources, poultry by-product and fish meal showed high apparent coefficients and, poultry feathers hydrolyzed and blood meal low apparent coefficients for Nile tilapia.

  19. Efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando niveles altos de energía y obtención de la relación optima energía digestible/proteína digestible en dietas para el crecimiento de Oreochromis niloticus (L) / Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felix Walter, Gutierrez; Máximo, Quispe; Luz, Valenzuela.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto ahorrativo de la proteína usando dietas altas en energía. Se utilizó un diseño factorial para medir la interacción de dos niveles de proteína (30% y 35%) y dos niveles de energía digestible (3.3 y 3.7 kcal/g de alimento) sobre la ganancia (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteí [...] na retenida (PR), energía retenida (ER) y la relación de eficiencia proteica (REP) en la tilapia del Nilo todos machos (Oreochromis niloticus). En la composición de las dietas se emplearon harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya como fuentes de proteína y maíz amarillo duro y subproducto de trigo como fuentes de energía. El aceite de pescado fue añadido para ajustar los niveles de energía requeridos en las dietas experimentales. Se encontraron interacciones altamente significativas (P Abstract in english The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35%) and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g) on the weight gain (WG), food conversion FC), retained pr [...] otein (PR), retained energy (ER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” ( Oreochromis niloticus). Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P

  20. EFECTO DE LA INCLUSIÓN DE DIFERENTES FUENTES DE LÍPIDOS SOBRE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y COMPOSICIÓN PROXIMAL DEL FILETE DE TILAPIA NILÓTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- CULTIVADA EN JAULAS FLOTANTES / EFFECT OF THE INCLUSION OF DIFFERENT LIPID SOURCES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA FILLET -Oreochromis niloticus- REARED IN FLOATING CAGES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. M, Moreno; A. P, Muñoz; G. A, Wills.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el efecto de la inclusión de diferentes fuentes de lípidos sobre el comportamiento productivo y la composición proximal del filete de tilapia nilótica Oreo-chromis niloticus, se formularon cuatro dietas con aceite de pescado (AP), aceite de palma (APL), semilla de chía (SC) o semilla de [...] lino (SL). El experimento fue realizado durante 45 días en la represa de Betania (Huila, Colombia), en 20 jaulas flotantes, cada una con 504 peces con peso promedio de 557±16,87 g, distribuidos bajo un diseño experimental completamente al azar. Adicionalmente se llevó a cabo un estudio de presupuestos parciales, con el fin de verificar el margen bruto de ingreso parcial (MBIP) obtenido con las diferentes dietas. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different lipid sources on growth performance and proximate composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fillet, four diets were manufactured with: fish oil (FO), palm oil (PO), chia seeds (CS) or flaxseeds (FS). The experiment was conducted for 4 [...] 5 days at Betania reservoir (Huila), in 20 floating completely randomized experimental design. In Addition, an economical partial budget analysis was run to establish the partial gross marginal income (PGMI) obtained with the different diets. Significant differences (P

  1. Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207

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    Ary Gomes da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

  2. Effects of dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on growth performance, immunological parameters, digestive enzymes, and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy; Abdelhamid, Fatma; Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Ibrahim, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    This work investigated the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The dietary supplementation with APS (1500 mg/kg of diet) caused a significant increase in growth parameters (initial and final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI), when compared to non-supplemented control basal diet. In addition, APS upregulated the phagocytic activity, the respiratory burst activity, plasma lysozyme, the bactericidal activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and amylase activity. However, it had no effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) or Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. While APS had no effect of intestinal histology, a slight increase in the villi length was recorded. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary APS supplementation could improve the growth performance and the immune parameters of cultured tilapia fish. PMID:24657260

  3. Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil

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    José Luis Costa Novaes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm, total weight (g, reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation, and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full. We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads, reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females, and feeding habits (by stomach contents. The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F. Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5°C, and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18°C. The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: L?=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phytoplanktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 721-734. Epub 2012 June 01.La exótica tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus es la especie mayormente capturada en la pesquería artesanal del embalse de Barra Bonita, sudeste de Brasil, de gran importancia socioeconómica para la región y para una población de unos 500 pescadores. El estudio analizo: la reproducción, la dinámica alimentaria y la explotación de O. niloticus, la cual fue capturada en la pesquería del embalse de Barra Bonita. Asimismo, se tomaron muestras mensuales y se analizo un total de 1 715 animales desde julio-2004 a junio-2005. De cada espécimen, se obtuvieron los siguientes datos biológicos y biométricos: longitud estándar (cm, peso total (g, datos reproductivos (sexo y estadio de maduración, contenido estomacal (vacio, parcialmente lleno y lleno. Estos datos fueron utilizados para estimar la proporción de sexo (a través de la observación macroscópica de las gónadas, el periodo reproductivo (a través de la distribución de la frecuencia de los estadios macroscópicos del desarrollo de los ovarios, y la media de la proporción del índice gonadosomático IGS de hembras, así como los hábitos alimentarios (a través de la observación del contenido estomacal. Para verificar

  4. Effects of dietary antibiotic growth promoter and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on production, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus female x Oreochromis aureus male).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S; Zhou, Z; Meng, K; Zhao, H; Yao, B; Ringø, E; Yoon, I

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a dietary antibiotic growth promoter (florfenicol) and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (DVAQUA) on growth, G:F, daily feed intake, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?), a 16-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating aquaculture system. Four feeding regimens were evaluated: control, dietary florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 16 wk), dietary DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 16 wk), and sequential use of florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 8 wk), and DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 8 wk). Each regimen had 4 replicate tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m) and each tank contained 12 fish (initial BW: 46.88 ± 0.38 g). Dietary florfenicol improved growth (P = 0.089), G:F (P = 0.036), and serum complement component concentrations (P Feeding DAVQUA to the fish improved nonspecific immunity and increased intestinal bacterial count and bacterial diversity, but further research, including challenge studies, should be conducted before recommendation of DVAQUA supplementation to hybrid tilapia diets. PMID:20852079

  5. The protective role of vitamin E on gill and liver tissue histopathology and micronucleus frequencies in peripheral erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yeter; Cengiz, Elif Ipek; Ugurlu, Pelin; Yanar, Mahmut

    2012-09-01

    Deltamethrin, is a commonly used pyrethroid pesticide. Vitamin E is a antioxidant that plays an important role in protecting cells against toxicity by inactivating free radicals generated following pesticides exposure. Therefore, it was evaluated whether deltamethrin induced histopathological changes and nuclear abnormalities using micronucleus test in Oreochromis niloticus, and the possible protective effect of vitamin E against deltamethrin inducing adverse effects in O. niloticus were investigated. Fish was fed with no pesticide+control diet, no pesticide+vitamin E-supplemented diet, 1.45?g/l deltamethrin+control diet, 1.45?g/l deltamethrin+vitamin E-supplemented diet for 30 days. Pesticide and diet quality made an impact on histopathological lesions. In treatments of deltamethrin, group fed with control diet showed much greater damage in comparison with group fed with vitamin E supplemented diet. Vitamin E decreased some histopathological changes induced by deltamethrin, but did not confer complete protection. Deltamethrin treatment has been shown to results in a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleus. However, coadministration of deltamethrin and vitamin E showed decrease in the frequency of micronucleus as compared to deltamethrin treated fish. Our results indicate that, the MN assay and histopathology can be used as bioassays for monitoring pollution in aquatic medium. On the other hand, it was observed that vitamin E decreased the genotoxicity and histopathological changes induced by deltamethrin. PMID:22534510

  6. Dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae enhance immunity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Marina Keiko P; Nakandakare, Ivan B; Terhune, Jeffery S; Wood, Theresa; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José T

    2015-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary administration of probiotic with Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth, innate immune response, Hemato-immunological parameters and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Animals were distributed in three equal groups, each of five replicates and received one of the following experimental diets for four weeks: Control, non-supplemented diet; 5 g kg(-1) probiotic mixture (B. subtilis 1.5 × 10(9) CFU g(-1), S. cerevisiae 10(9) CFU g(-1) and A. oryzae 2 × 10(9) CFU g(-1)); and 10 g kg(-1) probiotic mixture (B. subtilis 3.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1), S. cerevisiae 2.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) and A. oryzae 4.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1)). The respiratory burst activity, white blood cells and hematological parameters were evaluated after four, five and six weeks of feeding. At the end of the growth trial, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology and challenged by intraperitoneal injection of LD50 concentration of Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus iniae. Mortality was recorded for the following 3 weeks. Results showed that administration of the probiotic had no significant effect on the growth rates of Nile tilapias, although the fish fed probiotics had better feed conversion. Respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte fragility and levels of white blood cells were significantly improved in tilapias fed diet supplemented with probiotic levels (P niloticus. PMID:25530581

  7. Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.): growth, nutrient utilization and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinleye, A O; Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha platyphylla is a multipurpose and drought-resistant shrub, available in Mexico, locally known as 'sangregrado' and belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein and do not contain the main toxin, phorbol esters present in other Jatropha species. Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal (JPKM) obtained after oil extraction contained 70-75% crude protein (CP); however, it contained phytate, lectin and trypsin-inhibitor. The levels of essential amino acids (except lysine) were higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings a 12-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of the heated JPKM and compare with that of SBM and fishmeal. Fingerlings (15 fish; average weight 13.7 ± 0.21g) were randomly distributed in three treatment groups with five replicates. Fish were fed three isonitrogenous diets (CP 36%): control diet containing fishmeal-based protein and two other diets replacing 62.5% fishmeal protein with JPKM (Jatropha group) and SBM (Soybean group). The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. A lower apparent lipid conversion was observed in the plant protein-fed group than in the control group. RBC count, haematocrit and blood glucose contents were higher in plant-protein fed groups than control group. Other haematological parameters (WBC count, haemoglobin, mean cell volume: calcium and sodium ions, total bilirubin and urea-nitrogen in the blood) and metabolic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase) activities in blood did not differ significantly among the three groups. The results from the present study established that JPKM is a promising and good quality protein source for Nile tilapia feed. PMID:21410563

  8. Digestibilidade aparente das farinhas de peixe nacional e importada e das farinhas de sangue tostada e spray-dried, pela tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L. Apparent digestibility by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L. of Brazilian-made meal, imported fish meal and toasted and spray-dried blood meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente das farinhas de peixe importada e nacional e, das farinhas de sangue spray-dried e tostada. Confeccionaram-se cinco rações marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio, sendo uma referência (semi-purificada e as demais contendo os ingredientes teste. Os peixes (peso médio de 100±10g foram mantidos em cinco tanques-rede de 250 L, em uma densidade de 15 peixes/aquário onde, receberam ração à vontade das 8:00 às 17:00 horas. Posteriormente, foram transferidos para cinco tanques de 300L para coleta de fezes, onde permaneciam até a manhã do dia seguinte. Obtiveram-se os seguintes CDA, respectivamente, para as farinhas de peixe importada e nacional e para as farinhas de sangue spray-dried e tostada: 50,19%; 52,10%; 82,47% e 53,36% para a matéria seca; 80,57%; 71,44%; 97,33% e 50,69% para a proteína bruta; 90,68%; 92,80%; 52,22% e 89,36% para o extrato etéreo e 58,09%; 40,20%; 74,97% e 57,97% para a energia bruta. Concluiu-se que a farinha de sangue spray-dried e ambas as farinhas de peixe podem ser recomendadas como fonte protéica de origem animal e que a farinha de sangue tostada não deve ser utilizada em rações para tilápia do Nilo.Apparent digestibility in Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10g of imported fish meal, Brazilian-made fish meal, spray-dried blood meal and toasted blood meal was evaluated. While a semi-purified diet was prepared as control, four other diets containing about 35% of control diet and 65% of assay ingredients were prepared, using 0.10% of chromic oxide as indicator. Juveniles of Nile tilapia were randomly stocked in groups of fifty in circular cages. They were maintained for 8:00 to 17:00 p.m. in 250L-tanks and fed all day long. Later they were transferred to tanks 300L-tanks, appropriated for feces collection, in which they spent all night. Apparent digestibility coefficient of the ingredient was based on percentage of chromic oxide found in diets and feces and on nutrient percentage. Results indicate that spray-dried blood meal and the two fish meals may be used as a source of protein in Nile tilapia diets. Toasted blood meal cannot be recommended.

  9. Evaluation of the influence of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glycogen concentration in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus fingerling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunji, Johnny O; Nimptsch, Jorge; Wiegand, Claudia; Schulz, Carsten

    2007-08-01

    Influence of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glycogen concentration in liver of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerling was evaluated. Triplicate groups of fifteen fish (initial average weight 2.0+/-0.1 g) were fed eight weeks with seven test diets (in average 36% crude protein, dry matter) formulated by replacing fish meal with magmeal. Percentage body weight gain (591-724.46%), food conversion ratio (1.05-1.22) and standard growth rate (3.45-3.76) in all feeding groups were not significantly different (P<0.05). No significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in liver glycogen reserve (175.27-236.88 micromol g(-1)) among the fish groups. Hepatic catalase activity also did not differ significantly. However, elevated glutathione S-transferases activities were observed when fish received higher dietary magmeal concentration. This might have been temporary with no real physiological implication when appraised by the growth responses. These results indicate that magmeal was well utilized by the fish and its incorporation into tilapia diets seems to have no oxidative stress generating effect on fish metabolism and may not be containing any compound that stimulates the generation of reactive oxygen species. Magmeal can effectively be used as an alternative protein source in tilapia fingerling production. PMID:17400494

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE UN SISTEMA DE ALIMENTACIÓN ORGÁNICO SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO DE LA TILAPIA NILÓTICA (Oreochromis niloticus) CULTIVADA EN ESTANQUES DE TIERRA / EVALUATION OF AN ORGANIC FEEDING SYSTEM ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) IN EARTHEN PONDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Bermúdez; A. P, Muñoz-Ramírez; G. A, Wills.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un sistema de alimentación integrado por dietas formuladas con recursos alternativos orgánicos y diferentes niveles de fertilización orgánica sobre parámetros zootécnicos en peces de consumo cultivados en estanques de tierra. Se utilizaron 1.324 juveniles de Tilapia nilótica ( [...] Oreochromis niloticus) cuyo peso inicial promedio fue de 161,9 ± 7,0 g, solo machos sexados manualmente, sin reversión hormonal. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos y tres repeticiones, distribuidos en 9 estanques de tierra (200 m² cada uno), cultivados bajo las normas de Naturland (2007, 2008, 2011) para la acuicultura orgánica. Durante 180 días se suministraron dietas (levante: 27% PB y 4.120 cal/g EB; finalización: 21% PB y 4.200 cal/g EB) formuladas con recursos provenientes de producción agrícola orgánica certificada. Se implementaron tres variables: un control sin fertilizante y dos diferentes niveles de fertilización con gallinaza orgánica (T1: Abonamiento intensivo con 5 g/m²/día; T2: Abonamiento periódico con 14 g/m²/semana y T3: Sin abonamiento). Se evaluó el efecto de los tratamientos sobre parámetros productivos: ganancia diaria de peso, conversión alimenticia aparente, tasa de crecimiento específico, rendimiento en filete, índices viscerosomático, hepatosomático y de grasa visceral, relación de eficiencia proteica, valor productivo de proteína y eficiencia de retención de energía. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las variables evaluadas (p>0.05). Los resultados indican la posibilidad de implementar un sistema de alimentación orgánico como alternativa productiva que logra parámetros productivos que se aproximan a lo reportado para explotaciones convencionales de tilapia y con el potencial de posicionar un producto final en eco-mercados diferenciales siendo sustentable en su obtención. Abstract in english It was evaluated the effect of a feeding system that included formulated diets with organic alternative resources and different levels of organic fertilization on animal production evaluation parameters in fish farmed in earthen ponds. 1,324 juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with initial [...] weight of 161.9 ± 7.0 g, male manually sexed without hormonal reversal were used. It was used a completely randomized design with three treatments and three replicates, randomly distributed in 9 earthen ponds of 200 m² each. The husbandry management was under the Naturland standards for organic aquaculture. During 180 days fish were fed diets (growth: 27% CP and 4,120 cal/g GE; finish: 21% CP and 4,200 cal/g GE) formulated using resources from certified organic agricultural production. Were handled without fertilizer control and two different levels of organic chicken manure fertilization (T1: intensive fertilization with 5g/m²/day; T2: periodically fertilization with 14g/m²/week and T3: no fertilization). The effect of treatments was evaluated on: daily weight gain, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, fillet yield, viscerosomatic, hepatosomatic and visceral fat index, protein efficiency ratio, protein production value and energy retention efficiency. There were not significant differences in the variables evaluated (p

  11. Processing yield of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: head cut types and two weight classes Rendimento do processamento da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus: tipos de corte da cabeça em duas categorias de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the best type of head cut of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus resulting in better fillet processing yields. The experiment was carried out at the Pisciculture Station of UEM/Codapar, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. One hundred and twenty specimens were slaughtered, head cut, eviscerated, and had their fin, skin and fillet removed. The fillet processing was undertaken by a single person. Plotting was completely randomized by a 2x3 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of two weight categories ( W1=250-400g and W2=401-550g and three types of head cut (C1=oblique, OB; C2=Contour, CO, and C3=strainght, ST, with 20 replicates. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Mean values of yield were expressed in relation to fish body weight. There was an influence of head cut types and weight categories on the dressed out and fillet yield. The yields in W2 (OB=50.42%, 35.27%; CO=50.70%, 35.18% and ST=48.50%, 33.82% were higher (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o melhor tipo de corte de cabeça para decapitação da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, que resulte em melhores rendimentos de filetagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação de Piscicultura da UEM/Codapar, Maringá, PR. Foram abatidos 120 exemplares cortadas as cabeças, eviscerados, removidas as nadadeiras, pele e filés. O processo de filetagem foi realizado por uma única pessoa. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3. Os tratamentos foram: duas categorias de peso (P1= 250-400 g e P2= 401-550 g e três tipos de corte de cabeça (C1=oblíquo, OB; C2=contornado, CO e C3=reto, RE, com 20 repetições. Cada peixe foi considerado a unidade experimental. Os valores médios de rendimento foram expressos em relação ao peso corporal do peixe. Houve influência do tipo de corte e categoria de peso sobre o rendimento do tronco limpo e filé. Os rendimentos em P2 (OB=50,42%, 35,27%; CO=50,70%, 35,18% e RE=48,50%, 33,82% foram superiores (p 1 (OB=47,35%, 32,64%; CO=47,65%, 31,86% e RE=40,79, 27,72% para tronco e filé, respectivamente. Dentro da menor categoria de peso (P1, os rendimentos de tronco e filé foram influenciados (p 1 (57,13%; 2,45% e 3,75%, respectivamente para as características analisadas. Além disso, a categoria de peso não influenciou a percentagem de pele e outros resíduos, exceto a da cabeça (p 1 foi significativamente superior (30,67% e inferior para P2 (27,07%. Por outro lado, o rendimento e percentagem de subprodutos foram influenciados (p < 0,05 pelo tipo de corte de cabeça, com CO mostrando melhores rendimentos para carcaça sem cabeça (62,47% e músculo abdominal ventral (4,33% e porcentagem de pele (5,99%; e menores percentagens de cabeça (24,79% em comparação ao OB e RE. Não houve influência do corte no músculo hipaxial profundo (OB=4,01%, CO=4,36% e RE=4,03%. Os resultados sugerem que, nestas condições de filetagem, os peixes acima de 400 g de peso corporal são os mais indicados para serem abatidos, utilizando-se o corte contornado e oblíquo para obtenção dos melhores rendimentos de filé e tronco limpo para tilápia.

  12. Digestibilidade e desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus) alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de silagem ácida de pescado / Digestibility and performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) fed diets with different levels of acid silage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Carlos José, Pimenta; Antonio Cleber da Silva, Camargo; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato.

    1196-12-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) para alevinos de tilápia nilótica e o desempenho dos alevinos recebendo níveis crescentes ( [...] 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 %) da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe na ração. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 2,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita durante 7 dias seguintes e a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e energia metabolizável aparente foi feita por metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 1% de Cr2O3 como indicador incorporado à ração. No desempenho, foram utilizados 2000 alevinos revertidos sexualmente com peso médio de 0,45 g, acondicionados em "hapas" de 1m², dispostos em um viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF), consumo de ração total (CRT), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA), acréscimo em altura (AA) e em comprimento (AC). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, 95,49%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, 96,66%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo, 97,18%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta, 95,44%, e energia digestível aparente 2.880,02 kcal/kg. Não houve diferença significativa (P> 0,05) para ganho de peso final, consumo de ração total, conversão e acréscimo em altura. Observou-se aumento linear (P Abstract in english The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This silage was given to Nile tilapia juvenile and their performance was taken. The treatment [...] s were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collection was made during 7 subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent metabolizable energy were determined by indirect method, 1% of Cr(2)0(3) was used as an indicator . In the performance assay a total of 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight of 0.45g, they also were kept in 1m² "hapas" in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG), total feed intake (TFE), apparent feed conversion (AFC), height increase (HI) and length increase (LI). The randomized design was used with 5 treatments and 4 repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility coefficients were: dry matter, 95.49; gross protein, 96.66; ethereal extract, 97.18; gross energy, 95.44; and apparent digestible energy (kcal/kg) was 2880.02. No significant difference (P>0.05) were found for final weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion and height increase. A linear increase (P

  13. The Role of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) in Growth and Immunity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Its Resistance to Bacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mai D. Ibrahem; Mohamed, Mohamed F.; Ibrahim, Marwa A

    2013-01-01

    The current study was designed to optimize the dietary levels of Spirulina platensis in Oreochromis niloticus; this was tested via graded levels. Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried spirulina 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to six equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings for 3 months. Growth performance, non-specific immune parameters, tissue reactions and resistance of tilapias post challenge infection with Pseudomonas fluorescen...

  14. Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado / Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes, Pimenta; Marinez Moraes de, Oliveira; Priscila Vieira Rosa, Logato; Carlos José, Pimenta; Thiago Archangelo, Freato.

    1953-19-01

    Full Text Available Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40%) da silagem ácida em substituição [...] à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF), consumo de ração total (CRT), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA) e acréscimo em comprimento (AC). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA), 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica. Abstract in english The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40%) of the acid silage by substitution of fish [...] meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect was made during seven subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent digestible energy were determined by indirect method, using 1.0% of Cr(2)0(3) as an indicator. In the performance assay 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used, with average weight of 0.45g, kept in 1m² hapas, in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG), total feed intake (TFI), apparent feed conversion (AFC) and length increase (LI). The randomized outline was used with five treatments and four repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility were: apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, 95.49%; apparent digestibility coefficient of gross protein, 96.66%; apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract, 97.18%; apparent digestibility coeficient of gross energy, 95.44%. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) for total feed intake (TFI). One observed a quadratic effect (P

  15. Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    A. M. Shalaby

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum, used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (7±1g/fish were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC, and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.

  16. Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei José Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2 emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compounds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC: carbon dioxide (CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006 every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de dióxido de carbono (CO2, dependendo das características físico-químicas do sistema (difusão e reações desse gás na água, como também do pH, e da produção primária dos microorganismos através do consumo desse compostos. Evidências apontam que as concentrações de CO2 nos lagos são principalmente reguladas pelo metabolismo aquático, ou seja, pelo balanço entre a respiração e a fotossíntese; OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever aspectos do metabolismo do cultivo de tilápias do Nilo, a partir da dinâmica e do equilíbrio das concentrações de oxigênio (OD e das formas de carbono inorgânico dissolvido (CID: dióxido de carbono (CO2 e bicarbonato (HCO3-. As demais variáveis analisadas foram: fósforo total, transparência da água, alcalinidade total, temperatura da água, pH, radiação subaquática e análise quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica; MÉTODOS: As amostragens ocorreram durante 5 dias consecutivos das 6:00 às 20:00 h (dezembro/2006 em intervalos de 2 h; RESULTADOS: Durante o ensaio foi observada periodicidade nas flutuações das concentrações de CID, sendo CO2 e HCO3-, as frações predominantes. Os valores de CID foram fortemente influenciados pela fração CO2 e no período da tarde ocorreu predominância da fração HCO3-. As concentrações de CO2 variaram de 0.48 µM a 138.94 µM, com concentração média diária de 18,04 µM. Os fluxos de CO2 na interface água atmosfera mostraram variações ao longo do dia. No período da tarde (12:00 h às 18:00 h ocorreram no sentido atmosfera/viveiro, entretanto, o balanço foi de 576.7 µmol.m-2.h-1 no sentido viveiro/atmosfera; CONCLUSÕES: A dinâmica observada indicou que nas condições deste estudo, o metabolismo dos organismos aquáticos foi a principal função de força desse sistema, fato corroborado pelo intenso processo de eutrofização do viveiro.

  17. Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil / Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudinei José, Rodrigues; Cacilda Thais Janson, Mercante; Clovis Ferreira do, Carmo; Andréa, Tucci; João Alexandre Savilo, Osti; Ariane Carolina Di, Genaro.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de dióxido de carbono (CO2), dependendo das características físico-químicas do sistema (difusão e reações desse gás na água), como também do pH, e da produção primária dos microorganismos através do consumo desse compostos. Evidências [...] apontam que as concentrações de CO2 nos lagos são principalmente reguladas pelo metabolismo aquático, ou seja, pelo balanço entre a respiração e a fotossíntese; OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever aspectos do metabolismo do cultivo de tilápias do Nilo, a partir da dinâmica e do equilíbrio das concentrações de oxigênio (OD) e das formas de carbono inorgânico dissolvido (CID): dióxido de carbono (CO2) e bicarbonato (HCO3-). As demais variáveis analisadas foram: fósforo total, transparência da água, alcalinidade total, temperatura da água, pH, radiação subaquática e análise quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica; MÉTODOS: As amostragens ocorreram durante 5 dias consecutivos das 6:00 às 20:00 h (dezembro/2006) em intervalos de 2 h; RESULTADOS: Durante o ensaio foi observada periodicidade nas flutuações das concentrações de CID, sendo CO2 e HCO3-, as frações predominantes. Os valores de CID foram fortemente influenciados pela fração CO2 e no período da tarde ocorreu predominância da fração HCO3-. As concentrações de CO2 variaram de 0.48 µM a 138.94 µM, com concentração média diária de 18,04 µM. Os fluxos de CO2 na interface água atmosfera mostraram variações ao longo do dia. No período da tarde (12:00 h às 18:00 h) ocorreram no sentido atmosfera/viveiro, entretanto, o balanço foi de 576.7 µmol.m-2.h-1 no sentido viveiro/atmosfera; CONCLUSÕES: A dinâmica observada indicou que nas condições deste estudo, o metabolismo dos organismos aquáticos foi a principal função de força desse sistema, fato corroborado pelo intenso processo de eutrofização do viveiro. Abstract in english Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water) as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compou [...] nds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO) and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC): carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006) every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM) the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.

  18. Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vísceras e crisálida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilização de 5% de inclusão das farinhas de peixe (FP, vísceras (FV, carne e ossos (FO, crisálida (FC e controle (farelo de soja e milho como atractantes sobre o consumo de ração e desempenho de alevinos tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 168 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial médio de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário de 50 L com sete animais. As rações foram formuladas com 32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas, isofíbricas e isoaminoacídicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores médios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com ração contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porém não diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final médio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, não diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que não seria necessária a utilização dos alimentos testados, a 5% de inclusão, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP, poultry by-products meal (FV, meat and bones meal (FO and silkworm meal (FC and a control (soybean meal and corn as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nile tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 ± 0.18 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and five replications, where the experimental unit was constituted of a 50 L aquarium with seven animals. The diets were formulated with 32% of crude protein and 3000 kcal of digestible energy/kg, and were isoprotein, isoenergy, isofiber and isoaminoacid for lysine and methionine + cystine. Average values of weight gain in the control or FV and FP treatments as atractant were higher than the FC or FO treatments. Feed:gain ratio of the animals fed ration with FV was better than FC or FO treatment, however they did not differ significantly from the control and the FP treatments. Average animal final size fed the control treatment was higher than the FC treatment and did not differ from the others. Feed intake and survival rate did not differ among the treatments. It was concluded that it's not necessary to include the evaluated feeds, at a level of 5%, to estimulate feed intake or to promote Nile tilapia fingerlings growth.

  19. Farinhas de peixe, carne e ossos, vísceras e crisálida como atractantes em dietas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) / Fish, meat and bone, poultry by-products and silkworm meals as attractive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Carmino, Hayashi; Fábio, Meurer; Claudemir Martins, Soares.

    1397-14-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a utilização de 5% de inclusão das farinhas de peixe (FP), vísceras (FV), carne e ossos (FO), crisálida (FC) e controle (farelo de soja e milho) como atractantes sobre o consumo de ração e desempenho de alevinos tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados [...] 168 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (linhagem tailandesa) revertidos sexualmente, com peso inicial médio de 0,72 ± 0,18g, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário de 50 L com sete animais. As rações foram formuladas com 32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, sendo as mesmas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas, isofíbricas e isoaminoacídicas para lisina e metionina + cistina. Os valores médios de ganho de peso observados nos tratamentos controle ou com FV e FP como atractantes foram superiores aos dos tratamentos FC ou FO. A conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com ração contendo FV foi melhor que os tratamentos FC ou FO, porém não diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos controle e FP. O comprimento final médio dos animais do tratamento controle foi superior, quando comparados ao tratamento FC, não diferindo dos demais. O consumo alimentar e a taxa de sobrevivência não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que não seria necessária a utilização dos alimentos testados, a 5% de inclusão, para estimular o consumo alimentar ou promover o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo. Abstract in english The experiment aimed to compare the use of 5% of inclusion of fish meal (FP), poultry by-products meal (FV), meat and bones meal (FO) and silkworm meal (FC) and a control (soybean meal and corn) as atractants on feed intake and performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and sixty eight Nil [...] e tilapia fingerlings (Thai strain) sexually reversed, with average initial weight of 0.72 ± 0.18 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and five replications, where the experimental unit was constituted of a 50 L aquarium with seven animals. The diets were formulated with 32% of crude protein and 3000 kcal of digestible energy/kg, and were isoprotein, isoenergy, isofiber and isoaminoacid for lysine and methionine + cystine. Average values of weight gain in the control or FV and FP treatments as atractant were higher than the FC or FO treatments. Feed:gain ratio of the animals fed ration with FV was better than FC or FO treatment, however they did not differ significantly from the control and the FP treatments. Average animal final size fed the control treatment was higher than the FC treatment and did not differ from the others. Feed intake and survival rate did not differ among the treatments. It was concluded that it's not necessary to include the evaluated feeds, at a level of 5%, to estimulate feed intake or to promote Nile tilapia fingerlings growth.

  20. Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. M., Shalaby; Y. A., Khattab; A. M., Abdel Rahman.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum), used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish (7±1g/f [...] ish) were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet) added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP) and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.

  1. The effects of COX2-inhibitors (etoricoxib and etodolac on growth rate and mortality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz A. Al-Qutob

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs represent one of the most commonly detectedcompounds in sewage treatment plant (STP effluent and surface water with scarce informationconcerning possible ecotoxicological risks. As in mammals, COX has been shown to play a role inreproduction in fish. Since studies on human breast cancer cells showed that COXs-inhibitors decreasedaromatase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression at the transcriptional level we tested theeffects of supplementation of COX2-inhibitors (etodolac and etoricoxib in the diet of fry tilapia on growthrate and mortality during the crucial period of sexual differentiation. Highlight on etoricoxibpharmacokinetics was carried out by determination of etoricoxib in fish feces using reversed-phase HighPerformance Liquid Chromatography (RF-HPLC with Evaporative Light Scattering and Photo Diode arraydetector (ELSD-PDA system. At an age of 8 days post-hatched, 30 genetically mixed population ofOreochromis niloticus larvae were stocked in duplicate, into 45 L aquariums in a closed system for sixmonths. Treatments included 5 different experimental diets including, respectively, 0.5% etodolac, 1%etodolac, 2% etodolac, 0.5% etoricoxib, and 1% etoricoxib concentrations and one standard diet servingas control with two repeats for each group from 0.5% groups of diets. Fish were fed experimental dietsfor 8 weeks and were changed to control diet after. Another experiment was conducted using 10 adultsmixed population stocked in triplicate in a closed system and treated as above. Growth rates (GR weresignificantly affected with the highest growth rate obtained with the 0.5% etodolac. However, noincrease or decrease in growth was observed in mixed adults population. GR increased with increasingconcentrations with the highest GR in the aquarium treated with 2% etodolac, followed by 1% etodolac,but 1% etoricoxib showed a decreased GR compared to standard which could indicates a toxic potentialtoward fish at this concentration. No etoricoxib peak was detected on HPLC in feces samples whichreflected, that, it was well absorbed by tilapias, extensively metabolized with no unchanged fractionexcreted, or may undergo enter hepatic circulation, increasing further its toxic potential. No mortalitywas observed in adults mixed population. Mortality rates were 3.7% with 0.5% etodolac, 10% with 0.5%etoricoxib, 30% with 1% etodolac, 37%with 1%etoricoxib, and 50% with 2% etodolac treatments,respectively. It is clear evident that even administration of high concentrations of these drugs was welltolerated by fish.

  2. Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser Desempenho produtivo de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentadas em diferentes frequências e períodos com dispensador automático

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, R. M. R.; Agostinho, C. A.; Oliveira, F. A.; Argentim, D.; Novelli, P. K.; Agostinho, S. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours) and periods (daytime, nighttime and both) was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with b...

  3. Growth and economic performance of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. fingerlings f ed diets containing grade d levels of s clerotium

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    Muyideen O . Lawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inclusion of sclerotium as a substitute forsoybean meal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus using growth performance, economy of production,haematological and biochemical parameters as indices. Four experimental diets comprising of control(CTR without sclerotium and other three diets SC1, SC2 and SC3 containing 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 %sclerotium, respectively. The experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish fingerlings (0.81±0.00g average body weight for 70 days. The inclusion of sclerotium at 7.5% level recorded the bestvalues for mean weight gain (MWG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Therewas no significant difference (p>0.05 in the incidence cost (IC and profit index (PI among the dietshowever, the best results were achieved at 10% (SC2 inclusion level. The parked cell volume (PCV,haemoglobin (Hb, neutrophil and lymphocyte showed significant difference (p0.05 in eosinophil among the four diets.Biochemical parameters recorded significant differences (pO. niloticus.

  4. The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA S FIUZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

  5. The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TATIANA S, FIUZA; PAULO C, SILVA; JOSÉ R, PAULA; LEONICE M F, TRESVENZOL; SIMONE M T, SABÓIA-MORAIS.

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. Th [...] e plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

  6. The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish. PMID:19746260

  7. Effect of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and its phytochemical sulforaphane in balanced diets on the detoxification enzymes levels of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a carcinogenic and mutagenic pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Cruz, V; Davila, J; Viana, M T; Vazquez-Duhalt, R

    2009-03-01

    Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed with enriched diets containing broccoli and its phytochemical sulforaphane over 30 d. The levels of cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activities were measured. Basal value of cytochrome P450 activity was significantly increased as consequence of the broccoli and sulforaphane enriched diets, while no statistically significant changes were found on catalase and lipid peroxidation activities. After benzo(a)pyrene exposure, the cytochrome P450 activity increased to higher levels in the fish feed with broccoli and sulforaphane when compared with the control fish. Activities of antioxidant enzymes also varied but without significant difference with the control fish. Supported by the lower concentrations of BaP metabolites in bile from fish fed with broccoli or with sulforaphane enriched diets (indicating a better xenobiotic elimination) the cytochrome P450 induction could be considered beneficial for the detoxification because this transformation is the first step for PAH elimination by the phase II system. The protection of aquaculture organism against pollution effects by designing special diets able to modulate the enzymes involved in the phase-I and phase-II detoxification mechanism are discussed. PMID:19144376

  8. Effects of chronic exposure of methomyl on the antioxidant system in liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shun Long; Chen, Jia Zhang; Hu, Geng Dong; Song, Chao; Fan, Li Min; Qiu, Li Ping; Xu, Pao

    2014-03-01

    The chronic effect of methomyl on the antioxidant system in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0.2, 2, 20 and 200?gL(-1) for 30 days, and then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. Hepatic antioxidant parameters, including Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione reductase (GR), Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), were measured at 10min (day 0), 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after starting the experiment and at 18 days after transferring to methomyl-free water. There were no significant changes in enzymatic activity and content of antioxidants in liver of tilapia exposed to 0.2?gL(-1) methomyl compared to controls. However, the results showed significant increases in activities of GST, GR, GPx and levels of GSSG accompanied by a decrease in GSH levels following methomyl exposure in tilapia to 2, 20 or 200?gL(-1) over the 30-day exposure period and the highest induction rates in GST, GR, GPx and GSSG were 150.87%, 163.21%, 189.76%, and 179.56% of the control respectively, and the highest inhibition rate in GSH was 50.67% of the control, suggesting the presence of oxidative stress. Thus it would appear that the 0.2?gL(-1) methomyl might be considered as the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Recovery data showed that the effects produced by lower concentration of methomyl 20?gL(-1) were reversible but not at the higher 200?gL(-1) concentration. PMID:24507119

  9. Impact of microcystin containing diets on physiological performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) concerning stress and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziková, Andrea; Trubiroha, Achim; Wiegand, Claudia; Wuertz, Sven; Rennert, Bernhard; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Kopp, Radovan; Mares, Jan; Kloas, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Diets containing Microcystis with considerable amounts of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were fed to determine their impact on the physiological performance of the omnivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with regard to stress and growth performance. Four different diets were prepared based on a commercial diet (control, MC-5% [containing 5% dried Microcystis biomass], MC-20% [containing 20% dried Microcystis biomass], and Arthrospira-20% [containing 20% dried Arthrospira sp. biomass without toxin]) and fed to female Nile tilapia. Blood and tissue samples were taken after 1, 7, and 28 d, and MC-LR was quantified in gills, muscle, and liver by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Only in the liver were moderate concentrations of MC-LR detected. The stress hormone cortisol and glucose were analyzed from plasma, suggesting that all modified diets caused only minor to moderate stress, which was confirmed by analyses of hepatic glycogen. In addition, the effects of the different diets on growth performance were investigated by determining gene expression of hypophyseal growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). For all diets, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) demonstrated no significant effect on gene expression of the major endocrine hormones of the growth axis, whereas classical growth data, including growth and feed conversion ratio, displayed slight inhibitory effects of all modified diets independent of their MC-LR content. However, no significant change was found in condition or hepatosomatic index among the various diets, so it seems feasible that dried cyanobacterial biomass might be even used as a component in fish diet for Nile tilapia, which requires further research in more detail. PMID:20821479

  10. Species diversity defends against the invasion of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Dang E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the most widely cultured species globally and has successfully colonized much of the world. Despite numerous studies of this exotic species, how differences in native communities mitigate the consequences of Nile tilapia invasion is unknown. Theory predicts that communities that are more diverse should be more resistant to exotic species, an effect that is referred to as “biotic resistance”, but these effects are spatially dependent and organism-specific. Field surveys and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the theory of “biotic resistance” and ascertain the relationship between native species richness and the invasion of Nile tilapia. In the field, we found that as native species richness increased, the biomass of Nile tilapia was significantly reduced. Consistent with results from the field, our manipulative experiment indicated that the growth of Nile tilapia was negatively related to native species richness. Thus, our study supports the theory of “biotic resistance” and suggests that species biodiversity represents an important defense against the invasion of Nile tilapia.

  11. Farinha de vísceras de aves em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo,Oreochromis niloticus (L.) / Poultry by-product meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings diets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de, Faria; Carmino, Hayashi; Claudemir Martins, Soares.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e as características de carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) submetidos a rações com níveis de inclusão de farinha de vísceras (FV), assim como os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) dos nutrientes [...] deste alimento. Para o experimento de desempenho, foram utilizados 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,35 ± 0,01 g, distribuídos em trinta tanques-rede (120 L), instalados em cinco tanques (1000 L). Foram utilizados seis níveis de inclusão de FV nas rações (0,00; 4,00; 8,00; 12,00; 16,00 e 20,00%), em um delineamento experimental, em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade, com rações contendo 0,00 e 20,00% de FV, fornecidas a peixes com peso médio de 47,81 ± 9,97 g. Observou-se aumento linear da porcentagem de ganho de peso e taxas de eficiência protéica e de retenção de nitrogênio, com o aumento nos teores de FV nas rações, e efeito quadrático para conversão alimentar, taxa de retenção de extrato etéreo e porcentagens de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo na carcaça. Em relação à digestibilidade, a ração com 20,00% de FV apresentou menores CDA para a matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta e maiores para extrato etéreo. Entretanto, maiores valores de extrato etéreo e energia digestíveis foram obtidos na ração com 20,00% de FV, embora a proteína digestível tenha sido inferior com 0,00% de FV. Os CDA do extrato etéreo, proteína bruta e energia bruta da farinha de vísceras foram de 70,45; 63,93 e 55,89%, respectivamente. A inclusão de 20,00% de FV na ração promoveu melhor desempenho, porém aumentou o teor de extrato etéreo e reduziu o de proteína bruta na carcaça, ocorrendo, ainda, diminuição dos CDA da matéria seca, proteína e energia bruta das rações. Abstract in english Performance, carcass characteristics and coefficients of apparent digestibility of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with increasing levels of poultry by-product meal (PM) were evaluated. Three hundred fingerlings with average initial weight of 0.35±0.01 g were placed in thi [...] rty 120 L net ponds in five cement 1000 L tanks. Six levels of PM inclusion (0.00, 4.00, 8.00, 12.00, 16.00 and 20.00%) were used in the diets, in an experimental randomized blocks desing with six treatments and three replicates. An experiment of diet digestibility was undertaken with 0.00 and 20.00% PM diets on fish of average weight 47.81±9.97 g. A linear improvement was observed at PM inclusion levels with regard to final weight, percentage of weight gain, protein efficiency rate, nitrogen retention and quadratic effect for food conversion, ether extract retention and percentages of crude protein and carcass ethereal extract. Concerning to the digestibility experiment, the 20.00% PM diet showed lower coefficients of apparent digestibility for dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and higher coefficients for ether extract. However, higher values of digestible ether extract and energy were obtained with 20.00% PM diet, even though digestible protein was lower than the 0.00% PP diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the ether extract, crude protein and crude energy of PM for the Nile tilapia were 70.45, 63.93 and 55.89% respectively. Thus, the inclusion of 20.00% PM in diet improved performance, however increased ether extract content and decreased crude protein levels in carcass and dry matter, crude protein and energy digestibility coefficients of the diets.

  12. Masculinización de la tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) por inmersión en Fluoximesterona y Testostesterona enantato / Masculinization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) by immersion in fluoximesterone and testosterone enanthate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Torres-Hernández; Graciela Beatriz, Nucamendi-Rodríguez; Pablo, Pintos-Terán; José Alberto, Montoya-Márquez.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la fluoximesterona (F) y testosterona enantato (T) en el crecimiento, supervivencia y proporción sexual de la progenie de Oreochromis niloticus. En estanques de 50 l se colocaron 38 larvas por unidad experimental. Los tratamientos por triplicado fueron F [...] 4 400 ?g?l-1; F12 1.200 ?g?l-1;F20 2.000 ?g?l-1; y T4 400 ?g?l-1; T12 1.200 ?g?l-1; T20 2.000 ?g?l-1; así como los controles agua (A) y agua más alcohol (AE). Se determinó la tasa específica de crecimiento en longitud total (TEC-L) y en peso húmedo (TEC-P), el experimento finalizó cuando los peces tenían una edad de 138 días después de la fecundación (DPF). La proporción sexual se evaluó mediante la observación directa de la gónada en un estereoscopio y microscopio compuesto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en TEC-P, TEC-L y en la supervivencia entre los tratamientos. Sin embargo, en la proporción sexual se encontraron diferencias significativas, indicando que F20 (93 %) valor superior a los controles A (58 %) y AE (62 %), y a los tratamientos F12 (72 %), T4 (69 %), T20 (65 %) y semejante estadísticamente a F4 (79 %), y T12 (73 %). Los tratamientos F4, F12, T4, T12 y T20, no presentaron diferencias significativas con respecto a los controles A y AE. La masculinización obtenida con el tratamiento por inmersión en F (2000 ?g?1-1) permite considerar este procedimiento como eficiente para la producción de progenie masculina de tilapia Abstract in english The effect of the hormone fluoximesterone (F) and testosterone enanthate (T) were evaluated in the growth, survival and the sex ratio of offspring of Oreochromis niloticus. In 50 liter tanks, 38 larvae were placed in each experimental unit. Treatments were triplicated: F4 400 ?g?l-1; F12 1.200 ?g?l- [...] 1;F20 2.000 ?g?l-1; y T4 400 ?g?l-1; T12 1.200 ?g?l-1; T20 2.000 ?g?l-1, as well as controls for water (A) and water plus alcohol (EA). The rate of growth was measured in length (TEC-L) and in weight (TEC-P). The experiment ended when the fish had reached an age of 138 days after fertilization (DPF). The sex ratio was determined by the direct observation of the gonad using a stereoscope and a compound microscope. After the experiment concluded, there were no significant differences in TEC-P, TEC-L, nor in survival in the treatments and controls. In the sex ratio, there were significant differences between treatments, indicating that F20 (93%) was significantly higher than controls A (58%) and AE (62%) and treatments F12 (72%), T4 (69% ), T20 (65%). F20 was statistically similar to F4 (79%) and T12 (73%). Treatments F4, F12, T4, T12 and T20, showed no significant differences compared to controls A and AE. The masculinization obtained with treatment by fluoxymesterone immersion (2000 ?g?1-1) allows us to consider this procedure as efficient for the production of male progeny of tilapia

  13. Effects of Supplemental Dietary L-carnitine on the Growth of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Cage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    D?KEL, Suat; ALEV, M. Vedat; K?R??, Gül A.; Mehmet ÇEL?K

    2003-01-01

    The effect of L-carnitine supplement on the growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings was investigated. One group was fed normal commercial grow-out feed (the control group) while the other group was given feed containing 500 mg kg-1 L-carnitine. The addition of carnitine (the second group) had a positive effect on growth (7.9% higher than the control group). According to the final results, the carnitine-supplemented group had greater final weights (151.86 ± 27.19...

  14. Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles: modelling spatial correlations between hapas

    OpenAIRE

    Charo-karisa, H.; Komen, J.; Rezk, M. A.; Reynolds, S.; Ponzoni, R. W.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the environmental and genetic effects on early growth of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in hapa-in-earthen pond systems. In a pilot study, we grew swim-up fry with or without supplementary feed in hapas suspended in fertilized ponds at 5, 10, 15, and 20 fry/m2 densities. In the main experiment, we reared swim-up fry from 25 full-sib families separately for 42 days at 15 fry/m2 density in hapas suspended in two earthen ponds. Hapas were arranged in t...

  15. Quantification of essential fatty acids in the heads of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with linseed oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana C., Aguiar; Solange M., Cottica; Marcela, Boroski; Cláudio C., Oliveira; Elton G., Bonafé; Polyana B., França; Nilson E., Souza; Jesui V., Visentainer.

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do óleo de linhaça sobre as concentrações dos teores de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-6 e n-3 (AGPI) em cabeças de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), um resíduo do pescado normalmente descartado durante o processo de filetagem. A quanti [...] ficação dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados foi realizada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa (CG), sendo a concentração dos ácidos graxos expressa em termos de massa absoluta através da utilização do éster metílico (23:0) como padrão interno e do TCFx (fator de correção teórica do FID). As tilápias receberam dietas com níveis crescentes de óleo de linhaça (0,00, 1,25, 2,50, 3,75 e 5,00%) em substituição ao óleo de girassol (controle) durante um período de cinco meses. A ingestão de LNA causa a dessaturação sequencial e alongamento das cadeias carbônicas de ácidos graxos presentes nas cabeças de peixes, levando a um aumento em todos os AGPIs n-3. Este experimento demonstrou claramente que a adição de óleo de linhaça na ração de tilápia do Nilo aumenta significativamente as concentrações (em 100 g-1 de cabeça) de LNA (100,8 para 973,6 mg), EPA (4,8 para 82,1 mg) e DHA (24,0 para 125,4 mg). Estas alterações contribuem acentuadamente para melhorar a razão AGPI n-6/n-3 e, desta forma, pode ser utilizada em suplementos alimentícios, transformando as cabeças de tilápia em valiosa alternativa como fonte de alimento para dieta humana. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to examine the effects of linseed oil on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid content in the heads of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), these are normally discarded during the filleting process. The quantification of PUFA was carried out in absolute weigh [...] ts through the use of methyl ester (23:0), as an internal standard, and TCFx (theoretical FID correction factor) by GC gas chromatography. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels (0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00%) of linseed oil as a replacement for sunflower oil (control) for a period of five months. The ingestion of LNA causes sequential desaturation and elongation in fish heads, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFAs. This experiment demonstrated clearly that adding linseed oil to the feed of Nile tilapia can markedly increase the amounts (per 100 g-1 of head) of LNA (100.8 to 973.6 mg), EPA (4.8 to 82.1 mg), and DHA (24.0 to 125.4 mg) in their heads, and thus, may be used to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in dietary supplements, and creating a valuable alternative food source in the human diet.

  16. Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimolrat, P.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05. The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05. The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05. Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05 in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

  17. Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Liñán-Cabello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (approximately 5.0cm in length were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH; b fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R; c fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH; and d fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N. The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T, and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K; survival percentage (S, feed conversion rate (FCR, percentage weight gain (WG and (v daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group, being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (pActualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC con 17 ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT. En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.0cm de longitud, fueron asignados al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces por tanque, en un período de seis semanas. Los tratamientos fueron: a peces tratados con 17-MT+HC en aceite mineral (RGH, b peces tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral sin la adición de HC (R, c los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT-tratado+HC en aceite mineral (NGH, y d los peces que no fueron tratados con 17-MT+aceite mineral (N. La hormona de crecimiento humano recombinante (Humatrope, Eli Lilly & Co., Windlesham, Inglaterra, se inyectó en el pez con una dosis de 0.625mg por gramo de peso corporal. Los datos morfométricos se registraron al comienzo del experimento (T y en los días 15, 30 y 45 (T, T y T, Se registraron diversos indicadores de crecimiento: factor de condición (K, porcentaje de supervivencia (S, la tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCR, porcentaje de ganancia de peso (GP y el aumento de peso al día. El nivel óptimo dietético fue calculado suponiendo 5% de conversión de alimentos al peso total de cada grupo. Durante el experimento fue usada una dieta comercial con el 45% de proteína. De los resultados presentados, es evidente que la inyección de HC dio lugar a una mayor ganancia de peso en el 17-MT-los peces tratados (el grupo de tratamiento RGH, y la diferencia fue significativa, tanto en T y T (p<0.05 para ambas comparaciones. De manera similar, los altos valores de K se presentaron en los tratamientos R y RGH durante los primeros días de cultivo. Esto puede haber sido asociado con un mejor estado nutricional que afectó tanto el desarrollo de peso y la longitud del cuerpo del pez, como resultado del efecto aditivo de 17-MT y GH. Los tratamientos no andrógenos y los grupos tratados con andrógenos y con HC mostraron un mayor incremento en la ganancia de peso por día, los mayores valores de K y menores tasas de conversión del alimento, lo que sugiere una mayor eficiencia de la alimentación en los peces tratados con hormonas. Peces en el tratamiento RGH mostraron el mayor crecimiento, lo que sugiere una posible interacción entre el 17 de ?-metiltestosterona (17-MT y hormona de crecimiento inyectada.

  18. Massive Mortality Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Cage-cultured Red Hybrid Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C.A. Jalal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive mortality of cage-cultured red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia was investigated. Moribund fish showing erratic swimming, sluggishness and hemorrhagic eyes were collected for the study. Water quality parameters were measured on-site. The highest temperature was 32.70°C at the surface while lower temperature was 30.85°C at 6 m. Dissolved Oxygen (DO was highest 7.05 mg L-1 at 4 m while lowest 6.15 mg L-1 at 10 m. The pH value was highest 8.28 at 6 m and lowest 7.52 at surface. The result has shown that un-ionized ammonia levels ranged from 0.00046-0.01 ppm within the optimum range. While Nitrite (0.003 ppm and Nitrate values (0.1-0.7 ppm. The water quality parameters were showed their values within the accepted range of water quality for aquaculture. Bacteria were isolated from diseased fish using blood and nutrient agars, and identified using BBL Crystal™ Enteric/Non-fermenter ID and Gram Positive ID Systems and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility analysis. Results showed the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Burkholderia cepacia in the fish liver and Staphylococcus aureus in the fish eyes, suggesting a possible case of warm-water streptococcosis associated with S. agalactiae with multiple bacterial complications. Nevertheless, a continuous long term monitoring is essential for the sustainable development of cage aquaculture in Como river of Lake Kenyir Malaysia.

  19. Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser / Desempenho produtivo de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) alimentadas em diferentes frequências e períodos com dispensador automático

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.M.R., Sousa; C.A., Agostinho; F.A., Oliveira; D., Argentim; P.K., Novelli; S.M.M., Agostinho.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) produzidas em tanque-rede, providas de dispensadores automáticos de ração, alimentadas em diferentes frequências - uma vez por hora e a cada duas horas - e períodos - durante o dia, à noite ou ambos. Dezoito tanques-rede de 1.0m³ fo [...] ram colocados em um tanque de 2000m² com dois metros de profundidade e renovação de água de 5%. Cento e setenta tilápias, com peso inicial de 16.0±4.9g foram distribuídas em cada tanque-rede de 1m³ e a taxa alimentar foi ajustada a cada 21 dias junto com as biometrias. As medidas foram coletadas de março a julho (outono e inverno). Observou-se diferença significativa para peso final (P Abstract in english The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours) and periods (daytime, nighttime and both) was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two [...] meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter). Significant difference to final weight (P

  20. Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange / Rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en un sistema híperintensivo de recirculación acuícola con mínimo recambio de agua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Gullian-Klanian; C, Arámburu-Adame.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus sembrados en densidades hiperintensivas en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA) con mínimo remplazo de agua. El sistema experimental consistió en un sistema de precría de cosecha única [...] para obtener peces de 50 g en 60 días. Los peces (2,07 ± 0,14 g) se sembraron por triplicado a densidades de 400 (T1), 500 (T2) y 600 (T3) peces m-3 (0,84; 1,05; 1,22 kg m-3). El SRA funcionó con 12.000 L de agua recirculante y un remplazo diario de 252 L (2,1% por día). La densidad de siembra no afectó significativamente la supervivencia (89,5-93,6%). El biofiltro removió el amonio nitrogenado total con una eficiencia del 46,9 ± 7,0%. La tasa de crecimiento de T1 (0,96 g día-1; 5,01% día-1) y T2 (0,92 g día-1; 4,95% día-1) fue significativamente mayor que T3 (0,83 g día-1; 4,80% día-1). La temperatura influyó 41% en la tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE) de T1. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto (DO) influyó en la variación de peso en T2 (47%) y T3 (44%). La TCE de T3 también se vio afectada por la concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (31%). El aumento de la densidad de siembra afectó el tamaño y la homogeneidad de tallas de los peces, pero no afectó la relación longitud-peso (L-P). Los datos respaldan la conclusión que los juveniles sembrados a densidades de 400 y 500 peces m-3 tienen alto rendimiento durante nueve semanas consecutivas, siempre y cuando la biomasa no se exceda de 37 kg m-3. En este tiempo los peces alcanzan el peso final esperado de precría (50 g) y pueden ser transferidos hacia las instalaciones de engorde. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain [...] 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily). The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%). The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1) and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1) was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1). The specific growth rate (SGR) of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%). The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W). Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g) for transfer to grow-out facilities.

  1. Predation of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae by Pantala flavescens with different length classes = Predação de P. mesopotamicus e O. niloticus por larvas de Pantala flavescens de diferentes classes de coprimento

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    Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment had as objective to study the survival of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Oreochromis niloticus larvae subject to predation by Pantala flavescens larvae with different length classes. We used 120 larvae of P. mesopotamicus, 120 of O. niloticus, and also 24 larvae of Pantala flavescens, distributed in 24 aquariums with useful volume for 2 L, being placed one Odonate for aquarium. The treatments differed as regard to the prey species and the predator size, being kept a control treatment. An aquarium (2 L containing one larvae of Odonate and 10 larvae of fish were considered an experimental unit. After the beginning, each three hours (18:00, 21:00, 0:00, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 and 18:00h, the remnant larvae of fish (alive in each experimental unit was quantified, and we replaced the consumed larvae, so that we always had 10 larvae of fish at each aquarium after each counting. For both fish species, there was a slight increase in consumption by the Odonate with intermediate size, but the values did not differ statistically (p > 0.05. Larvae of Odonate in the treatments with greater length presented a lowerconsumption (p O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a sobrevivência de larvas de P. mesopotamicus e O. niloticus submetidas à predação por larvas de Pantala flavescens de diferentes classes de comprimento. Foram utilizadas 120 larvas de cada espécie de peixe e 24 larvas de Odonata, distribuídas em 24 aquários (2 L, sendo colocada uma Odonata por aquário. Os tratamentos diferiram quanto à espécie de presa e o tamanho do predador, sendo mantido um tratamento-controle. Um aquário (2 L com uma Odonata e dez larvas de peixe foi consideradauma unidade experimental. As Odonatas foram colocadas nos aquários 1h antes das larvas de peixe. Foram efetuadas contagens a cada 3h (18, 21, 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 e 18h das larvas de peixe remanescentes (vivas em cada unidade experimental, sendo repostas as larvas consumidas, de modo a ter dez larvas de peixe em cada aquário logo após cada contagem. Para ambas as espécies de peixe, foi observado leve aumento no consumo das larvas pelas Odonatas de tamanhointermediário, porém os valores não diferiram estatisticamente (p > 0,05. As larvas de Odonata nos tratamentos em que apresentavam maior comprimento tiveram consumo menor (p < 0,05 que nos demais.

  2. Determination of the optimal dose of benzocaine hydrochloride in anesthesia of tilápia (Oreochromis niloticusDeterminação da dose ótima de cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Marco Antonio da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish anesthesia is indicated for several management procedures such as capturing, biometry, tagging, transporting, physical examination, reproductive management and surgical procedures. In this study the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride necessary for tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus anesthesia was determined through six phases with 240 fish. In each phase 40 fish were evaluated. The interval between phases was two months. Mean values for weight and (allometric condition factor, in each phase, were 25.64 (2.56, 167.58 (2.88, 286.12 (2.57, 388.24 (2.50, 518.19 (2.89, 592.71 (2.67, respectively. The values for allometric condition factors showed that the animals included in the experiments were in good body conditions (P > 0.05. In each phase, fishes were captured and kept in four containers with five liters of water and benzocaine hydrochloride diluted in 20 mL of ethanol, in concentrations of 100, 140, 180, and 220 mg/liter of water. The time of induction in seconds (TI was registered for each fish, and after the anesthetic induction the biometric analysis was conducted at fixed time of 10 minutes. After, the fishes were transferred to containers with 20 liters of water under constant flow, in order to evaluate the recovering time in seconds (TR. At each phase the minimum dose of benzocaine hydrochloride concentration was calculated using LRP (Linear Response Plateau. The model included the dose of benzocaine (mg/L and the time of induction in seconds. The values of LRP were, respectively, 146.60 and 67.45, 155.95 and 76.33, 160.45 and 87.42, 167.00 and 108.14, 165.87 and 174.03, 164.00 and 139.80. The optimum dose was related to the mean weight in each phase, resulting in the equation: Dose = 149.65 + 0.03183 x weigh (r2 = 0.73. This equation showed that an increase of 1g in the body weight corresponded to an increase of 0.032 mg/L in the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride.A anestesia em peixes é indicada para auxiliar a realização de diversos procedimentos como: captura, biometria, marcação, transporte, exame físico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e manejo reprodutivo. Neste experimento, determinou-se a dose de cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus, com a realização de seis etapas com 240 peixes, sendo 40 peixes em cada etapa, em intervalo de dois meses. O peso médio e o (fator de condição alométrico das tilápias em cada etapa foram de: 25,64 (2,5635; 167,58 (2,8776; 286,12 (2,5719; 388,24 (2,4955; 518,19 (2,8933; 592,71 (2,6750, respectivamente. O fator de condição alométrico mostrou que os animais utilizados no experimento estavam em boas condições (P > 0,05. Em cada etapa, os peixes foram capturados e colocados em quatro recipientes contendo 5 litros de água com benzocaína diluída em 20 ml de etanol, nas concentrações de 100, 140, 180 e 220 mg/litro de água. O tempo de indução em segundos (TI foi registrado para cada peixe, e após a indução anestésica foi realizada a biometria no tempo fixo de 10 minutos. Após, os peixes foram transferidos para recipientes contendo 20 litros de água com renovação constante para avaliar o tempo de recuperação em segundos (TR. Em cada etapa, foi calculada a dose mínima de benzocaína através do LRP (Linear Response Plateu em um modelo que incluiu a dose de benzocaína (mg/l e tempo de indução em segundos. Os valores do LRP foram respectivamente: 146,60 e 67,45; 155,95 e 76,33; 160,45 e 87,42; 167,00 e 108,14; 165,87 e 174,03; 164,00 e 139,80. A dose ótima foi relacionada com o peso médio em cada fase resultando na equação: Dose = 149,65 + 0,03183 x peso, (r² = 0,73. Esta equação mostra que um aumento em 1g no peso corporal corresponde a 0,032 mg/l na dose de benzocaína.

  3. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus)

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    Tola, Siriporn; Bureau, Dominique P.; Hooft, Jamie M.; Beamish, Frederick W. H.; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Encarnação, Pedro; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg?1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg?1). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance. PMID:26035489

  4. Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus spp. group B in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in hapas nets and earth nurseries in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil

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    Salvador Rogério

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Streptococcus spp. in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in net-pens and earth nurseries. Eight intensive tilapia-rearing farms were investigated in north Paraná, Brazil from April 1st 2001 to April 30th 2002. The fish were reared in a system of hapas nets on four farms and in earth nurseries on other four farms. A total of 370 samples were analyzed of material collected from 120 fish (brain, liver, kidney, skin scrapes, ascites liquid and eye that were sown on BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract and sheep blood. Streptococcus spp. was isolated in 36 of the samples (18 brain, eight liver, eight kidney and two ascites liquid from 25 fish. Streptococci were isolated in both systems, almost in the same proportion. First the streptococci were characterized by the catalase and esculin test, growth in methylene blue and sodium chloride at 6.5%. They were classified in groups by the Slidex Strepto-Kit (BioMerieux, France. The phenotypic characteristics were determined by the Api 20 Strep microtest system (BioMerieux, France. The 36 Streptococcus spp. samples did not present hemolysis and were classified as Lancefield group B. Further 16 samples were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae and 20 were not identified by the Api 20 Strep, but presented the same biochemical profile described for the reference strain of Streptococcus difficile (ND-2-22.

  5. Dietary lipid levels impact lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and fatty acid synthetase gene expression in three tissues of adult GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

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    Tian, Juan; Wu, Fan; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Wei; Wen, Hua

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary lipids on growth performance, body composition, serum parameters, and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT strain) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. We randomly assigned adult male Nile tilapia (average initial body weight = 220.00 ± 9.54 g) into six groups consisting of four replicates (20 fish per replicate). Fish in each group were hand-fed a semi-purified diets containing different lipid levels [3.3 (the control group), 28.4, 51.4, 75.4, 101.9, and 124.1 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. The results indicated that there was no obvious effect in feeding rate among all groups (P > 0.05). The highest weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio in 75.4 g kg(-1) diet group were increased by 23.31, 16.17, and 22.02 % than that of fish in the control group (P competition between lipolysis and lipogenesis. FAS did not have tissue-specific regulation; however, the regulation of dietary lipids on LPL expression is tissue specific. FAS was a negative feedback regulator on fat deposition, and HSL was an indicator of fat content in tilapia. PMID:25347968

  6. Optimization of the sublethal dose of silver nanoparticle through evaluating its effect on intestinal physiology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.).

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    Sarkar, Biplab; Jaisai, Mayuree; Mahanty, Arabinda; Panda, Pragnya; Sadique, Mohammad; Nayak, B B; Gallardo, G; Thakur, D; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in a variety of biomedical and consumer products as an antimicrobial additive. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of low-dose SNPs on intestinal physiology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) for assessing its apparent environmental risk due to extensive commercial use. SNPs were synthesized by a chemical reduction method yielding 1-27 nm oval shaped particles. Early fingerlings of tilapia were exposed with two sublethal concentrations (0.8 and 0.4 mg L(-1)) of SNPs for twenty one days period and its impact on the intestinal physiology was evaluated by histochemistry, catalase expression, glutamate dehydrogenase activity, SDS-PAGE and gut micro flora count. Histological analysis showed thinning of intestinal wall, swelling on mucosal layer and immunohistochemical assay exhibited an enhanced catalase expression in SNPs treated fishes. Gut microflora count elicited a dose-dependent depletion and a variable SDS-PAGE profile followed by significant (P < 0.05) elevations in glutamate dehydrogenase activity in SNPs-treated fishes. This study was designed to provide a better understanding of environmentally acceptable, dose-dependent SNPs delivery in fishes and to formulate guidelines in aquatic toxicology. PMID:26030687

  7. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus

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    Siriporn Tola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg?1 on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg?1. Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p < 0.05. Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05. Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance.

  8. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Siriporn; Bureau, Dominique P; Hooft, Jamie M; Beamish, Frederick W H; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Encarnação, Pedro; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg-1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg-1). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance. PMID:26035489

  9. High Potential Probiotic Bacillus Species from Gastro-intestinal Tract of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    V. Leelavatcharamas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In study to obtain a safe Bacillus probiotic for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus cultivation, hemolytic activity on blood agar medium was used in isolation of Bacillus probiotic species from gastro-intestinal tract of Nile tilapia. One hundred and three isolates of Bacillus sp. which showed no hemolytic activity were obtained from 2 sampling sites of the Nile Tilapia net-cage culture farms. Among these 103 isolates, however, there was only 1 isolate, named as Bacillus UBRU4 which showed the inhibitory effect on Aeromonas hydrophila growth. The results of physiological and biochemical test and molecular identification (99.90% identity showed that Bacillus UBRU4 was similar to Bacillus brevis. This was possibly the first report of isolation of Bacillus brevis in aquaculture. The optimum pH and temperature for Bacillus UBRU4 growth on Tryptic soy broth were 6.5 and 37C, respectively. The maximum cell numbers of Bacillus UBRU4 in modified broth culture medium was obtained when using the medium contained 30 g L-1 of Nile tilapia commercial feed and 20 g L-1 of molasses. The bioactive compound production of Bacillus UBRU4 showed the growth associated characteristic. Partial purified bioactive compounds by 80% saturated ammonium sulfate could increase the activity to 6,400 AU mL-1. The specific activity of the bioactive compound was increased from 1,298 to 5,807 AU mg-1. These results suggested that the Bacillus UBRU4, thus, could possibly be used as high potential probiotic in Nile tilapia feed.

  10. Impact of microcystin containing diets on physiological performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) concerning detoxification.

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    Ziková, Andrea; Trubiroha, Achim; Wiegand, Claudia; Wuertz, Sven; Rennert, Bernhard; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, Jan; Spurný, Petr; Kloas, Werner

    2010-12-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed by diets supplemented with cyanobacteria containing in part the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) to determine the potential impacts on detoxification. Four different diets were prepared based on a commercial diet: (1) control, (2) MC-5% (containing 5% dried Microcystis sp. biomass with 4.92 ?g MC-LR g(-1) diet), (3) MC-20% (containing 20% dried Microcystis sp. biomass with 19.54 ?g MC-LR g(-1) diet), and (4) Arthr-20% (containing 20% dried Arthrospira sp. biomass without MC-LR). Blood and liver samples were taken after one, 7, and 28 days and protein has been determined in plasma and liver. In the liver, impacts on detoxification were measured by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and gene expression of multi drug resistance protein (MDRP). Plasma protein did not change between all four diets at any sampling time whereas liver protein was significantly elevated already after one day in Arthr-20% and after 28 days in both, MC-20% and Arthr-20%. Biochemical measurements of GST activities revealed no significant impact at any sampling time. In order to characterize the potential effect of MC-LR on MDRP, RT-qPCR method was established. However, as for GST activities no significant changes in MDRP gene expression have been observed. Thus, in summary, oral exposure of MC-LR containing cyanobacteria to Nile tilapia via feed ingestion did not impact significantly detoxification in liver concerning GST activities and MDRP expression despite biochemical composition concerning liver protein was significantly elevated by the diets containing 20% cyanobacteria biomass, regardless whether they contained MC-LR or not. PMID:20949194

  11. Densidade de estocagem de alevinos da Tilápia "Oreochromis niloticus" (linhagem Chitralada cultivada em tanques-rede

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    Eudes de Souza Correia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar densidades de estocagem de alevinos de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem Chitralada, em tanques-rede instalados no reservatório de Xingó. Foram utilizados 12 estruturas de tanques-rede de 5 m3, revestidos internamente com bolsões de PVC de 4m3 (malha de # 4-8 mm, nas quais foram estocados alevinos de 0,85 g. Adotou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (800, 950 e 1.100 alevinos/m3 e quatro repetições. Durante os primeiros 20 dias, a alimentação constou de ração comercial em pó (55% proteína bruta, fornecida oito vezes ao dia, a uma taxa de 12,5% da biomassa/dia, sendo em seguida substituída por outra, extrusada e desintegrada (45% de proteína bruta, numa taxa de alimentação de 8-6,5%/dia. No final da fase de berçário, com duração de 54 dias, os alevinos foram contados, medidos e pesados. As variáveis de qualidade da água como temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, alcalinidade, dureza total, amônia total e nitrito, não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os tratamentos (P?0,05. Do mesmo modo as variáveis de desempenho do cultivo como ganho de peso relativo (4.119%, taxa de crescimento específico (6,9%/dia, sobrevivência (93,2% e conversão alimentar (1,04, não diferiram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos (P?0,05. Dessa forma pode-se concluir que na fase de alevinagem é possível estocar até 1.100 alevinos/m3 para a obtenção de indivíduos de 30 gramas. Palavras-chave: tilápia; alevinos; densidades; tanques-rede.

  12. Improvement of immunity and disease resistance in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, by dietary supplementation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

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    Selim, Khaled M; Reda, Rasha M

    2015-06-01

    Probiotics can be used as immunostimulants in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune responses of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus following feeding with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores at concentrations of 1 × 10(6) (G3) and 1 × 10(4) (G2) colony-forming units per gram (CFU/g) of feed compared with a basal diet with no probiotics (G1). A total of 180 fingerlings (27.7 ± 0.22 g) were divided into three groups (G1-G3 of 20 fish per group) in triplicate. Innate immunities were measured every two weeks based on serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme activity, a nitric oxide assay (mmo/l) and phagocytic activity, and the expressions of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF ?) were examined after one month. Moreover, the survival of tilapia upon challenge with Yersinia ruckeri or Clostridium perfringens type D was determined at the end of feeding trial. After 15 d, the serum killing percentages and phagocytic activities were significantly higher in G3 than in G1 and G2, whereas the same parameters had significantly higher values in G3 and G2 than in G1 after 30 d. After both 15 d and 30 d, the lysozyme activities and nitric oxide assay results (mmo/l) were significantly higher in G3 than G2, and the lowest values were observed in G1. The percentage of serum killing, serum nitric oxide and serum lysozyme activity were significantly increased by the time of B. amyloliquefaciens administration independently of the probiotic dose, and the phagocytic activity percentage was significantly decreased at the end of the experiment. Dietary B. amyloliquefaciens caused significant increases in IL-1 and TNF ? mRNA levels in the kidneys in the following pattern: G3 > G2 > G1. Fish that were fed B. amyloliquefaciens exhibited better relative survival percentages than the controls when challenged by Y. ruckeri or C. perfringens type D. Dietary supplementation with B. amyloliquefaciens improves immune status and disease resistance in Nile tilapia. PMID:25783002

  13. EFEITO DO LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

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    José Luís Pedreira Mouriño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided into two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

  14. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

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    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. PMID:25804486

  15. Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the performance and fatty acid profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings = Influência das dietas contendo diferentes óleos vegetais na performance e perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0, oleic (18:1n-9, linoleic (18:2 n-6, and linolenic (18:3 n-3 acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%, while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended. Foram examinados o perfil de ácidos graxos nas carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes óleos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os resultados indicaram que o ácido palmítico (16:0, esteárico (18:0, oléico (18:1n-9, linoleico (18;2n-6 e linolênico (18:3n-3 foram os ácidos predominantes em todas as frações analisadas (no óleo vegetal, dietas e carcaças dos peixes. O óleo de linhaça apresentou o maior valor de ácido linolênico (45,63%, quanto aos outros óleos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os óleos vegetais não afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relação a qualidade nutricional o uso do óleo de linhaça é recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilápia.

  16. The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Binga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum indicum and raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa replaced fishmeal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 30, 70 and 100% test materials inclusion levels. Each dietary treatment was randomly duplicated in tanks stocked with twenty fingerlings (2.71 0.003 g and fed three times (08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h to satiation for 56 days. The result revealed best live weight gain and feed utilization in the fish fed diet D4 followed by diet D1 and D3 with the least value recorded in fish fed diet D2 level. Generally, there was significant increase (p4 and control. The result supports the suggestion that tilapia can be fed with mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed and raw African locust bean which is hoped will reduce tremendously the over dependence on fishmeal protein and human utilization of the very scarce fish meal.

  17. Effects on growth and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as total replacement of fish meal without amino acid supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish meal (FM) is the main protein source in numerous aquaculture diets due to its palatability and quality. Quantities of FM have remained constant for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in diets used for the global aquaculture industry. Ther...

  18. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

  19. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Donald, Arguedas Cortés; Gaby, Dolz; Juan J, Romero Zúñiga; Ana E, Jiménez Rocha; Dennis, León Alán.

    1453-14-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron [...] cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%), fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica. Abstract in english Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. [...] To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

  20. Retinoic acid homeostasis through aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 mediates meiotic entry in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruijuan; Fang, Lingling; Cheng, Yunying; He, Xue; Jiang, Wentao; Dong, Ranran; Shi, Hongjuan; Jiang, Dongneng; Sun, Lina; Wang, Deshou

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis is a process unique to the differentiation of germ cells. Retinoic acid (RA) is the key factor controlling the sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation in tetrapods; however, the role of RA in meiotic initiation in teleosts has remained unclear. In this study, the genes encoding RA synthase aldh1a2, and catabolic enzyme cyp26a1 were isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a species without stra8. The expression of aldh1a2 was up-regulated and expression of cyp26a1 was down-regulated before the meiotic initiation in ovaries and in testes. Treatment with RA synthase inhibitor or disruption of Aldh1a2 by CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in delayed meiotic initiation, with simultaneous down-regulation of cyp26a1 and up-regulation of sycp3. By contrast, treatment with an inhibitor of RA catabolic enzyme and disruption of cyp26a1 resulted in earlier meiotic initiation, with increased expression of aldh1a2 and sycp3. Additionally, treatment of XY fish with estrogen (E2) and XX fish with fadrozole led to sex reversal and reversion of meiotic initiation. These results indicate that RA is indispensable for meiotic initiation in teleosts via a stra8 independent signaling pathway where both aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 are critical. In contrast to mammals, E2 is a major regulator of sex determination and meiotic initiation in teleosts. PMID:25976364

  1. [Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis

    2010-12-01

    Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. PMID:21250483

  2. Effect of Sophora flavescens on non-specific immune response of tilapia (GIFT Oreochromis niloticus) and disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-rui; Gong, Qing-fang; Fang, Hong; Liang, Wan-wen; Chen, Ming; He, Rui-jie

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of a diet supplemented with the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Sophora flavescens on the immunity and disease resistance of an Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain. Experimental diets containing 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.100%, 0.200%, and 0.400% S. flavescens, as well as a control group without S. flavescens were used. We tested the non-specific humoral immune responses (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement) and cellular immune responses (reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species production and myeloperoxidase), as well as disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae. S. flavescens supplementation at all dose significantly enhanced serum lysozyme, antiprotease, and natural hemolytic complement activity. Similarly, all S. flavescens doses enhanced cellular myeloperoxidase activity. The increased production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen intermediates by peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in most of the treatment groups throughout the test period. The fish fed 0.100% S. flavescens had a percent mortality of 21.1% and a relative percent survival of 73.3% compared with the group fed the basal diet during the S. agalactiae challenge. The results suggest that S. flavescens can be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish immunity and disease resistance against S. agalactiae. PMID:23092731

  3. Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Salah Mesalhy; Abdel-Galil Ahmed, Yousef; Abdel-Aziz Ghareeb, Ahlam; Mohamed, Moahmed Fathi

    2008-07-01

    The probiotic activity of two bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus) was evaluated by its effect on the immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), beside its protective effect against challenge infections. Furthermore, their in-vitro inhibitory activity was evaluated. The in-vitro antimicrobial assay showed that Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibited the growth of A. hydrophila. The B. subtilis inhibited the development of P. fluorescens while L. acidophilus inhibited the growth of Strept. iniae. The B. subtilis and L. acidophilus proved harmless when injected in the O. niloticus. The feed, containing a mixture of B. subtilis and L. acidophilus or B. subtilis alone, showed significantly greater numbers of viable cells than feed containing L. acidophilus only after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The survival rate and the body-weight gain were significantly increased in the fish given B. subtilis and L. acidophilus for one and two months after application. The hematocrit values showed a significant increase in the group that received the mixture of B. subtilis and L. acidophilus compared with the control group. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay, neutrophil adherence and lysozyme activity, showed a significant increase in all the probiotic-treated groups after 1 and 2 months of feeding, when compared with the untreated control group. The serum bactericidal activity was high in the group that was given a mixture of the two bacteria. The relative level of protection (RLP) was significantly higher against A. hydrophila, in the bacterial mixture treated group and against P. fluorescens in the L. acidophilus treated group, after one month of the feeding trial. A significantly higher RLP, against A. hydrophila or P. fluorescens, was noticed after 2 months of the feeding trial in the group given a mixture of the two bacteria, and against Strept. iniae in the group fed a diet containing L. acidophilus. PMID:18450477

  4. The effects of rearing density on growth, size heterogeneity and inter-individual variation of feed intake in monosex male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaza, M S; Assad, A; Maghrbi, W; El-Cafsi, M

    2013-11-01

    The growth dispersion of farmed fish is a subject of increasing interest and one of the most important factors in stocking density. On a duration of 60 days, the effect of stocking density on the growth, coefficient of variation and inter-individual variation of feed intake (CVFI) of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (14.9 ± 1.2 g) were studied in an experimental tank-based flow-through system. Groups of fish were stocked at four stocking densities: 200, 400, 600 and 800 fish/m3, corresponding to a density of ?3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/m3 and referred to as D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. Each treatment was applied to triplicate groups in a completely randomized design. No treatment-related mortality was observed. The fish densities increased throughout the experiment from 3 to 23.5, 6 to 43.6, 9 to 56.6 and 12 to 69 kg/m3. Results show that mass gain and specific growth rate (SGR, %M/day) were negatively correlated with increased stocking density. Groups of the D1 treatment reached a mean final body mass (FBM) of 119.3 g v. 88.9 g for the D4 groups. Feed conversion ratios (FCRs) were 1.38, 1.54, 1.62 and 1.91 at D1, D2, D3 and D4 treatments, respectively. Growth heterogeneity, expressed by the inter-individual variations of fish mass (CVM), was significantly affected by time (P feed and juvenile costs, may have substantial effect on the optimal density. PMID:23915501

  5. Fermented Golden Apple Snails as an Alternative Protein Source in Sex-Reversed Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawan CHIMSUNG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to find out the possibility of using fermented golden apple snail (FGAS as an alternative protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mosambicus diets. FGAS was prepared by incubating minced golden apple snail (GAS with locally screened lactic acid bacteria and using molasses as carbon sources at ambient temperature for 10 days. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacing fishmeal with FGAS at level of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of fishmeal protein. Another diet with minced GAS was also included in the experiment. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of fish with an initial weight of 2.73 ± 0.09 g for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed 75 % fishmeal replacement diet were significantly better (p < 0.05 than those fed the control diet. The fish fed 100 % replacement diet showed lower growth rates compared with the control diet but were not significantly different (p > 0.05. In addition, fish fed a diet containing minced GAS showed better growth performance and feed utilization than those of the control diet. The digestibility study indicated that fish utilized protein from snail meal either in a minced or fermented form much better than protein from fishmeal. It was concluded that snail meal is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diets. Replacement of fishmeal protein with minced snail meal could be at 50 % and FGAS could be up to 100 % but 75 % is recommended.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.26

  6. Efecto Genotóxico del Dicromato de Potasio EnEritrocitos de sangre periférica de OreochromisNiloticus (Tilapia) / Genoto xic efect of potassium dicromate in Peripherals blod eryt hrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (TILAPIA)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zulita, Prieto; Julio, León-Incio; Carlos, Quijano-Jara; Radigud, Fernández; Edgardo, Polo-Benites; Roger, Vallejo-Rodríguez; Luis, Villegas-Sanchez.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen múltiples reportes del efecto genotóxico y cancerígeno del cromo VI, los seres humanos tenemos una permanente exposición a este elemento. Objetivos. Evidencias la genotoxicidad del dicromato de potasio utilizando como sistema biológico a Oreochromis niloticus "tilapia", mediante el test de m [...] icronúcleos y la cuantificación de nuclear buds, en eritrocitos de sangre periférica. Materiales y métodos. Los individuos fueron expuestos a concentraciones crecientes (0,0, 0,2, 0,4 y 0,8 ppm) de dicromato de potasio. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre periférica, del arco branquial de cada individuo (cuatro por grupo), a los tres y siete días de tratamiento, las cuales fueron procesadas y coloreadas con Giemsa 5% y se cuantificaron eritrocitos con micronúcleos y nuclear buds en sangre periférica. Resultados. Se encontró un incremento significativo de las frecuencias de micronúcleos y nuclear buds directamente proporcional a la concentración del dicromato de potasio en los individuos expuestos (p Abstract in english ABSTRACT Due multiple reports of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effect of chromium VI and the permanent exposure of the human beings to this element. Objective. Contributing new evidence of the genotoxicity of potassium dichromate using the biological system Oreochromis niloticus "tilapia" through t [...] he micronucleus test and the nuclear quantification of buds in erythrocytes of peripheral blood. Material and methods. The individuals were exposed to increasing concentrations (0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm) of potassium dichromate. Peripheral blood samples of the branchial arc of each individual were taken at 3th and 7th day of treatment which were processed and colored with Giemsa 5%, erythrocytes in peripheral blood with micronuclei and nuclear buds were quantified. Results. A significant increase of frequencies of micronucleus and nuclear buds in the exposed individuals were registered which were directly proportional to the potassium dichromate concentration (p

  7. Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser Desempenho produtivo de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas em diferentes frequências e períodos com dispensador automático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.R. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours and periods (daytime, nighttime and both was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter. Significant difference to final weight (PAvaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus produzidas em tanque-rede, providas de dispensadores automáticos de ração, alimentadas em diferentes frequências - uma vez por hora e a cada duas horas - e períodos - durante o dia, à noite ou ambos. Dezoito tanques-rede de 1.0m³ foram colocados em um tanque de 2000m² com dois metros de profundidade e renovação de água de 5%. Cento e setenta tilápias, com peso inicial de 16.0±4.9g foram distribuídas em cada tanque-rede de 1m³ e a taxa alimentar foi ajustada a cada 21 dias junto com as biometrias. As medidas foram coletadas de março a julho (outono e inverno. Observou-se diferença significativa para peso final (P<0.05 entre os tratamentos. O aumento da frequência alimentar melhorou o desempenho produtivo de tilápias-do-nilo produzidas em tanque-rede e permitiu melhor manejo alimentar. A melhor conversão alimentar para alta frequência, 24 vezes dia-1, pode resultar em uma economia de até 360kg de ração por tonelada de peixe produzido, melhorando a sustentabilidade econômica para produção de tilápia e sugerindo menor poluição ambiental.

  8. Tilapia by-product meal in rations for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings/ Farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Reidel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectifying to evaluate the inclusion of tilapia processing residues (FT in the feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings, 125 Nile tilapia fingerlings (with average initial weight of 0.72±0.19g were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions in 25 aquariums (30L. The rations were formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15% of FT and 0% FT plus methionine (0+met. Isoproteics, isocalcitics, isophosphorics and isoenergetics diets were used. After 28 days of experiment, final weight (PF, weight gain (GP, feed conversion ratio (CA and survival (SO, were evaluated. No differences were observed (P>0.05 for the studied parameters. It was concluded that the FT can be used up to 15% in substitution to the soybean meal in the diet of nile tilapia fingerlings.Objetivando avaliar a inclusão de farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias (FT na alimentação de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram utilizados 125 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo com peso inicial médio de 0,72±0,19g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em 25 aquários (30L cada. As rações foram formuladas de forma a conterem 0, 5, 10, 15% de FT e 0% de FT mais metionina (0+met, sendo as mesmas isoenergéticas isoprotéicas, isocalcíticas e isofosfóricas. Após 28 dias de experimento foram avaliados as médias de peso final (PF, ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar aparente (CA e sobrevivência (SO. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 entre os parâmetros avaliados. Conclui-se que a FT pode ser utilizada em até 15% em substituição ao farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia sem causar prejuízo ao seu desempenho.

  9. COEFICIENTES CONVECTIVOS DE TRANSFERENCIA DE CALOR DURANTE EL FREÍDO DE LÁMINAS DE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) / DETERMINATION OF CONVECTIVE COEFFICIENTS OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING FRYING OF SHEET TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego F, Tirado; Diofanor, Acevedo; Luis E, Guzmán.

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los coeficientes convectivos de transferencia de calor durante el freído por inmersión de láminas de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus en aceite de palma a diferentes temperaturas. Se cortaron filetes de tilapia en forma de placa y sumergieron en aceite a 130, 150, y 170 °C en una freido [...] ra eléctrica de acero inoxidable de seis litros. Las propiedades termofísicas se midieron en función de la temperatura y composición del alimento, usando el programa computacional DEPROTER. Los coeficientes convectivos fueron determinados a partir de gráficas de relaciones adimensionales tiempo -vs- temperatura, y estos disminuyeron al aumentar la temperatura del aceite, presentando valores de 46.76, 34.61 y 32.66 W/m²K a 130, 150 y 170 °C respectivamente. Se observa que a mayor temperatura del medio de fritura, mayor es la tasa de pérdida de agua desde el producto, y menor su energía interna, y por tanto menor es el coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de calor. Abstract in english The convective heat transfer coefficients during deep-fat frying of Oreochromis niloticus fillets in palm oil at different temperatures were determined. Tilapia fillets were plate-shaped cut and dipped in oil at 130, 150, and 170 °C in an electric fryer six liter stainless steel. Thermophysical prop [...] erties were measured as a function of temperature and composition of the food, using the computer program DEPROTER. The convective coefficients were determined from plots of time -vs- dimensionless temperature relationships, and these decreased with increasing oil temperature, with values of 46.76, 34.61 and 32.66 W/m²K at 130, 150 and 170 °C respectively. It was observed that the higher is the temperature of the frying medium, the greater is the rate of water loss from the product, and lower is the internal energy, and therefore lower is the convective heat transfer coefficient.

  10. INAA and ICP-MSHS. Metal pollutants in fish tissues Nile tilapia (Oreochromic niloticus) in Pampulha Lake, Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampulha Lake, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is being polluted via its tributaries, Sarandi and Ressaca. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry high resolution were applied to determine Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, Zn and Ti in Nile tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus. The organs analyzed were: intestine, spleen, heart, testicle, kidney, liver, gills and muscle. The results demonstrated relatively high concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, P and Ti in gills, Al and Cu in liver, Al in intestine and Fe in muscle and spleen. (author)

  11. Age and growth of the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from a tropical shallow lake in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis, Gómez-Márquez; Bertha, Peña-Mendoza; Isaías H, Salgado-Ugarte; José Luis, Arredondo-Figueroa.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la edad y el crecimiento de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) utilizando 1 039 organismos que fueron recolectados de Enero a Diciembre de 1993 en un lago somero tropical de México. La talla para las hembras osciló entre 9.0 y 16.5 cm longitud patrón y para los machos entre 8.9 [...] y 14.8 cm. La relación peso total-longitud patrón para toda la población fue P=0.1207 L2.469. Los datos de edad obtenidos a través de los anillos del hueso opercular se utilizaron para estimar los parámetros de crecimiento del modelo de von Bertalanffy: o = 17.88 cm, K=0.3409, t o=-1.543 y P o = 149.21 g. La edad máxima obtenida para hembras y machos fue de 2.5 año. La proporción sexual (hembra:macho) para la especie fue de 1:1 (X²=0.02, p>0.05) Abstract in english Age and growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were determined using 1 039 specimens collected in a tropical shallow lake of Mexico, from January to December 1993. Standard length of females ranged from 9.0 to 16.5 cm and males from 8.9 to 14.8 cm. The standard length-weight relationships fo [...] r all individuals was BW=0.1207 SL2.469. The age data, derived from opercular bone readings, were used to estimate the growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation: or = 17.88 cm, K=0.3409, t o=-1.543, and W=149.21 g. The oldest male and female were 2.5 years old. The sex ratio (female:male) was of 1:1 (X²=0.02, p>0.05). Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 875-884. Epub 2008 June 30.

  12. Age and growth of the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae from a tropical shallow lake in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gómez-Márquez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were determined using 1 039 specimens collected in a tropical shallow lake of Mexico, from January to December 1993. Standard length of females ranged from 9.0 to 16.5 cm and males from 8.9 to 14.8 cm. The standard length-weight relationships for all individuals was BW=0.1207 SL2.469. The age data, derived from opercular bone readings, were used to estimate the growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation: or = 17.88 cm, K=0.3409, t o=-1.543, and W=149.21 g. The oldest male and female were 2.5 years old. The sex ratio (female:male was of 1:1 (X²=0.02, p>0.05. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 875-884. Epub 2008 June 30.Se determinó la edad y el crecimiento de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus utilizando 1 039 organismos que fueron recolectados de Enero a Diciembre de 1993 en un lago somero tropical de México. La talla para las hembras osciló entre 9.0 y 16.5 cm longitud patrón y para los machos entre 8.9 y 14.8 cm. La relación peso total-longitud patrón para toda la población fue P=0.1207 L2.469. Los datos de edad obtenidos a través de los anillos del hueso opercular se utilizaron para estimar los parámetros de crecimiento del modelo de von Bertalanffy: o = 17.88 cm, K=0.3409, t o=-1.543 y P o = 149.21 g. La edad máxima obtenida para hembras y machos fue de 2.5 año. La proporción sexual (hembra:macho para la especie fue de 1:1 (X²=0.02, p>0.05

  13. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil) / Parasitos de populações de Cichlidae nativos e invasora Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) em tributário do Rio Amazonas (Brasil)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luana Silva, Bittencourt; Douglas Anadias, Pinheiro; Melissa Querido, Cárdenas; Berenice Maria, Fernandes; Marcos, Tavares-Dias.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é a primeira investigação da aquisição de parasitos na invasora O. niloticus por espécies de parasitos Cichlidae nativos da bacia Igarapé Fortaleza, Norte do Brasil. Foram examinados 576 espécimes pertencentes a 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos e à invasora O. niloticus coletados no cana [...] l principal e área da planície de inundação deste tributário do Rio Amazonas. A invasora O. niloticus foi pobremente parasitada, pois teve somente Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana e Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) e Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea) e não adquiriu qualquer espécie comum à ictiofauna nativa da região. Em contraste, as espécies de ciclídeos nativos apresentaram uma rica fauna de parasitos com predominância de espécies de helmintos Monogenoidea, larvas e adultos de Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea e Acanthocephala, além de quatro espécies de Protozoa e quatro Crustacea. Porém, somente T. nobilis foi encontrado em peixe nativo, Aequidens tetramerus, que é um novo hospedeiro para esse Trichodinidae exótico. Em O. niloticus, já bem estabelecida na região, o reduzido número de espécies de helmintos pode estar associado à sua rusticidade, boa adaptação ao novo ambiente e também à presença de parasitos nativos com relativa especificidade, mas sem habilidade em completar seu ciclo de vida nesse hospedeiro invasor desse ecossistema. Abstract in english This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the ma [...] in channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem.

  14. Dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis on hematology and non-specific immunity of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus raised at different stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, Guilherme Silveira; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José Tavares; Dias, Danielle de Carla; Sussel, Fabio Rosa; Ishikawa, Carlos Massatoshi; Tachibana, Leonardo

    2014-08-01

    An 84-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, body composition, intestinal probiotic recovery, hematology, and non-specific immunity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at two stocking densities. Five hundred twenty male Nile tilapias (32.63 ± 1.25 g) were distributed in 16,800-L tanks. The experimental design was completely randomized using four replications and a 2 × 2 factorial scheme with two stocking densities (18.75 fish m(-3) 62.50 fish m(-3)) and two diets (control and with probiotic). The probiotic-supplemented diet included 5 × 10(6) CFU g feed(-1). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the growth performance, body composition, and levels of cortisol and glucose between the animals fed with the control diet and the animals fed with the probiotic-supplemented diet. Differences in the growth performance were observed between the fish reared at different stocking densities; in particular, the fish raised at the high stocking density exhibited reduced weight gain, feed intake, and specific growth rate compared with those raised at the low stocking density. The B. subtilis remained viable after its inclusion in the feed, storage, and passage through the stomach, which demonstrations the feasibility of using this bacteria as a probiotic. Higher values (P feed(-1) benefited the innate immune system of Nile tilapia by decreasing the stress associated with exposure to a high stocking density, increasing the mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and improving the innate immune system (lysozyme and phagocytic activities of macrophages). PMID:24878743

  15. Influence of water temperature and waterborne cadmium toxicity on growth performance and metallothionein-cadmium distribution in different organs of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Tawwab, Mohsen; Wafeek, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is believed to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitously distributed toxins in the aquatic system. This metal is released to the aquatic environment from both anthropogenic sources, such as industrial, agricultural and urban effluents as well as natural sources, such as rocks and soils. Otherwise, the temperature increase of water bodies, which has been observed due to global climatic changes, has been shown to increase Cd toxicity for several aquatic animal species including fish. In the present study, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), (26.0 ± 0.38 g) were reared at 20, 24, 28, or 32 °C and exposed to 0.0 or 0.5mg Cd/L for 8 weeks to investigate effects of water temperature, Cd toxicity and their interaction on fish performance as well as metallothionein (MT) and Cd distribution in different fish organs. It was found that fish reared in Cd-free group at 28 °C showed the optimum growth and feed intake, while Cd-exposed fish showed low growth and feed intake irrespective to water temperature. A synergetic relationship between water temperature and Cd toxicity was observed where Cd toxicity increased as water temperature increased and the worse growth was obtained in Cd-exposed fish reared at 32 °C. Additionally, the highest Cd residues in different fish organs were detected in Cd-exposed fish reared at 32 °C. Similarly, MT concentrations in different fish organs increased as water temperature increased especially in Cd-exposed fish groups. A high positive correlation between MT and Cd concentrations in fish organs was detected. The distribution of MT and Cd levels was in the order of liver>kidney>gills>muscles. The present study revealed that the optimum water temperature suitable for Nile tilapia growth is 28 °C. Additionally, Cd exposure had a deteriorate effect on the growth and health of Nile tilapia. This hazardous effect increased as water temperature increased. Further, liver and kidney were the prime sites of Cd accumulation, while Cd load in the muscles was the lowest as compared to the other investigated organs. PMID:25436965

  16. Comparison of metabolic rates and feed nutrient digestibility in conventional, genetically improved (GIFT) and genetically male (GMNT) Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Shamsuddin Mohammed; Focken, Ulfert; Becker, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    Various aspects of energy metabolism and feed digestibility were evaluated in two reportedly improved strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) namely GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) and GMNT (genetically male Nile tilapia) and compared with those of CNT (conventional Nile tilapia). Fish were stocked individually in a computer-controlled respirometer system at 27+/-0.1 degrees C for 10 weeks. Metabolic rates were measured at three different feeding levels: starved, maintenance (3.0 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) and growth (7.5 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) using a fishmeal based feed containing TiO2 marker (41% crude protein, 9% crude lipid and 19 kJ (g DM)(-1) gross energy). The standard metabolic rate (SMR), measured at the beginning of the experiment (45.4+/-4.6, 52.4+/-7.7 and 46.8+/-4.6 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1) respectively for GIFT, GMNT and CNT), did not differ significantly between the groups (pfeeding level. The specific dynamic action (% offered feed energy) showed no significant differences among the groups. Digestibility coefficients of feed dry matter, protein, lipid and energy for the three tilapia groups also did not differ significantly. Therefore, we concluded that the genetic improvement or modification in the GIFT or GMNT might not upgrade the inherent physiological potential compared to CNT as far as energy metabolism and digestion efficiencies are concerned. PMID:17555997

  17. Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus(L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g on the weight gain (WG, food conversion FC, retained protein (PR, retained energy (ER and protein efficiency ratio (PER in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” (Oreochromis niloticus. Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between the experimental diets. In diets with 30% proteins, the increase of digestible energy significantly enhances WG, FC, PR, ER and PER, where the level of 3.7 kcal/g had the best performance. With 35% protein, the increase of digestible energy had not significant influence on the GP, CA, PR, ER and PER, however the growth of sex reversal Nile Tilapia was improved with the level of 3.3 kcal/g. When were compared both diets, were not find significant differences. Considering the protein cost, it can be concluded that best response was obtained with a diet containing 30 % of protein and 3.7 kcal/g of digestible energy and optimum digestible energy/ digestible protein ratio of 13.75 kcal/g protein.

  18. Determination of selenium toxicity to Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8755

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vicente Lombardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is described as an essential micronutrient and participates in different biological functions, as the antioxidant defense systems maintenance and regulation. However, when in high concentrations, Se may cause toxic effects as well as hematological changes in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of selenium in the form of sodium selenate (Na2Se6+O4 in Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters, after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.14 and 1.4 mg Se6+ L-1. The erythrocytic and leukocytic series were examined over 14 days at intervals of 0, 3, 5, 7,10 and 14 days. The erythrocytic series showed significant alterations in the first 7 days, including the control group. Neutrophils and monocytes showed variations in the first 3 days at a concentration of 1.40 mgSe6+ L-1 characterizing an acute response. The total number of leukocytes was different in relation to time zero on all Se concentrations. The thrombocyte count also differed statistically from time zero and control in the first 3 days at 0.14 mgSe6+ L-1. These results indicate that different concentrations induce an acute response with diminution of total leukocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis and thrombocytosis. 

  19. Effect of gelatinization degree and inclusion level of dietary starch on the characteristics of digesta and faeces in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.))

    OpenAIRE

    Amirkolaie, A. K.; Verreth, J. A. J.; Schrama, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Higher faeces removal efficiency can help and reduce the negative impact of faecal waste on water quality and on the environment. Physicochemical properties of feed ingredients/nutrients may change the faeces characteristics and the ratio of removed to non-removed solids. The aim of this study was to assess what physicochemical properties of the diet (viscosity, fermentation and dry matter) influence faeces characteristics and faeces removal using Oreochromis niloticus (L.) as the test animal...

  20. Technical evaluation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) monoculture and tilapia-prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in earthen ponds with or without substrates for periphyton development

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, S.; Farzana, A.; Fatema, M. K.; Azim, M. E.; Wahab, M. A.; Verdegem, M. C. J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of periphyton grown on bamboo substrate, on growth and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain) in monoculture and polyculture with the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were studied and economically evaluated. The experiment had 2 × 2 factorial design: The first factor was presence or absence of substrate for periphyton development, the second factor was related to culture system. The first system was monoculture o...

  1. Effect of Protein to Energy Ratio on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Enzymatic Digestive Activity of Juvenile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus) Reared in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas-vega, M. E.; Gil-romero, A.; Miranda-baeza, A.; Sandoval-muy, M. A.; Lo?pez-eli?as, J. A.; Nieves-soto, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible Protein to Energy ratio (P/E) on growth performance, body composition and enzymatic digestive activity of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus) reared in seawater. Six diets were evaluated (30, 23, 20, 15, 10 and 8 P/E) on the growth, digestibility, body composition and enzymatic digestive activity of juvenile tilapia. The results indicated that the P/E ratios in diets, significantly affects the growth, s...

  2. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. S.; Azim, M. E.; Wahab, M. A.; Verdegem, M. C. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein called treatment SF), no substrate plus feed (S0F), Substrate plus no feed (SF0) and no feed and substrate (control). All ponds were stocked with tilapia and freshwater prawn juveniles at a stockin...

  3. Predation Efficiency of Nile Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) on Fry Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758): Effect of Prey Density, Predator Size, Feed Supplementation and Submerged Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    *(1), Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab

    2005-01-01

    The overpopulation of tilapia in confined ponds is an obvious problem, and causes stunted growth due to the shortage of natural food, particularly in semi-intensive culture. However, the control of tilapias population by predator culture has been practiced worldwide. The factors affecting predation efficiency of Nile catfish, Clarias gariepinus (B.) for controlling the overpopulation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) were studied in four indoor experiments. Nile catfish with differe...

  4. Comparison of the growth of males and females of tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus cultured in cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarado-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating productive performance and potential weight gain capacity of snapper O. Niloticus without reversing, we evaluated the growth of males and females raised in floating cages in captivity grouped by gender. The experiment was conducted for a term of 150 days.  We used a simple 4 836 alevins of 26.2±19.7g, fish that were nourished until they visibly reached sexual differentiation to 119.3±56.5 g to be separated by sex and nourished in floating cages to a final average weight of 387.0±128.9g (harvestto determine differences in growth. The weight distribution of the undefined gender sample showed a decrease in the coefficient of variation (CV of 75.13% to 31.49 and 30.22 for males and females respectively. This indicates that the distribution of sizes of the samples tended to become normal during the cycle of harvest. Significant differences (P=0.05 for the weight of harvest 429.2±135.1g and 339.65±102.64 g.   For the growth rate 2.74±0.86g day y 2.18±0.68 g day were determined between males and females respectively. The standard error of the estimation of the difference of average weight between males and females was 89.62±7.23g for an accuracy level of 95%. Males displayed  better growth rate and weight gain for harvest.

  5. Amino acid requirement studies in Oreochromis niloticus by application of principles of the diet dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, F

    2009-12-01

    Data analysis utilized four growth experiments with mixed diets limiting in lysine, in threonine, and in methionine respectively. All male juvenile Orechromis niloticus [12 g average body weight instead of average (BW) at start, four repetition tanks per diet, 56 days experimental period] provided the database for application of an exponential N-utilization model. Imposing amino acid efficiency data were utilized for modelling of amino acid requirements depending on the level of daily protein deposition. According to the observed average dietary amino acid efficiency of the amino acids under study, 16.3 g/kg of lysine, 8.3 g/kg of threonine and 7.3 g/kg of methionine were established as required in feed content for 187 mg daily protein deposition (50 g BW, feed intake at 3% of BW). Further modelling by use of graded dietary amino acid efficiency yielded strong evidence for the significance of this dietary factor of influence. Current data analysis has led to conclusion, that the applied non-linear modelling of amino acid requirements is an advantageous approach because of its quantitative reflection of graded dietary amino acid efficiency corresponding to protein deposition data. The procedure has the potential to contribute to alternate approaches for improved reliability of recommended quantitative amino acid supply in fish nutrition. PMID:19364385

  6. RAPD-SCAR Markers for Genetically Improved NEW GIFT Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) and Their Application in Strain Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Fa; Tang, Shou-Jie; Cai, Wan-Qi

    2010-04-01

    The NEW GIFT Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) is a nationally certificated new strain selected over 14 years and 9 generations from the base strain of GIFT Nile tilapia, introduced in 1994. This new variety has been extended in most of areas of China. The management of genetically improved strains, including the genetic markers for identification is needed urgently. RAPD analysis was conducted and their conversion to SCAR markers was developed. From NEW GIFT Nile tilapia, two strain-specific RAPD bands, S(304 )(624 bp ) and S(36 )(568 bp ) were identified. The strain-specific RAPD bands were gel-purified, cloned, and sequenced. Locus-specific primers were then designed to amplify the strain-specific bands. PCR amplification was conducted to test the variations in allele frequencies of two converted SCAR markers among the NEW GIFT Nile tilapia and its base strains, as well as 7 additional farmed strains worldwide. The frequency of SCAR marker I (553 bp) was 85.7% in NEW GIFT Nile tilapia, but 16.7% in the base strain. The frequency of SCAR marker II (558 bp) was 91.4% in NEW GIFT Nile tilapia, but 0% - 70% in the 7 other strains. In order to confirm the utility of these two markers, an examination was conducted for a wild population from Egypt, resulted the frequency of SCAR I and II was 10% and 70%, respectively, much lower than that of New GIFT strain. The increase in allele frequency of these two SCAR markers suggests that these markers might be genetically linked to the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlining the performance traits by long term selection, and indicate the bright potential of SCAR marker technology for tracking generations during selection progress and for distinguishing among genetically improved strain and other strains. PMID:20545004

  7. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

  8. Effects of chito-oligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, intestinal cytokine expression, autochthonous gut bacteria and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chubin; Zhang, Yuting; Liu, Wenshu; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of incorporating chitinase (ChiB565)-hydrolyzed shrimp shell chitin into the diet of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?) with regard to production, intestinal immune status and autochthonous gut bacteria, and protection against bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Five experimental diets were formulated by supplementing the basal diet with the hydrolyzed shrimp shell chitin (0.0%, T1 control; 0.8%, T3; 1.6%, T4; or 2.4%, T5) or 0.1% commercial chitosan-oligosaccharides as commercial recommendation dose (T2, positive control). After a 35-day feeding trial, we found no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion ratio or survival rate in tilapia among all treatment groups. However, the levels of mRNAs encoding the pro-inflammatory protein tumor necrosis factor-? and the stress-response protein heat shock protein 70 were much lower in groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 (p < 0.001). The levels of transforming growth factor-? were higher in groups T2 and T4 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, group T3 and T4 with 0.8% and 1.6% hydrolyzed shrimp shell chitin supplementation respectively changed marginally their autochthonous gut bacteria (0.60 < Cs < 0.80). When challenged with A. hydrophila, the mortality of groups fed chito-oligosaccharides was lower than the control, especially in groups T4 and T5 (p < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary intake of chito-oligosaccharides can improve intestinal health, changed autochthonous gut bacteria, and improve resistance to infection by A. hydrophila, even with higher efficiency than receiving the manufacturer recommended dose of the commercial chitosan-oligosaccharides. PMID:25038280

  9. Efeito do extrato etanólico bruto e das frações da Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley em brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. / Effect of the crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the gills of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.S., FIUZA; P.C., SILVA; J.R., PAULA; L.M.F., TRESVENZOL; H.D., FERREIRA; S.M.T., SABÓIA-MORAIS.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alguns problemas relacionados à criação intensiva de peixes estão mais evidentes devido ao aumento da aquicultura em todo o mundo, destacando-se os distúrbios nutricionais e o aumento de doenças nos sistemas de produção. Com isso as pesquisas envolvendo produtos derivados de plantas vem ganhando esp [...] aço nessa área. A Hyptidendron canum é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular como antimalárica, anti-inflamatória, antiulcerativa e anti-hepatotóxica. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos celulares e teciduais do extrato etanólico bruto e das frações hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila da H. canum nas brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. Para isso, o extrato etanólico e as frações foram administrados no peixe através da ração. Após 24 horas da ingestão da ração, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada um foi processado histologicamente e corado com tricômico de Masson e Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE). Pela análise qualitativa das brânquias ao microscópio de luz, observou-se que o extrato bruto e as três frações promoveram, em diferentes intensidades nas lamelas, descamação e destacamento do epitélio respiratório, alteração da curvatura, desorganização do eixo, hiperplasia celular do tecido epitelial interlamelar e vasodilatação nas lamelas e no vaso central do filamento. Os resultados deste experimento mostraram que o extrato etanólico bruto e as três frações de H. canum promoveram processos inflamatórios e/ou lesões sistêmicas, dose dependente para O. niloticus. Abstract in english Some problems related to intensive fish farming are more evident because of the increased aquaculture worldwide, and we highlight the nutritional disorders and the increase of diseases in the production systems. Thus, research involving plant-derived products has been increasing in this area. The Hy [...] ptidendron canum is a plant used in folk medicine as an antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and antihepatotoxic agent. This study proposes to evaluate the cellular and tissue effects of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of H. canum on the gills of Oreochromis niloticus L. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered through the feed of the fish. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their second gill arch dissected. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the three fractions caused varying degrees of peeling and detachment of the lamellar respiratory epithelium, alterations in the curvature and axis of the gill, cell hyperplasia in the interlamellar epithelium and lamellar vasodilation, as well as vasodilation in the central vessel of the filament. The results of this experiment showed that the crude ethanol extract and the three fractions of H. canum promoted inflammation and/or systemic lesions, dose dependent, for O. niloticus.

  10. Avaliação de variáveis limnológicas e suas relações com uma floração de Euglenaceae pigmentada em viveiro povoado com tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2018 Limnologic variables evaluation and its relation to a pigmented Euglenaceae bloom in Nile Tilapia pond (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, São Paulo, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Schmidt Romeiro Mainardes Pinto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocorrência de floração de euglenas (Euglenophyceae pigmentada em viveiro povoado com tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus (Cichlidae foi estudada no Núcleo de Aquicultura de Pindamonhangaba, localizado a22º55´S, 45º27´W, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Durante um mês (Fevereiro de 2001, a cada três dias variáveis da água foram monitoradas. Destas, a amônia, os pigmentos totais, a transparência da água, o fósforo e o oxigênio dissolvido tiveram seus valores fora do recomendado. Os resultados levaram a supor que a entrada de nitrogênio e de fósforo advinda da fertilização inorgânica por superfosfato e sulfato de amônio e do arraçoamento ocasionaram a floração algácea. A mortandade de peixes provavelmente relacionou-se às baixas concentrações de oxigênio e aos níveis de amônia. Os valores baixos de oxigênio poderiam relacionar-se diretamente ao excesso de algas ou à própria decomposição da matéria orgânica advinda do arraçoamento e das células algais em senescênciaThe occurrence of algal bloom in a fish pond with Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus (Cichlidae was recorded at the Experimental Fish Culture Station in Pindamonhangaba, located at 22º55´S, 45º27´W, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. During one month (February 2001 at every three days of study the water quality was performed. From results, it was observed that the ammonia, total pigments, water transparency, phosphate and dissolved oxygen showed values out of the recommended limit. The algal bloom was associated to the loads phosphate and nitrogen and the fish mortality to the low oxygen and toxic ammonia. The low oxygen values were associated to the bloom and the organic material in decomposition

  11. Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: effect on digestibility and growth performance / Uso de residuos de la industria del atún en dietas para alevines de tilapia del Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus: efecto sobre la digestibilidad y el rendimiento del crecimiento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Crisantema, Hernández; Miguel A, Olvera-Novoa; Domenico, Voltolina; Ronald W, Hardy; Blanca, González-Rodriguez; Patricia, Dominguez-Jimenez; Martin, Valverde-Romero; Samuel, Agramon-Romero.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el proceso de enlatado de atún se desecha aproximadamente el 52-54% del peso total de los peces. Estos desechos pueden ser usados para producir harina de desechos de atún (TBM) o estabilizados como subproductos hidrolizados de atún (TSH). Ambos productos se probaron como sustitutos de harina [...] de soya (SBM), en dietas para alevines de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus. Seis dietas con igual contenido de proteína (35%) y energía (19 kJ g-1): una dieta basal con SBM como principal fuente de proteína (TSH0); y cuatro dietas experimentales se prepararon con crecientes niveles de TSH en reemplazo de 25, 50, 75 y 100% de la proteína de soya. La sexta dieta fue preparada con TBM como única fuente de proteína y un alimento comercial fue incluido como dieta referencia (RD). Estas dietas se ofrecieron por triplicado durante ocho semanas a grupos de 15 alevines cada uno, con un peso medio inicial de 0,89 ± 0,29 g. Los peces alimentados con la dieta preparada con TBM presentaron mayor ganancia de peso, mayor consumo de alimento y factor de conversión más eficiente que los alimentados con las dietas RD, TSH25 y TSH50. Con las dietas antes mencionadas, se obtuvieron resultados similares entre sí, mientras que los peces que recibieron dietas TSH0, TSH75% y TSH100% dieron las menores respuestas de crecimiento. Abstract in english During the tuna canning process, about 52~54% of the total weight of the fish is discarded as waste, which can be processed in order to obtain tuna byproducts meal (TBM), or stabilized as tuna silage hydrolysates (TSH). Both products were tested as replacements of soybean meal (SBM), in diets for fi [...] ngerling male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Seven test diets were isonitrogenous (35% CP) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1): a basal diet contained SBM as main protein source (TSH0); four experimental diets had increasing inclusion levels of TSH replacing 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the SBM protein. The sixth diet contained TBM as sole protein source, and a commercial feed for tilapia was used as reference diet (RD). The diets were fed for eight weeks to triplicate tanks, each with 15 fry tilapia (initial weight of 0.89 ± 0.29 g). Tilapia fed the TBM diet had greater weight gain and feed intake, and lower feed conversion ratios than those fed diets containing with TSH. The RD, TSH25 and TSH50 diets gave the similar growth response. Fish fed diets TSH0, TSH75% and TSH100% showed reduced growth performance.

  12. Efecto de la salinidad en el crecimiento de tilapia híbrida Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters × Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, cultivadas bajo condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mena Herrera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las variables de crecimiento en peso y longitud de híbridos de tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. niloticus con inversión artificial del sexo (todos machos con ?-metil-testosterona. Se les adaptó a salinidades de 15?, 25? y 35? y se formó un grupo testigo en agua dulce. En cada grupo se trabajó por duplicado. La densidad de siembra fue de 50 crías/m3 y la duración del cultivo fue de 27 semanas. Las tasas de crecimiento en peso y longitud presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, de agua dulce y salinidad 25? y 35? (P 0.05 entre agua dulce y salinidad de 15?. El peso promedio final para agua dulce fue de 575.07 g en salinidad de 15? de 486.86, en salinidad de 25? fue de 367.35 y en salinidad de 35? se registró 358.58 g. Se concluye que existen procesos de adaptación de la tilapia correspondientes al incremento de la salinidad del medio. Así si se desean crecimientos óptimos, se debe considerar que estos híbridos se deben cultivar en salinidad no mayor al 15?.

  13. Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic T ilapia zillii and native O reochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai , Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padanillay C. Prabu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detritus, blue green algae, diatoms, green algae, Ceratium, Euglena,and Phacus constituted foods of plant origin, whereas chironomid larvae, Copepoda, Cladocera,Rotifera, Nematoda, fish eggs, and fish scales constituted foods of animal origin. Foods of the latter type such as Ephemeroptera and mollusks were also noted in the diet of adult T. zillii.Despite the extensive overlap in food habits of the two species, however, the food items were found in the diet of the species with different average percentage frequencies of occurrence. The level of gonad maturation and gonadosomatic index (GSI values showed that in Lake Zwai breeding was year-round for both T. zillii and O. niloticus, with a peak during April-September and February-August respectively, indicating extended breeding season overlap in reproduction. The two species were always found together in the catches from the sampling sites, which indicated some niche overlap between them.

  14. Parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) sob estresse por exposição ao ar / Hematological parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) under air exposure stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Dias da, Silva; Laudicéia Oliveira, Rocha; Bruno Duarte Alves, Fortes; Dirson, Vieira; Maria Clorinda Soares, Fioravanti.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliaram-se os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos de exemplares adultos de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) sob a influência do fator estresse fisiológico em animais submetidos à exposição ao ar durante a engorda em sistema raceway. Foram analisados o eritrograma, teor de h [...] emoglobina, volume globular, o volume corpuscular médio (VCM), a hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM), a concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), o leucograma, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, o plaquetograma, a glicose, a proteína total, o colesterol, o triglicerídeo e os eletrólitos (cálcio, cloretos, sódio e potássio). Os resultados revelaram que houve uma homogeneidade de distribuição para hemácias, volume globular, hemoglobina, índices hemantimétricos, proteína total, glicose, colesterol, e íons séricos, indicados pelos valores relativamente baixos do coeficiente de variação. Houve correlação positiva somente para leucócitos totais, células de defesa orgânica (neutrófilos e linfócitos), glicose, colesterol, sódio e cálcio. Quanto ao leucograma, à medida que os animais foram expostos ao ar, o número de leucócitos diminuiu gradativamente (leucopenia), ocorrendo simultaneamente neutrofilia e linfopenia. O índice glicêmico constituiu um bom indicador de estresse fisiológico, devido à hiperglicemia (82,0±20,88mg/dL) demonstrada nos tratamentos. A exposição ao ar constituiu um fator de desequilíbrio na homeostase iônica, e na síntese de colesterol endógeno. Entretanto, o tempo de recuperação não ocasionou a completa reabilitação fisiológica frente ao desafio imposto. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the hematological and biochemical parameters of adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under the influence of the physiological stress factor in animals submitted to air exposure during fattening in raceway system. Blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular [...] volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), leukogram, differencial leukocyte count, platelet, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and electrolytes (calcium, chloride, sodium and potassium) were analyzed. The results showed a uniform distribution for red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, secondary Wintrobe indices, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and serum ions, indicated by a relatively low variation coefficient. There was positive correlation only for total white blood cells, organic defense cells (neutrophils and lymphocytes), glucose, cholesterol, sodium and calcium. As for the leukocytes (WBC), as the animals were exposed to aeration, the number of leukocytes gradually decreased (leukopenia), simultaneously occurring neutrophilia and lymphopenia. The glycemic index was a good indicator of physiological stress due to hyperglycemia (82.0±20.88mg/dL) demonstrated in the treatments. The air exposure constituted an imbalance factor at the ion homeostasis and at the endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Besides, the recovery time did not result in the complete physiological rehabilitation face the imposed challenge.

  15. Parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. sob estresse por exposição ao ar Hematological parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. under air exposure stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Dias da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliaram-se os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos de exemplares adultos de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus sob a influência do fator estresse fisiológico em animais submetidos à exposição ao ar durante a engorda em sistema raceway. Foram analisados o eritrograma, teor de hemoglobina, volume globular, o volume corpuscular médio (VCM, a hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM, a concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, o leucograma, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, o plaquetograma, a glicose, a proteína total, o colesterol, o triglicerídeo e os eletrólitos (cálcio, cloretos, sódio e potássio. Os resultados revelaram que houve uma homogeneidade de distribuição para hemácias, volume globular, hemoglobina, índices hemantimétricos, proteína total, glicose, colesterol, e íons séricos, indicados pelos valores relativamente baixos do coeficiente de variação. Houve correlação positiva somente para leucócitos totais, células de defesa orgânica (neutrófilos e linfócitos, glicose, colesterol, sódio e cálcio. Quanto ao leucograma, à medida que os animais foram expostos ao ar, o número de leucócitos diminuiu gradativamente (leucopenia, ocorrendo simultaneamente neutrofilia e linfopenia. O índice glicêmico constituiu um bom indicador de estresse fisiológico, devido à hiperglicemia (82,0±20,88mg/dL demonstrada nos tratamentos. A exposição ao ar constituiu um fator de desequilíbrio na homeostase iônica, e na síntese de colesterol endógeno. Entretanto, o tempo de recuperação não ocasionou a completa reabilitação fisiológica frente ao desafio imposto.The present study evaluated the hematological and biochemical parameters of adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus under the influence of the physiological stress factor in animals submitted to air exposure during fattening in raceway system. Blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukogram, differencial leukocyte count, platelet, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and electrolytes (calcium, chloride, sodium and potassium were analyzed. The results showed a uniform distribution for red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, secondary Wintrobe indices, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and serum ions, indicated by a relatively low variation coefficient. There was positive correlation only for total white blood cells, organic defense cells (neutrophils and lymphocytes, glucose, cholesterol, sodium and calcium. As for the leukocytes (WBC, as the animals were exposed to aeration, the number of leukocytes gradually decreased (leukopenia, simultaneously occurring neutrophilia and lymphopenia. The glycemic index was a good indicator of physiological stress due to hyperglycemia (82.0±20.88mg/dL demonstrated in the treatments. The air exposure constituted an imbalance factor at the ion homeostasis and at the endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Besides, the recovery time did not result in the complete physiological rehabilitation face the imposed challenge.

  16. Effect of core homeopathic homeopatila 100® in productive efficiency of fingerlings reverted from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Efeito do núcleo homeopático homeopatila 100® na eficiência produtiva em alevinos revertidos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was researched the effect of Core Homeopathic Homeopatila 100® on the integrity branchial histological, weight, final length, survival, feed conversion and apparent index hepatossomátic in fingerlings from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. We used in the control treatment (T1 with 20mL/kg water-alcohol solution (alcohol 30 GL and three treatments with 20mL/kg (T2, 40mL/kg (T3 e 60mL/kg (T4 of core homeopathic Homeopatila 100® in fingerlings male reversed, with initial weight and initial length the 1,05 ± 0,32g and 4,15 ± 0,42cm respectively. It was distributed a total of 832 fingerlings in 16 polyethylene water tanks with individual capacity of 2000 liters, contends 1000 liters each one, where they ha remained during 61 days. At the end of experiment, was not observed statistic difference between the different treatments in histological changes examined in gills: epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, telangectasy and lamellar fusion. The fingerlings which received 40mL/kg of Homeopatila 100® (T3 showed a higher rate of survival and also lower rate than the other hepatossomátic the fingerlings in control group (T1.Foi pesquisado o efeito do Núcleo Homeopático Homeopatila 100® na integridade histológica branquial, na sobrevivência, peso, comprimento final, conversão alimentar aparente e índice hepatossomático em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foi utilizado um tratamento controle (T1 com 20mL de solução hidroalcólica (álcool 30° GL a cada kg de ração e três tratamentos com 20mL/kg (T2, 40mL/kg (T3 e 60mL/kg (T4 do Núcleo Homeopático Homeopatila 100®, em alevinos machos revertidos, com peso e comprimento médio inicial de 1,05 ± 0,32g e 4,15 ± 0,42cm respectivamente. Foi distribuído um total de 832 alevinos em 16 caixas d´agua com capacidade individual de 2000 litros, contendo 1000 litros cada uma, onde permaneceram durante 61 dias. No final do experimento, não foi observada diferença estatística entre os diferentes tratamentos nas alterações histológicas examinadas nas brânquias: elevação epitelial, hiperplasia, telangectasia e fusão lamelar. Os alevinos que receberam 40mL/kg de ração de Homeopatila 100® (T3 apresentaram maior sobrevivência e índice hepatossomático menor do que os alevinos do grupo controle (T1.

  17. Determinación y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp. , en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivada en Campeche, México / Determination and prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. , in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurilio, Lara-Flores; Sara, Balan-Zetina; Ana, Zapata; Karina, Sonda-Santos.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp. , en granjas de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus) en el Municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Materiales y métodos. La colecta de organismos se realizó en tres granjas de cultivo de tilapia nilótica del municipio de Cha [...] mpotón, Campeche, México. Los organismos se examinaron externa e internamente y se tomó una muestra de riñón la cual fue sembrada en forma de estría en medios de cultivo: Löwesntein-Jensen, TCBS, KF y en TSA; las placas fueron incubadas a 35°C de 24 a 48 horas, los órganos fueron fijados en formalina tamponada al 10% para ser procesados para histología de rutina para análisis posteriores. Asimismo, muestras de cultivo bacteriológico y de tejido fueron teñidas con la técnica de Ziel-Neelsen con el fin de observar la presencia de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la presencia de Mycobacterium spp. , es constante y en alta prevalencia y puede ser un factor que este mermando la rentabilidad del cultivo. Conclusiones. La presencia de Mycobacterium spp. , representa un riesgo para el cultivo de tilapia en el municipio de Champotón, por ser una enfermedad muy persistente y difícil de erradicar una vez ocurrido e brote de infección, por lo cual es importante llevar estudios más detallados de la presencia de este género bacteriano, así como, medidas de prevención y dispersión de este patógeno en los cultivos adyacentes. Abstract in english Objective. Determine the presence and prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. , at tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farms in the municipality of Champotón, Campeche, Mexico. Materials and methods. The collection of organisms was conducted in three farms of Nile tilapia at Champotón township, Campeche, Mexic [...] o. The organisms were examined externally and internally and a kidney sample was inoculated in different growth media: Löwestein-Jensen, TCBS, KF and TSA. The plates were incubated at 35°C for 24 to 48 hours, the organs were fixed in 10% buffered formalin to be processed for routine histology for further analysis. Likewise, bacterial culture samples and tissue were stained through the Ziel-Neelsen technique to observe the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Results. The results suggest that the presence of Mycobacterium spp. , is constant and its high prevalence and could be an undermining issue in the profitability of this culture. Conclusions. The presence of Mycobacterium spp. , represents a risk for tilapia culture in the municipality of Champotón, it is a very persistent and difficult to eradicate disease once an outbreak has occurred, reason for which it is important to bring more detailed studies of the presence of this bacterial genus, as well as prevention and spread of this pathogen in adjacent cultures.

  18. Digestibilidade aparente de macrófitas aquáticas pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e qualidade da água em relação às concentrações de nutrientes / Apparent digestibility of aquatic macrophytes by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and water quality in relation nutrients concentrations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Gonzaga, Henry-Silva; Antonio Fernando Monteiro, Camargo; Luiz Edivaldo, Pezzato.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da proteína bruta e dos aminoácidos de duas espécies de macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Eichhornia crassipes e Pistia stratiotes) pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e verificar a qualidade da água do [...] s aquários de digestibilidade em relação às concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo. Foram elaboradas três rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de cromo-III, sendo uma ração-referência (purificada) e as demais contendo 30% de cada uma das macrófitas aquáticas. As tilápias-do-nilo (58,8 + 18,5 g) foram alimentadas até a saciedade aparente e a coleta de fezes foi feita pelo sistema Guelph modificado. Os CDA médios da proteína e dos aminoácidos foram, respectivamente, 93,17 e 93,32% para a ração-referência; 59,23 e 60,35% para E. crassipes; e 52,24 e 57,40% para P. stratiotes. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas entre os valores de CDA da proteína e dos aminoácidos dos ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram reduzida eficiência da tilápia-do-nilo em assimilar a maioria dos aminoácidos de E. crassipes e P. stratiotes. As excretas das tilápias-do-nilo contribuíram para o aumento das concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo na água dos aquários, independentemente da ração fornecida. Abstract in english The objectives of this trial were to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of crude protein and amino acids for two species of free floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes) by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine the water quality o [...] f digestibility aquariums in relation nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Tree feeds were developments, containing 0.10% of chromic oxide - III, one being the reference diet (purified) and the others containing 30% of aquatic macrophytes. The Nile tilapias (58.8 + 18.5 g) were fed to apparent satiation and the faeces were collected by modified Guelph system. The average ADC of crude protein and amino acids were, respectively, 93.17 and 93.32% for diet reference; 59.23 and 60.35% for E. crassipes; and 52.24 and 57.40% for P. stratiotes. No significant differences were observed among the ADC of protein and of amino acids of the plants ingredients. The results showed lower efficiency by tilapia of Nile in assimilate the most amino acids of the E. crassipes and P. stratiotes. It is possible to conclude that excretory products in the Nile tilapia increase the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, independent of feed.

  19. Efeito da vitamina C sobre o hematócrito e glicemia de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em transporte simulado Effect of vitamin C over the haematocrit and glycemia of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus alevins in simulated transport

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    D. Okamura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do ascorbato sobre o hematócrito e glicemia em alevinos de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus submetidos à simulação de práticas relacionadas ao transporte. Foram utilizadas três dietas experimentais com diferentes níveis de vitamina C (16, 500 e 1000mg de vitamina C/kg, fornecidas durante os 14 dias anteriores à simulação do transporte que se estendeu por 14 horas. O tratamento que continha 16mg de vitamina C/kg foi o que apresentou a glicemia mais elevada logo após a simulação, 108,5mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 91mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. A concentração de 1000mg de vitamina C/kg foi a mais eficiente no controle do aumento da glicemia, 94,6mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 74,4mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Para a concentração de 500mg de vitamina C/kg foram observados os níveis de 91,4mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 103,8mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Os valores do hematócrito não apresentaram variação significativa (P>0,05. A suplementação com 1000mg de vitamina C/kg por 14 dias anteriores ao transporte pode ser utilizada de forma profilática em alevinos de tilápia nilótica para amenizar o aumento da glicemia relacionado ao estresse.The effects of ascorbate on the haematocrit and blood glucose level were evaluated in Nile tilapia alevins (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to a transport simulation. Three experimental diets with different levels of vitamin C (16, 500 and 1000mg/kg were given for 14 days before the simulation of the transport. The treatment containing 16mg of vitamin C showed the highest level of glucose after the simulation (108.5mg/dl immediately after the transport and 91mg/dl 12 hours after the transport. The vitamin C concentration of 1000mg/kg was the most efficient treatment to control glycemia increases (94.6mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 74.4mg/dl 12 hour after simulation. In the 500mg/kg treatment, the glucose level was 91.4mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 103.8mg/dl 12 hours after the simulation. The haematocrit values did not show any significative variation (P<0.05. The supplementation with 1000mg/kg of vitamin C for a 14 days period can be used in a prophylactic way to soften glycemia increases in Nile tilapia alevins submitted to transport stress.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of measures and reasons morphometric on the body yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus / Efeitos diretos e indiretos de medidas morfométricas e razões sobre o rendimento do corpo de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Cicinato Vieira, Melo; Rafael Vilhena, Reis Neto; Adriano Carvalho, Costa; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Thiago Archangelo, Freato; Ulisses Nascimento de, Souza.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar quais medidas e razões morfométricas estão mais diretamente relacionadas com os rendimentos corporais da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, em duas classes de peso. Foram analisados os dados de 257 exemplares de tilápia divididos em duas catego [...] rias de peso: p1 = 400 a 599 g e p2 = 600 a 900 g. As medidas morfométricas comprimento padrão (CP), comprimento da cabeça (CC), altura do corpo (AC) e largura do corpo (LC), e as razões entre estas medidas (CC / CP, AC / CP, LC / CP, LC / CC, LC / AC, CC / AC) foram avaliadas. Os rendimentos corporais calculados foram: carcaça (RCAR), filé (RFILE) e cabeça (RCAB). Os dados foram inicialmente submetidos ao procedimento 'stepwise' para eliminar os problemas de multicolinearidade entre as variáveis morfométricas, em seguida, as correlações entre as variáveis dependentes (rendimentos corporais) e as variáveis independentes (medidas e razões morfométrica) foram calculados. Posteriormente estas correlações foram desdobradas em efeitos diretos e indiretos por meio de análise de trilha e as contribuições diretas e indiretas de cada variável foram quantificadas percentualmente. A razão morfométrica LC / CC, para ambas as classes de peso, foi a variável mais altamente correlacionada e com o maior efeito direto sobre RFILE e RCAB, mostrando ser a variável morfométrica estudada mais importante para determinação das características de carcaça da tilápia. Abstract in english The study was carried out with the objective of verifying which measures and morphometric ratios are more directly related to the body yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in two weight classes. Data were analyzed from 257 specimens of tilapia divided into two weight classes: p1 = 400 to 59 [...] 9 g and p2 = 600 to 900 g. The morphometric measurements standard length (SL), head length (HL), body height (BH) and body width (BW), and the ratios of these measures (HL / SL, BH / SL, BW / SL, HL / BH, BW / BH, BW / HL) were evaluated. The following body yields were calculated: carcass (RCAR), fillet (RFILE) and head (RCAB). The data were initially submitted to the "stepwise" procedure to eliminate problems of multicollinearity among the morphometric variables, then the correlations between the dependent variables (body yield) and the independent variables (measured and morphometric relationships) were calculated. Later, these correlations were divided into direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable measured in percentage terms. The morphometric ratio BW/HL, for both weight classes, was the variable most highly correlated and with the highest direct effect on RFILE and RCAB, showing to be the most important morphometric variable studied for tilapia carcass trait determination.

  1. Densidade de estocagem no desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., durante a reversão sexual Stocking density effect on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. fry performance during sex reversal

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    Luís Eduardo Ferrari Sanches

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar os efeitos da densidade de estocagem no desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, durante a fase de reversão sexual em águas verdes, foram estocadas 1.500 larvas com peso médio de 12,41mg e comprimento total médio de 9,38mm em tanques-rede de 12,5 litros, nas densidades de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 larvas/litro, em delineamento totalmente aleatório com 4 repetições. Essas foram tratadas com ração comercial fina com 43% de PB, contendo 60mg de metiltestosterona/kg, 6 vezes por dia, durante 28 dias. O aumento da densidade resultou em menor peso e comprimento médios finais, definidos por modelos de regressão. O efeito da densidade sobre a diminuição do crescimento se evidenciou a partir da terceira semana de criação. A biomassa total e a conversão alimentar mostraram-se incrementadas com o aumento da densidade. A sobrevivência, o fator de condição e o coeficiente de variação foram independentes da densidade. Conclui-se que 2 larvas/litro devem ser usadas, quando se objetiva produção de alevinos maiores; mas densidades maiores podem ser utilizadas, obtendo-se alevinos menores, porém incrementando a biomassa total.To study the effects of stocking density on the performance of newborn fries of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, during sex reversal stage in green waters, 1500 fries were stocked with 12.41mg of average weight and 9.38mm of total average length in hapas of 12,5 litres, at densities of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 fries/litre, in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. They were fed with a fine commercial diet containing 43% CP, and 60mg of methyltestosterone/kg, six times a day, during 28 days. The density increase resulted in lower final average weight and length defined by regression models. The effect of density on the growth decrease started to be significative on the second week of rearing, while the total biomass and feed conversion were increased with the density increase. Survival, condition factor and coefficient of variation were found to be density independent. It is concluded that 2 fries/litre must be used to produce bigger fingerlings, but larger densities can be used, obtaining smaller fingerlings, however incrementing total biomass.

  2. Morphological characteristics of ovarian development of two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains in mixed-culture systems Características morfológicas do desenvolvimento ovariano de duas linhagens de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, em sistemas de cultivo misto

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    P.R. Neves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to morphologically characterize and classify the stages of gonad development in different Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus. Eighty-four and ninety-two ovaries from Bouaké and Chitralada strains, respectively, were evaluated at different ovarian developmental phases: initial (104 days of culture, intermediate (152 days of culture, and the final (279 days of culture. The ovaries were microscopically evaluated and submitted to histological processing and hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine their characteristics and be classified. No morphological differences in ovaries between strains were observed during the initial phase (stage A - immature. During the intermediate growing phase, higher gonad development was observed for Chitralada strain (stage B - maturation in comparison with Bouaké strain (stage A - immature. During the final growing phase, no differences between strains were observed for morphological characteristics (stage C - mature. Despite the similarities in reproductive behavior of the Bouaké and Chitralada females at the end of the final growing phase (gain weight phase, differences for macroscopic and microscopic aspects and oocytes during the initial and intermediate growing phases of the strains were observed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfologicamente e classificar os estádios de desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus de linhagens distintas. Foram avaliados 84 ovários da linhagem Bouaké e 92 da linhagem Chitralada, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento: inicial (imatura - 104 dias de cultivo, intermediária (crescimento - 152 dias de cultivo e final (ganho de peso - 279 dias de cultivo. Os ovários foram analisados macroscopicamente e submetidos a procedimento histológico, corados com hematoxilina-eosina, para determinação das características microscópicas e subsequente classificação. Não foram observadas diferenças morfológicas nos ovários entre as linhagens na fase inicial (estádio A - imaturo. Na fase intermediária, os ovários revelaram diferenças morfológicas, evidenciando maior desenvolvimento gonadal para a linhagem Chitralada, (estádio B - maturação em relação à Bouaké (estádio A. Na fase final (ganho de peso os ovários não apresentaram diferenças morfológicas entre as linhagens (estádio C - maduro. Apesar de semelhanças no comportamento reprodutivo das fêmeas das linhagens Bouaké e Chitralada, na fase final (ganho de peso, diferenças, em relação à classificação da fase intermediária nos aspectos macroscópicos e microscópicos e diâmetro dos ovócitos, foram observadas.

  3. Growth performance and metabolic efficiency in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed on a diet containing Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Akinleye, A O; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha platyphylla is available on the pacific coast from Sinaloa to Michoacán including the Nayarit and Jalisco states in Mexico. The seeds of J. platyphylla are rich in oil and protein, and the kernel meal (JPKM) prepared after oil extraction contains 70-75% crude protein (CP). Contents of essential amino acids (except lysine) are higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Phorbol-esters, the main toxin present in most Jatropha species is absent in J. platyphylla. Heat-treated JPKM (H-JPKM) was evaluated as a protein supplement in tilapia feed and compared with that of SBM and fish meal (FM). Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (15 fish; av. body mass 13.9 ± 0.17 g) were randomly distributed in three groups with five replicates each. A 12-week experiment was conducted in a respirometer system to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient utilization and energy budget. Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed three iso-nitrogenous diets (36% CP): Control containing FM, and Jatropha and Soybean diets in which 62.5% of FM protein was replaced by H-JPKM and SBM respectively. The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent lipid conversion and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. Higher protein productive value was observed in plant protein fed groups. Average metabolic rate, energy expenditure per g protein fed and retained in the body did not differ significantly among the three groups. Conclusively, Nile tilapia fed plant protein (heated JPKM and SBM) and FM protein-based diets exhibited equal average metabolic rate which indicate that JPKM can be used as a protein source in aqua feed. PMID:21226769

  4. Influence of the photoperiod on growth rate and insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E M Vera; Brown, C L

    2009-07-01

    The effects of the duration of the light phase photoperiod (8 h light or 16 h light) on the growth and hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. There was a slight but not significant tendency for fish in the long light phase group (L(P)) to display elevated specific growth rate (G) both in mass (M) and standard length (L(S)) compared with that in the short light phase group (S(P);P = 0.057 for G(M);P = 0.055 for G(L)). Significantly, higher food conversion efficiency was observed in the L(P) than in the S(P). There were significant positive correlations between IGF-I concentrations and G, both in M and L(S). A significantly negative correlation was observed between IGF-I mRNA level and eye colour pattern. The lack of significant differences in G and hepatic IGF-I gene expression, despite the significant difference in feed conversion efficiency, may be related partly to the development of different levels of social interactions in the different groups within a photoperiod regime leading to increased variation of results within each group. These findings suggest that hepatic IGF-I gene expression has potential utility as a growth rate indicator for this species of fish and social status, as quantified by eye colour pattern, appears to be a much stronger determinant of growth rate and IGF-I transcript level than does light phase photoperiod length. PMID:20738487

  5. Pesquisa de comparação entre a taxa de crescimento do Acará Geophagus brasiliensis e a Tilápia Oreochromis niloticus em condições de monocultivo intensivo utilizando ração e alimento vivo - Research to compare the growth rate between the Acara Geophagus brasiliensis and Tilapia Oreochromis nioticus in conditions of intensive monoculture utilizing ration and live food

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    Hilton Amaral Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SummaryThe state of Santa Catarina, because of its climate conditions and lack of alternative native species with commercial interest, does its pisciculture mainly of exotics species. It is one of the main localities for the culture of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 and also where it will find many regions with favorable conditions for its growth. To those conditions, we have to add an excellent acceptance of this species by the market ofcompanies that process fish, and also by the consumer in general. Acara or Cara is the generic name assigned to various fishes of the family of Ciclideos, same family that the Tilapia belongs. The most common species of fresh water fish in Brazil is Geophagus brasiliensis (QUOY & GAIMARD, 1824, which can grow up to 25cm long and adapts very well to hot and cold regions. The objective of this research is to evaluate the reproductive potential, growth rate and adaptability of the Geophagus brasiliensis to offer the isciculturist an alternative of native species of commercial cultivation.ResumoO Estado de Santa Catarina, em função das condições climáticas e da falta de alternativas de espécies nativas de interesse comercial, faz sua piscicultura com a maioria de espécies exóticas. É um dos locais onde mais se cultiva a Tilápia Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 e também onde ela encontra muitas regiões em condições favoráveis para o seu crescimento. A estas condições, deveremos incorporar a excelente aceitação desta espécie, pelo mercado das empresas de manipulação e beneficiamento do pescado, bem pelo consumidor em geral. O Acará ou cará é o nome genérico atribuído a diversos peixes da família dos Ciclídeos, mesma família a que pertence a Tilápia.

  6. Physiological and haematological response of Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae exposed to single and consecutive stress of capture - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1719 Resposta fisiológica e hematológica de Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae exposto ao estresse único e consecutivo de captura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1719

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    Karina Ribeiro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a sequence of studies on tropical fish of economic importance that evaluated the effects of two different stress of handling on the physiology and haematology of Oreochromis niloticus L. acclimated for 10 days before the essay. The stress consisted in net capture of all fish from each aquarium for 30s emersion. Fish exposed to single stress (SS the samples were collected in the times 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300min. after stress. In the consecutive stress (CS the samples were collected in the times 0; 15min. after the first stress; 15min. after the second stress; 15min. after the third stress and 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240min. after the fourth stress totalizing four stimuli every 60min. Fish exposed to SS showed increased cortisol and glucose concentrations at 60min. as well as in the leucocytes number and hematocrit at 50min. after stress. Cortisol did not alter in fish exposed to CS, but glucose increased 15min. after the third stress. On the other hand, CS provoked reduction in the leucocytes number and later hematocrit increasing. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia were related to SS and CS.Este trabalho é seqüência de estudos com peixes tropicais de importância econômica avaliando os efeitos de dois tipos de estresse sobre a fisiologia e hematologia de O. niloticus L, aclimatados durante 10 dias antes do experimento. O estresse consistiu na captura de todos os peixes do aquário com rede e emersão por 30 s. Nos animais submetidos ao estímulo único de captura (EU as amostras foram coletadas nos tempos 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240 e 300min. após o estresse. No estímulo consecutivo (EC as amostras foram coletadas nos tempos 0; 15min. após o primeiro estresse; 15min. após o segundo estresse; 15min. após o terceiro estresse e 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240min. após o quarto estresse totalizando quatro estímulos a cada 60min. Os peixes expostos ao EU apresentaram aumento nas concentrações de cortisol e glicose 60min., bem como no número de leucócitos e hematócrito 50min. após o estresse. Não houve alteração do cortisol nos peixes do EC, mas a glicose aumentou 15min. após o terceiro estresse. Por outro lado, o EC provocou redução no número de leucócitos e aumento tardio do hematócrito. Observou-se neutrofilia e linfopenia após o EU e EC.

  7. Técnicas de controle de qualidade utilizadas na criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471 Quality control techniques used in the breeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471

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    Júlio Hermann Leonhardt

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, de 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14g, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 180 dias. Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de destilaria alcooleira. Os resultados médios obtidos para os parâmetros limnológicos no controle da qualidade da água através de análises físico-químicas e gráficos de controle foram normais durante todo o período experimental. Os valores da temperatura média mensal revelaram estar “fora de controle estatístico”, e mostraram, através da aplicação dos índices de capacidade (Cp e Cpk, que 35,20% estão abaixo do limite inferior de especificação (LIE. A análise dos resultados obtidos, através da aplicação das técnicas de Pareto e Problema da Mochila, evidenciou a solução ótima para resolver os problemas de predadores, biometrias e doenças com a função objetivo Z* maximizada. A utilização das técnicas de controle de qualidade permite um aumento da taxa de estocagem nos tanques sem redução da taxa de crescimento individual e com obtenção de altas produções de peixes de boa qualidade.Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus, 45 days old, sexually reverted, with initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14g, distributed in a totally randomized design during 180 days, were used in this experiment. Effects of substitutions of 10%, 20% and 30% of the rations by yeast obtained from alcohol distillery were evaluated. Average results obtained for the limnological parameters in water quality control by means of chemical analyses and control graphs were considered normal during the entire experimental period. Values of monthly average temperature were statistically out of control and by the application of the capacity rates (Cp and Cpk showed that 35.20% were below the lowest specification limit (LSL. By means of Pareto’s techniques and knapsack problem used, results presented the best solution for problems of predators, biometry and diseases with the maximized function Z* objective. Quality control techniques have made possible an increase of stocking rate in the tanks without a reduction of the individual growth rate and with high productions of good quality fish.

  8. Desempenho de diferentes linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus na fase de reversão sexual - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1794 Performance of different Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains, during sex reversal phase - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1794

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    Margarida Maria Barros

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento utilizou 4 linhagens de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus chamadas de CESP, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina e Tailandesa. O objetivo do projeto foi comparar o desempenho e a sobrevivência dessas diferentes linhagens de tilápia do Nilo na fase de reversão sexual. As pós-larvas foram estocadas em aquários de 4,5L em sistema de recirculação e com temperatura constante. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração contendo 60mg/kg de 17 alfa-metiltestosterona, fornecida 6 vezes ao dia, por período de 30 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos (linhagens e 7 repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: comprimento total, ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico, taxa de sobrevivência e eficiência de reversão sexual. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. A análise de reversão foi submetida ao teste de qui-quadrado. O resultado demonstra que houve maior eficiência na taxa de reversão sexual nas linhagens Santa Catarina e Pernambuco quando comparados com a CESP e a Tailandesa. As linhagens Tailandesa e Santa Catarina obtiveram maior taxa de sobrevivência e desempenho satisfatório durante a fase de reversão sexual, portanto, apresentam-se como as mais propícias para a criação em sistema de recirculação na fase de reversão sexual.This experiment aimed at comparing growth performance and survival of four Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains called CESP, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina and Thailand in sex reversal phase. Thirty Nile tilapia fries were stocked in 4.5L aquaria (6.66 fries/L with recirculation system and water temperature control. The fishes were fed with ration containing 60mg/kg of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, six times a day during 30 days. The experimental design was randomized with four treatments (strains and seven replications. Total length, weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate and sexual reversion efficiency were submitted to Anova, means compared by Tukey test and sex reversion by qui-square means. Santa Catarina and Pernambuco strains demonstrated better sex reversion efficiency when compared with CESP and Thailand. Thailand and Santa Catarina strains showed better values of survival, growth performance and specific growth rate than CESP and Pernambuco strains. Thus, Thailand and Santa Catarina strains are more indicated to rear in recirculation system during sex reversal phase.

  9. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do farelo de canola em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) na fase de crescimento / Replacement of soybean meal protein by canola meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the growing phase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudemir Martins, Soares; Carmino, Hayashi; Anna Christina Esper Amaro de, Faria; Wilson Massamitu, Furuya.

    1172-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS) pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC) sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), na fase de crescimento. Foram [...] utilizados 80 peixes (22,19±0,29 g) distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas foram formuladas de forma a terem níveis de 0,00; 33,33; 66,67 e 100,00% de substituição da PB do FS pela PB do FC, correspondendo a 0,00; 24,50; 49,00 e 73,50% de inclusão do FC nas dietas. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de substituição sobre o ganho de peso e rendimento de carcaça. A conversão alimentar aparente e a taxa de eficiência protéica não foram afetadas pela inclusão do FC nas dietas. Concluiu-se que o FC pode ser incluído em até 35,40% da dieta, substituindo 48,17% da PB do FS em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo, na fase de crescimento. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of diets with different crude protein (CP) replacement levels of soybean meal (SBM) by canola meal (CM) on growing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) performance and carcass characteristics. Eighty fishes (22.19 ± 0.29 g) were assigned to a bl [...] ock randomized design, with four treatments and five replications. The experimental diets were formulated with 0.00, 33.33, 66.67 and 100.00% levels of SBM protein replacement by the CM protein, corresponding to 0.00, 24.50, 49.00, and 73.50% dietary CM inclusion in the diets. It was observed effect of inclusion levels on weight gain and carcass yield. Apparent feed:gain ratio and protein efficiency rate were not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that the CM can be included at 35.40% of diets, substituting 48.17% of SM protein in diets for Nile tilapia in the growing phase.

  10. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil / Determinação da presença e quantificação dos metais cádmio, chumbo e cobre em filés de tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) obtidos de três frigoríficos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Nobuhiro, Tajiri; Daisy, Pontes Netto; Márcia, Sassahara; Mari Sylmara Martins, Rodrigues; Cristina Arduini Cavalcanti de, Arruda.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A piscicultura é uma atividade econômica em pleno crescimento no Estado do Paraná/Brasil, sendo a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) uma das principais espécies de peixe cultivadas no Estado. A tilápia, além de ser um alimento rico, é um importante indicador de contaminação ambiental. O trabalh [...] o objetivou a análise dos filés de tilápia para averiguação de contaminação pelos metais cádmio, cobre e chumbo, e a comparação dos valores encontrados com legislações internacionais. Foram coletadas 135 amostras de filés de tilápia, entre julho de 2006 e maio de 2007, de três frigoríficos de peixe localizados nas regiões oeste e norte do Estado do Paraná. As amostras foram analisadas, utilizando-se a espectrofotometria de absorção atômica, para averiguar a presença dos metais chumbo, cádmio e cobre. O chumbo não foi detectado nas análises. O cádmio foi detectado em três amostras, uma de cada frigorífico, nas concentrações de 0,012 µg.g-1, 0,011 µg.g-1 e 0,014 µg.g-1. O cobre foi detectado em todos os filés, sendo as médias de concentração de cada frigorífico de 0,122 µg.g-1, 0,106 µg.g-1 e 0,153 µg.g-1. As concentrações dos metais encontradas estão de acordo como o permitido pelas legislações europeias e australianas. Abstract in english Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. Th [...] is study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, between July 2006 and May 2007, in three fish stores located in regions west and north of Paraná State. Samples of tilapia fillet were analyzed in relation to the presence of cadmiun, lead and copper, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead has not been detected in the analyses. Cadmium has been detected in three samples, on concentrations of 0.012 µg.g-1, 0.011 µg.g-1 and 0.014 µg.g-1. Copper has been detected in all fillets, and the average concentration of each cold storage plant was of 0.122 µg.g-1, 0.106 µg.g-1 and 0.153 µg.g-1. The concentrations found in this study are within the limits allowed by both the European and the Australian legislations.

  11. Effects of an experimental challenge with Mycobacterium marinum on the blood parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria José Tavares, Ranzani-Paiva; Carlos Massatoshi, Ishikawa; Augusta Cocuzza das, Eiras; Vivian Risaffi da, Silveira.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Cem exemplares adultos de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus, foram inoculadas intraperitonealmente com 10(8) UFC de Mycobacterium marinum e outras 100 foram mantidas sem inoculação. Inicialmente, o sangue de 6 exemplares não inoculados foi colhido e considerado como "tempo zero". Do grupo dos inoculado [...] s foi retirado sangue de 6 animais por colheita, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 e 84 dias após inoculação. Os parâmetros hematológicos: hematócrito (Hct), taxa de hemoglobina (Hgb), contagem de eritrócitos (RBC), foram determinados e os índices hematológicos (VCM, HCM e CHCM), calculados. Foram determinados também o número de trombócitos e o número total e diferencial de leucócitos. Não ocorreram alterações nos valores de Hct, Hgb, HCM e CHCM. Entretanto houve diminuição dos valores de RBC e VCM. Os valores médios de RBC e Hct dos animais no "tempo zero" foram maiores e os de VCM e HCM, menores que os dos animais inoculados. Ocorreu neutrofilia e, após 3 dias de inoculação, ocorreram linfocitose e neutropenia nos animais. No 49º. dia após inoculação bacteriana, ocorreu monocitose. Abstract in english A hundred adult of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) c.f.u. of Mycobacterium marinum. Other 100 speciemns were maintained without inoculation. Blood samples of six inoculated animals were collected at 01, 03, 07, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 84 days after [...] inoculation. Initially, six specimens were taken from the non inoculated group ("time zero"). The haematological parameters determined were: haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin concentration (Hgb), total erythrocytes count (RBC), hematological indexes (MCV, MCH and MCHC), thrombocyte count (Tr), leukocyte count (WBC) and leukocyte differential count. There were no changes in Hct, Hgb, MCH and MCHC. However, the mean values for RBC and MCV decreased. The mean values for RBC and Hct of specimens from the "time zero" group were higher and the MCV and MCH lower than in inoculated animals. Occurred neutrophilia, and, at 72 h there was lymphocytosis and neutropenia. By the 49th day after bacterial inoculation, there was monocytosis.

  12. Verification of contamination by dimetoato and aldicarb in liver of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus collected in two cold-storages in the State of Paraná / Verificação da contaminação por dimetoato e aldicarb em fígado de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus coletados em dois frigoríficos do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nabuhiro Tajiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of fish as a protein source in food is unquestionable, but its role as an indicator of environmental contamination is also very important. This study aimed to analysis the livers of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, collected from commercial cold-storages in two municipal districts in the State of Parana, for investigation of contamination by organophosphorus compounds and carbamates. It was collected 30 samples of Nile tilapias (O. niloticus liver in the cold-storage A and 45 samples in the cold-storage B, totaling 75 samples. At each location were three visits, and at random, collected the samples from July 2006 to May 2007. For extraction and analysis of samples it was used the qualitative methodology of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Patterns of organophosphate and carbamate used in the analysis of the TLC were respectively Dimethoate and Aldicarb. Of the samples tested were found cabarmate in seven samples, one of the samples collected in the cold-storage A and six collected in the cold-storage B. The organophosphate compound was found in fifteen samples from 75 samples, seven of the cold-storage A and eight samples from the cold-storage B. The results infer the possibility of contamination of the tanks in the creation of farms and the need for constant monitoring for the presence of residues of pesticides in this important food matrix.A importância dos peixes como fonte protéica na alimentação humana é indiscutível, porém seu papel como indicador de contaminação ambiental também é muito relevante. O presente trabalho objetivou a análise de fígados de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, coletados em frigoríficos comerciais de dois municípios do Estado do Paraná para averiguação de contaminação pelos compostos organofosforados e carbamatos. Coletou-se 30 amostras de fígado de Tilápia do Nilo (O. niloticus no frigorífico A e 45 amostras no frigorífico B, totalizando 75 amostras analisadas. Em cada local foram realizadas três visitas, e de forma aleatória, coletadas as amostras no período de julho de 2006 a maio de 2007. Para extração e análise das amostras utilizou-se a metodologia qualitativa de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada (CCD. Os padrões de organofosforado e carbamato utilizados na análise de CDD foram respectivamente o Dimetoato e Aldicarb. Nas amostras analisadas foi encontrado o praguicida cabarmato em sete amostras, sendo uma das amostras coletada no frigorífico A e seis coletadas no frigorífico B. O composto organofosforado foi encontrado em quinze amostras das 75 amostras analisadas, sendo sete amostras do frigorífico A e oito das amostras do frigorífico B. Os resultados obtidos inferem na possibilidade da contaminação dos tanques de criação nas pisciculturas e da necessidade de monitoramento constante quanto à presença de resíduos de praguicidas nesta importante matriz alimentícia.

  13. Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.9400 Purification, physical and chemical characterization, and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.9400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glácio Souza Araújo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1. O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II, eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I e 23,80 (F II UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs comprise the extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and residues from processing fish commercially harvested may offer new anticoagulant agents to substitute the heparin (HEP in medical sciences. The aim of this study was to purify, characterize physico-chemically and evaluate the anticoagulant activity of GAGs isolated from the skin of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The GAGs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cystein and EDTA (5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were lyophilizated and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and HEP standard (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic profile separated into two different GAGs fractions (F I and F II eluted at 0.50 and 0.75 M of NaCl, respectively, revealing fractions pattern distinct in the charge densities, but both showing GAGs with mobilities similar to standard dermatan sulfate (DS, suggesting the preliminary identification of this GAG. The GAGs modified the APTT, whose activities were, respectively, 4.72 (F I and 23.80 (F II IU mg-1, and expressed themselves dose-dependent. Therefore, the anticoagulant DS from O. niloticus suggests an interesting source for posterior studies of antithrombotic activity.

  14. The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum) and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Binga; K.M. Adamu; B.S. Audu

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum indicum) and raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) replaced fishmeal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 30, 70 and 100% test materials inclusion levels. Each dietary treatment was randomly duplicated in tanks stocked with twenty fingerlings (2.71 0.003 g) and fed three times (08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h) to satiation for 56 days. The result revealed best live weight gain and feed utilization in the fish fed diet D4 followed by ...

  15. Efeito do tempo de fornecimento de ração suplementada com óleo de linhaça sobre a composição físico-química e de ácidos graxos em cabeças de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) Effect of ration supply time with flaxseed oil on physico-chemical composition and fatty acids of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) heads

    OpenAIRE

    Visentainer, Jesui? V.; Gomes, Sandra T. M.; Carmino Hayashi; Santos-ju?nior, Oscar O.; Da Silva, Adriano B. M.; Justi, Karin C.; Souza, Nilson E.; Makoto Matsushita

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um estudo sobre a composição físico-química e, especialmente sobre a composição de ácidos graxos nos lipídios totais de cabeças de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus), submetidas a diferentes tempos (0, 10, 20, 30 dias) de fornecimento de ração suplementada com óleo de linhaça (fonte do ácido a-linolênico, 18:3n-3 LNA), em substituição ao óleo de girassol. Não houveram diferenças (P>0,05) entre os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína ...

  16. Yield improvement of the sea lice MY32/Cr novel antigen production and IgM immune response characterization in Oreochromis niloticus as a model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana, Basabe; Yamila, Carpio; Diamilé, Gonzalez; Antonio, Morales; Mario P, Estrada.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las pérdidas anuales provocadas por el piojo de mar en los países líderes en la acuicultura salmonera superan los 300 millones de euros. La mayoría de los tratamientos emplean compuestos químicos, con sus limitaciones de generación de resistencia en los parásitos, el potencial daño al medioambiente [...] y sus altos costos. A pesar de los estudios en peces sobre vacunas contra esta plaga como un posible método de control, no existe actualmente ninguna vacuna comercial. Esto pudiera deberse a que los candidatos estudiados no han mostrado un respuesta inmunológica y protectora suficiente, o a la carencia de un proceso apropiado para su producción con perspectivas comerciales. Previamente, se clonó el gen que codifica para la proteína akirin de Caligus rogercresseyi (MY32/Cr). Esta se produjo de forma recombinante en Escherichia coli, y mostró un 57 % de protección contra la infestación por piojo de mar en un estudio de vacunación-reto en salmón. En el presente trabajo se mejoró la productividad de MY32/Cr hasta cuatro veces mediante procesos de fermentación empleando diferentes medios de cultivo. También se estudió el efecto de este nuevo antígeno como preparado vacunal sobre la respuesta inmune humoral en tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). La inmunización provocó una respuesta de anticuerpos IgM estadísticamente significativa después de la reinmunización con MY32/Cr. El proceso obtenido constituye un método eficiente como premisa esencial para la producción de este antígeno recombinante a escala comercial. Los resultados sugieren que la proteína MY32/Cr podría ser empleada como antígeno blanco para evaluaciones en salmón, con vistas a desarrollar una vacuna para el control de las infestaciones por piojo de mar en peces. La administración de una dosis de reinmunización resultaría útil para mejorar la respuesta inmune mediada por anticuerpos. Abstract in english Sea lice cause over 300 million € annual losses in salmon aquaculture-leading countries and most treatments consist of chemicals, with their limitations regarding the generation of parasite resistance, environmental damage and high costs. Researches about fish vaccines against sea lice as a method f [...] or controlling parasites have been accomplished; however there is no commercial vaccine available up to date against this pest. It could be due to an insufficient immunological and protective response of the selected antigen or to the lack of appropriate/suitable process for its production with commercial perspectives. Previously, the gene coding for the akirin protein of Caligus rogercresseyi (MY32/Cr) was cloned. It was produced recombinant in Escherichia coli and it showed 57 % of protection in a vaccination-challenge experiment against sea lice infestation in salmon. In the present study, the MY32/Cr yield was improved up to four fold in fermentation process by testing different culture media. It was also studied the effect of this novel antigen, for a potential vaccine, on humoral immune response of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). It was observed that the immunization with MY32/Cr elicited a statistically significant IgM antibody response after a double injection of the recombinant protein. The process obtained is a suitable method, an essential tool as a first step to produce this recombinant antigen at commercial scale. The results suggest that the MY32/Cr protein may be used as a target to be tested in salmon, for developing of a vaccine to control sea lice infestations in fish; and that the administration of a single booster dose could be useful to improve antibody response.

  17. Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis, Costa Novaes; Edmir Daniel, Carvalho.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La exótica tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) es la especie mayormente capturada en la pesquería artesanal del embalse de Barra Bonita, sudeste de Brasil, de gran importancia socioeconómica para la región y para una población de unos 500 pescadores. El estudio analizo: la reproducción, la diná [...] mica alimentaria y la explotación de O. niloticus, la cual fue capturada en la pesquería del embalse de Barra Bonita. Asimismo, se tomaron muestras mensuales y se analizo un total de 1 715 animales desde julio-2004 a junio-2005. De cada espécimen, se obtuvieron los siguientes datos biológicos y biométricos: longitud estándar (cm), peso total (g), datos reproductivos (sexo y estadio de maduración), contenido estomacal (vacio, parcialmente lleno y lleno). Estos datos fueron utilizados para estimar la proporción de sexo (a través de la observación macroscópica de las gónadas), el periodo reproductivo (a través de la distribución de la frecuencia de los estadios macroscópicos del desarrollo de los ovarios), y la media de la proporción del índice gonadosomático IGS de hembras, así como los hábitos alimentarios (a través de la observación del contenido estomacal). Para verificar las posibles relaciones entre los factores abióticos y el periodo reproductivo fue aplicada la correlación de Spearman. El software FiSAT (ELEFAN I) fue utilizado para evaluar los parámetros de crecimiento, tasa de mortalidad e inferir el grado de explotación, en donde se usaron los datos de frecuencia de longitud estándar. La población de O. niloticus presento una proporción de sexo 1.3:1 (M:H). Los resultados indicaron que hembras fueron muestreadas durante todo el ano, pero ha sido más frecuente en el invierno-2004-59.0% (temperatura media=20.05°C) y primavera-2004-60.5% (temperatura media=21.18°C). Los valores medios del IGS fueron: invierno-2004=1.71, primavera- 2004=1.72, verano-2005=0.80 y otoño-2005=1.19. La correlación de Spearman fue positiva para pH, oxigeno disuelto, conductividad eléctrica, transparencia y clorofila a, y negativo para temperatura, pluviosidad acumulada y variación del nivel del agua en el embalse. Los principales ítems de alimentación fueron fitoplancton y algas perifiticas observadas en 99.6% de los estómagos analizados. Los parámetros estimados del crecimiento y mortalidad fueron los siguientes: L?=33.60cm, k=0.63/año, longevidad= 4.76 años, Z= 2.81/año, M=1.20/año y F=1.61año. La relación peso-longitud fue Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. Los valores de producción por reclutamiento estimado fueron=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 y E0.5=0.349. Estos resultados indican que la población de O. niloticus está bien establecida en el embalse de Barra Bonita. Además, su reproducción ocurre durante todo el ano, pero es más intensa en el invierno y primavera; su dieta tiene como base el fitoplancton. Los resultados indican que no está ocurriendo sobrepesca de O. niloticus, por tanto, recomendamos que, debido a su naturaleza exótica, no se tomen restricciones a la hora de su pesca. Abstract in english Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In [...] the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm), total weight (g), reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation), and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full). We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads), reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females), and feeding habi

  18. Interacting effects of water temperature and dietary protein level on hematological parameters in Nile tilapia juveniles, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and mortality under Streptococcus iniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Hui; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2013-01-01

    Based on central composite rotatable experimental design and response surface method, the interacting effects of temperature (20 °C-34 °C) and dietary protein level (25%-50%) on hematological parameters including red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus were studied under laboratory conditions. The experiment lasted for 7 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Streptococcus iniae and mortality was recorded for within 8 days. Results showed that the linear and quadratic effects of temperature on RBC, WBC and Hb were highly significant (P 0.05). The interacting effects of temperature and protein level on RBC and Hb were significant (P < 0.05). The regression equations of RBC, WBC and Hb toward the two factors of interest were established, with the coefficients of determination being 0.870, 0.836 and 0.881, respectively (P < 0.01). These equations could be used for prediction in practice. After the challenge, the mortalities for the combinations of 22.1 °C/28.7% and 20.0 °C/37.5% were significantly higher than 27.0 °C/37.5% (P < 0.05). The optimal temperature/dietary protein level combination was obtained at 27.9 °C/38.1% at which the lowest mortality (13.76%) was attained. This value was close to the optimal temperature/dietary protein level combination (29.4 °C/41.9%) for the greatest levels of RBC (2.560 × 10(6) ?L(-1)), WBC (270.648 × 10(3) ?L(-1)) and Hb (92.851 g L(-1)). The results of this study indicated that preferred temperature/dietary protein level combination might strengthen the non-specific immunity and reduce susceptibility to S. iniae. PMID:23041506

  19. Effects of dietary cyanobacteria of two different sources on growth and recovery of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guifang; Zhu, Xiaoming; Han, Dong; Yang, Yunxia; Song, Lirong; Xie, Shouqi

    2009-09-01

    A 115 days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary cyanobacteria on growth, microcystins (MCs) accumulation in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusxO. aureus) and the recovery when the fish were free of cyanobacteria. Three experimental diets were formulated: the control (cyanobacteria free diet); one test diet with cyanobacteria from Lake Taihu (AMt, 80.0 microg MCs g(-1) diet) and one with cyanobacteria from Lake Dianchi (AMd, 410.0 microg MCs g(-1) diet). Each diet was fed to fish for 60 days and then all fish were free of cyanobacteria for another 55 days. A significant increase in feeding rate (FR) was observed in fish fed AMd diet after a first 30-day exposure (1(st) EP), and in fish fed both AMt diet and AMd diet after a second 30-day exposure (2(nd) EP). Specific growth rates (SGR) of fish fed AMt diet and AMd diet were both obviously affected after the first 30-day exposure, but SGR was only significantly affected in fish fed AMt diet after the second 30-day exposure. After a 55-day recovery, there were no significant differences among diets in the indices mentioned above. Much higher concentrations of MCs were accumulated in tissues of all fish exposed to cyanobacteria. After the 55-day recovery, MC concentrations in fish tissues were significantly lower than those on day 60. PMID:19374913

  20. Efeito da lavagem e da adição de aditivos sobre a estabilidade de carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) durante estocagem a -18 ºC / Effect of washing and increase of additives on minced stability of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during storage under -18 ºC

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter Gaberz, Kirschnik; Elisabete Maria, Macedo-viegas.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da lavagem e da adição de eritorbato de sódio e tripolifosfato de sódio na estabilidade de Carne Mecanicamente Separada (CMS) de tilápia de Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) durante 6 meses de armazenamento a -18 ºC. A CMS obtida por meio de máquina sep [...] aradora de carne e ossos foi dividida em quatro tratamentos (CMS lavada com e sem aditivos, e CMS não lavada com e sem aditivos) e mantida sob congelamento a -18 ºC, por 180 dias. A estabilidade foi avaliada por meio de análises microbiológicas e determinações de nitrogênio não proteico (NNP), bases nitrogenadas voláteis (BNV), substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), pH e drip (perda de água no descongelamento). O processo de lavagem causou redução de aproximadamente 41, 44 e 66% nos teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas, respectivamente, reduzindo também os valores iniciais de NNP, BNV e TBARS. Durante o armazenamento, foram observados aumentos (p 0,05) os teores de TBARS. Os parâmetros microbiológicos avaliados não ultrapassaram os limites permitidos pela legislação. As CMS permaneceram estáveis e em boas condições de utilização, independentemente da inclusão de aditivo, sendo viável sua estocagem a -18 ºC por 180 dias. Abstract in english This study evaluates the influence of washing and adding sodium erythorbate and sodium tripolyphosphate on the stability of minced Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during 6 months of storage under -18 ºC. The minced fish was obtained using a meat bone separator and was divided into four treatmen [...] ts (washed minced fish with or without additives and non-washed minced fish with or without additives) and kept at -18 ºC for 180 days. The stability of the minced fish was evaluated by microbiological analyses and the following parameters non-proteic nitrogen (NNP), total nitrogen volatile bases (BNV), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), pH, and Drip (loss of water in thaw process) were evaluated. The washing process caused a reduction of approximately 41, 44, and 66% in total protein, lipid, and ash values, respectively reducing also the initial values of NNP, BNV, and TBARS. During the storage, an increase (p > 0,05) was observed in the NNP, BNV, and pH values for all treatments, except for the non-washed minced with additives which did not show statistic increase in the NNP and pH values. The use of additives in the minced fish caused a decrease of the drip during the storage, but it did not affect (p > 0,05) the TBARS values. Microbiological parameters do not exceed the values allowed by the legislation. the minced fish was maintained at stable and good conditions for use regardless of the addition of additives, so it can be stored for up 180 days at -18 ºC.

  1. Flavobacterium columnare / Myxobolus tilapiae Concurrent Infection in the Earthen Pond Reared Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during the Early Summer

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    Alaa Eldin Eissa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Results: Flavobacterium columnare (F. columnare, the dermotropic Gram negative yellow pigmented bacteria was isolated from different sites of skin ulcerations in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus collected from an earthen pond located at an aquaculture station in Sharkiya Province, Lower Egypt during an acute episode of mass kills during the early summer of 2009. An acute infection with F. columnare was behind the emergent event of mass mortalities among both populations. Many of the Nile tilapias exhibited typical signs of hole - in- the head like lesions from which F. columnare together with the myxosporean spore, Myxobolus tilapiae (M. tilapiae were retrieved. Most of the cohabitating infected Nile catfishes exhibited severe form of saddle back like ulcer. The identities of the retrieved isolates were confirmed using morphological, biochemical and molecular tools. Conclusion: The current study reports on the seasonal resurgence of mass mortalities due to F. columnare infection in the polycultured Nile tilapia and Nile catfish during the early summer. Further, the endemic existence of the myxosporean spore M. tilapiae concurrently with some environmental stresses (abrupt temperature rise, polluted pond water and faulty management (high ammonia, high pH and low dissolved oxygen are the potential initiating factors for such outbreaks.

  2. Changes in the quality of fishburger produced from Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) during frozen storage (-18 degrees C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokur, B.; Polat, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the chemical and sensory qualities of fishburger produced from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated during frozen storage (-18 degreesC) over 8 months. The ratios of crude protein, lipid, moisture, crude ash, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in tilapiaburger were found to be 17.82%, 5.29%, 66.68%, 2.56% and 7.95% respectively. At the end of the study, the total volatile basic nitrogen value was found to have fluctuated throughout the storage periods. The highest thiobarbituric acid value was found at the 7th month as 0.142 mg malonaldehyde/kg. The peroxide value was 0.18 meq/kg at the beginning of the storage but increased to 5.03 meq/kg at 6th month of storage and then decreased to 0.82 meq/kg at the 8th month. The level of free fatty acids was 2.73% oleic acid at the beginning but reached 4.14% in the first month of storage and then increased to 5.92% at the end of the storage. pH values ranged between 8.01 and 7.97. At the end of the storage period, sensory quality criteria were scored as quite near those of the fresh samples.

  3. Effect of flaxseed oil in diet on fatty acid composition in the liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Santos, Leandra Pereira; Stevanato, Flavia Braidotti; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergilio

    2007-09-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different concentrations of flaxseed oil (FO) on the proximate composition and the contents of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-3) fatty acids in the liver of cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). During the five-month culture period, tilapias were given diets with incremental concentrations of FO (0.00%; 1.25%; 2.50%; 3.75%, and 5.00%) as a replacement of sunflower oil (control). There was no significant difference in moisture and ash content in the liver between treatments. Protein values ranged from 12.1% (treatment II) to 13.9% (treatment V) and total lipids ranged from 5.6% (treatment V) to 7.2% (treatment II). There was no significant difference between most treatments. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were quantitatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography against a C(23:0), internal standard. Variations in concentrations (in mg g(-1) of total lipids) of fatty acids between treatment I and treatment V ranged from 4.2 to 51.2 (LNA), from 0.2 to 2.3 (EPA), and from 10.6 to 56.2 (DHA), respectively. This experiment demonstrated that increasing amounts of LNA in feed may markedly increase the amounts of LNA, EPA, and DHA in the liver of Nile tilapia. PMID:18271406

  4. Influência das dietas contendo diferentes óleos vegetais na performance e perfil em ácidos graxos de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v28i2.1169 Influence of diets enriched with different vegetable oils on the performance and fatty acid profile of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v28i2.1169

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Terezinha Marques Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados o perfil de ácidos graxos nas carcaças de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com diferentes óleos vegetais (soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os resultados indicaram que o ácido palmítico (16:0, esteárico (18:0, oléico (18:1n 9, linoleico (18;2n 6 e linolênico (18:3n 3 foram os ácidos predominantes em todas as frações analisadas (no óleo vegetal, dietas e carcaças dos peixes. O óleo de linhaça apresentou o maior valor de ácido linolênico (45,63%, quanto aos outros óleos vegetais tiveram uma percentagem menor que 5,0%. Todos os óleos vegetais não afetaram a performance dos alevinos e podem ser utilizados nas dietas, entretanto, em relação a qualidade nutricional o uso do óleo de linhaça é recomendado em dietas de alevinos de tilápiaThe fatty acid profile of the carcass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings fed diets enriched with different soybean, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, rice, and corn oils was examined. The results showed that palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0, oleic (18:1 n 9, linoleic (18:2 n 6, and linolenic (18:3 n 3 acids were the predominant fatty acids in all vegetable oil, diet, and fish carcass samples analyzed. Flaxseed oil presented the highest amount of linolenic acid (45.63%, while the other vegetable oils had percentages lower than 5.0%. Neither of the vegetable oils used affected the performance of tilapia fingerlings and they can be utilized in Nile tilapia fingerling diets. However, in relation to the carcass fatty acid profile, the use of flaxseed oil in Nile tilapia fingerling diet is recommended

  5. Effect of flaxseed oil in diet on fatty acid composition in the liver of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina, Aguiar; Damila, Rodrigues Morais; Leandra, Pereira Santos; Flavia, Braidotti Stevanato; Jeane Eliete, Laguila Visentainer; Nilson, Evelázio de Souza; Jesuí, Vergilio Visentainer.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Efecto de la dieta com aceite de linaza sobre la composición de ácidos grasos en el hígado del tilapia de Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Este estudio analiza los efectos de diversas concentraciones del aceite de linaza (AL) en la composición centesimal y el contenido del ácido alfa-linolenico (LNA, 1 [...] 8:3 n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3), y (DHA, 22:6 n-3), los ácidos grasos docosahexaenoic en el hígado del tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) criada em cautiverio. Durante un período de cinco meses, a las tilapias le fueron administradas dietas con concentraciones crecientes de AL (0,00%; 1,25%; 2,50%; 3,75%, y 5,00%) como reemplazo del aceite de girasol (control). No se encontró diferencia significativa en el contenido de humedad y de ceniza en el hígado entre los tratamientos. Los valores de la proteina variaron entre 12,1% (tratamiento II) y (al tratamiento 13,9% V) y los lípidos totales entre el 5,6% (tratamiento V) y 7,2% (tratamiento II). No se encontró diferencia significativa entre la mayoría de los tratamientos. Los ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos (FAMEs) fueron analizados cuantitativamente por cromatografía de gas capilar contra la CA. 23:0 estándares internos. Las variaciones en concentraciones (en mg g-1 de lípidos totales) de ácidos grasos entre el tratamiento I y el tratamiento V variaron entre 4,2 y 51,2 (LNA), 0,2 y 2,3 (EPA), y 10,6 a 56,2 (DHA), respectivamente. Esto experimento demostró que cantidades crecientes de LNA en la alimentación puede aumentar significativamente las cantidades de LNA, de EPA, y de DHA en el hígado de la tilapia del Nilo Abstract in english This study analyzed the effects of different concentrations of flaxseed oil (FO) on the proximate composition and the contents of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-3) fatty acids in the liver of cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis ni [...] loticus). During the fivemonth culture period, tilapias were given diets with incremental concentrations of FO (0.00%; 1.25%; 2.50%; 3.75%, and 5.00%) as a replacement of sunflower oil (control). There was no significant difference in moisture and ash content in the liver between treatments. Protein values ranged from 12.1% (treatment II) to 13.9% (treatment V) and total lipids ranged from 5.6% (treatment V) to 7.2% (treatment II). There was no significant difference between most treatments. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were quantitatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography against a C23:0 internal standard. Variations in concentrations (in mg g-1 of total lipids) of fatty acids between treatment I and treatment V ranged from 4.2 to 51.2 (LNA), from 0.2 to 2.3 (EPA), and from 10.6 to 56.2 (DHA), respectively. This experiment demonstrated that increasing amounts of LNA in feed may markedly increase the amounts of LNA, EPA, and DHA in the liver of Nile tilapia

  6. Effects of CaCO3 liming on water quality and growth performance of fingerlings of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus = Efeitos da calagem com CaCO3 na qualidade da água e desempenho produtivo de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi de Holanda Cavalcante

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out for 6 week with Nile tilapia, Oreochomis niloticus, fingerlings (0.77 ± 0.04 g to assess the effects of moderate CaCO3 liming on water pH, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, free CO2 and total ammonia, as well as on fish finalbody weight, final body length, survival and FCR. Eighteen 25-L polyethylene aquaria were used to hold the experimental fish (15 fish per aquarium. Nine aquaria were set in the lab’s indoor room and nine aquaria in its outdoor area. Two types of water (clear or green and three different water quality managements (none, HCl acidification and CaCO3 liming were evaluated simultaneously in a 3 x 2 factorial design. The application of analytical calcium carbonate at 1 g 10 L-1 in the clear or green waters has produced superior Niletilapia fingerlings’ final body weight and length. The best set of limnological conditions that improved Nile tilapia fingerlings growth was the following: pH: 7.4-8.2; total alkalinity > 50 mg L-1; calcium hardness > 140 mg L-1; free CO2 0.05.O presente estudo foi realizado por seis semanas, com alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (0,77 ± 0,04 g, para se avaliar os efeitos da calagem moderada da água com CaCO3 no pH, alcalinidade total, dureza cálcica, concentrações de CO2 livre e amônia total da água, assim como peso final, comprimento total final, sobrevivência e FCA dos peixes cultivados. Dezoito aquários de polietileno de 25 L foram utilizados para se manter os peixes experimentais (15 peixes por aquário. Nove aquários foram instalados na sala interna do laboratório e nove, na sua área externa. Dois tipos de águas (claras ou verdes e três diferentes manejos de qualidade de água (nenhum, acidificação com HCl ou calagem com CaCO3 foram avaliados simultaneamente em delineamento fatorial 3 x 2. A aplicação de CaCO3 p.a. em 1 g 10 L-1 em águas claras ou verdes resultou em peso final e comprimento total significativamente maiores. As condições limnológicas que propiciaram os melhores resultados zootécnicos foram as seguintes: pH = 7,4-8,2; alcalinidade total > 50 mg L-1; dureza cálcica > 140 mg L-1; CO2 livre < 7,0 mg L-1. A concentração de amônia total nos aquários não foi afetada pela calagem com CaCO3.

  7. Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without lysine supplementation on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptococcus iniae challen...

  8. Composição físico-química, microbiológica e rendimento do filé de tilápia tailandesa (Oreochromis niloticus) / Physicochemical and microbiological composition and yield of thai-style tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia Regina, Simões; Carmelita de Fátima Amaral, Ribeiro; Suezilde da Conceição Amaral, Ribeiro; Kil Jin, Park; Fernanda Elizabeth Xidieh, Murr.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados o rendimento do filé e a composição físico-química da tilápia quanto ao teor de umidade, proteína, cinza, lipídeos e atividade de água. Para as análises, foram utilizados 19 exemplares de tilápia com peso médio e comprimento de 989,6 g e 38,9 cm, respectivamente. Os peixes foram p [...] esados, medidos (comprimento, largura e espessura) e após a filetagem calculou-se o rendimento. Foi realizada a determinação da composição físico-química, que apresentou teores de: 77,13% de umidade; 2,60% lipídios; 19,30% proteína; 1,09% cinza; e atividade de água de 0,983. As relações de peso filé/peixe e peixe/resíduo apresentaram boas correlações lineares. Foi realizada também a análise microbiológica do peixe in natura; a matéria-prima estava dentro dos limites exigidos pela legislação brasileira, portanto apta para o processamento e/ou consumo. Abstract in english The fillet yield of Thai-style tilapia and its physicochemical composition, including moisture content, protein, ash lipids and water activity, were determined. The analysis involved 19 specimens of tilapia with average weight and length of 989.6 g and 38.9 cm, respectively. The fish were weighed, m [...] easured (length, width and thickness), filleted, and the yield was calculated. The chemical composition presented the following contents: 77.13% moisture, 2.60% lipids, 19.30% protein, 1.09% ash, and 0.983 water activity. The fillet/fish to fish/residue weight ratios presented good linear correlations. The raw fish was also subjected to a microbiological analysis, which indicated that it met the safety limits established by Brazilian legislation and was therefore safe for processing and consumption.

  9. Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) - Myrtaceae / Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves Myrtaceae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.S., Fiuza; P.C., Silva; J.R., Paula; L.M.F., Tresvenzol; M.E.D., Souto; S.M.T., Sabóia-Morais.

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) é uma planta que ocorre no bioma Cerrado e é utilizada popularmente no tratamento de diarréias, inflamações, hiperglicemia e hipertensão. Estudos prévios revelaram atividade antimicrobiana da E. uniflora in vitro. Tendo em vista o uso popular, este trabalho objetivou [...] avaliar as possíveis atividades celulares e teciduais sistêmicas do extrato bruto e das frações das folhas dessa planta em brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. (tilápia nilótica). Para isso, o extrato etanólico e as frações das folhas dessa planta foram administrados no peixe, por via oral, adicionadas à ração. Após um período de 24 horas, os peixes foram sacrificados e o segundo arco branquial de cada peixe foi dissecado, fixado em formalina neutra, desidratado, incluído em parafina e cortado. Nas análises histológicas, utilizaram-se tricômico de Masson e hematoxilina e eosina (HE). Pelas análises qualitativas na microscopia de luz, concluiu-se que o extrato etanólico bruto e as frações das folhas da E. uniflora apresentaram efeito sistêmico nas tilápias nilóticas atingindo as brânquias. As ações tóxicas como destacamento e descamação do epitélio respiratório e hiperplasia das células do epitélio interlamelar, foram mais pronunciadas nas tilápias que ingeriram maiores concentrações. Este trabalho colaborou para identificar o efeito vasodilatador dessa planta, e contribuiu para estabelecer a tilápia nilótica como sistema-modelo para testes com princípios ativos de plantas. Espera-se, com esses testes, viabilizar o uso de plantas como medicamentos para tratamentos de peixes, a manutenção da saúde de animais em cultivo intensivo e extensivo, a partir do qual se possibilite emprego alternativo aos medicamentos sintéticos. Abstract in english Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is a plant found in the Cerrado biome and traditionally used in the treatment of diarrheas, inflammations, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Previous studies have revealed in vitro antimicrobial activity of E. uniflora. Considering its popular use, this study aimed to a [...] ssess possible systemic cellular and tissue activities of the crude extract and the fractions from the leaves of this plant on Oreochromis niloticus L. (Nile tilapia) gill. Thus, ethanol extract and fractions from the leaves of this plant were orally administered to the fish in their rations. After 24 hours, the fish were sacrificed and the second gill arch of each fish was dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Masson's trichome and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) were used in the histological analyses. Qualitative analyses using a light microscope led to the conclusion that the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from E. uniflora leaves presented systemic effect on Nile tilapias, affecting the gills. Toxic actions such as respiratory epithelium detachment and lifting, and hyperplasia of interlamellar epithelial cells were more pronounced in the tilapias that ingested higher concentrations. This study helped to identify the vasodilator effect of this plant and contributed to the definition of the Nile tilapia as a model system for testing plant active principles. These tests are expected to make feasible not only the use of plants as fish medication but also the maintenance of the health of animals in intensive and extensive cultures through the possible use of alternatives to synthetic medication.

  10. Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. - Myrtaceae Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Fiuza

    2011-01-01